Part 1b: Updated Concepts and Tactics --

2011
IBM Power Systems Technical University
October 10-14 | Fontainebleau Miami Beach | Miami, FL
IBM
Part 1b: Updated Concepts and Tactics -How to Monitor and Analyze the VMM and
Storage I/O Statistics of a Power/AIX LPAR
Earl Jew ([email protected])
310-251-2907 cell
Senior IT Management Consultant - IBM Power Systems and IBM Systems Storage
IBM Lab Services and Training - US Power Systems (group/dept)
400 North Brand Blvd., c/o IBM 8th floor, Glendale, CA 91203 [Select IBM content added: May 10th, 2013]
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
Materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
5.3
Part I: Updated Concepts and Tactics -- How to Monitor and Analyze
the VMM and Storage I/O Statistics of a Power/AIX LPAR
ABSTRACT
This presentation updates AIX/VMM (Virtual Memory Management) and LVM/JFS2
storage IO performance concepts and tactics for the day-to-day Power/AIX system
administrator. It explains the meaning of the numbers offered by AIX commands
(vmstat, iostat, mpstat, sar, etc.) to monitor and analyze the AIX VMM and storage
IO performance and capacity of a given Power7/AIX LPAR.
These tactics are further illustrated in Part II: Updated Real-world Case Histories -How to Monitor and Analyze the VMM and Storage I/O Statistics of a Power/AIX
LPAR.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
2
Part II: Updated Real-world Case Histories -- How to Monitor and Analyze
the VMM and Storage I/O Statistics of a Power/AIX LPAR
ABSTRACT
These updated case-histories further illustrate the content presented in Part I:
Updated Concepts and Tactics -- How to Monitor and Analyze the VMM and Storage
I/O Statistics of a Power/AIX LPAR.
This presentation includes suggested ranges and ratios of AIX statistics to guide VMM
and storage IO performance and capacity analysis.
Each case is founded on a different real-world customer configuration and workload
that manifests characteristically in the AIX performance statistics -- as performing:
intensely in bursts, with hangs and releases, AIX:lrud constrained, AIX-buffer
constrained, freely unconstrained, inode-lock contended, consistently light,
atomic&synchronous, virtually nil IO workload, long avg-wait's, perfectly ideal, long
avg-serv's, mostly rawIO, etc.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
3
Select Content Acknowledgement: IBM’s Technical Elite – ATS & EBC
• Damir Rubic, IBM Advanced Technical Skills
• Ralf Schmidt-Dannert, IBM Advanced Technical Skills
• Rebecca Ballough, IBM Advanced Technical Skills
• Steven Nasypany, IBM Advanced Technical Skills
• Dale Martin, IBM Advanced Technical Skills
• Dan Braden, IBM Advanced Technical Skills
• Patrick O’Rourke, IBM Executive Briefing Center
• Mark Olsen, WW Power Systems Offering Manager
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
4
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
– High Load Average relative to count-of-LCPUs, i.e. “over-threadedness”
– vmstat:memory:avm near-to or greater-than lruable-gbRAM, i.e. over-committed
– Continuous low vmstat:memory:fre with persistent lrud (fr:sr) activity
– Continuous high ratio of vmstat:kthr:b relative to vmstat:kthr:r
– Poor ratio of pages freed to pages examined (fr:sr ratio) in vmstat -s output
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
5
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
• iostat for hdisk/LUN level monitoring
• AIX:filemon LV and PV reports
• Device level IO Stack Tuning
• Tuning Network AIX:no parameters
• AIX Commands to Review historical/accumulated AIX events
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
6
Practical Concept: Use iostat for hdisk/LUN level monitoring
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
7
Practical Concept: Sample iostat output per disk and total system
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
8
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
• iostat for hdisk/LUN level monitoring
• AIX:filemon LV and PV reports
• Device level IO Stack Tuning
• Tuning Network AIX:no parameters
• AIX Commands to Review historical/accumulated AIX events
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
9
Practical Concept: Sample AIX:filemon summary LV and PV reports
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
10
Practical Concept: Sample AIX:filemon detailed LV report
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
11
Practical Concept: Interpreting AIX:filemon LV and PV reports
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
12
Practical Concept: Analyzing AIX:filemon LV and PV reports
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
13
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
• iostat for hdisk/LUN level monitoring
• AIX:filemon LV and PV reports
• Device level IO Stack Tuning
• Tuning Network AIX:no parameters
• AIX Commands to Review historical/accumulated AIX events
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
14
Practical Concept: Device level IO Stack Tuning
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
15
Practical Concept: Tuning AIX:hdisk:queue_depth per Statistics
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
16
Practical Concept: Overview of Tuning AIX:vscsiX per Statistics
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
17
Practical Concept: Overview of Tuning NPIV
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
18
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
• iostat for hdisk/LUN level monitoring
• AIX:filemon LV and PV reports
• Device level IO Stack Tuning
• Tuning Network AIX:no parameters
• AIX Commands to Review historical/accumulated AIX events
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
19
Practical Concept: Tuning Network AIX:no parameters
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
20
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
• iostat for hdisk/LUN level monitoring
• AIX:filemon LV and PV reports
• Device level IO Stack Tuning
• Tuning Network AIX:no parameters
• AIX Commands to Review historical/accumulated AIX events
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
21
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
458258136 pages examined by clock
214 revolutions of the clock hand
277114986 pages freed by the clock
16045503 backtracks
2770 free frame waits
0 extend XPT waits
11026835 pending I/O waits
536747261 start I/Os
32579821 iodones
138394979018 cpu context switches
34131579015 device interrupts
19730395799 software interrupts
3300305278 decrementer interrupts
910908738 mpc-sent interrupts
910908138 mpc-receive interrupts
429034782 phantom interrupts
0 traps
2395294772518 syscalls
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
22
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
address translation faults
Incremented for each occurrence of an address translation page fault. I/O may or may not be required to
resolve the page fault. Storage protection page faults (lock misses) are not included in this count .
address translation faults occur when virtual-to-physical memory address translations are required when:
address translation faults occur when virtual-to-physical memory address translations are required when:
• creating/initiating/forking/extending processes (that is, memory is needed to store a process’ contents), i.e zero
•creating/initiating/forking/extending processes (that is, memory is needed to store a process’ contents), i.e. zero
filled pages faults and executable filled pages faults
filled pages faults and executable filled pages faults
••instructions
instructionsorordata
dataare
areinitially
initiallyread
readororwritten
writtento/from
to/frompersistent
persistentstorage,
storage,i.e.
i.e.page
pageins
ins
page
outs
andand
page
outs
••memory
memoryisisneeded
neededbybyAIX
AIXtotomanage
manageother
otheroperations,
operations,i.e.
i.e.network
networkIOIOmbuf
mbufallocations,
allocations,creating
creatingSHMSEGs,
SHMSEGs,
dynamic
allocation
of LVM/JFS2
fsbuf’s,
etc. etc.
dynamic
allocation
of LVM/JFS2
fsbuf’s,
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
23
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
page ins
Incremented for each page read in by the virtual memory manager. The count is incremented for page ins
from page space and file space. Along with the page out statistic, this represents the total amount of
real I/O initiated by the virtual memory manager. [These are generally JFS/JFS2/NFS filesystem reads]
page outs
Incremented for each page written out by the virtual memory manager. The count is incremented for
page outs to page space and for page outs to file space. Along with the page in statistic, this represents
the total amount of real I/O initiated by the virtual memory manager. [These are generally JFS/JFS2/NFS
filesystem writes]
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
24
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
paging space page ins
Incremented for VMM initiated page ins from paging space only.
paging space page outs
Incremented for VMM initiated page outs to paging space only.
Only
Onlycomputational
computationalmemory
memoryisisever
everwritten-to
written-toor
orread-from
read-fromthe
thepaging
pagingspace;
space;the
thepaging
pagingspace
spaceextends
extendscomputational
computational
memory.
For
any
Days
Uptime,
acceptable
tolerance
is
up
to
5
digits
of
paging
space
page
outs.
ForUptime,
any
memory. For any Days Uptime, acceptable tolerance is 5 digits of paging space page outs. For any Days
Days
Uptime,
your concern
for performance
degradation
should greater
grow exponentially
for5 each
your
concern
for performance
degradation
should grow
exponentially
for each digitgreater
beyond
digitsdigit
of beyond
5 digitsspace
of paging
paging
page space
outs. page outs.
But,of
ofcourse,
course,you
youmight
mightbe
beasking:
asking: What
WhatisisComputational
ComputationalMemory?
Memory?
But,
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
25
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53, 1 user, load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
zero-filled page faults
Incremented if the page fault is to working storage and can be satisfied by assigning a frame and zero-filling it.
executable-filled page faults
Incremented for each instruction page fault.
zero-filled
pagefaults
faults
are used
to allocate
memory
when
creating,
initializing,
forking
or extending
zero-filled page
are used
to allocate
memory
when
creating,
initializing,
forking
or extending
AIXAIX
processes
to
be
executed,
such
as
when
starting-up
a
database
instance,
or
executing
Java
applications.
They
processes to be executed, such as when starting-up a database instance, or executing Java applications. They dodo
notnot
involve storage IO. They also load the TLB for fast next access. By definition, they are only computational memory.
involve storage IO. They also load the TLB for fast next access. By definition, they are only computational memory.
executable
filled
pages
faults
aretoused
to allocate
memory
designated
to house
binary-executable
executable filled
pages
faults
are used
allocate
memory
designated
to house
binary-executable
instructions,
instructions, and they do involve storage read IOs. They also load the TLB for fast next access. By definition, they
and
docomputational
involve storage
read IOs. They also load the TLB for fast next access. By definition, they are only
arethey
only
memory.
computational memory.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
26
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
458258136 pages examined by clock
214 revolutions of the clock hand
277114986 pages freed by the clock
16045503 backtracks
2770 free frame waits
0 extend XPT waits
11026835 pending I/O waits
536747261 start I/Os
32579821 iodones
138394979018 cpu context switches
34131579015 device interrupts
19730395799 software interrupts
3300305278 decrementer interrupts
910908738 mpc-sent interrupts
910908138 mpc-receive interrupts
429034782 phantom interrupts
0 traps
2395294772518 syscalls
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
27
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
458258136 pages examined by clock
214 revolutions of the clock hand
277114986 pages freed by the clock
pages examined by the clock
VMM uses a clock-algorithm to implement a pseudo least recently used (lru) page replacement scheme.
Pages are aged by being examined by the clock. This count is incremented for each page examined by the clock.
revolutions of the clock hand
Incremented for each VMM clock revolution (that is, after each complete scan of memory).
pages freed by the clock
Incremented for each page the clock algorithm selects to free from real memory.
Typically, [pages freed by the clock / pages examined by the clock] is comfortably greater than 0.40,
Typically, [pages freed by the clock / pages examined by the clock] is comfortably greater than 0.40,
i.e.
i.e.277114986
277114986/ /458258136
458258136==0.60471
0.60471
notgreater
greaterthan
than0.40,
0.40,then
thenthe
thelower
lowerthis
thisvalue
valuereaches
reachesbelow
below0.40,
0.40,the
themore
morelikely
likelygbRAM
gbRAMneeds
needstotobe
beadded.
added.
IfIfnot
This
is aiscontributing
or or
confirming
factor
suggesting
more
gbRAM
may
bebe
needed;
it is
a definitive
indicator.
This
a contributing
confirming
factor
suggesting
more
gbRAM
may
needed;
it not
is not
a definitive
indicator.
pages examined by the clock is the historical accumulation of AIX:vmstat:page:sr activity (aka lrud-scanrate).
pages
clock
is the
historical
accumulation
of AIX:vmstat:page:sr
activity
lrud-scanrate).
pages examined
freed by by
thethe
clock
is the
historical
accumulation
of AIX:vmstat:page:fr
activity
(aka(aka
lrud-freerate).
pages freed by the clock is the historical accumulation of AIX:vmstat:page:fr activity (aka lrud-freerate).
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
28
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
458258136 pages examined by clock
214 revolutions of the clock hand
277114986 pages freed by the clock
16045503 backtracks
2770 free frame waits
0 extend XPT waits
11026835 pending I/O waits
536747261 start I/Os
32579821 iodones
138394979018 cpu context switches
34131579015 device interrupts
19730395799 software interrupts
3300305278 decrementer interrupts
910908738 mpc-sent interrupts
910908138 mpc-receive interrupts
429034782 phantom interrupts
0 traps
2395294772518 syscalls
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
29
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
16045503 backtracks
2770 free frame waits
0
11026835
536747261
32579821
extend XPT waits
pending I/O waits
start I/Os
iodones
backtracks
Incremented for each page fault that occurs while resolving a previous page fault. (The new page fault must be resolved first
and then initial page faults can be backtracked.)
free frame waits
Incremented each time a process requests a page frame, the free list is empty, and the process is forced to wait while the
free list is replenished.
The count of backtracks monitors the relative intensity or duration of coincident and near-coincident page faulting
activity.
generally distinguish
a steady
consistently-moderate
pattern
count) from page
a frenetically
The
count ofIt can
backtracks
monitors the
relative
intensity or durationworkload
of coincident
and(low
near-coincident
faulting
spiking, peaking, bursting or burning workload pattern (high count).
activity. It can generally distinguish a steady consistently-moderate workload pattern (low count) from a frenetically
spiking, peaking, bursting or burning workload pattern (high count).
The count of free frame waits increases when free memory repeatedly reaches down to zero and slightly back up.
High counts indicate a likely start/stop “stuttering” of user workload progress, as well as, frustrating unfettered
The
count IO
of free
frame
increases
whenwith
freeharsh
memory
repeatedly
reaches
down to zero
and slightly
back as
storage
throughput;
this waits
is typically
associated
bursts
and burns
of AIX:lrud
scanning
and freeing,
up.well
High
a likely
“stuttering” of user workload
as,counts
higherindicate
CPU-kernel
timestart/stop
(i.e. AIX:vmstat:cpu:sy
>25%).progress, as well as, frustrating unfettered
storage IO throughput; this is typically associated with harsh bursts and burns of AIX:lrud scanning and freeing, as
well as, higher CPU-kernel time (i.e. AIX:vmstat:cpu:sy >25%).
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
30
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
458258136 pages examined by clock
214 revolutions of the clock hand
277114986 pages freed by the clock
16045503 backtracks
2770 free frame waits
0 extend XPT waits
11026835 pending I/O waits
536747261 start I/Os
32579821 iodones
138394979018 cpu context switches
34131579015 device interrupts
19730395799 software interrupts
3300305278 decrementer interrupts
910908738 mpc-sent interrupts
910908138 mpc-receive interrupts
429034782 phantom interrupts
0 traps
2395294772518 syscalls
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
31
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
16045503 backtracks
2770 free frame waits
0 extend XPT waits
11026835 pending I/O waits
536747261 start I/Os
32579821 iodones
pending I/O waits
Incremented each time a process is waited by VMM for a page-in I/O to complete.
start I/Os
Incremented for each read or write I/O request initiated by VMM.
iodones
Incremented at the completion of each VMM I/O request.
High counts
counts of
of pending
pending I/O
could
indicate
longlong
page-in
I/OI/O
latencies,
or perhaps
processes
awaiting
page-in
High
I/Owaits
waits
could
indicate
page-in
latencies,
or processes
awaiting
page-in
I/O are
I/Orepeatedly
are repeatedly/rapidly
scheduled
to
a
CPU
before
the
page-in
I/O
completes,
or
both
in
varying
degrees.
or too rapidly returned the CPU before the page-in I/O completes, or both in varying degrees.
Acceptable
tolerance
is up
to 80%
of iodones;
warning
is 81%-100%
of iodones;
seek-resolution
is beyond
Acceptable tolerance
is up
to 80%
of iodones
; warning
is 81%-100%
of iodones
; seek-resolution
is beyond
100% of
100%
of
iodones,
i.e.
pending
I/O
waits
/
iodones
=>
11026835/32579821
=
33.84%
=
Acceptable
iodones, i.e. pending I/O waits / iodones => 11026835 / 32579821 = 33.84% = Acceptable
start
I/Os
generally
sum
page
page
start I/Os
areare
generally
thethe
sum
ofof
page
insins
andand
page
outsouts.
.
The ratio of start
I/Os
iodones
a relative
indicator
of “sequential
coalescence”.
Sequential
read-aheads
start I/Os
toto
iodones
is aisrelative
indicator
of “sequential
I/OI/O
coalescence”.
Sequential
read-aheads
and
sequential
write-behinds
of
JFS2
default-mount
I/O
transactions
are
automatically
coalesced
to
fewer
larger
and sequential write-behinds of JFS2 default-mount I/O transactions are automatically coalesced to fewer larger
I/OI/O
transactions. This is a quick&dirty method of distinguishing a generally random IO versus sequential IO workload,
transactions.
is a quick&dirty method of distinguishing a generally
random
IO versus
workload,
i.e. start This
I/Os/iodones=>536747261/32579821=16.47
is a moderate
Sequential
IOsequential
reductionIO
ratio.
i.e. start I/Os/iodones=>536747261/32579821=16.47 is a moderately-low Sequential IO reduction ratio.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
32
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
442257234 zero filled pages faults
849546 executable filled pages faults
458258136 pages examined by clock
214 revolutions of the clock hand
277114986 pages freed by the clock
16045503 backtracks
2770 free frame waits
0 extend XPT waits
11026835 pending I/O waits
536747261 start I/Os
32579821 iodones
138394979018 cpu context switches
34131579015 device interrupts
19730395799 software interrupts
3300305278 decrementer interrupts
910908738 mpc-sent interrupts
910908138 mpc-receive interrupts
429034782 phantom interrupts
0 traps
2395294772518 syscalls
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
33
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
138394979018
34131579015
19730395799
3300305278
…
2395294772518
cpu context switches
device interrupts
software interrupts
decrementer interrupts
syscalls
CPU context switches
Incremented for each processor context switch (dispatch of a new process).
device interrupts
Incremented on each hardware interrupt.
software interrupts
Incremented on each software interrupt. A software interrupt is a machine instruction similar to a hardware
interrupt that saves some state and branches to a service routine. System calls are implemented with
software interrupt instructions that branch to the system call handler routine.
decrementer interrupts
Incremented on each decrementer interrupt.
syscalls
Incremented for each system call.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
34
uptime; vmstat –s Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
138394979018
34131579015
19730395799
3300305278
…
2395294772518
cpu context switches
device interrupts
software interrupts
decrementer interrupts
syscalls
Note the paired ratios of the above for a relative sense-of-proportion of system events.
Whatthe
is useful
ratioabove
of cpu
switches : decrementer
interrupts?
Note
pairedabout
ratiosthe
of the
for acontext
relative sense-of-proportion
of system events.
138394979018
/ 3300305278
= an average
of 42 : device
interruptsinterrupts
per decrementer
interrupt
What
is useful about the
ratio of cpu context
switches
decrementer
?
138394979018 / 3300305278 = an average of 42 device interrupts per decrementer interrupt
What is useful about the ratio of device interrupts : decrementer interrupts?
What
is useful about /the
ratio of device
: decrementer
interrupts?
34131579015
3300305278
= aninterrupts
average of 10
device interrupts
per decrementer interrupt
34131579015 / 3300305278 = an average of 10 device interrupts per decrementer interrupt
What is
is useful
useful about
about the
the ratio
ratio of
of syscalls
syscalls: decrementer
: decrementer
interrupts?
What
interrupts
?
2395294772518
/
3300305278
=
an
average
of
726
system
calls
perper
decrementer
interrupt
2395294772518 / 3300305278 = an average of 726 system calls
decrementer
interrupt
What is useful about the ratio of device
: syscalls
: cpu: cpu
context
switches
?
deviceinterrupts
interrupts
: syscalls
context
switches?
34131579015
: 2395294772518
: 138394979018~=
~=10:726:42
10:726:42 per
34131579015
: 2395294772518
: 138394979018
perdecrementer
decrementerinterrupt
interrupt
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
35
Determine points of exhaustion, limitation, and over-commitment
Determine surplus resources: CPUcycles, RAM, SAN I/O thruput, etc.
$
uptime; vmstat -s
12:46AM
up 139 days,
1:29, 0 users, load average: 9.24, 4.21, 2.99
36674080366 total address trans. faults
303594828999 page ins
# filesystem reads from disk; vmstat:page:fi
65127100071 page outs
# filesystem writes to disk; vmstat:page:fo
17 paging space page ins
# vmstat:page:pi
166 paging space page outs
# vmstat:page:po
0 total reclaims
10153151099 zero filled pages faults
379929 executable filled pages faults
790677067990 pages examined by clock
# vmstat:page:sr
102342 revolutions of the clock hand
323578511315 pages freed by the clock
# vmstat:page:fr
216779474 backtracks
173781776 free frame waits
# waits when vmstat:memory:fre equals 0
0 extend XPT waits
13118848968 pending I/O waits
369118024444 start I/Os
21394237531 iodones
115626032109 cpu context switches
# vmstat:faults:cs
25244855068 device interrupts
# fc/ent/scsi interrupts; vmstat:faults:in
3124067547 software interrupts
# software interrupts
14571190906 decrementer interrupts
# lcpu decrementer “clock” interrupts
56397341 mpc-sent interrupts
56396919 mpc-receive interrupts
32316580 phantom interrupts
0 traps
739431511068 syscalls
# total system calls (akin to “miles traveled”)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
36
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6160384
5954432
156557
3
883319
80.0
3.0
90.0
1.2
77369
0.0
0
1.2
90.0
77369
0
19
1019076
2359
0
204910
96.2
6:53, 1 user, load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
memory pages
lruable pages
free pages
memory pools
pinned pages
maxpin percentage
minperm percentage
maxperm percentage
numperm percentage
file pages
compressed percentage
compressed pages
numclient percentage
maxclient percentage
client pages
remote pageouts scheduled
pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
percentage of memory used for computational pages
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
37
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53,
1 user,
load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
6160384 memory pages
5954432 lruable pages
156557 free pages
# real-time count of freemem pages is continuously changing
3 memory pools
883319 pinned pages
free pages
Number of free 4 KB pages.
The AIX VMM managed count of free
free pages
pages
AIX:vmo:minfree
and
AIX:vmo:maxfree.Varying
Varying
is is
setset
byby
AIX:vmo:minfree
and
AIX:vmo:maxfree.
with
AIX
incidental
count
of memory
pools,
the count
of free
is maintained
within
with
AIX
andand
thethe
incidental
count
of memory
pools
, the count
of free
pages pages
is typically
maintainedbybydefault
default
withina
4-digitrange
rangeofof4KB
4KBpages,
pages,i.e.
saybetween
between2880
2880and
and3264
3264ofof4 4KB
KBpages.
pages.
a 4-digit
Meanwhile, enterprise-class
enterprise-class infrastructures
infrastructures can
can sustain
sustain JFS2
JFS2 filesystem
filesystem I/O
I/O throughputs
throughputs of
of 5-digits
5-digits of
of 4KB
4KB reads
reads and
and
Meanwhile,
writes
– if-and-only-if
a greater
count of
free
alwaysisavailable
to accepttothe
readsthe
andreads
writes.
writes
– but if-and-only-if
a greater
count
of pages
free ispages
always available
accept
and writes.
Remember: The count of free frame waits increases when free memory repeatedly reaches down to zero and
Remember:
TheHigh
countcounts
of free
frame
waits
increases
when free
memory
repeatedly
reaches
down
zero and
slightly
back up.
indicate
a likely
start/stop
“stuttering”
of user
workload
progress,
as well
as,to
frustrating
slightly storage
back up.IOHigh
counts indicate
a likely associated
start/stop “stuttering”
of userand
workload
as well
as, frustrating
unfettered
throughput;
this is typically
with harsh bursts
burns ofprogress,
AIX:lrud
scanning
and
unfettered
storage
IO
throughput;
this
is
typically
associated
with
harsh
bursts
and
burns
of
AIX:lrud
scanning
and
freeing, as well as, higher CPU-kernel time (i.e. AIX:vmstat:cpu:sy >25%).
freeing, as well as, higher CPU-kernel time (i.e. AIX:vmstat:cpu:sy >25%).
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
38
Reduce free frame waits by raising minfree and maxfree higher than default
=== command: vmstat –sv Note: low 4 digits of free frame waits with a nice 6 digits of free pages; while there’s enough freemem, IO (i.e. fi,fo) continues unfettered
2770 free frame waits
156557 free pages
=== command: vmo –L Note: maxfree=8704 (default=1088), minfree=8K (default=960); incidentally, this LPAR has 3 memory pools
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------maxfree
8704
1088
8704
16
4812K 4KB pages
D
minfree
memory_frames
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------minfree
8K
960
8K
8
4812K 4KB pages
D
maxfree
memory_frames
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
=== command: vmstat –Iwt 1 Note: mempool_count*maxfree=3*8704=26112; mempool_count*minfree=3*8192=24576, (fre=24576 starts fr:sr “lrud” scanning&freeing)
System configuration: lcpu=24 mem=24064MB ent=6.00
kthr
memory
page
faults
cpu
time
----------- --------------------- ------------------------------------ ------------------ ----------------------- -------r
b
p
avm
fre
fi
fo
pi
po
fr
sr
in
sy
cs us sy id wa
pc
ec hr mi se
11
1
0
7539030
117080
2
548
206
0
0
0 32730 2188826 175026 37 35 1 27 5.52 92.1 00:01:12
17
1
0
7540803
115005
0
132
146
0
0
0 32581 2178059 169341 39 33 0 28 5.51 91.9 00:01:13
12
0
2
7540365
114924
2
316
16
0
0
0 30417 2188135 171948 36 36 0 28 5.52 92.0 00:01:14
10
0
2
7540654
106310
0 5863
29
0
0
0 33112 2134251 177073 34 38 0 28 5.52 92.0 00:01:15
16
0
0
7540058
94698
8 8459
17
0
0
0 33147 2076084 173134 35 40 1 25 5.59 93.1 00:01:16
23
0
0
7544739
83097
0 4518
15
0
0
0 32137 2098672 170494 39 38 2 22 5.68 94.7 00:01:17
0
0
0
7552531
70637
19 3518
44
0
0
0 27911 2207363 166832 43 33 7 18 5.65 94.1 00:01:18
11
2
0
7560676
61953
23 14471
38
0
0
0 24444 2196741 154363 43 30 9 18 5.55 92.6 00:01:19
17
0
0
7570158
50021
66 11393
41 1733 4661 13412 30670 2063644 166578 39 40 7 14 5.75 95.8 00:01:20
13
2
0
7570331
39515
17 24859
10 8366 24671 71521 32332 1830946 163441 37 46 5 12 5.81 96.9 00:01:21
17
3
0
7569607
42002
14 3569
6 4458 2643
4022 26678 2219614 165593 46 29 7 18 5.62 93.7 00:01:22
17
9
0
7569539
46795
22
1
4 2808
0
0 26107 2179201 164453 43 31 6 20 5.61 93.5 00:01:23
13 10
0
7569524
49434
7
1
3 2522
0
0 26521 2216482 166354 40 31 7 22 5.48 91.3 00:01:24
21
6
0
7569511
53096
0
1
10 3530
0
0 26437 2184553 164387 40 32 6 22 5.54 92.3 00:01:25
Universal
Recommendation:
If default
maxfree
minfree,,and
of free
frame waits
perwaits
any 90 days
uptime,
Recommendation:
If default
maxfree
&&
minfree
and6+6+digits
digits
of free
frame
per any
90 days uptime,
1) use vmo to tune minfree=(5*2048), maxfree=(6*2048); 2) use ioo to tune j2_MaxPageReadAhead=2048.
1) use vmo to tune minfree=(5*2048), maxfree=(6*2048); 2) use ioo to tune j2_MaxPageReadAhead=2048.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
39
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6160384
5954432
156557
3
883319
80.0
3.0
90.0
1.2
77369
0.0
0
1.2
90.0
77369
0
19
1019076
2359
0
204910
96.2
6:53, 1 user, load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
memory pages
lruable pages
free pages
memory pools
pinned pages
maxpin percentage
minperm percentage
maxperm percentage
numperm percentage
# a real-time % indicator of disk IO cache
file pages
compressed percentage
compressed pages
numclient percentage # a real-time % indicator of disk IO cache
maxclient percentage
client pages
remote pageouts scheduled
pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
percentage of memory used for computational pages
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
40
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
3.0 minperm percentage
90.0 maxperm percentage
1.2 numperm percentage
# Warning when less than/equal minperm%
…
1.2 numclient percentage # Warning when less than/equal minperm%
90.0 maxclient percentage
minperm percentage
Tuning parameter (managed using vmo) in percentage of real memory. This specifies the point below
which file pages are protected from the re-page algorithm.
maxperm percentage
Tuning parameter (managed using vmo) in percentage of real memory. This specifies the point above
which the page stealing algorithm steals only file pages.
numperm percentage
Percentage of memory currently used by the file cache.
numclient percentage
Percentage of memory occupied by client pages.
maxclient percentage
Tuning parameter (managed using vmo) specifying the maximum percentage of memory which can be
used for client pages.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
41
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6160384
5954432
156557
3
883319
80.0
3.0
90.0
1.2
77369
0.0
0
1.2
90.0
77369
0
19
1019076
2359
0
204910
96.2
6:53, 1 user, load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
memory pages
lruable pages
free pages
memory pools
pinned pages
maxpin percentage
minperm percentage
maxperm percentage
numperm percentage
file pages
compressed percentage
compressed pages
numclient percentage
maxclient percentage
client pages
remote pageouts scheduled
pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
percentage of memory used for computational pages
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
42
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
19
1019076
2359
0
204910
pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
Number of pending disk I/O requests blocked because no pbuf was available. Pbufs are pinned memory buffers
used to hold I/O requests at the logical volume manager layer. Count is currently for the rootvg: only.
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
Number of paging space I/O requests blocked because no psbuf was available. Psbufs are pinned memory buffers
used to hold I/O requests at the virtual memory manager
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
Number of filesystem I/O requests blocked because no fsbuf was available. Fsbuf are pinned memory buffers
used to hold I/O requests in the filesystem layer.
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
Number of client filesystem I/O requests blocked because no fsbuf was available. NFS (Network File System) and
VxFS (Veritas) are client filesystems. Fsbuf are pinned memory buffers used to hold I/O requests in the filesystem layer.
external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
Number of external pager client filesystem I/O requests blocked because no fsbuf was available. JFS2 is an external
pager client filesystem. Fsbuf are pinned memory buffers used to hold I/O requests in the filesystem layer.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
43
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
19 pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
1019076
2359
0
204910
# stat for rootvg only
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
Use AIX:lvmo to monitor the pervg_blocked_io_count of each active LVM volume group,
i.e. lvmo –a –v rootvg ; echo ; lvmo –a –v datavg
vgname = rootvg
pv_pbuf_count = 512
total_vg_pbufs = 512
max_vg_pbufs = 16384
pervg_blocked_io_count = 19
pv_min_pbuf = 512
max_vg_pbuf_count = 0
global_blocked_io_count = 1566
vgname = datavg
pv_pbuf_count = 512
total_vg_pbufs = 2048
max_vg_pbufs = 65536
pervg_blocked_io_count = 475
pv_min_pbuf = 512
max_vg_pbuf_count = 0
global_blocked_io_count = 1566
Acceptable tolerance is 4-digits of pervg_blocked_io_count per LVM volume group for any 90 days uptime.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
44
Determine points of exhaustion, limitation, and over-commitment
Determine surplus resources: CPUcycles, RAM, SAN I/O thruput, etc.
# lvmo -a -v rootvg
# 270 days uptime for counters below
vgname = rootvg
pv_pbuf_count = 512
total_vg_pbufs = 1024
# total_vg_pbufs / pv_pbuf_count = 1024/512 = 2 LUNs
max_vg_pbuf_count = 16384
pervg_blocked_io_count = 90543
pv_min_pbuf = 512
global_blocked_io_count = 12018771
…
…
# lvmo -a -v apvg15
vgname = apvg15
pv_pbuf_count = 512
total_vg_pbufs = 15872
# total_vg_pbufs / pv_pbuf_count = 15872/512 = 31 LUNs
max_vg_pbuf_count = 524288
pervg_blocked_io_count = 517938
pv_min_pbuf = 512
global_blocked_io_count = 12018771
# lvmo -a -v pgvg01
vgname = pgvg01
pv_pbuf_count = 512
total_vg_pbufs = 1024
# total_vg_pbufs / pv_pbuf_count = 1024/512 = 2 LUNs
max_vg_pbuf_count = 16384
pervg_blocked_io_count = 8612687
pv_min_pbuf = 512
global_blocked_io_count = 12018771
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
45
Increase total_vg_pbufs to resolve high pervg_blocked_io_count
19 pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf # stat for rootvg only
Four factors complicate how to resolve high counts of pervg_blocked_io_count:
•
•
•
•
The number of pbufs per physical volume when its added to the volume group, i.e. the value of AIX:lvmo:pv_pbuf_count
The count and size of physical volumes (aka LUNs or hdisks) assigned to the LVM VG
The count and size of the JFS2:LVM logical volumes created on the VG’s physical volumes, i.e. a reasonable balance of JFS2 fsbuf’s-toVG pbuf’s favors optimal performance.
Having either too few or too many VG:pbuf can severely hamper performance and throughput.
As such, we should only add pbuf’s by-formula on a schedule of 90-day change&observe cycles.
Use AIX:lvmo to monitor the pervg_blocked_io_count of each active LVM volume group,
i.e. lvmo –a –v rootvg ; echo ; lvmo –a –v datavg
Acceptable tolerance is 4-digits of pervg_blocked_io_count per LVM volume group for any 90 days uptime.
Otherwise, for each LVM volume group, adjust the value of AIX:lvmo:pv_pbuf_count accordingly:
If 5-digits of pervg_blocked_io_count, add ~2048 pbuf’s to total_vg_pbufs per 90-day cycle.
If 6-digits of pervg_blocked_io_count, add ~[4*2048] pbuf’s to total_vg_pbufs per 90-day cycle.
If 7-digits of pervg_blocked_io_count, add ~[8*2048] pbuf’s to total_vg_pbufs per 90-day cycle.
If 8-digits of pervg_blocked_io_count, add ~[12*2048] pbuf’s to total_vg_pbufs per 90-day cycle.
If 9-digits of pervg_blocked_io_count, add ~[16*2048] pbuf’s to total_vg_pbufs per 90-day cycle.
Use AIX:lvmo to confirm/verify the value of total_vg_pbufs for each VG.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
46
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53, 1 user, load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
1356958409 total address trans. faults
276638320 page ins
260776199 page outs
3259560 paging space page ins
4195229 paging space page outs
0 total reclaims
paging space page outs
Incremented for VMM initiated page outs to paging space only.
19 pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
1019076 paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
2359 filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
0 client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
204910 external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
Number of paging space I/O requests blocked because no psbuf was available. Psbufs are pinned memory buffers
used to hold I/O requests at the virtual memory manager
The ratio of paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf / paging space page outs is a direct measure of
The
ratio ofi.e.
paging
space
I/Os =blocked
psbuf suffering
/ paging7-digits
spaceofpage
outs
is a direct
intensity,
1019076
/ 4195229
24.2%. with
In thisno
example,
paging
space
page measure
outs in of
18
intensity, i.e. 1019076 / 4195229 = 24.2%. In this example, suffering 7-digits of paging space page outs in
Days-Uptime
is badisenough,
but when
there they
are also
paging
spacewith
I/Osnoblocked
with no
psbuf, system
18 Days-Uptime
bad enough,
but when
are also
blocked
psbuf, system
performance
and performance
and keyboard
responsiveness
can stop-and-start
in seconds-long
cycles.
One
mightAIX
believe
AIX when
has even
keyboard
responsiveness
can stop-and-start
in seconds-long
cycles. One
might
believe
crashed,
it hasn’t.
crashed, when it hasn’t. Preclude paging space page outs by any means; add more gbRAM to the LPAR.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
47
uptime; vmstat –v Review accumulated count-of-events over days-uptime
19 pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
1019076 paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
2359 filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
0 client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
204910 external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
Number of filesystem I/O requests blocked because no fsbuf was available. Fsbuf are pinned memory buffers
used to hold I/O requests in the filesystem layer.
This
count
refers
to JFS
fsbuf
exhaustion
(vs. JFS2)
and isand
typically
ignoredignored
today. Virtually
all customers
use JFS2. use JFS2.
This
count
refers
to JFS
fsbuf
exhaustion
(vs. JFS2)
is typically
today. Virtually
all customers
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
Number of client filesystem I/O requests blocked because no fsbuf was available. NFS (Network File System) and
VxFS (Veritas) are client filesystems. Fsbuf are pinned memory buffers used to hold I/O requests in the filesystem
layer.
Starting with AIX 6.1 Technology Level 02, the following parameters are obsolete because the network file system
Starting with AIX 6.1 Technology Level 02, the following parameters are obsolete because the network file system (NFS) and
(NFS)
and the
virtualmanager
memory(VMM)
manager
(VMM)tunes
dynamically
tunes
ofand
bufpage
structures
page
device
tables
the virtual
memory
dynamically
the number
of the
buf number
structures
deviceand
tables
(PDTs)
based
on
(PDTs)
based on workload:
workload:
* nfs_v2_pdts
* nfs_v2_pdts
* nfs_v2_vm_bufs
* nfs_v2_vm_bufs
* nfs_v3_pdts
* nfs_v3_pdts
* nfs_v3_vm_bufs
* nfs_v4_pdts
* nfs_v3_vm_bufs
* nfs_v4_vm_bufs
* nfs_v4_pdts
* nfs_v4_vm_bufs
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
48
Resolving high external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
19
1019076
2359
0
pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
204910 external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
Number of external pager client filesystem I/O requests blocked because no fsbuf was available. JFS2 is an external
pager client filesystem. Fsbuf are pinned memory buffers used to hold I/O requests in the filesystem layer.
Acceptabletolerance
toleranceisis5 digits
5-digits
Acceptable
perper
any90
90Days-Uptime.
days uptime.
Firsttactic:
tactic to
6-digits,
set ioo –h j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation=128.
First
If 6attempt:
digits, setIf ioo
–h j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation=128
.
First
If 7+
digits, set
ioo
–h j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation=256
.
Firsttactic:
tactic to
attempt:
If 7+
digits,
set ioo –h j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation=256.
ioo -h j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation=value
The number of 16K slabs to preallocate when the filesystem is running low of bufstructs.
A value of 16 represents 256K. The bufstructs for Enhanced JFS (aka JFS2) are now dynamic; the number of
buffers that start on the JFS2 filesystem is controlled by j2_nBufferPerPagerDevice (now restricted), but
buffers are allocated and destroyed dynamically past this initial value. If the number of external pager
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf increases, the j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation should be
increased for that file system, as the I/O load on a file system may be exceeding the speed of preallocation.
A value of 0 will disable dynamic buffer allocation completely.
Heavy IO workloads should have this value changed to 256.
File systems do not need to be remounted to activate.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
49
Resolving high external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
19
1019076
2359
0
pending disk I/Os blocked with no pbuf
paging space I/Os blocked with no psbuf
filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
client filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
204910 external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf
Number of external pager client filesystem I/O requests blocked because no fsbuf was available. JFS2 is an external
pager client filesystem. Fsbuf are pinned memory buffers used to hold I/O requests in the filesystem layer.
Acceptable tolerance is 5-digits
5 digits per 90 Days-Uptime.
Second tactic
tactic to
(if attempt:
first tacticIfwasn’t
enough):
set ioo -o j2_nBufferPerPagerDevice=5120.
Second
6-digits,
set ioo If-o6 digits,
j2_nBufferPerPagerDevice=5120.
Second tactic
tactic to
(if attempt:
first tacticIfwasn’t
enough):
7+ j2_nBufferPerPagerDevice=10240.
digits, set ioo -o j2_nBufferPerPagerDevice=10240.
Second
7+digits,
set iooIf-o
ioo -o j2_nBufferPerPagerDevice=value [Restricted]
This tunable specifies the number of JFS2 bufstructs that start when the filesystems is mounted. Enhanced JFS will allocate
more dynamically (see j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation). Ideally, this value should not be tuned, instead
j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation should be tuned. However, it may be appropriate to change this value if the
number of external pager filesystem I/Os blocked with no fsbuf increases and continues increasing
and j2_dynamicBufferPreallocation tuning has already been attempted. If the kernel must wait for a free
bufstruct, it puts the process on a wait list before the start I/O is issued and will wake it up once a bufstruct has become
available. May be appropriate to increase if striped logical volumes or disk arrays are being used.
Heavy IO workloads may require this value to be changed and a good starting point would be 5120 or 10240.
File system(s) must be remounted.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
50
ps -ekf cumulative since last boot; compare CPU-time of key processes
$
uptime ; ps -ekf | grep -v grep | egrep “syncd|lrud|nfsd|biod|wait|getty”
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53, 1 user, load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
root
131076
0
0
Sep 07
- 553:26 wait
root
262152
0
0
Sep 07
- 25:37 lrud
root
917532
0
0
Sep 07
- 1942:36 wait
root
983070
0
0
Sep 07
- 2026:38 wait
root 1048608
0
0
Sep 07
- 2030:40 wait
root 1114146
0
0
Sep 07
- 612:19 wait
root 1179684
0
0
Sep 07
- 1825:26 wait
root 1245222
0
0
Sep 07
- 1948:03 wait
root 1310760
0
0
Sep 07
- 1949:43 wait
root 1376298
0
0
Sep 07
- 585:41 wait
root 1441836
0
0
Sep 07
- 1881:58 wait
root 1507374
0
0
Sep 07
- 2005:49 wait
root 1572912
0
0
Sep 07
- 2010:27 wait
root 1638450
0
0
Sep 07
- 615:26 wait
root 1703988
0
0
Sep 07
- 1712:18 wait
root 1769526
0
0
Sep 07
- 1848:42 wait
root 1835064
0
0
Sep 07
- 1853:13 wait
root 1900602
0
0
Sep 07
- 528:33 wait
root 1966140
0
0
Sep 07
- 1412:40 wait
root 2031678
0
0
Sep 07
- 1552:47 wait
root 2097216
0
0
Sep 07
- 1558:07 wait
root 2162754
0
0
Sep 07
- 658:26 wait
root 2228292
0
0
Sep 07
- 1200:31 wait
root 2293830
0
0
Sep 07
- 1334:07 wait
root 2359368
0
0
Sep 07
- 1228:54 wait
root 3014734
1
0
Sep 07
- 0:00 kbiod
root 5111986
1
0
Sep 07
- 14:16 /usr/sbin/syncd 60
root 8847594
1
0
Sep 07
- 7:07 /usr/sbin/getty /dev/console
$ uptime ; ps -ekf | grep -v grep | egrep “syncd|lrud|nfsd|biod|wait|getty” | grep -c wait
12:00AM
up 18 days,
6:53, 1 user, load average: 12.99, 12.30, 12.13
24
$
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
51
iostat –a cumulative since last boot; mapping&comparing hdisks stats can be useful
in characterizing performance-related I/O patterns&trends
$ iostat -a
Disks:
hdisk8
hdisk12
hdisk13
hdisk11
hdisk4
hdisk15
hdisk16
hdisk14
hdisk10
hdisk17
hdisk18
hdisk7
hdisk5
hdisk6
hdisk9
hdisk20
hdisk21
hdisk22
hdisk23
hdisk25
hdisk27
hdisk26
hdisk29
hdisk24
hdisk30
hdisk32
hdisk31
hdisk33
hdisk36
hdisk35
…
% tm_act
2.2
2.4
2.2
2.1
1.9
0.0
11.5
0.0
6.3
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.6
2.3
2.3
8.1
1.6
15.9
3.5
20.3
20.1
41.3
19.2
25.8
16.9
5.1
11.7
47.2
2.4
2.8
Kbps
607.3
607.7
582.8
593.4
216.3
2.2
178.7
1.3
548.9
0.0
3.0
53.3
59.4
624.3
613.6
228.3
99.7
845.2
364.2
740.1
1015.2
2934.5
949.4
1867.8
515.9
555.4
483.8
2760.0
597.9
616.8
tps
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.3
23.9
0.6
23.6
0.0
7.8
0.0
0.1
7.6
6.5
1.5
1.4
35.1
24.8
58.4
60.4
36.5
45.8
118.0
55.7
59.4
38.4
34.2
71.1
153.7
1.3
1.4
Kb_read
2164957533
2065741964
2002751079
2073048903
812230724
25584
1169343088
8828331
3617545529
8560
9741142
272419695
225752039
2175672098
2104140790
1511885833
16230194
5592808968
1627955714
4725304221
6675326923
18806493859
6113262738
12330198268
3271643603
888509245
3111959749
18308894936
2103249842
2126412342
Kb_wrtn
1876147460
1978282924
1875515764
1875758716
626802460
14666516
19983468
0
35278292
0
10386688
82268236
169601848
1978387280
1978677528
7496668
647254280
31384956
795383552
199399144
80385252
720917972
204348212
98946776
161247332
2807296084
107262760
56985180
1875221640
1977828244
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
52
iostat –D cumulative since last boot; mapping&comparing hdisks stats is useful in
characterizing performance-related I/O patterns&trends
$ iostat -D
System configuration: lcpu=24 drives=87 paths=172 vdisks=0
hdisk0
xfer:
read:
write:
queue:
hdisk1
xfer:
read:
write:
queue:
…
hdisk86
xfer:
read:
write:
queue:
hdisk87
xfer:
read:
write:
queue:
%tm_act
0.8
rps
0.6
wps
1.7
avgtime
8.8
%tm_act
0.6
rps
0.0
wps
1.7
avgtime
11.3
bps
18.7K
avgserv
3.0
avgserv
5.5
mintime
0.0
bps
12.9K
avgserv
4.8
avgserv
5.4
mintime
0.0
tps
2.3
minserv
0.1
minserv
0.3
maxtime
291.3
tps
1.7
minserv
0.1
minserv
0.4
maxtime
275.6
bread
7.0K
maxserv
267.1
maxserv
320.5
avgwqsz
0.0
bread
1.2K
maxserv
301.8
maxserv
281.1
avgwqsz
0.0
bwrtn
11.7K
timeouts
0
timeouts
0
avgsqsz
0.0
bwrtn
11.7K
timeouts
0
timeouts
0
avgsqsz
0.0
%tm_act
10.2
rps
30.6
wps
2.5
avgtime
4.3
%tm_act
10.1
rps
31.2
wps
2.5
avgtime
4.3
bps
789.3K
avgserv
6.5
avgserv
2.5
mintime
0.0
bps
801.6K
avgserv
6.3
avgserv
2.5
mintime
0.0
tps
33.1
minserv
0.1
minserv
0.2
maxtime
1.1S
tps
33.7
minserv
0.1
minserv
0.2
maxtime
1.2S
bread
753.9K
maxserv
1.3S
maxserv
912.0
avgwqsz
0.0
bread
764.2K
maxserv
1.2S
maxserv
913.1
avgwqsz
0.0
bwrtn
35.4K
timeouts
fails
0
0
timeouts
fails
0
0
avgsqsz
sqfull
0.0
73320194
bwrtn
37.4K
timeouts
fails
0
0
timeouts
fails
0
0
avgsqsz
sqfull
0.0
74160810
fails
0
fails
0
sqfull
6349911
fails
0
fails
0
sqfull
6102418
…
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
53
netstat –v high watermark is Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue
$ netstat -v
------------------------------------------------------------ETHERNET STATISTICS (ent0) :
Device Type: 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-Express Adapter (14104003)
Hardware Address: 00:14:5e:74:1b:8a
Elapsed Time: 270 days 21 hours 33 minutes 15 seconds
Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 101419085701
Bytes: 402789006370762
Interrupts: 0
Transmit Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 417799880725
Bytes: 546174259053849
Interrupts: 67899053842
Receive Errors: 10965163
Packets Dropped: 30
Bad Packets: 0
Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue: 3109
S/W Transmit Queue Overflow: 0
Current S/W+H/W Transmit Queue Length: 1
Broadcast Packets: 24079
Multicast Packets: 0
No Carrier Sense: 0
DMA Underrun: 0
Lost CTS Errors: 0
Max Collision Errors: 0
Late Collision Errors: 0
Deferred: 0
SQE Test: 0
Timeout Errors: 0
Single Collision Count: 0
Multiple Collision Count: 0
Current HW Transmit Queue Length: 1
General Statistics:
------------------No mbuf Errors: 30
Adapter Reset Count: 0
Adapter Data Rate: 2000
Driver Flags: Up Broadcast Running
Simplex 64BitSupport ChecksumOffload
PrivateSegment LargeSend DataRateSet
…
Broadcast Packets: 1135765
Multicast Packets: 387934
CRC Errors: 0
DMA Overrun: 9219805
Alignment Errors: 0
No Resource Errors: 1745358
Receive Collision Errors: 0
Packet Too Short Errors: 0
Packet Too Long Errors: 0
Packets Discarded by Adapter: 0
Receiver Start Count: 0
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
54
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
– High Load Average relative to count-of-LCPUs, i.e. “over-threadedness”
– vmstat:memory:avm near-to or greater-than lruable-gbRAM, i.e. over-committed
– Continuous low vmstat:memory:fre with persistent lrud (fr:sr) activity
– Continuous high ratio of vmstat:kthr:b relative to vmstat:kthr:r
– Poor ratio of pages freed to pages examined (fr:sr ratio) in vmstat -s output
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
55
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• AIX VMM Tuning – Page Stealing Process (lrud)
• AIX Commands to Review dynamic AIX command behaviors
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
56
Practical Concept: AIX VMM Tuning – Page Stealing Process (lrud)
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
57
Practical Concept: AIX VMM Tuning – Page Stealing Thresholds
(content credit: IBM ATS team)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
58
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• AIX VMM Tuning – Page Stealing Process (lrud)
• AIX Commands to Review dynamic AIX command behaviors
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
59
ps –kelmo THREAD demonstrates the reality of “threadedness”
$ ps –kelmo THREAD
USER
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
…
PID
PPID
1
0
3145888
1
3539136
1
4915350
1
5111986
1
5373988 5701664
5636338
1
5701664
1
-
TID ST
- A
65539 S
- A
4063447 S
- A
15270101 S
- A
14155953 S
- A
4915221 S
11272331 S
13107365 S
14352589 S
14418107 S
14483643 S
14549181 S
14614719 S
14680257 S
14745795 S
14811333 S
14876871 S
14942409 S
15007947 S
15073485 S
15139023 S
15204561 S
- A
3997835 S
- A
16646167 S
- A
15794207 S
CP
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PRI SC
WCHAN
F
TT BND COMMAND
60 1
200003
- /etc/init
60 1
410400
- 60 1 f1000000a05f9098
240001
- /usr/ccs/bin/shlap64
60 1 f1000000a05f9098
400
- 60 1 f1000a0000154048
40401
- /usr/lib/errdemon
60 1 f1000a0000154048
10400
- 60 1 f1000000c0386728
40401
- /usr/sbin/emcp_xcryptd -d
60 1 f1000000c0386728
400000
- 60 17
*
240001
- /usr/sbin/syncd 60
60 1 f1000a011d0ec6b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a0122cb77b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a0122cbd2b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a013a0fe0b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a013a0fedb0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a011fcf0ab0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a0122cb2fb0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a01200d8fb0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a0100a3fab0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a0122cba3b0
410400
- 60 1 f100010082565fb0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a0100a387b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a013a0f08b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a0122cb89b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a013a0f83b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a013a0fb2b0
410400
- 60 1 f1000a01200d7eb0
410400
- 60 1 f1000e00047f48c8
240001
- /opt/freeware/cimom/pegasus/bin/cimssys pla
60 1 f1000e00047f48c8
410400
- 60 1 f1000a0100a3c6b0
240001
- /opt/ibm/director/cimom/bin/tier1slp
60 1 f1000a0100a3c6b0
410400
- 60 1
240001
- /usr/sbin/srcmstr
60 1
18400
- -
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
60
ksh commands illustrate the count of processes-and-comprising-threads of user and
kernel processes for a comparative scale of “threadedness”
ps
ps
ps
ps
-el |
-elmo
-kl |
-klmo
101
3413
401
965
wc -l
THREAD | wc -l
wc -l
THREAD | wc -l
# 101 user procs (one line of column header)
# 3413 – 101 = 3312 threads(user)
# 401 kernel procs (one line of column header)
# 965 – 401 = 564 threads(kernel)
# 3312 + 564 = 3876 total threads
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
61
ps guww descending by %CPU, %MEM, SZ, RSS, STIME, TIME, full command-line syntax;
a useful hunter-seeker of “run-away” processes (ordered by recent realtime CPU-intensity)
$ ps guww
USER
PID %CPU %MEM
SZ RSS
TTY STAT
STIME TIME COMMAND
db2prd1 22282314
3.2 16.0 4883268 3825088 - A
Sep 07 20055:07 /opt/tivoli/tsm/server/bin/dsmserv -u db2prd1 -i /tsm/db2p1/config
root
33882274 1.8 0.0 4812 4880
- A
00:12:28 2:03 aex-pluginmanager -F -nm -nc
db2prd1 16646192 1.4 6.0 1698612 1504896 - A
Sep 07 8785:29 db2sysc 0
db2lib1 29622334 1.2 2.0 838412 483700 - A
Sep 07 7729:52 /opt/tivoli/tsm/server/bin/dsmserv -u db2lib1 -i /tsm/db2lib1/config root
7930108 1.2 0.0 3508 136
- A
Sep 07 7772:18 /usr/sbin/emcp_mond
root
1048608 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 2031:40 wait
root
983070 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 2027:38 wait
root
1572912 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 2011:26 wait
root
1507374 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 2006:49 wait
root
1310760 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1950:43 wait
root
1245222 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1949:03 wait
root
917532 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1943:26 wait
root
1441836 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1882:46 wait
root
1835064 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1854:11 wait
root
1769526 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1849:40 wait
root
1179684 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1826:15 wait
root
1703988 0.3 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1713:06 wait
root
2097216 0.2 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1559:05 wait
root
2031678 0.2 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1553:45 wait
root
1966140 0.2 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1413:30 wait
root
2293830 0.2 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1335:04 wait
db2lib1 26345652 0.2 1.0 383772 214104 - A
Sep 07 1260:41 db2sysc 0
root
2359368 0.2 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1229:51 wait
root
2228292 0.2 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 1201:19 wait
root
2162754 0.1 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 659:09 wait
root
1638450 0.1 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 616:09 wait
root
1114146 0.1 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 612:59 wait
root
1376298 0.1 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 586:16 wait
root
131076 0.1 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 553:58 wait
root
1900602 0.1 0.0 448 384
- A
Sep 07 529:08 wait
root
458766 0.0 0.0 1216 512
- A
Sep 07 265:03 vmmd
db2prd1 41353288 0.0 0.0 5204 5228
- A
00:01:46 0:09 db2vend (db2med - 338866 (TSMDB1))
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
62
ps gvww ascending by PID, TIME, PGIN, SIZE, RSS, %CPU, %MEM, full command-line syntax
PGIN (v flag) The number of disk I/Os resulting from references by the process to pages not loaded in core
# ps gvww
PID
TTY
0
1
131076
196614
262152
STAT
- A
- A
- A
- A
- A
TIME PGIN SIZE
13:55
7
384
0:17 2125
712
553:58
0
448
0:15
9
448
25:39
0
704
RSS
LIM TSIZ
320
xx
0
180 32768
30
384
xx
0
384
xx
0
512
xx
0
TRS %CPU %MEM COMMAND
0 0.0 0.0 swapper
24 0.0 0.0 /etc/init
0 0.1 0.0 wait
0 0.0 0.0 sched
0 0.0 0.0 lrud
…
6357190
- A
0:00 168 4996
752 32768
14
24 0.0 0.0 ./slp_srvreg -D
6488276
- A
0:00 392 5496
768 32768
40
36 0.0 0.0 /usr/sbin/syslogd
6553668
- A
0:00 695 8684
348 32768
34
0 0.0 0.0 /usr/bin/cimlistener
6881508
- A
0:31 165 3556
304 32768
239
76 0.0 0.0 /usr/sbin/xntpd
6947028
- A
0:00 557
984
192 32768
41
24 0.0 0.0 /usr/sbin/portmap
7012606
- A
0:02 2936 30112 1320 32768
32
16 0.0 0.0 [cimserve]
7077976
- A
0:06 398 7232 1384 32768 4821
524 0.0 0.0 ./dsmc schedule
7143480
- A
2:58 22283 9712
852
xx
555
252 0.0 0.0 /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/rmcd -a IBM.LPCommands -r
7405714
- A
3:05 5646 43444 3488 32768
69
0 0.0 0.0 /usr/java5/bin/java -Xmx512m -Xms20m -Xscmx10m -Xshareclasses Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 -Xbootclasspath/a:/pconsole/lwi/runtime/core/eclipse/plugins/com.ibm.rcp.base_6.2.1.200911171800/rcpbootcp.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/ISCJaasModule.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/com.ibm.logging.icl_1.1.1.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/jaas2zos.jar:/pcon
sole/lwi/lib/jaasmodule.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/lwinative.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/lwinl.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/lwirolemap.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/
lwisecurity.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/lwitools.jar:/pconsole/lwi/lib/passutils.jar -Xverify:none -cp
eclipse/launch.jar:eclipse/startup.jar:/pconsole/lwi/runtime/core/eclipse/plugins/com.ibm.rcp.base_6.2.1.20091117-1800/launcher.jar
com.ibm.lwi.LaunchLWI
7471340
- A
0:00
1
320
20 32768
15
0 0.0 0.0 /usr/sbin/writesrv
7536892
- A
0:00 489 3788
668 32768
507
396 0.0 0.0 /usr/sbin/sshd
7602248
- A
0:11 6073 15100 4376 32768
12
0 0.0 0.0 db2fmp (C) 0
7667954
- A
0:00
1
112
20 32768
5
0 0.0 0.0 /usr/sbin/uprintfd
7733494
- A
2:44 10320 14084 3992 32768
66
24 0.0 0.0 /opt/CMAgent/CFC/3.0/bin/CsiAgentListener -r /opt/CMAgent/ECMu/1.0 -u
csi_acct
…
22216888
- A
0:00
0
448
448 32768
0
0 0.0 0.0 aioserver
22282314
- A
20055:07 1849352 4840612 3825088 32768 42657 8524 3.2 16.0 /opt/tivoli/tsm/server/bin/dsmserv -u ltsmprd1 -i
/tsm/ltsmp1/config -q
22937720
- A
5:17 42156 22784 10860 32768
12
0 0.0 0.0 db2acd 0
23396486
- A
0:00
1
448
384 32768
0
0 0.0 0.0 aioserver
23920790
- A
0:00
0 1516
368 32768
59
44 0.0 0.0 db2ckpwd 0
…
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
63
vmstat –Iwt 2 establish dynamic baselines of AIX behaviors
$ vmstat –Iwt 2
System configuration: lcpu=8 mem=15808MB
kthr
memory
page
faults
cpu
time
----------- --------------------- ------------------------------------ ------------------ ----------- -------r
b
p
avm
fre
fi
fo
pi
po
fr
sr
in
sy
cs us sy id wa hr mi se
6
9
0
3622390
1865 1171
637
57
680 2228
5066
896 68533 7908 89 7 1 3 09:17:40
6
8
0
3627696
1764
847
3
57
808 3489
8207
812 48745 10969 73 6 6 15 09:17:42
2 13
0
3631998
2875
231
343
52
798 2903
6644
777 14471 2850 64 4 14 19 09:17:44
10
9
0
3636139
2053
994
880
129
527 2904 16706 1013 55414 7332 91 6 1 3 09:17:46
10
5
0
3619116
18481 1381
629
145
510 1228 19741 1098 53549 10147 91 7 1 2 09:17:48
11
2
0
3609866
21981 2570
893
244
0
0
0 1537 53911 13926 91 8 0 1 09:17:50
8
5
0
3610726
15307 2522
718
353
0
0
0 1522 49902 9863 89 7 1 3 09:17:52
6
3
0
3595648
28527
588
474
316
0
0
0 1006 100617 5395 84 6 4 5 09:17:54
10
5
0
3595806
25633 1101
564
273
0
0
0 1113 109611 7128 88 8 1 2 09:17:56
6 11
0
3601571
16601 1191
255
423
0
0
0 1216 140583 9472 87 8 1 4 09:17:58
8 12
0
3604703
11245
661
247
427
0
0
0 1041 118076 10307 89 8 0 3 09:18:00
6 14
0
3600579
12444 1035
293
424
0
0
0 1315 67304 18072 87 9 0 4 09:18:02
7 15
0
3600064
9638 1008
268
395
0
0
0 1292 66735 15921 82 9 1 9 09:18:04
6 12
0
3602133
4839
776
295
464
0
0
0 1050 103319 4426 80 6 2 12 09:18:06
5 13
0
3605240
2170 1025
266
307
279 1556 13844 1042 66953 3916 65 5 8 22 09:18:08
8
6
0
3606415
1945 1975
297
317
0 2752 37581 1440 70972 4870 87 7 1 5 09:18:10
10
4
0
3610938
2084 1366
164
234
0 3943 55882 1241 75037 8307 92 6 0 2 09:18:12
9
2
0
3594623
19789 1321
512
246
41 2271 19132 1343 70210 8794 90 7 1 2 09:18:15
8
4
0
3593551
18060 1188 1890
123
0
0
0 1491 58462 7443 76 8 6 10 09:18:17
5
8
0
3598228
9838 1499 5765
226
0
0
0 1502 39586 10136 73 11 6 10 09:18:19
kthr
memory
page
faults
cpu
time
----------- --------------------- ------------------------------------ ------------------ ----------- -------r
b
p
avm
fre
fi
fo
pi
po
fr
sr
in
sy
cs us sy id wa hr mi se
7
2
0
3601032
4779
969 2464
103
0
0
0 1099 35643 12135 86 7 3 4 09:18:21
8
5
0
3604401
2167 1282
328
293
0 2070 10143 1168 54493 17465 89 10 0 1 09:18:23
10
5
0
3611569
2022 1012
38
282
9 4822 19771 1112 47936 11135 89 8 1 1 09:18:25
8
8
0
3614396
2000
741
7
339
56 2487 11217 1040 40025 8102 91 6 1 2 09:18:27
6
6
0
3617421
2014
404
8
267
303 2191
7130
733 98557 7510 77 5 7 11 09:18:29
8
8
0
3619413
2974
252
90
169
519 1899
5209
704 87714 3431 78 4 4 14 09:18:31
6
7
0
3620661
1965
488
201
293
255
922
2729 1094 39403 4851 89 5 2 4 09:18:33
7
7
0
3623343
2617
684
72
109
610 2468
8924
937 15606 16827 69 7 5 19 09:18:35
6
8
0
3624146
2831
443
7
272
332 1228
4517
739 15674 3277 82 4 4 10 09:18:37
6
7
0
3625514
1934
464
7
336
168 1048
3851
758 17909 4927 79 4 4 14 09:18:39
4
8
0
3608643
19107
618
29
393
115 1171
3803
889 28193 5547 73 5 4 18 09:18:41
6
8
0
3596033
29222
815
8
429
0
0
0
977 62182 10416 73 7 5 16 09:18:43
6
5
0
3598914
22745 1233
246
369
0
0
0 1116 77652 5335 74 7 7 12 09:18:45
5
3
0
3604955
12994 1151
372
375
0
0
0 1085 83391 6533 79 6 5 11 09:18:47
…
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
64
vmstat –I 2 Best 6-in-1 monitor; no-load leave-it-up all-day VMM monitor
$ vmstat –I 2
System configuration: lcpu=24 mem=73728MB ent=12.00
kthr
-------r b p
10 6 0
10 7 0
9 7 0
8 6 0
6 6 0
5 7 0
8 7 0
9 7 0
8 7 0
10 13 0
7 9 0
10 7 0
4 7 0
9 8 0
10 8 0
8 7 0
6 7 0
8 9 0
9 9 0
8 11 0
…
…
memory
page
faults
cpu
----------- ------------------------ ------------ ----------------------avm
fre fi fo pi po fr
sr in
sy cs us sy id wa
pc
ec
11507787 49543 3483 823
0
0 5306 5355 5662 45907 26258 33 4 53 10 4.71 39.3
11509796 47989 3824 594
0
0 4116 27771 6252 56592 45959 54 7 28 12 7.65 63.8
11510010 47770 3955 622
0
0 3977 9647 5907 56222 46833 48 7 31 15 6.87 57.2
11510560 50021 4164 2431
0
0 5564 40421 6607 51080 49691 41 7 39 13 6.08 50.7
11512741 46710 4886 1443
0
0 4443 4608 6110 42400 30394 36 5 42 17 5.28 44.0
11514081 48807 4675 227
0
0 6461 7028 4838 34521 11343 33 3 55 9 4.68 39.0
11515469 48531 5679 482
0
0 6445 6593 5686 44979 13230 37 3 48 12 4.99 41.5
11514065 49598 3858 1046
0
0 4128 4255 5807 51871 27521 44 6 32 19 6.27 52.3
11517672 49905 4848 632
0
0 7173 7221 5679 44566 47102 48 6 32 14 6.84 57.0
11520210 50148 4669 692
0
0 6313 6491 6341 47122 45622 52 5 28 15 7.22 60.2
11521192 48222 5087 814
0
0 5194 5790 6211 49553 44306 45 6 34 15 6.45 53.7
11521212 50922 3830 627
0
0 5330 5353 6248 48130 32364 47 4 37 12 6.42 53.5
11521503 49362 3475 573
0
0 3075 3102 5717 47907 13356 42 3 41 14 5.69 47.4
11523055 48731 3502 511
0
0 4143 4176 5884 44391 13427 46 2 41 11 6.01 50.1
11524140 50987 3483 761
0
0 5363 5683 5830 45416 15252 60 3 23 14 7.89 65.7
11524407 45661 3871 351
0
0 1488 1621 5378 34403 13034 54 2 29 15 7.14 59.5
11523652 50033 3325 355
0
0 5229 5448 5434 40780 14372 45 3 36 16 6.06 50.5
11525268 48536 4209 272
0
0 4102 4337 4599 36202 10449 44 4 35 18 6.05 50.4
11525476 48242 4322 521
0
0 4307 4634 5375 33863 13975 44 3 35 18 5.97 49.7
11526444 49830 4988 699
0
0 6351 6828 6743 53110 45620 46 6 32 16 6.63 55.3
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
65
vmstat –Iwt 2 check for memory over-commitment; MAX(avm)*4096;
load average=AVG(vmstat:kthr:r) over 60secs: current,5mins,15mins ago
$ uptime ; vmstat -Iwt 2 20
10:51AM
up 133 days,
13:43,
3 users,
load average: 19.45, 19.53, 19.32
System configuration: lcpu=24 mem=73728MB ent=12.00
kthr
memory
page
faults
cpu
----------- --------------------- ------------------------------------ ------------------ ----------------------r
b
p
avm
fre
fi
fo
pi
po
fr
sr
in
sy
cs us sy id wa
pc
ec
20
0
0
10957853
48491
66
47
0
0
0
0
363 117648 2422 96 2 2 0 12.00 100.0
20
0
0
10957452
48808
16
81
0
0
0
0
418 94030 4048 97 2 2 0 12.00 100.0
18
0
0
10957456
48524
111
136
0
0
0
0
486
6692 2338 98 0 2 0 12.00 100.0
18
0
0
10957463
48455
25
34
0
0
0
0
152 11637 1348 97 1 2 0 12.00 100.0
18
0
0
10957464
48432
6
14
0
0
0
0
77
3019 1141 98 0 2 0 12.00 100.0
19
1
0
10957470
48298
65
7
0
0
0
0
197
4164 1330 97 0 2 0 11.95 99.6
18
0
0
10957472
48296
0
5
0
0
0
0
39
2842 1028 97 0 3 0 11.86 98.8
19
0
0
10957479
48236
23
13
0
0
0
0
234
5335 1448 98 0 2 0 12.00 100.0
19
1
0
10957487
47686
271
5
0
0
0
0
402 13439 1806 97 1 2 0 12.00 100.0
19
0
0
10957489
47684
0
9
0
0
0
0
37
7145
997 97 1 2 0 12.00 100.0
20
0
0
10957481
47610
39
56
0
0
0
0
167
2837 1061 98 0 2 0 12.00 100.0
19
0
0
10957483
47548
31
1
0
0
0
0
85
3075 1065 98 0 2 0 12.00 100.0
18
0
0
10957481
47500
26
13
0
0
7
135
75
2921 1032 98 0 2 0 12.00 100.0
19
0
0
10957889
49033
53
6
0
0 1025
1031
129 88541 1871 96 2 2 0 11.98 99.8
19
0
0
10957888
48954
40
0
0
0
0
0
89 94550 1869 96 2 2 0 12.00 100.0
20
1
0
10957882
48926
17
6
0
0
0
0
74 123666 2068 96 2 2 0 12.00 100.0
19
0
0
10957880
48916
5
8
0
0
0
0
47 120104 1913 94 3 4 0 11.80 98.4
20
0
0
10957666
49062
34
1
0
0
0
0
80 117384 1849 96 2 2 0 12.00 100.0
18
0
0
10957883
48841
1
7
0
0
0
0
59 130003 1924 95 3 2 0 12.00 100.0
20
0
0
10957889
48779
28
6
0
0
0
0
143 126580 2284 96 3 2 0 12.00 100.0
$ bc
10957889 * 4096
44883513344
quit
$
time
-------hr mi se
10:51:26
10:51:28
10:51:30
10:51:32
10:51:34
10:51:36
10:51:38
10:51:40
10:51:42
10:51:44
10:51:46
10:51:48
10:51:50
10:51:52
10:51:54
10:51:56
10:51:58
10:52:00
10:52:02
10:52:04
# MAX(avm)*4096 relative-to mem=73728MB  73728*1024*1024
# 44883513344
relative-to 77309411328
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
66
mpstat –w 2 Observe the granularity and distribution of active threads across logical-CPUs
For SPLPARs, observe the folding/unfolding of virtual-CPUs by monitoring the int column
$ uptime ; mpstat -w 2
03:27PM
up 45 days,
7:04, 6 users, load average: 4.22, 4.63, 4.80
System configuration: lcpu=20 ent=8.0 mode=Uncapped
cpu
min
maj
mpc
int
cs
ics
rq
mig
lpa
sysc
us
sy
wt
id
pc
%ec
lcs
0
748
59
0
3928
5037
2148
0
1528 100.0 14044 40.2 56.8
2.9
0.1 0.56
6.9 2310
1
0
0
0
600
0
0
0
0 100.0
0
0.0 47.9
0.0 52.1 0.01
0.2
591
2
531
33
0
1068
4273
1781
0
1105 100.0 11986 56.8 40.3
2.8
0.1 0.39
4.9 1545
3
0
0
0
458
2
1
0
0 100.0
5
1.1 51.6
0.0 47.3 0.01
0.1
454
4
844
27
0
821
2952
1251
0
869 100.0
9545 45.6 52.7
1.7
0.1 0.48
5.9 1118
5
0
0
0
456
0
0
0
0 100.0
5
0.6 55.2
0.0 44.2 0.01
0.1
450
6
880
19
0
797
2256
943
0
679 100.0
6508 26.4 72.6
1.0
0.1 0.61
7.6
820
7
0
0
0
445
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 55.3
0.0 44.7 0.01
0.1
444
8
751
34
0
853
3290
1393
0
898 100.0
9742 51.3 47.0
1.6
0.1 0.54
6.7 1201
9
0
0
0
457
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 53.7
0.0 46.3 0.01
0.1
455
10
424
15
0
613
2367
1018
0
599 100.0
6781 51.4 46.0
2.3
0.3 0.27
3.4
939
11
0
0
0
227
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 51.7
0.0 48.3 0.01
0.1
224
12
128
0
0
186
112
52
0
19 100.0
451 17.8 80.1
0.4
1.8 0.07
0.8
157
13
0
0
0
162
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 47.1
0.0 52.9 0.00
0.0
161
14
0
0
0
100
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 33.8
0.0 66.2 0.00
0.0
100
15
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 14.5
0.0 85.5 0.00
0.0
10
16
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 30.3
0.0 69.7 0.00
0.0
10
17
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 41.8
0.0 58.2 0.00
0.0
10
18
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 28.7
0.0 71.3 0.00
0.0
10
19
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0.0 30.6
0.0 69.4 0.00
0.0
10
U
9.7 53.3 5.04 63.0
ALL
4306
187
0 11221 20289
8587
0
5697 100.0 59067 15.6 20.3 10.4 53.7 2.97 37.1 11019
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0
1461
64
57
4857
4713
1995
0
1441 100.0 17385 40.3 57.0
2.6
0.1 0.54
6.7 2102
1
207
17
3
870
1987
1088
0
331 100.0 10099 67.9 27.4
3.2
1.5 0.18
2.3
979
2
1688
23
3
1088
2914
1196
0
814 100.0 28374 43.4 55.2
1.2
0.1 0.53
6.6 1002
3
230
3
3
645
1456
742
0
156 100.0
8530 66.6 29.0
2.8
1.7 0.15
1.9
862
4
1934
14
3
945
2422
963
0
645 100.0 30907 65.7 33.3
0.8
0.2 0.56
7.0
812
5
164
4
3
654
1279
581
0
158 100.0
3606 67.6 29.4
1.5
1.5 0.19
2.4
825
6
883
20
3
907
3075
1215
0
899 100.0 15866 62.1 36.7
1.1
0.1 0.58
7.2
960
7
265
29
3
655
1691
790
0
224 100.0
4038 39.8 55.6
3.2
1.3 0.15
1.9
958
8
656
11
3
465
1375
615
0
287 100.0
4563 31.2 66.1
1.8
0.9 0.19
2.4
653
9
0
0
3
284
382
189
0
13 100.0
1652 43.6 39.3
0.8 16.3 0.02
0.3
436
10
300
3
3
328
618
289
0
119 100.0
7818 46.9 51.3
0.8
1.1 0.15
1.9
388
11
1
0
3
162
190
93
0
9 100.0
396 20.6 56.4 13.8
9.2 0.01
0.1
222
12
313
4
3
310
661
310
0
103 100.0
7726 54.2 42.8
1.6
1.4 0.11
1.4
426
13
29
0
3
185
216
104
0
16 100.0
548
9.2 85.6
2.3
2.9 0.04
0.5
248
…
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
67
iostat –aT 2 Observe real-time trends in Disks, % tm_act, Kbps, tps, Kb_read, Kb_wrtn
Map high-traffic hdisks through the stack: hdisk->LVM VG:LV:JFS2-mountpoint w/options
$
uptime ; iostat –aT 2 | grep -v “0
03:32PM
up 45 days,
7:09,
6 users,
0.0
0
0
0.0
0.0”
load average: 6.10, 5.11, 4.93
System configuration: lcpu=20 drives=9 ent=8.00 paths=16 vdisks=2 tapes=0
tty:
tin
0.0
Vadapter:
vscsi0
% tm_act
99.5
0.0
99.0
0.0
70.5
99.0
85.5
94.0
tin
0.0
Vadapter:
vscsi0
Vadapter:
vscsi0
…
tout
41467.1
% tm_act
99.6
0.0
77.6
0.0
92.6
99.1
74.1
89.6
tin
0.0
tout
41436.5
tps
3227.0
Kbps
4310.0
0.0
1892.0
0.0
2736.0
7110.0
1788.0
4570.0
bkread
1845.0
tps
549.5
0.0
234.5
0.0
332.0
1359.0
196.5
555.5
bkwrtn partition-id time
1382.0
0 15:32:04
Kb_read
7516
0
3584
0
4808
5212
2968
4448
Kb_wrtn time
1104 15:32:04
0
15:32:04
200 15:32:04
0
15:32:04
664 15:32:04
9008 15:32:04
608 15:32:04
4692 15:32:04
avg-cpu: % user % sys % idle % iowait physc % entc time
22.3 19.4
47.7
10.5
3.4
42.8 15:32:06
Kbps
25561.2
Disks:
hdisk4
hdisk1
hdisk3
hdisk0
hdisk5
hdisk6
hdisk2
hdisk7
tty:
avg-cpu: % user % sys % idle % iowait physc % entc time
21.6 19.9
45.9
12.6
3.4
42.9 15:32:04
Kbps
22406.0
Disks:
hdisk4
hdisk1
hdisk3
hdisk0
hdisk5
hdisk6
hdisk2
hdisk7
tty:
tout
76656.5
tps
3398.5
Kbps
5854.4
0.0
1313.0
0.0
3224.4
8884.7
1333.0
4951.7
bkread
1886.4
tps
666.5
0.0
163.6
0.0
403.3
1545.7
165.1
454.3
bkwrtn partition-id time
1512.1
0 15:32:06
Kb_read
8252
0
2472
0
5544
5388
2520
4056
Kb_wrtn time
3448 15:32:06
0
15:32:06
152 15:32:06
0
15:32:06
900 15:32:06
12368 15:32:06
144 15:32:06
5840 15:32:06
avg-cpu: % user % sys % idle % iowait physc % entc time
16.9 19.0
55.0
9.0
3.0
37.1 15:32:08
Kbps
26822.0
tps
3732.5
bkread
1529.0
bkwrtn partition-id time
2203.5
0 15:32:08
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
68
Strategic Thoughts, Concepts, Considerations, and Tactics
• Monitoring AIX – Usage, Meaning and Interpretation
– Review component technology of the infrastructure, i.e. proper tuning-by-hardware
– Review implemented AIX constructs, i.e. “firm” near-static structures and settings
– Review historical/accumulated AIX events, i.e. usages, pendings, counts, blocks, etc.
– Monitor dynamic AIX command behaviors, i.e. ps, vmstat, mpstat, iostat, etc.
• Recognizing Common Performance-degrading Scenarios [Part II]
– High Load Average relative to count-of-LCPUs, i.e. “over-threadedness”
– vmstat:memory:avm near-to or greater-than lruable-gbRAM, i.e. over-committed
– Continuous low vmstat:memory:fre with persistent lrud (fr:sr) activity
– Continuous high ratio of vmstat:kthr:b relative to vmstat:kthr:r
– Poor ratio of pages freed to pages examined (fr:sr ratio) in vmstat -s output
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
69
2011
IBM Power Systems Technical University
October 10-14 | Fontainebleau Miami Beach | Miami, FL
IBM
Thank you
Earl Jew ([email protected])
310-251-2907 cell
Senior IT Management Consultant - IBM Power Systems and IBM Systems Storage
IBM Lab Services and Training - US Power Systems (group/dept)
400 North Brand Blvd., c/o IBM 8th floor, Glendale, CA 91203
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2012
Materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
5.3
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* All other products may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
Notes:
Performance is in Internal Throughput Rate (ITR) ratio based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput that any user will
experience will vary depending upon considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed.
Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve throughput improvements equivalent to the performance ratios stated here.
IBM hardware products are manufactured from new parts, or new and serviceable used parts. Regardless, our warranty terms apply.
All customer examples cited or described in this presentation are presented as illustrations of the manner in which some customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual
environmental costs and performance characteristics will vary depending on individual customer configurations and conditions.
This publication was produced in the United States. IBM may not offer the products, services or features discussed in this document in other countries, and the information may be subject to change without
notice. Consult your local IBM business contact for information on the product or services available in your area.
All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only.
Information about non-IBM products is obtained from the manufacturers of those products or their published announcements. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the performance,
compatibility, or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.
Prices subject to change without notice. Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner for the most current pricing in your geography.
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Disclaimers
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without written permission from IBM
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Product data has been reviewed for accuracy as of the date of initial publication. Product data is subject to change
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improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or program(s) at any time without notice. Any statements
regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals
and objectives only.
The performance data contained herein was obtained in a controlled, isolated environment. Actual results that may be
obtained in other operating environments may vary significantly. While IBM has reviewed each item for accuracy in a
specific situation, there is no guarantee that the same or similar results will be obtained elsewhere. Customer
experiences described herein are based upon information and opinions provided by the customer. The same results
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Reference in this document to IBM products, programs, or services does not imply that IBM intends to make such
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is not responsible for the performance or interoperability of any non-IBM products discussed herein.
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Disclaimers (Continued)
Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their published
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