Document 21062

VOLUME 16, NO. 2
APRIL 2008
www.vipoodle.org
IN THIS ISSUE
President’s Message…………… 1
Dedicated to the Health, Education and Performance of Poodles Everywhere
Thank You! .................................. 2
PCA Reports and Results …… 2
Brags! …………………………………. 4
Novice A Awards…………………. 4
Spay/Neuter Article…………… 6
Bits and Bites ……………………. 13
President’s Message
As many of you may know our President, Irma Shanahan, has recently
undergone surgery and at the time of printing is taking a break from her usual
commentary for this issue. The President’s Message will return in the June
2008 issue.
Legislative Updates…………… 13
Response to SC Anti-Crating Bill
…………………………………………… 13
AKC News …………………………… 14
CKC News …………………………… 15
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VIP Newsletter
April 2008
Page 1
THANK YOU!!
A big thank you from the BOD and members of VIP to the following people who have made donations of $50.00 or more
for our work in support of health research, the CHF donor advised fund and/or educational efforts for Poodles:
Donna Myrdal
Tracey Griffith
In addition, many of the people who have renewed their membership or subscriptions have included donations of less
than $50.00 and we extend a big thank you to each of you who have done this as well. Without this type of generosity
we would not be able to continue to fund the health research and educational outreach for which VIP is noted.
PCA REPORTS
Linda Miller
We're back from PCA. The field training day, the Hunt Test and
the WC/WCX all went well.
After several weeks off, to heal a chunk taken out of her pad,
Ruby got to run agility at PCA. She had also been crated most of
the 4 days prior since I didn't run her in any field events at PCA.
She was super charged Monday morning. Broke at the line in Ex.
standard, leaving me in the dust. I ended up taking her off course
when she blatantly flew off the down ramp of the DW and into
the tunnel. While taking the walk of shame to her crate several
people said...."You should have swam her over the weekend."
True as this would have burnt off some of her excess energy, but I
didn't want to have to bathe her on Sunday afternoon prior to the
Working Poodle Medallion Dinner. Thankfully in JWW she
redeemed herself, taking second place and finishing that title.
Carolyn Wray
…finally home from PCA after long and boring flights. .... poor
Norah was in her carry-on bag from noon Thursday east coast
time untilalmost 1 AM Pacific time Friday. I did manage to let her
out twice in a handicap stall to stretch her legs. She was very
good and never let out a peep.
Our agility runs over the weekend ranged from really really good
but with a bobble to one run that was a train wreck <g> but we
finally managed a Q and third place at PCA in Open JWW. Norah
was also in the Performance title holders Parade Tuesday and
made her mama look good.
I stewarded for obedience on Tuesday and was fortunate to be in
the UA ring and watch Linda and Rom finish their UD......very
exciting!
PCA Results
Rom took first in UT A, finishing his UD (he was the only dog to q). Master Hunter: Judges Ted Finley & Barry Fry
Not his best performance. He had his first no sit ever, in his career
in heeling. He barked in joy, as usual though DJ. I guess I shouldn't CH Ascot Boucheron Joalleria CD RN SH
complain. He finished his UD with 2 firsts and a second, even with Owner: Claudia A Straitiff
the barking.
Senior Hunter: Judges Carol and Dan Lewis
Dash earned her second WC pass. Her brother Sly earned his first Bibelot's Tolka Hands Up JH WCX,
WC pass. Ruby was awarded the bronze working poodle
Owner: Jack Combs & Mia DiBenedetto
medallion at the dinner on Sunday night.
A productive PCA as each of my poodles obtained their goals at
PCA. Fun to visit with friends old and new, along with seeing all
the poodles.
VIP Newsletter
April 2008
Tudorose McCheers JH NA NAJ WC,
Owner: Mary Ruth Calhoun
Jo Whirlwinds Majormajormajor UD RN JH,
Owner: Patricia Rose
Page 2
Junior Hunter : Judges Carol and Dan Lewis
Tudorose McCheers JH NA NAJ WC,
Owner: Mary Ruth Calhoun
CH LaMarka Litilann's Y Not CD RE
Owner: Ann Rarigh
Ch Carlyn Calamity Jane NA WC,
Owner: Joyce Carelli, Jeanne Kennedy & Michael Lamb
Leap N La Tee JH,
Owner: Sheree Melancon
Working Certificate Excellent
Judges Ted Finley & Barry Fry
Bibelot's Tolka Hands Up JH WCX,
Owner: Jack Combs & Mia DiBenedetto
Finnesse All Jazzed Up, CDX RAE JH MXP MXJ WC WCX,
Owner: Kevin & Carol Stone
Ch Carlyn Calamity Jane NA WC,
Owner: Joyce Carelli, Jeanne Kennedy & Michael Lamb
Jo Whirlwinds Majormajormajor UD RN JH,
Owner: Patricia Rose
Tudorose McCheers JH NA NAJ WC,
Owner: Mary Ruth Calhoun
Lonetree’s Go Bang MH,
Owner: Jack Combs & Mia DiBenedetto
Working Certificate
Webster's Red High Heels,
Owner: Angie & Rich Louter
Deaux Rey's Splash N Fah So JH WC,
Owner: Sheree Melancon
Tudorose McCheers JH NA NAJ WC,
Owner: Mary Ruth Calhoun
K.C.'s Sassafras of Weilerback VD RAE AX AXJ WC WCX,
Owner: Kevin J. & Carol L. Stone
Deaux Rey Me N My Shadeaux JR,
Owner: Sheree Melancon
Tudorose Dreamcatcher Daventry CDX WC
Owner: Jean Bedenaugh
Southern Standards Red Creole WC,
Owner: Angie & Rich Louter
Bibelot's Tolka Hands Up JH WCX,
Owner: Jack Combs & Mia DiBenedetto
Carlyn Hard Spun,
Owner: Joyce Carelli & Michael Lamb
Leap N La Tee JH,
Owner: Sheree Melancon
Jo Whirlwinds Majormajormajor UD RN JH,
Owner: Patricia Rose
Finnesse All Jazzed Up, COX RAE JH MXP MXJ WC WCX,
Owner: Kevin & Carol Stone
Valentine's Splash 'N Dash,
Owner: Linda Miller
Redlines Radiant Red Reba,
Owner: Angie & Rich Louter
Conformation
BOB:
Ch. Randenn TriStar Affirmation
BOS:
Ch. Blue Skies Aris Uncloudy Day
Best Puppy:
Smash JP Mamamia
Best Veteran:
Ch. Tree-Tops' Bouquet Of Stars
Best Veteran Dog:
Ch. North Well Chako JP Platina King
Best Veteran Bitch:
Ch. Tree-Tops' Bouquet Of Stars
Best Bred By in Show: Unique Simply Irresistible
Best Stud Dog:
Ch. Feelgood Inc. By Request
Best Brood Bitch:
Ch Clarion Parallel Dreams
Best Brace:
Ch. Fair Hill Jump For Joy / Ch. Fair Hill Leapin Lena
BOV Miniature:
Ch. Surrey Sweet Spice
BOV Standard:
Ch. Randenn TriStar Affirmation
BOV Toy:
Smash JP Mamamia
These are only a few of the results – more to come!!
Ch Carlyn Calamity Jane NA WC,
Owner: Joyce Carelli, Jeanne Kennedy & Michael Lamb
Glorias-Baywind Answer To Love WC,
Owner: Beth Warren & Gloria Saunders & Vivian Gill
Valentine's Sly As A Fox,
Owner: Margaret Fox
VIP NEWSLETTER
APRIL 2008
Page 3
Brags
Marlene Jurkovich
Friendships Ravens Tia O’M and M, MX, MXJ, XF competed in the
2008 AKC National Agility Trial, March 28, 29, 30, 2008. This was
Jean Schafer,
Tia’s and my first AKC Nationals. Tia ran in the 26” jump height all
On Sunday, February 24, 2008, Tudorose Walk The Line (Johnny)
three days. Friday, Tia had qualifying runs in both Round 1 and 2.
earned his AKC Tracking Dog (TD) at the Columbine State Poodle
Her overall placement was 27th. In the State Tournament, Tia’s
Club tracking test in Chatsfield, Colorado. I am very proud of
placement was 20th for the State of California. Saturday, Round
Johnny's performance that day, especially considering we
1, her placement was 21st. Tia’s Round 2 performance was much
traveled 1200 miles to track on frozen ground for the first time.
more impressive, with a 4th place finish in the 26” jump height.
We were very pleased and very excited when we realized we
earned a 4th place. Round 3, she placed 18th. Tia’s final overall
placement for the 26” jump height was 19th. Not only did Tia
have a great time at the Nationals, she also got her picture on the
AKC Web site on Saturday’s update and posting. We are hoping
to qualify for next year’s Nationals before Tia takes time off from
agility to have a litter of pups.
Becky Baxter
UKC CH Tintlet Wisecracking Gambler "BRET" was shown in AKC
for the first time in March. He received three 3 point majors his
first weekend out. 3 Weeks later at his second show weekend he
gain 4 more single points and now only needs 2 points to finish
his AKC Championship! Bret was bred by Gloria Ogdahl and is
owned by Becky Baxter and Gloria Ogdahl.
Cathy Rainer
In March, Cosmic Light Fantastic, "Tass" (bred by Dr. Grace Blair),
finished her novice agility title, and was awarded the VCD1 title.
Tass recently finished her open JWW title and has one leg for the
open standard title. Today, (4/20/08), Tass received her third leg
in UKC novice obedience. Our lass is now U-CD, ASCA-CD Cosmic
Light Fantastic VCD1 CDX RE OAJ. Tass is an absolute delight to
train and live with.
VIP NEWSLETTER
APRIL 2008
Page 4
Irma Shanahan
Chase showed today [April 18, 2008] at Washington Poodle Club's
specialty for his first shot at USA,and qualified with a nice 194.5
and a first place. He then went on to qualify in OB with another
first place and a score of 193.5. As a result of that, and some luck
that the really great poodle exhibitors are on their way to PCA,
we ended up with HIT and HC.
It was a pretty big deal to qualify; on Friday the combined
specialties have all the obedience and rally in the same area of
the Cow Palace. The ring was sent up in the main center hall, and
was the first thing you saw when you came in the main doors.
Lots of traffic, noise, distractions, etc. but he was as steady as a
rock.
Needless to say, I am just floating! I told some friends that I might
take the HIT and HC ribbons with me to the hospital on Tuesday,
just to keep me focused.
We also won a very large crystal platter, a deep Armentale bowl
and two smaller bowls.
[April 21, 2008] Chase did quite well today at Catoctin, earning his
second UA leg with a respectable 192 and another First.
The Photo is of UCDX UCH JCPioneer Shadow Chaser CDX RAE VC
earning his first Utility leg with a HIT and HC at Washington
Poodle Club on April 18, 2008..
Congratulations!!
Rena Mansi of Raleigh, NC won First Place Novice A at the Poodle Obedience Training
Club of Greater New York on April 5, 2008 with a score of 187. Rena and her Miniature
Poodle, Cabryn Angelsong Ebonique RA won the VIP Novice A Award.
Harry McLaughlin of Darlington, MD and his Standard Poodle, Gracie Ann McGillicutty
won First Place Novice A at the Washington Poodle Club.
VIP NEWSLETTER
APRIL 2008
Page 5
DETERMINING THE BEST AGE AT WHICH
TO SPAY OR NEUTER: AN EVIDENCEBASED ANALYSIS
By Margaret Root-Kustritz, DVM, PhD University of Minnesota
An AKC Canine Health Foundation White Paper
http://www.akcchf.org/research/white_papers.cfm
in the United States annually. This discussion instead refers to
dogs with responsible owners or guardians who maintain dogs as
household pets, do not allow the
animals to roam free, and provide the animals with regular
veterinary care.
Evidence in this context is defined as credible information from
peer-reviewed research. Studies involving more dogs are more
valuable than reports of single cases. Multiple studies
Introduction
documenting a given phenomenon are more valuable than single
In many parts of the world, due to cultural or economic
prohibitions, bitches and dogs are not spayed or castrated unless papers. Incidence in this context is reported as a percent; this is
the number of affected animals out of a random sample of 100. In
they have reproductive tract disease. However, in the United
veterinary medicine, any condition with an incidence greater than
States, virtually all bitches and dogs are rendered sterile by
1% is considered common.
surgery at some point in their life. This better allows for
reproduction control in animals no longer capable of or not
considered desirable for breeding, and eliminates behaviors and Readers are encouraged to carefully read all manuscripts of
interest and to ask their veterinarian for clarification if needed.
physical changes related to presence of reproductive
hormones that dog owners find objectionable. The surgeries most This paper is condensed from a more detailed, extensively
referenced manuscript that may be available through your
commonly performed are ovariohysterectomy (removal of the
veterinarian (Root Kustritz MV. Determining the optimal age for
uterus and both ovaries), commonly called spaying, and
gonadectomy of dogs and cats. Journal of the American
castration (removal of both testes and the associated
Veterinary Medical Association 2007;231(11):1665-1675).
epididymes). Castration is commonly also called neutering,
although that term most correctly can be used for surgery of
either gender. Collectively, these surgeries can be referred to as Why do we perform spay or castration at 6 months of age?
Most veterinarians in the United States recommend bitches and
gonadectomy, removal of the gonads or reproductive organs.
dogs be spayed or castrated between 6 and 9 months of age. This
is not based in science; no one has performed a large-scale study
Removal of the ovaries eliminates secretion of the hormones
in which bitches and dogs underwent gonadectomy at various
estrogen and progesterone. Removal of the testes eliminates
ages and were tracked throughout life to determine what
secretion of the hormone testosterone. Elimination of these
hormones obviously leads to decreases in behaviors and physical abnormalities developed relative to age at gonadectomy. It is
thought that the current age recommendation arose after the
changes associated with their secretion, such as heat behavior,
World War II, when increasing affluence of American families first
swelling of the vulva, and estrous bleeding in bitches, and
mounting and roaming in dogs. However, reproductive hormones permitted them to treat animals as household pets and were,
therefore, more interested in controlling manifestations of
have effects on other tissues in
reproductive hormone secretion and
the body and removal of those hormones may inadvertently
very interested in making sure the animal survived surgery.
impact those systems negatively. Other, less obvious, hormone
Anesthetic and surgical techniques available at that time
changes also occur after gonadectomy, including persistent
necessitated the animal be at least 6 months of age.
elevation in hormones that control the secretion of estrogen,
progesterone, and testosterone. Whether these other hormone
With current anesthetic agents, anesthetic monitoring
changes affect other systems positively or negatively often is
equipment, and surgical techniques, it has been demonstrated in
unclear.
multiple studies that bitches and dogs can safely undergo
gonadectomy when as young as 6 to 8 weeks of age. Surgical
This paper is a review of what has been demonstrated in the
complication rate does not vary between groups undergoing
veterinary literature regarding effect of gonadectomy on the
animal as a whole. This discussion does not address the societal surgery when very young compared to those undergoing surgery
at the more traditional age, with overall postoperative
problem of pet overpopulation. The author feels that animals
complication rate reported as 6.1%. The vast majority
with no owner or guardian should be spayed
of these post surgical complications are transient and do not
or castrated before adoption into a new home as one of many
initiatives necessary to decrease the number of dogs euthanized require veterinary care.
VIP NEWSLETTER
APRIL 2008
Page 6
Effects of gonadectomy on behavior
Behaviors that are most likely to be affected by gonadectomy are
those that are sexually dimorphic (seen primarily in one gender).
Examples of sexually dimorphic behaviors include
flagging in bitches, and mounting and urine marking in dogs.
Incidence of sexually dimorphic behaviors decreases after
gonadectomy in bitches and dogs, with the decrease in incidence
not correlated with length of time the animal has shown the
behavior prior to gonadectomy.
Those behaviors that are not sexually dimorphic, including most
forms of aggression, are not decreased in incidence by
gonadectomy. One behavioral consequence of spaying that has
been documented in several studies is an increase in reactivity
towards humans with unfamiliar dogs and increased aggression
toward family members. This may be hormonally related; there
may also be a breed predisposition.
There is no evidence documenting a decline in trainability of
working female or male dogs after spay or castration. One study
documented an increase in development of senile behaviors after
gonadectomy in male dogs. However, that study had very few
dogs in the intact male group and
other studies, looking directly at changes in brain tissue, are not
supportive of that finding.
when aged. Compared with bitches left intact, those spayed
before puberty have a 0.5% risk,
those spayed after one estrous cycle have an 8.0% risk, and dogs
spayed after two estrous cycles have a 26.0% risk of developing
mammary neoplasia later in life. Overall, unspayed bitches have a
seven times greater risk of developing mammary neoplasia than
do those that are spayed.
While the benefit of spaying decreases with each estrous cycle,
some benefit has been demonstrated in bitches even up to 9
years of age. The exact cause-and-effect relationship
between intact status and development of mammary neoplasia in
female dogs has not been identified. The genetic and hormonal
causes of breast cancer identified in women have not been
consistently identified in female dogs despite extensive research.
Prostatic cancer in dogs is uncommon, with a reported incidence
of 0.2 to 0.6%. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is a highly malignant
tumor that cannot be cured medically or surgically. A 2.4 to 4.3
times increase in incidence in prostatic neoplasia with castration
has been demonstrated, with that information verified in multiple
studies.
Testicular neoplasia is a very common tumor in dogs, with a
reported incidence of 0.9%. Unlike in humans, testicular tumors
occur late in life in dogs, are readily diagnosed, and are rarely
malignant. Ovarian and uterine tumors are very uncommon in
bitches.
Effects of gonadectomy on health
Several tumors of non-reproductive tissues have been reported to
Neoplasia
Neoplasia, or cancer, is abnormal growth of tissue. Benign tumors be increased in incidence after gonadectomy. Transitional cell
carcinoma, a malignant tumor of the urinary tract, was reported
tend to stay in one location and cause disease by altering the
single tissue involved and compressing tissue around it. Malignant in two studies to occur 2 to 4 times more frequently in spayed or
castrated dogs than in intact
tumors tend to spread in the area from which they arise and to
spread to distant tissues, causing widespread disease. Virtually all female or male dogs. Exact incidence is not reported; estimated
incidence is less than 1.0%. A breed predisposition exists (Table
tumors are more common in aged than in young animals, with
average reported age at time of diagnosis of about 10 years. For 1). Surgical removal of transitional cell carcinoma may or may not
be possible, depending on site of the primary tumor.
the tumor types
described below, exact cause-and-effect relationship between
gonadectomy and development of tumors is unknown.
Osteosarcoma is a low incidence (0.2%), highly malignant tumor
of bone. It is reported to be more common in large breed dogs
with some specific breeds predisposed (Table 1). Two studies
have documented a 1.3 to 2.0 times increased incidence of
osteosarcoma with gonadectomy.
However, one study evaluated solely Rottweilers, a breed with a
reported genetic predisposition. Treatment often includes limb
amputation and radiation or chemotherapy.
Mammary neoplasia, or breast cancer, is a very common disorder
of female dogs, with a reported incidence of 3.4%; this is most
common tumor type in female dogs. Of female dogs with
mammary tumors, 50.9% have malignant tumors. Risk factors for
mammary neoplasia in female dogs include age, breed (Table 1),
and sexually intact status. Multiple studies have documented that
spaying bitches when young greatly decreases their risk of
Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor of vascular tissue,
developing mammary neoplasia
including the heart, major blood vessels, and spleen. Large breeds
VIP NEWSLETTER
APRIL 2008
Page 7
in general are at increased risk with some breeds specifically
predisposed (Table 1). Two studies have documented increased
incidence, from 2.2 to 5 times, in
gonadectomized males and females compared to intact animals.
Overall incidence of hemangiosarcoma is low, at 0.2%. Surgical
removal is the treatment of choice, if possible.
Orthopedic abnormalities
Long bones grow from growth plates on either end. The growth
plates close after exposure to estrogen and testosterone,
explaining why growth in height is largely completed after
puberty. In bitches and dogs, removal of the gonads before
puberty slows closure of the growth plates,
leading to a statistically significant but not overtly obvious
increase in height. There is no evidence that after gonadectomy
some growth plates will close on time and some late, however
most studies have only examined long bones of the forelimb. No
studies have demonstrated increased incidence in fractures or
other abnormalities of the growth plates associated with age at
time of spay or castration.
Obesity is very common in dogs, with reported incidence of 2.8%
in the general dog population; incidences of 34% of castrated
male dogs and 38% of spayed female dogs were reported in one
study. Multiple risk factors exist, including breed (Table 1), age,
and body condition and age of
the owner. A very commonly reported risk factor for
development of obesity is gonadectomy. In cats, it has been
demonstrated that gonadectomy causes a decrease in metabolic
rate. There are no reports documenting metabolic rate in female
or male dogs relative to gonadectomy. Obesity
is itself a risk factor for some forms of cancer, CCL injury, diabetes
mellitus, and decreased life span. Obesity is controllable with
appropriate diet and exercise.
Urinary incontinence
A very common form of urinary incontinence, formerly termed
estrogen-responsive urinary incontinence and now more
commonly called urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence,
occurs in spayed female dogs. Urine leaks from the spayed female
dogs when they are relaxed and so most often is seen by the
owners as wet spots where the dog sleeps. Reported incidence
Hip dysplasia is abnormal formation of the hip joint with
ranges from 4.9 to 20.0%, with female dogs weighing more than
associated development of arthritis. Genetic, hormonal, and
44 pounds and some specific
environmental factors, including diet, are involved (Table 1). In
breeds predisposed (Table 1). While multiple studies have
the one study describing increased incidence of hip dysplasia in documented correlation between gonadectomy and occurrence
female or male dogs spayed or castrated before 5 months of age, of this disorder, only one has demonstrated a correlation
it is not clear that the diagnosis of hip dysplasia was made by a
between incidence and age at gonadectomy. In that study, it was
veterinarian in all cases.
demonstrated that spaying before 3
months of age was significantly more likely to be associated with
The paired cruciate ligaments form a cross within the knee (stifle) eventual occurrence of urinary incontinence in a given female dog
joint. The cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) undergoes tearing or
than was spaying later. Urethral sphincter mechanism
complete rupture when the stifle is stressed from the side,
incompetence is easily controlled medically in most female dogs.
especially if the animal twists while bearing weight on that limb.
CCL injury is very common, with reported incidence of 1.8%. Large Pyometra
breed dogs are generally at risk, with some breeds predisposed
Pyometra is uterine infection overlying age-related change in the
(Table 1). Overweight female and male dogs also may be at
uterine lining. Incidence increases with age; 23 to 24% of dogs
increased risk. It has been demonstrated that CCL injury is more developed pyometra by 10 years of age in one Swedish
common in spayed or castrated animals than in intact animals.
study. Specific breeds are at increased risk (Table 1). This very
The basis may be hormonal, as it has been demonstrated that CCL common disorder of aged intact bitches is treated surgically.
injury in humans is more common in women than in men with
incidence varying with stage of the menstrual cycle. A very recent Benign prostatic hypertrophy / prostatitis
study documented change in anatomy of the stifle joint of female Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is age-related change in
and male dogs
prostate size. By 6 years of age, 75 to 80% of intact male dogs will
with CCL injury with gonadectomy prior to 6 months of age;
have evidence of BPH; by 9 years of age, 95 to 100% of intact
further research is pending. CCL injury is treated with surgery and male dogs will have evidence of BPH. The increased size of the
rehabilitation; treatment is costly and recovery protracted.
prostate is associated with increased blood supply. The most
common clinical signs are dripping of bloody fluid from the
Obesity
prepuce and blood in the semen. Development of BPH
predisposes the dog to prostate infection (prostatitis). Medical
VIP NEWSLETTER
APRIL 2008
Page 8
therapy for BPH can be used to control clinical signs butsurgical
therapy (castration) is curative.
As dog breeders, you are a source of information for people
seeking a dog for companionship, to show or work as a hobby, or
to grow up with their children. As veterinarians, we are one of the
Diabetes mellitus
guardians of safety and good health for all animals in our society.
Only one study has demonstrated a possible increased incidence It behooves all of us to thoughtfully consider why we recommend
of diabetes mellitus in dogs
spay or castration for dogs, to ensure we are not putting our own
associated with gonadectomy. That study did not consider the
convenience above their good health. For every individual bitch
effect of obesity, a known risk factor for diabetes mellitus.
or dog, careful consideration of their breed, age, lifestyle, and
suitability as a breeding animal must be a part of the decision as
Hypothyroidism
to when or if they should undergo gonadectomy.
Two studies have demonstrated increased incidence of
hypothyroidism in female and male dogs after gonadectomy.
Selected references
Genetic factors also are involved (Table 1). Cause-and-effect has
not been described, nor has a specific numerical factor for
Arnold S. Urinary incontinence in castrated bitches. Part I.
increased incidence been reported.
Significance, clinical aspects and etiopathogenesis. Schweiz Arch
Tierheilkd 1997;139:271-276.
Life span
Several studies have demonstrated that spayed and castrated
female and male dogs live longer than do intact bitches or dogs.
Cause-and-effect has not been described. It is possible that
gonadectomized dogs are less likely to show risky behaviors or
that owners who have invested in animals by presenting them for
spay or castration continue to present them for consistent
veterinary care.
Bell FW, Klausner JS, Hayden DW, et al. Clinical and pathologic
features of prostates adenocarcinoma in sexually intact and
castrated dogs: 31 cases (1970-1987). J Amer Vet Med
Assoc 1991;199:1623-1630.
Berry SJ, Strandberg JD, Saunders WJ, et al. Development of
canine benign prostatic hyperplasia with age. Pros 1986;9:363373.
Conclusion
So how do you reconcile all this information in helping make
British Small Animal Veterinary Association. Sequelae of bitch
decisions for individual animals? Considerations must include
sterilization: regional survey. Vet Rec 1975;96:371-372.
evaluation of incidence of various disorders, breed predisposition,
and health significance of the various disorders (Tables 2 and 3). Brodey RS, Goldschmidt MH, Roszel JR. Canine mammary gland
neoplasms. J Amer Anim Hosp Assoc 1983;19:61-90.
For female dogs, the high incidence and high percentage of
malignancy of mammary neoplasia, and the significant effect of
Bryan JN, Keeler MR, Henry CJ, et al. A population study of
spaying on decreasing its incidence make ovariohysterectomy
neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer. Pros
prior to the first heat the best recommendation for non-breeding 2007;67:1174-1181.
animals. The demonstrated increased incidence of urinary
incontinence in bitches spayed before 3 months of age and
Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, et al. Endogenous gonadal
possible effect of CCL injury in bitches spayed before 6 months of hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk. Canc Epidemiol
age suggest that spaying bitches after 6 months of age but before Biomark Prev 2002;11:1434-1440.
their first heat is most beneficial. For bitches of breeds
predisposed by
Cowan LA, Barsanti JA, Crowell W, et al. Effects of castration on
ovariohysterectomy to highly malignant tumors and for breeding chronic bacterial prostatitis in dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc
animals, spaying at a later age may be more beneficial.
1991;199:346-350.
For male dogs, castration decreases incidence of disorders with
little health significance and may increase incidence of disorders Crane SW. Occurrence and management of obesity in companion
of much greater health significance. For non-breeding animals,
animals. J Sm Anim Prac 1991;32:275-282.
evaluation of breed and subsequent predispositions to disorders
by gonadectomy should guide
when and if castration is recommended.
VIP NEWSLETTER
APRIL 2008
Page 9
Dorn CR, Taylor DON, Frye FL, et al. Survey of animal neoplasms in Kim HH, Yeon SC, Houpt KA, et al. Effects of ovariohysterectomy
Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California. I. Methodology
on reactivity in German Shepherd Dogs. Vet J 2006;172:154-159.
and description of cases. J Natl Canc Inst
1968;40:295-305.
Knapp DW, Glickman NW, DeNicola DB, et al. Naturally-occurring
canine transitional cell arcinoma of the urinary bladder. Urol
Dorn CR, Taylor DON, Schneider R, et al. Survey of animal
Oncol 2000;5:47-59.
neoplasms in Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California. II.
Cancer morbidity in dogs and cats from Alameda county. J Natl
Marmor M, Willeberg P, Glickman LT, et al. Epizootiologic
Canc Inst 1968;40:307-318.
patterns of diabetes mellitus in dogs. Amer J Vet Res
1982;43:465-470.
Duerr FM, Duncan CG, Savicky RS, et al. Risk factors for excessive
tibial plateau angle in large-breed dogs with cranial cruciate
Michell AR. Longevity of British breeds of dog and its relationship
ligament disease. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 2007;231:1688-1691.
with sex, size, cardiovascular variables and disease. Vet Rec
1999;145:625-629.
Duval JM, Budsberg SC, Flo GL, et al. Breed, sex, and body weight
as risk factors for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in young Milne KL, Hayes HM. Epidemiological features of canine
dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1992;215:811-814.
hypothyroidism. Cornell Vet 1981;71:3-14.
Edney ATB, Smith PM. Study of obesity in dogs visiting veterinary Misdorp W, Hart AAM. Canine mammary cancer. II. Therapy and
practices in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 1986;118:391-396.
causes of death. J Sm Anim Prac 1979;20:395-404.
Egenvall A, Hagman R, Bonnett BN, et al. Breed risk of pyometra
in insured dogs in Sweden. J Vet Intern Med 2001;15:530-538.
Moore GE, Burkman KD, Carter MN, et al. Causes of death or
reasons for euthanasia in military working dogs: 927 cases (19931996). J Amer Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:209-214.
Hart BL. Effect of gonadectomy on subsequent development of
age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc Nielsen JC, Eckstein RA, Hart BL. Effects of castration on problem
2001;219:51-56.
behaviors in male dogs with reference to age and duration of
behavior. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:180-182.
Hart BL, Eckstein RA. The role of gonadal hormones in the
occurrence of objectionable behaviours in dogs and cats. Appl
Niskanen M, Thrusfield MV. Associations between age, parity,
Anim Behav Sci 1997;52:331-344.
hormonal therapy and breed, and pyometra in Finnish dogs. Vet
Rec 1998;143:493-498.
Holt PE. Urinary incontinence in the male and female dog or does
sex matter? www.vin.com. Accessed 10-01-2004.
Norris AM, Laing EJ, Valli VEO, et al. Canine bladder and urethral
tumors: a retrospective study
of 115 cases (1980-1985). J Vet Intern Med 1992;6:145-153.
Howe LM. Surgical methods of contraception and sterilization.
Theriogenology 2006;66:500Obradovich J, Walshaw R, Goulland E. The influence of castration
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on the development of prostatic carcinoma in the dog: 43 cases
(1978-1985). Vet Intern Med 1987;1:183-187.
Howe LM, Slater MR, Boothe HW, et al. Long-term outcome of
gonadectomy performed at an early age or traditional age in
Panciera DL. Hypothyroidism in dogs: 66 cases (1987-1992). J
dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:217-221.
Amer Vet Med Assoc 1994;204:761-767.
Johnston SD, Root Kustritz MV, Olson PN. Canine and feline
theriogenology. Philadelphia, WB
Saunders Co., 2001.
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Pollari FL, Bonnett BN, Bamsey SC, et al. Postoperative
complications of elective surgeries in dogs and cats determined
by examining electronic and paper medical records. J Amer Vet
Med Assoc 1996;208:1882-1886.
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Priester WA, Mulvihill JJ. Canine hip dysplasia: relative risk by sex, Verstegen J, Onclin K. Etiopathogeny, classification and prognosis
size, and breed, and comparative aspects. J Amer Vet Med Assoc of mammary tumors in the
1972;160:735-739.
canine and feline species. Proceedings, Society for
Theriogenology, 2003:230-238.
Prymak C, McKee LJ, Goldschmidt MH, et al. Epidemiologic,
clinical, pathologic, and prognostic characteristics of splenic
Ware WA, Hopper DL. Cardiac tumors in dogs: 1982-1995. J Vet
hemangiosarcoma and splenic hematoma in dogs: 217 cases
Intern Med 1999;13:95-103.
(1985). J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1988;193:706-712.
Waters DJ, Shen S, Glickman LT. Life expectancy, antagonistic
Reisner IR. Dominance-related aggression of English Springer
pleiotropy, and the testis of dogs
Spaniels: a review of 53 cases. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1993;37:83- and men. Pros 2000;43:272-277.
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Robertson ID. The association of exercise, diet and other factors cruciate ligament rupture in
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dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1993;203:1016-1019.
metropolitan Perth, WA. Prev VetMed 2003;58:75-83.
Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT, et al. Related risk factors for
canine osteosarcoma. Vet J 1998;156:31-39.
Salmeri KR, Bloomberg MS, Scruggs SL, et al. Gonadectomy in
immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical and behavioral
development. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1991;198:1193-1203.
Schneider R, Dorn CR, Taylor DON. Factors influencing canine
mammary cancer development
and post surgical survival. J Natl Canc Inst 1969;43:1249-1261.
Slauterbeck JR, Pankratz K, Xu KT, et al. Canine
ovariohysterectomy and orchiectomy increases
the prevalence of ACL injury. Clin Orthop 2004;429:301-305.
Sorenmo K. Canine mammary gland tumors. Vet Clin NA
2003;33:573-596.
Sorenmo KU, Goldschmidt M, Shofer F, et al.
Immunohistochemical characterization of canine prostatic
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early-age gonadectomy in dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc
2004;224:380-387.
Teske E, Naan EC, VanKijk EM, et al. Canine prostate carcinoma:
epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs.
Mol Cell Endo 2002;197:251-255.
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Page 11
Table 1. Breeds predisposed to various disorders
Table 3. Conditions associated with castration
Table 2. Conditions associated with ovariohysterectomy (spay)
The PCA Foundation asks your
help with an Addison's disease
survey
If you wish to help with this
survey, go to the web
site http://cgap.ucdavis.edu
Thank you for your help,
Addison's is a serious Poodle
disease and we need more
research.
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APRIL 2008
Page 12
Bits and Bites
To Whom It May Concern:
I live near Seattle Washington and have Standard Poodles.
Scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in
Fort Collins, Colo. have developed a new injection that protects I train and compete with them in retrieving, agility, and
against both Lyme disease and Anaplasmosis. Read more about it obedience as do many dog owners world-wide.
at: http://www.healthcentral.com/newsdetail/408/8018391.html
My dogs are always in their kennel/crate when they get in the
Read Member Gary Scovel’s account of his hunting Poodles in the mini-van. They race to see who can get into the car and into their
April Parti-Poodle Gazette:
kennel first.It is their safe place and their comfort zone.
http://www.ippgazette.com/Issues/V4-2/CanPoodlesHunt.htm
It is nice and well constructed.It comes complete with a floor pad
and fresh water and ventilation. In warm weather, a fan can be
Unraveling Canine Health Problem
attached. In cold weather it keeps them warm and dry.
Biologist and breeder Margaret Pough discusses the genetic,
environmental, and infectious causes of disease. Read the entire They will even eat and sleep in their kennels.They can see us and
article at:
we can see them.
http://www.akc.org/enewsletter/akc_breeder/2008/spring/health.cfm
I would never allow them to have free-run of the car.
It is an accident waiting to happen. It puts them at risk, the driver
and passengers at risk, and everyone else on the road
LEGISLATIVE UPDATES
How many times do we here about a driver being distracted by a
pet? The outcome can be tragic for everyone. A kennel in the car
Arizona – House Bill 2615 seeks to prohibit persons from owning
is their seat belt.
or keeping a dog or cat that is more than six months old if the
animal has not been spayed or neutered, unless the person has
At home they have access to the house and yard. They also have
acquired an intact permit for the animal. It is a substantive copy
access to a kennel.They have been trained to be comfortable in
of California AB 1634. There has been no movement on this bill
that crate since eight weeks old. It is tall enough to accommodate
since its introduction and assignment to three House committees.
their size (27" and 25" at the shoulder). It is their address, so to
speak.
California – The Government Relations Department continues to
closely monitor developments regarding Assembly Bill 1634,
The door is open. They make the choice to go in and rest.
which will mandate the sterilization of dogs six months of age or
They make the choice to go in if they need to get away from
older. The California Senate Local Government Committee
situations. They make the choice if they need peace and quiet.
continues to have cognizance of the bill.
Sometimes I make the choice for them: If they need to be
For more information on other bills/regulations keep up to date
confined because they need a "time out". If there is too much
with the AKC web site:
activity in the house. Humans do the same thing. We give our
http://www.akc.org/enewsletter/taking_command/2008/april/
kids "time out" to think. We seek out our favorite corner of the
nation.cfm
house or world for the same reasons.
Response to South Carolina Anti-Crating
Bill:
I wrote the following letter to send to the people involved with
the South Carolina crating bill…..
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If they are confined to their kennels for whatever the reason, they
are given frequent exercise breaks.
Responsible breeders and owners kennel their dogs when
necessary for the good of the dog.
Thank you.
Tracy A. Lone
*********************************************
Well said, Tracy!! [editor]
APRIL 2008
Page 13
AKC News
American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation
Announces Genetic Test for Canine Degenerative
Myelopathy [Thursday, May 8, 2008]
Canine Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset,
progressive spinal cord disease causing weakness in the hind
limbs and eventually paraplegia. Dog owners usually elect
euthanasia within a year of diagnosis; however, when euthanasia
is delayed flaccid paralysis and widespread loss of muscle mass
occur. Because common acquired compressive spinal cord
diseases can mimic DM, a definitive diagnosis currently can only
be accomplished postmortem by histopathologic observation of
the spinal cord.
Drs. Gary Johnson and Joan Coates at the Animal Molecular
Genetics Laboratory of the University of Missouri and Drs. Claire
Wade and Kerstin Lindblad-Toh at the Broad Institute of
MIT/Harvard and their colleagues have identified a DNA mutation
that is a major risk factor for development of degenerative
myelopathy in dogs. The research project was funded by the AKC
Canine Health Foundation, American Boxer Charitable
Foundation, Pembroke Welsh Corgi Club of America, Rhodesian
Ridgeback Club of the United States, French Bulldog Club of
America, and French Bulldog Rescue League.
A DNA test will soon be available for breeders and pet owners,
along with information about what the test can and cannot tell
them. The test clearly identifies dogs that are clear (have 2
normal copies of the gene), those who are carriers (have one
normal copy of the gene and one mutated copy of the gene), and
those who are at much higher risk for developing DM (have 2
mutated copies of the gene). However, having two mutated
copies of the gene does not necessarily result in disease.
Dogs that have clinical signs or a presumptive diagnosis of DM
have tested as genetically affected. A relatively high percentage
of dogs in several breeds (including Boxers, Pembroke Welsh
Corgis, Chesapeake Bay Retrievers and Rhodesian Ridgebacks)
have the predisposing mutation. It is important to note that
there are a large number of dogs that have tested as genetically
affected, but are reported as clinically normal by their owners. It
may be that many of these dogs will develop clinical signs as they
get older or that the mutation will never manifest in these dogs.
Research is still needed to determine the frequency of the
mutation in breeds known to have DM (German Shepherd Dogs,
Rhodesian Ridgebacks, Pembroke and Cardigan Welsh Corgis,
Boxers, Chesapeake Bay Retrievers). In the future, we may
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identify other risk factors in those dogs that have tested as
genetically affected. Wise use of this test can reduce the
incidence of dogs at risk for DM in the long-term, particularly if
other low frequency risk factors are identified that can more
easily be reduced. It is likely to take many generations to reduce
the frequency of this disease in breeds with higher frequency of
the mutation. By contributing blood samples for testing this
mutation, owners will facilitate further study of the disease and
the genetic risk factors underlying it.
Additional research funded by participating breed clubs and the
AKC Canine Health Foundation will help answer questions that
remain. Information about the benefits of this test, testing forms
and instructions, and suggestions for using the test to reduce the
frequency of DM will soon be available online in the DM section
of www.CanineGeneticDiseases.net.
Contact:
Erica Kitchen
Development Associate
AKC Canine Health Foundation
919-334-4010
888-682-9696
www.akcchf.org
AKC calls on all dog organizations to spread
responsible dog ownership message this September
[April 30, 2008]
- Annual AKC Responsible Dog Ownership Day Encompasses
Hundreds of Events New York, NY – Each year, the American Kennel Club® calls on its
nearly 5,000 affiliated dog clubs and all other pet-related
organizations from around the country to participate in AKC
Responsible Dog Ownership Day. The nationwide initiative
educates the public about the importance of being a responsible
dog owner and celebrates the deep bond between humans and
their canine companions.
“We thank those organizations that join us, year after year, to
educate the public in their communities,” says AKC
spokesperson Lisa Peterson. “AKC encourages clubs and
organizations that have not yet held an event to step up to the
challenge in 2008.”
APRIL 2008
Page 14
Events can be held anytime during the month of September. Sign
up at www.akc.org/rdod and create an “Event Account” by
August 1, 2008. The first 500 organizations who confirm the
details of their event will receive a complimentary resourcefilled packet including posters, brochures, balloons, stickers and
many more materials to assist them in putting together an
entertaining and informative event. All events will be listed on
the AKC web site, searchable by state, beginning July 1.
“The AKC believes that education is the key to addressing
responsible dog ownership issues in every community,” added
Peterson. “Clubs that have held an AKC RDO Day have found
legislators, news media and community leaders more receptive
to their concerns and ideas whether it’s raising awareness on
restrictive canine legislation, supporting a new dog park or
promoting a dog event.”
Canadian Kennel Club News
EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY - FCI LIFTS BAN ON CKC JUDGES
[April 8, 2008]
At the recent FCI General Committee meeting held on April 1, 2,
2008, the decision was made to lift a ban imposed on CKC judges
since late 2007. CKC Chair, Mr. Dwain McLean, received official
written notice April, 8 2008, and stated that “This is encouraging
news for the CKC and our community of judges. It will allow
judges to continue unencumbered in accepting foreign judging
assignments.”
Lifting the ban facilitates communication with FCI, allowing our
organizations to move forward in relationship building. A
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was presented to the FCI
for consideration by CKC on January 11th and will form a
cornerstone for future dealings between CKC and FCI member
countries.
More information is available on the CKC web site:
www.http://www.ckc.ca/
Once again, Invisible Fence® Brand is a proud nationwide
sponsor of AKC RDO Day and will support community events, as
well as attend AKC’s flagship events in New York City on
September 20th and Raleigh, North Carolina on September
27th, where AKC’s offices are located. Included will be activities
such as AKC Canine Good Citizen® tests,
Canadian Transport Ruling Supports Challenge to Air
Obedience/Agility/Rally demonstrations, microchip ID clinics,
breeder referral and rescue information, raffles, games and many Canada Policy [April 4, 2008]
more entertaining and educational events.
Air Canada's proposal to discontinue the carriage of small animals
as checked baggage found unreasonable. Read the full story!
To learn more about AKC Responsible Dog Ownership Day, sign
up to hold an event or view photos and information about
previous events, please visit http://www.akc.org/clubs/rdod/
OTTAWA, April 4 /CNW Telbec/ - The Canadian Transportation
Agency has disallowed Air Canada's proposed tariff revisions
which would have terminated the carriage of animals and their
kennels weighing less than 70 lbs as checked baggage on both
domestic and international flights.
In its Decision No. 155-C-A-2008, the Agency found that the
AKC DIRECTOR OF AGILITY SHARON ANDERSON RETIRES
proposed revisions were unreasonable since an imbalance existed
[April 30, 2008]
between the interests of Air Canada and consumers by giving only
New York, NY – The American Kennel Club© announced today
advantages to the carrier while exposing pet owners to many
that Director of Agility, Sharon Anderson, who has run the AKC
significant disadvantages.
Agility program since its inception, will retire on June 30, 2008.
Air Canada has until May 5, 2008, to amend its domestic tariff to
allow for the carriage of animals and their kennels weighing less
ANDY HARTMAN APPOINTED TO DIRECTOR OF AGILITY
than 70 lbs as checked baggage. As for international flights, the
[April 30, 2008]
New York, NY – The American Kennel Club is pleased to announce Agency had already suspended, in July 2007, the carrier's
proposed revision, and is now confirming its disallowance.
the appointment of Andy Hartman to Director of Agility.
More information on these changes can be found on the AKC web The Canadian Transportation Agency is an independent quasijudicial tribunal which operates like a court. It regulates various
site at: http://www.akc.org.
modes of transportation under Government of Canada
jurisdiction, including air, marine and rail. Its decision-making
process is governed by the rules of fairness and natural justice to
ensure that all parties in a complaint receive equitable treatment.
VIP NEWSLETTER
APRIL 2008
Page 15
VERSATILITY IN POODLES
OFFICERS
President: Irma Shanahan, Baldwin, MD
Treasurer: Grace Blair, Sheridan, MT
Recording Secretary: Roslyn Beaman, Oakville, ON, Canada
Vice President: Jean Schafer (interim)
Corresp. Secy: Becky Baxter, Elbert, CO
NEWSLETTER POLICIES
CONTENTS
The aim of this newsletter is to publish articles, stories, pictures, etc. which will educate Poodle owners and
breeders about the health of the breed and promote the welfare of the Poodle as a versatile breed of dog. Contributions are
welcomed. The opinions expressed in this newsletter are not necessarily those of the newsletter, its editors, the Versatility In
Poodles, Inc. or its members. All content is subject to final approval by the editors and/or the Board of Directors of the organization.
COPYRIGHT: 2008, Versatility In Poodles, Inc. Any portion of this newsletter may be reprinted for educational purposes,
provided that correct acknowledgement is given to Versatility In Poodles, Inc. or the author of the item.
ADVERTISING: rates: $15-full page; $10.00 half page; $6 1/4 page or business card size; subject to approval of the Board
of Directors and/or editor.
CIRCULATION: The newsletter will be sent to members and subscribers. Complimentary copies will be sent to non-member
clubs and contributors. Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to the Treasurer at the address
below. Membership Single: $30 USA, $30 foreign countries. Membership Family: $40 USA, $40 foreign countries.
Subscription: $25 per year USA and $25 foreign countries. Dues and subscription fees are due by December 31 of each year.
Treasurer: Grace Blair, P.O. Box 892, Sheridan, MT 59749 [email protected]
Canadians may pay in Canadian funds to: Barbara O’Donaughy, P.O. Box 1436, 370 4th Ave, Hope, BC, V0X 1L0, Canada
EDITOR: 709-1265 Sixth Line, Oakville, ON Canada L6H 1X2
Dedicated to the health and welfare of Poodles everywhere!
From:
Miriam K. Hillier
4 Emerald Ct.
San Mateo, CA 94403
USA
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APRIL 2008
Page 16