How to Write an Agriscience Paper An Agriscience research project is a practical, hands-on project that uses the scientific method to answer a real scientific problem that relates to agriculture. Researchers at universities and private labs use the same format to solve the everyday scientific problems of the world. Just like the researchers of the world this project may span many years and will be viewed by scientific peers all over the California. The project will consist of three parts: a research paper, a log book and a display board. The Agriscience research paper should be no longer than 12 pages written in 12 pt. font double spaced. The entire paper should be written in a scientific third person (no I, me, or we or student names). The entire paper should be factual and not include opinion or conjecture. All portions of the paper should be written in comprehensive fluid essay, no bullets or numbered answers to questions (except the experimental design). It is recommended that you save all aspects of you paper on a “flash, jump or thumbnail drive” for ease in printing and editing because multiple corrections and changes will be made to the paper. Plagiarism is a violation of the Academic Code of Conduct as set forth by the Santa Rosa City Schools District and can result in disciplinary action including but not excluding suspension, detention and/or removal of academic awards. Please cite all work used from another source using APA format. **Helpful Hints: Hints have been highlight throughout this document and are meant to avoid the mistakes of the past. Agriscience projects have been part of the curriculum at Santa Rosa High School for many years and students in Agriscience classes have been recognized at the local, state and national level for their outstanding projects. These hints are essential to success in this project, please follow them. Overview and Order of the Research Paper Research projects should include the following items in the following order. Title Page Title of the Project An image related to your project Student Name Category and Division Santa Rosa FFA Abstract The abstract is a one page (250 words) maximum, summary of the entire research project. It should include a brief statement of purpose, procedure, data collection (include numerical data and percentages) and conclusion. Future research or potential applications should also be included. Part I - Introduction Background The background gives the reader a general history and understanding of the project and the research. After reading the background the reader should have enough technical knowledge of the subject to understand the premise of the paper. Need for study The need for study points out the usefulness or importance of the project and its relevance to agriculture. Reference to prior studies This should include a summarized report of previous studies that are related to the project, give background information and help in the formation of a Hypothesis. Experimental Design The experimental design is a bolded, bulleted list of the following parts of the experiment. Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control or Constants Sample Size Number of Repetitions Hypothesis A prediction of the outcome of the experiment based on the review of literature conducted. Part II – Methodology Think of this as the recipe to complete the experiment! This section is a written description of the experimentation of the project. The methodology is a written description of the experimentation of the project. The reader should have a mental picture of what the experiment looked like after reading this section. Materials should be imbedded in the Methodology. Materials are not a separate list. This section should be written in scientific descriptive manner (no: me, us, we, I or student name). Part III - Results This should be a factual presentation of the outcomes of the study. The data will be presented in tables, charts, and a written description of the numerical data observed during the experimentation. All figures must include a caption which is referred in the research paper. Part IV Discussion Conclusion An interpretation of the results, basically explaining what happened during the experiment and the data listed in the graphs and table. An evaluation of the results in light of the original hypothesis. How this work supports or refutes other researcher’s ideas. The scientific and/or practical implications of the results. Recommendations This would include any changes needed to the experiment to make it more successful or more accurate. Also, any changes needed to methodology should be explained here. Part V – References/Bibliography Include a list of published articles, books or other communications cited in the text. Use the APA style guide for proper reference listings and footnotes. Step by Step “What to Do” Step 1 - Selecting a Topic When selecting a topic you will get the best results if you pick a research project that you are interested in or have some background knowledge to use for a basis to build upon. Criteria for project selection The project must fit into one of the below six categories. The project must be agriculturally related. The topic must be testable. (preferably with quantitative data) The topic must be appropriate for school. The project topic must be approved by your instructor. 100 200 300 400 Food Products and Processing Systems (FPP) The study of product development, quality assurance, food safety, production, sales and service, regulation and compliance and food service within the food science industry. Examples: Effects of packaging techniques on food spoilage rates Resistance of organic fruits to common diseases Determining chemical energy stored in foods Control of molds on bakery products Environmental Services/Natural Resource Systems (ENR) The study of systems, instruments and technology used in waste management; the study of the management of soil, water, wildlife, forests and air as natural resources and their influence on the environment. Examples: Effect of agricultural chemicals on water quality Effects of cropping practices on wildlife populations Compare water movements through different soil types Animal Systems (AS) The study of animal systems, including life processes, health, nutrition, genetics, management and processing, through the study of small animals, aquaculture, livestock, dairy, horses and/or poultry. Examples: Compare nutrient levels on animal growth Research new disease control mechanisms Effects of estrous synchronization on ovulation Compare effects of thawing temperatures on livestock semen Effects of growth hormone on meat/milk production Plant Systems (PS) The study of plant life cycles, classifications, functions, structures, reproduction, media and nutrients, as well as growth and cultural practices, through the study of crops, turf grass, trees and shrubs and/or ornamental plants. Examples: Determine rates of transpiration in plants Effects of heavy metals such as cadmium on edible plants Compare GMO and conventional seed/plant growth under various conditions Effects of lunar climate and soil condition on plant growth Compare plant growth of hydroponics and conventional methods 500 600 Power, Structural and Technical Systems (PST) The study of agricultural equipment, power systems, alternative fuel sources and precision technology, as well as woodworking, metalworking, welding and project planning for agricultural structures. Examples: Develop alternate energy source engines Create minimum energy use structures Compare properties of various alternative insulation products Investigation of light/wind/water energy sources Social Systems (SS) The study of human behavior and the interaction of individuals in and to society, including agricultural education, agribusiness economic, agricultural communication, agricultural leadership and other social science applications in agriculture, food and natural resources. Examples: Investigate perceptions of community members towards alternative agricultural practices Determine the impact of local/state/national safety programs upon accident rates in agricultural/natural resource occupations Comparison of profitability of various agricultural/natural resource practices Investigate the impact of significant historical figures on a local community Determine the economical effects of local/state/national legislation impacting agricultural/natural resources Helpful Hints When selecting a topic for an agriscience competition, there are some items to keep in mind. Be sure that the topic you select is of interest to you. Choose a topic that is realistic in relationship to your abilities, knowledge and the resources available. All experiments should generate quantitative or numeric data, descriptive observations are difficult objectively evaluate. The best idea in the world will remain just an idea without the ability, desire and tools needed to complete the task. Long-term projects (two-and-three year studies) allow you to more deeply investigate your topic and tend to do better in competition than those completed in only one year. These projects collect more data during multiple phases and involve more replications of the experiment than projects of shorter duration. Try to select a topic that lends itself to expansion from year to year in order to discover as much as possible about your subject and collect complete and useful data. The earlier you begin competing in the agriscience program and the longer you remain committed to a project, the better your chances are of reaping some excellent benefits from your efforts. For additional information and ideas on agriscience projects, check the following references. Agriculture instructors will provide a list website addresses that will help with ideas but many more can be found from doing a search for “science fair projects” on the Internet or other reference sources. Please note that not all projects listed are appropriate or high enough level for high school students and all topics must be approved by an Agriculture Instructor. (Baker et al, 2006) These questions need to be answered in order to present the formal topic. All topics should be typed. 1. What is the specific detailed question? 2. How will the question be tested? 3. How does this project benefit and relate to agriculture and society? Hint: economics, increased production, time savings or conservation. 4. How will the experiment be measured? How will the research produce quantitative numerical data? 5. Where will the experiment be conducted? 6. How large is the sample size going to be? Step 2 - Log Book Now is the time to set up the log book that will be used throughout the process to document the progress of the project. Log books should be a 100 page composition note book. Staples sell a very simple one that is inexpensive and easy to obtain. No more than $2.00 dollars should be spent. Agriscience Log Book Set Up The purpose of the log book is to prove to the instructor, judges and anyone else that reads the paper that the experimentation was really conducted. Data, research and pictures should be recorded in the Log Book. All data should be hand written and cover the entire experiment. Please include specific dates, times and measurements. Any receipts or expenses should be taped into the book. This is a working log book and should look used and abused. It should be present for all aspects of the project and should look that way. No matching colors with bow, it should be stained with ragged bent corners. Place a tab at each of the specific pages below. Front Cover - Name Tag (TYPED in 14 font) Taped to front cover in upper right corner Title of the Project Student name(s) School (Santa Rosa High School) Division # and name (i.e. 400 Botany) Category (Advanced or Novice / Team or Individual) Page 1 Page 5 Title Page (Tab) Title of paper Student name(s) School (Santa Rosa High School) Division # and name Category (Advanced or Novice / Team or Individual) Data (Tab) written data collected from the experiment Should be hand written Dates and Times should be included Unit of Measure should be included After experiment construct a handwritten color graph showing results of experiment. Page 20 Pictures (Tab) prove that you did the experiment Pictures of student setting up and conducting experiment Pictures to help reader understand process of experiment A written paragraph description of what is happening in the picture should be included for each picture. Pictures should be of the project not the student. Data book should include a minimum of 8 pictures. Page 35 Research (Tab) prove that you did research Include any research papers or articles used in your project. Include a list URL’s from web sites used in the project Include the Bibliography LOG BOOK – SAMPLE ENTRY You must keep careful records of all that you do and all that happens during your project. This should be in the form of a daily diary called a logbook. Each day should have a new page. Date: 1/13/05 Today I checked my plants at 12:30 p.m. I noticed that Group A seems to be growing faster than groups B, C, and D. Specifically, plant A2 seems to be growing the best. The plants in Group A are not just taller, but seem to be greener and healthier. It is interesting to note that the plant with the longest root development is plant C3. I do not know the reason for this. Here is a chart of my results for today: Plant Height in cm. # of Leaves Root length in cm. Observations A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 D1 D2 D3 5.4 5.2 5.3 4.9 4.8 4.8 5.0 4.3 4.5 4.3 4.7 4.4 3.1 3.4 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.5 2.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4 4 5 2.6 2.5 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.1 Has not changed Has shown growth Poor root growth Poor root growth Lowest height Shows no change Has not changed Lowest height Has not changed Low root growth Longest roots Longest roots (Baker et al, 2006) Step 3 - Research Locate as much information that relates to the research topic as possible. Find information sources and scientific studies related to the topic. Studies should originate from reliable, academically relevant sources. Universities and private agriculture and scientific companies are what you are looking for. Think Dow Chemical, Forster Farms or Ford Automotive not Mrs. Bait’s third grade class or Joe student’s high school science project. The studies used do not have to be exactly the same, however they should be related. For instance if the research is centered on a nutritional study about fat content in feed as it relates to chickens, it is acceptable to include studies of other species. If the study is about tire pressure in ATV’s a study on car tire pressure is useful. Any background information that would be helpful in understanding the research topic should be included. Encyclopedias and text books are great sources of information. Wikipedia is not an acceptable or creditable source of information, please do not include it. Helpful Hint: Google Scholar is an excellent source of reliable studies. When relevant information is located it should be printed out and pasted into the back of the log book. Information that is not printed may be hard to locate later to put onto the references page. Please record the following information for each piece of article that is printed out, the bottom of the homepage on websites usually gives the following information: Title Topic Who did it? Where was it done? When was it done? Not when you looked up the website but when it was created. Where was it published? Helpful Hint: From this point forward everything that is completed for the project should be saved on a “Flash, jump or thumb drive” so that is can be modified and reproduced at anytime. Any failure to back up work on a flash drive may require recreation of the work. Step 4 - Construct a Title Page The title should be a precise description of the work performed. The title should describe the work accomplished so others can decide whether to read your paper for their purposes. The title page should include the title of the project, student’s name, division and category. This should be all that appears on this page. The title itself should be no more than three lines with a 15 word maximum. All numbers, chemical elements and compounds should be spelled out. All words should be capitalized except for articles such as “a” and “the” and prepositions such as “of,” “in,” “on,” “during” and “between;” and conjunctions such as“ “and” and “but” unless they are the first word of the title. Gimmick, “cute” or play on word titles is not allowed. The following are examples of suitable titles: A comparison of Soil Moist Granules to Wool in Soil Water Retention Determining the Origin of a Volcanic Ash Layer in a Creek Bank The Effects of Various Bacteria on the Defense Mechanisms of Pure Yellow Pansies The Effects of Chixicide on the Pathogenic Growth on Poultry Determination of OvHV-2 Shedding Amongst Adolescent Sheep A Comparison of Sow Parity and Its Effect on Escherichia Colibacillosis (E. Coli) (Baker et al, 2006) Title page to include: Title of the Project Student name(s) School (Santa Rosa High School) Division # and name (400 Botany) Category (Advanced or Novice / Team or Individual) An image related to the project (this can be added later and may be a picture of some aspect of your project) Step 5 - Write an Introduction (Part I) There are five parts to the Introduction: Background The background gives the reader a general history and understanding of the project and the research. After reading the background the reader should have enough technical knowledge of the subject to understand the premise of the paper and all related terms. The following questions should be answered for the reader in a continuous fluid third person essay. Do not make a list of the questions and the answers in the paper. It is extremely important at this point to reference (APA) all thoughts and ideas that come from the research in this section. This section should be at least four paragraphs long. 1. Make the reader an expert in the area of the research topic. Define all relative terms and topics. At the end of the background the reader should have a working knowledge of all aspects of the project that will be presented later in the paper. 2. List the agricultural statistics or key information that gives support to the importance to the research project. Need for study The need for study points out the usefulness or importance of the project. This portion of the paper should be at least three paragraphs long, written in the scientific descriptive third person (no me, we, you or student name) and answer the following questions in a fluid third person essay. Do not make a list of the questions and the answers in the paper. It is extremely important at this point to reference (APA) all thoughts and ideas that come from the research in this section. 1. How does your question affect the agricultural industry or consumers of agricultural products? (economics, safety, product performance) 2. How big of an impact could the study have at a local, state, national or global level? 3. Can the impact be measured in numbers (lives saved, money or time saved)? Reference to Prior Studies This section is a written summary of at least four scientific studies of research that relate to the project. Studies should originate from reliable, academically relevant sources. Google Scholar is an excellent source. Universities and private agriculture and scientific companies are great sources. Think Dow Chemical, Forster Farms or Ford Automotive not Mrs. Bait’s third grade class or Joe student’s high school science project. Any study that is remotely related to your project should be included in this section. If topic is a nutritional study on poultry about fat content in feed it is acceptable to include studies of other species. The following questions should be answered for each of the three studies in the third person with two or three paragraphs for each study. “There were no prior studies” is not an acceptable statement in this portion of the paper. Helpful Hint: The abstract of the paper is a great place to find the answers to the following questions. 1. Who, What, Where and When. Who conducted the experiment, what subject was tested, where was the experiment conducted and when was the experiment completed? 2. Summarize the data found from the experimentation. Include averages, tables and charts if possible. What was the hypothesis of the study and was the hypothesis supported by the research. 3. What conclusions were drawn from the data by the authors of the research? Experimental Design The experimental design is a bolded, bulleted list of the following parts of the experiment. Independent Variable: experimental group that is being changed Dependent Variable: experimental group that is being measured or observed Control: experimental group that receives no treatment and is used for comparison (if the experiment does not have a true control list the constants) Constants: environmental factors that are exactly the same for all experimental groups Sample Size: number of items being tested Number of Repetitions: number of times that the experiment is being conducted. Hypothesis Once the problem is stated, a hypothesis must then be constructed based on the related research gathered. A hypothesis concerning the outcome of the experiment should be formulated before the experiment actually begins. A hypothesis is a statement of what is believed to happen based on the information gathered during the research section of the scientific method. A “if _________ then ________ statement” is the easiest way to formulate a hypothesis. More advanced researches may choose to write a more complex hypothesis. A Hypothesis should show a positive or negative differences between two groups or no significant difference which is known as a null hypothesis. The hypothesis should be written in the third person (no I think, we think or no student names). This section should be one or two sentences and answer the following questions. 1. What will the result of the experiment or observation be? 2. Will the result have a positive or negative difference or an insignificant difference know as null (no definitive result)? Example Hypothesis: If vegetables are grown hydroponically then the production will be more economical than traditional methods of production. (Baker et al, 2006) Step 6 - Write a Reference Page (Part V) Although this is the last section of the paper it is written during the sixth step because all research should have been completed to write the Part I Introduction portion of the paper. When the paper is complete and formatted this section will go at the end. Only significant, published and relevant sources accessible through a library or an information system should be included. Examples include journal articles, books, theses, dissertations, proceedings, bulletins, reports and published abstracts of papers presented at meetings. Unpublished work or information personally received is noted in the text: e.g., “Harold Brown, unpublished data” or “Len Smith, personal communication.” All citations in the text must also be included in the Literature Cited. When using information or facts that are not common knowledge, students must give credit to the source of that information by citing a reference. List citations alphabetically with the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication cited in the text. If the same author appears more than once, the listings are ordered chronologically. (Baker et al, 2006) Helpful Hint: Save all work on a flash drive so you can add the upcoming parts of the paper as they are completed. Papers should have a minimum of four scientifically significant sources of information about the topic from research articles, books, encyclopedias, and periodicals. All sources of information should be displayed using the APA (American Psychological Association) format. Helpful Hint: Noodle Bib.com is the easiest way to format your sources. Examples: Each of the following examples were taken from the Science Buddies.org web site. There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Following are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information. The following examples copied from Science Buddies.org. Books Format: Author. Title: Subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Examples: Allen, Thomas B. Vanishing Wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1974. Searles, Baird and Martin Last. A Reader's guide to Science Fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1979. Magazine & Newspaper Articles Format: Author. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Volume # (Date): Pages. Examples: Kanfer, Stefan. "Heard Any Good Books Lately?" Time 113 (21 July 1986): 71-72. Kalette, Denise. "California Town counts Down to Big Quake." USA Today 9 (21 July 1986): sec. A:1. Website or Webpage Format: Author (if available). "Title of page." Editor (if available). Date (if available). Institution. [cited Access Date]. URL. (simply omit any information that you do not have) Examples: Devitt, Terry. "Lightning injures four at music festival." August 2, 2001. The Why? Files. [cited 23 January 2002]. http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html. Article from an Encyclopedia Format: Author. "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Date. Examples: Pettingill, Olin Sewall, Jr. "Falcon and Falconry." World Book Encyclopedia. 1980. Step 8 - Write the Methodology (Part II) The methodology should be a step by step set of directions written in paragraph form (not a numerical list) that could be used to repeat the experiment. As the steps of the methodology of the experiment are described the materials needed are to be mentioned. This section should be descriptive enough to allow someone else to replicate the experiment. A well-written methodology section will enable others to reproduce your results by duplicating your study. Write in third person, past tense; (no mention of the student should be included (i.e. I, we, you or the student’s name) encompass all of the materials required and explain the technical and experimental procedures employed. However, use good judgment with the details. Note easily understood tests or procedures but do not describe them in detail. Other researchers are familiar with techniques for plugging-in equipment, weighing, etc. With fieldwork, describe the study site. Include any statistical procedures employed. After the experimentation is completed the methodology should be updated to reflect any changes or corrections that may have occurred during the experiment (Baker et al, 2006). Example Methodology: One hundred day old Cornish Cross chicks were randomly separated into two trial groups. Each group was housed in an identical sized pen in the same barn. Each pen contained an identical watering system, heat lamps and 40 lb self feeders. Each group was tested for the same 43 day time period. Test group #1 was feed free choice Game Bird Developer (300 lbs @ 2.5% fat) and group #2 was feed free-choice Meat Bird Grower and Finisher (300 lbs @ 4.5% fat). Birds were individually identified using leg bands and records were kept on each group and individual birds to insure accuracy. The birds were weighed very week for 4 weeks. A digital scale accurate to a one hundredth of a pound was used for each measurement. The average daily gain and average weight of each animal was calculated at the end of the 43 day period (Albiani, 2009). Step 9 - Conduct Experimentation It is now time to begin the experiment. The sooner that the experimentation begins the better, this allows time to encounter and solve unforeseen problems. Please make sure to take pictures of setting up the experiment and each step of the process. Create a picture methodology of how the experiment was conducted. All pictures should be placed in the log book with a written description of what is occurring in each picture. All photographs should be of the experiment and samples not of the students conducting the experiment. Helpful Hint: Use a camera with a high picture resolution, most cell phone pictures will not be high enough quality when enlarged. Save all pictures on a flash drive they will be used when it comes time to create the display board. Credit and points for the experimentation will be given based on the log book. Make sure to include all receipts for items purchased, record raw data, and pictures to prove to all concerned that the project is occurring. Step 10 - Write Results (Part III) There are six parts to the Results: Tables 1. Each report must contain 2 tables displaying the data collected from the project. 2. Data should be in numerical form. 3. Table should have a title. 4. Table should have categories. 5. Table should have data. 6. Each table should have a written description explaining the data. Description should be at least one sentence long. Category # Data # Data (Hewitt, 2004) Title of Table Category # Data # Data Category # Data # Data Helpful Hint: Creating a Table To create a four-column, five-row table: In Microsoft Word 1. Choose Insert > Tables from the menu. The Insert Table dialog box opens. 2. Type 4 in the Number of Columns field. 3. Type 5 in the Number of Rows field. 4. Select Auto in the Column Width field. Selecting Auto allows Microsoft Word to determine the size of the column widths. Alternatively, the column width can be entered. 5. To create a more complex table the following website offers a tutorial in designing tables. http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word/HA102019531033.aspx Graphs 1. Each report must contain 2 graphs. 2. Graphs should visually illustrate the data from the above tables. (Show data in a visual form). 3. Each graph should have a written description explaining the graph. 4. To create a graph the following website offers a tutorial in creating graphs. http://office.microsoft.com/enus/excel/HP012337281033.aspx#2 Helpful Hint: Create the graph in Excel and import it into the word document of the report. Save the Excel file on a flash drive to make it easier to update or change the graph later. Summary of Data This section is a narrative of information presented in tables and graphs. The project’s numerical results should be summarized in two or more paragraphs. This section should be written in the third person and be a fluid essay that answers the following questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What was the average of the data? What are the mean of the data? What is the median of the data? What is the range (highest and lowest) of the data? Are there any outliers in the data? How many repetitions did the project have? How many samples did the project have? Is there a statistically significant difference in the variables to declare the hypothesis correct? Step 11 - Write Discussion (Part IV) There are two parts to the Discussion: Conclusion A conclusion is a narrative of the implications of the research conducted. This section should be written in the third person and be a fluid essay that answers the following questions. This section should be at least two paragraphs in length. 1. What was proven by the above results? 2. Did you support or contradict the hypothesis? 3. Were your results similar to the previous research? Recommendations Recommendations summarize and evaluate the scientific procedures making comments about its success and effectiveness. This section should be written in the third person and be a fluid essay that answers the following questions. This section should be at least five sentences in length. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Should anything be changed about the experimental design if the experiment was to be repeated? Were there any sources of Unavoidable Experimental Error? Were there any sources of Avoidable Experimental Error? Should anything be changed in the procedure to make it more effective? Does this project lend itself to further research? Step 12 - Write Abstract An abstract is a brief summary of the paper, which concisely describes the purpose, methods, results and conclusion. Do not include the title in the abstract (should be displayed as the title, not in text). The abstract may include potential research applications or future research. The abstract should not contain cited references. The abstract is offset from the rest of the text on its own page. It should be no longer than one page (250 words maximum) and in paragraph form. Because this is the first page of the project report, it will be where the reader forms an opinion on the work. In the abstract, arrange points as 1) Purpose, 2) Procedure,3) Conclusion. These sections would include materials used (not a list), effects of major treatments and main conclusions. Do not include discussion, citations, or references to tables and figures or methods. Abstract should be single spaced. The following are two examples of abstracts (Baker et al, 2006). Abstract example 1: At the time this study began, FSH-P, which had been the industry standard for superovulation of beef and dairy cattle, had been removed from the U. S. market. This left only one product, Super-OV, approved for use in the states. Super-OV was receiving heavy criticism from practitioners around the country as ineffective, and thus this project began as a comparison study of various levels of Super-OV on donor cows. However, late in the school year, a new version of FSH-P was introduced and the purpose of this study became to determine the most effective means for superovulation, the recommended dosage of Super-OV, the double dosage of Super-OV, or the recommended dosage for the new FSHP. The results follow. The recommended dosage of Super-OV (control group with n=12) resulted in one unfertilized embryo; the double dose of Super-OV (experimental group 1 with n=4) resulted in 10 embryos being recovered (six of which were quality grade one, two quality grade three embryos, and two degenerated). The recommended level of the new FSH-P (experimental group 2 with n=9) resulted in flushes, which yielded 88 total embryos, 22 of which were transferable. Forty-eight of the embryos recovered using the new FSH-P were determined to be infertile due to poor quality semen (four cows used in the study were bred to the same bull, yielding no fertilized eggs). This prompted the researcher to have the semen analyzed for quality. It was determined to be inadequate for flush use, and the cause of the high number of unfertilized embryos recovered. All fertilized embryos were frozen, although the likelihood of a pregnancy from the number three embryos is low. (Baker et al, 2006) Abstract example 2: This study was conducted to determine if supplemental nutrition (above what the plant receives from the nutrient rich water) had an effect on growth and production when plants were grown hydroponically. The study utilized a commercial hydroponic unit, one control and three experimental groups. The control group received only a traditional water/nutrient supply, while the control groups received the following: water/nutrients/granular fertilizer at the time of planting; water/nutrients/powdered plant food added weekly; and water/nutrients/plant spikes added every eight weeks. The results follow. The experimental group, which received the supplemental plant spikes, outperformed all other groups for plant growth rate, time to first flowers, time to first fruit and total production. The weekly addition of plant food proved to be too strong, killing two plants and severely stunting and reducing the production of the third plant in this group. No differences existed between the control group and those plants that had granular fertilizer added at the time of planting. (Baker et al, 2006) Outline of Abstract Paragraph I This should be a brief description of the topic of the project. Try to create a very short summary of the Introduction. Paragraph II This should be a written version of the experimental design that states the independent and dependent variables, the control, the number of replications and the sample size. A brief summary of the overview should be included here. Paragraph III This portion should include the Hypothesis. Paragraph IV This portion should be a brief description of the summary of data and should include the average numerical data collected from the experiment. Paragraph V This section is a combination of the conclusion and the recommendation. Please include whether or not the hypothesis was proven correct, possible sources of scientific error and possible extensions or modification of the project. Step 13 - Format paper according to “What Your Paper Should Look Like” handout. The hand out should be used to format the paper, please take note of all spacing, font size and titles included in the hand out. Step 14 - Construct a Display Board according to “How to Construct a Display Board” handout. The hand out should be used to collect materials and construct your Display Board.
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