‘Quality control: why standards matter and international markets’.

‘Quality control: why standards matter
and how to meet them for local
and international markets’.
Presented by
Dr. Joseph Ikemefuna Odumodu
Quality and quality control
Standards are everywhere. Examples
What is a standard? Definitions
Why are standards important?
Why participate in making standards?
Which types of standard are there?
• Summary
The Quality Gurus – Edward Deming
Quality is
Focus on SPC
and statistical
“14 Points” for
PDCA method
The Quality Gurus – Joseph Juran
Quality is
“fitness for
Cost of
approach as
well as
1904 - 2008
• ISO 9000:2005:
Is the degree to which a set of inherent
1. The term quality can be used with adjectives such as
poor, good or excellent.
2. Inherent, as opposed to assigned, means existing in something,
especially as a permanent characteristic.
• Defined by the customers
• Must be measurable; if you can measure it
you can maintain & improve it
• Relative
• Cannot be inspected into our products. It
must be in-built into the product
• Means do it right first time
• Requirements can come from the customer or
you but agreed to by the customer
…… Where we want to be
Quality is…..
Invisible when GOOD
Impossible to ignore when BAD
Dynamics Of Quality And
• Both quality and Standards which defines the
former are dynamically aligned with the global
quality game for fair and healthy trade
• Standards helps in the determination of Quality
• Without Standards, quality cannot be controlled
nor assured!
• Standards help in establishing the consistency
and reliability of quality otherwise known as
quality control and quality assurance
Why are Standards
important?...competitive tools!
 Continual quality awareness creation
 Conscientious implementation of Standards
 Implementation of quality control, quality
assurance and formal quality management system
 Provision of objective evidence of product
performance as expected by…standards
These are the competitive tools which guarantee
market share and are strategic for sustainable
economic growth
Standards are generally…
 Democratic.
 Voluntary
 Can be used to regulate or legislate.
 Market-driven
 Consensus
 Standards usually represent the state of the art.
 Globally relevant
 Standards are technical agreements which provide
the framework for compatible technology
worldwide. They are designed to be globally
relevant - useful everywhere in the world.
 Quality Control:
• Operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality
 Quality Assurance:
• Planned and systematic activities to provide adequate confidence that
requirements for quality will be met
 Quality Management System:
• Organizational structure, resources, processes and procedures needed to
implement quality management
• Thus quality control ensures consistency, Assurance guarantees reliability of the
controls and a structured formal system ensures quality is total
Quality Control
• The process of monitoring specific project results to determine
if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying
ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.
• Input includes: work results, Quality Management Plan,
operational definitions, and checklists.
• Methods used include: inspection, control charts, Pareto
diagrams, statistical sampling, flowcharting, and trend
• Output includes: quality improvements, acceptance decisions,
rework, completed checklists, and process adjustments
Quality Control
• Quality control is a set of “activities” that need
to be performed in order to detect problems
during production and before the product
goes live.
• These activities ensure that final deliverable
meets the specifications and quality standards
set by the organization.
• QC often includes peer reviews, “testing”,
code reviews etc.
Quality Control
• In theory, quality control can be achieved with
minimal testing.
• For example, a thorough review of source code
and checks for known previously problems can
reduce the possibility of defects and might be
enough to meet the quality standards set by the
• However in most cases, testing is the most
important activity for quality control, but it is
not the ‘only’ activity.
Quality Assurance
• The process of evaluating overall project
performance on a regular basis to provide
confidence that the project will satisfy the
relevant quality standards.
• Input includes: Quality Management Plan,
results of quality control measurements, and
operational definitions.
• Methods used: quality planning tools and
techniques and quality audits.
• Output includes: quality improvement.
What is Quality Assurance?
• Quality Assurance (QA) is a process driven approach, it is
a process to monitor and improve existing quality
• It is a process of verifying whether the product or
services meets or exceeds the customer expectations.
• It ensures that the product or services are developed or
implemented on agreed standards.
• Quality assurance ensures that the processes designed
for the product development and services are effective
enough to meet the objectives.
• It prevents defects/errors.
Quality Assurance
• Quality assurance is about engineering
“processes "that assure quality
• The keyword to pay attention to is
Processes need to be:
Compared to a standard
Take corrective action on
Evaluate corrective action taken
Quality Assurance
• Defects occur because something somewhere did
not happen the way it needed to.
• Testing might help in detecting those defects, but
not in avoiding them.
• A defect once fixed cannot ensure that it won’t occur
again, even if the root cause is found. The process or
the system that allowed that defect to occur is what
needs to be re-engineered, and this is what is called
quality assurance.
Quality Assurance
• Everyone who is involved in the end to end
development process, including analysts,
developers, testers, managers etc., is an
important player in assuring quality.
• In fact, QA might not involve testing at all.
Quality Assurance
• If a company wanted to bring down its defects per
million ratios, would testing alone be able to help
achieve this goal?
• The answer is no, because in practice, not every
defect can be found and fixed.
• However, if the processes that go into developing a
product were reviewed and best practices were
implemented, the load on testing team is likely to
W. Edwards Demming on Quality
• Quality is an attribute of a product or service that
can only be defined by the customer.
• Because of this its meaning is relative
• Quality or lack of it is one of the outcomes of the
specific business process that produces a product or
• Quality is produced by proper execution of such a
• The job of quality management is to provide the
system and the leadership to facilitate such proper
• Quality is heavily reliant on Standards
Successful standards go unnoticed
 Successful standards usually go unnoticed
 The importance of standards is noticeable when
problems arise, e.g.
◦ Incompatible electrical plugs and sockets worldwide
◦ Baltimore fire 1904: Hoses of fire fighters from
neighbouring cities did not fit hydrants in Baltimore
 A lack of standards can lead from mere
frustration to needless deaths
Standards are everywhere!
e.g. ISO freight containers (ISO,1968)
Redefined Shipping and international trade!!!
Standards are everywhere!
e.g. McDonald’s Hamburgers
Standards are everywhere!
More examples …
• Units of measurement
• Length, width and thickness of credit and bank cards, as well
as the location of the magnetic strip on such cards, are
standardized, which allows the use of the cards in any
automatic card reader, not just the automatic teller machines
of one’s own bank.
• Layout of QWERTY computer keyboard
• Size of light bulb fitting
• Paper format (A0, A1…..; height-to-width ratio 1.4142 : 1)
• GSM protocol for mobile phones
• Vehicle safety test procedures
What is a standard?
Mostly used in two rough senses:
• it is an agreement developed by several parties with the intent
that all parties comply
• it is a product or service with a significant market share
There are many definitions. Most try to specify
the first type of standard (i.e. the agreement).
• Standards prescribe behavior or characteristics
of people or inanimate objects, often in
technical terms
Many definitions of standard
Definition depends on who is asked, e.g.
• Formal standards bodies: a standard is “a document
established by consensus and approved by a recognized
body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules,
guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results,
aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order
in a given context” (ISO/IEC, 2004b, p.8)
• Industry: “A standard [can be] of any form or type (…). A
standard is also one of the agents used (…) to bring about
market change” (Cargill, 1989, p.41)
Why are standards important?
Standards contain information
“We live in a world profoundly reliant on product standards”
(WTO, 2005, p. XXIV)
Standards contain Information. They
Indicate product safety
Clarify health risks
Clarify environmental risks
Increase transparency in the market (consumer and producer
Create a level playing field
Reduce information search costs
Reduce production costs (allows economy of scale in production)
Necessary for diffusion of new technologies
Standards ensure products safety
• A consumer buying a gas stove, for instance,
might want to know whether it complies with
a standard that specifies how the oven must
be designed to ensure that heating the oven
will not cause parts to expand and cause a gas
leak and explosion!
Why are standards important?
Standards create compatibility
Compatibility defined as
• ‘the suitability of products, processes or services for use
together under specific conditions to fulfill relevant
requirements without causing unacceptable interactions.’
(ISO/IEC, 1991)
• Two types of compatibility between components (David &
Bunn, 1988)
• compatible complements (e.g. plug and socket)
• compatible substitutes (e.g. plug A and B in respect to
Why are standards important?
Standards create compatibility (cont..)
• Standards create Compatibility
– Networked environments* like telephone
communication and broadcasting require
– Standards coordinate technology (Schmidt &
Werle, 1998)
– Standards coordinate markets, e.g. availability
of complementary products
– Standards facilitate international trade
Causes for the increasing importance of
• Expansion of global markets
• Increasing anonymity of markets (standard-compliance
raises trust)
• Increasing concern for safety, health and
environmental issues
• Growing quality consciousness (higher demand for
quality standards)
• Use of standards to protect against mistakes > legal
• Regulation which encourages the use of standards
Why participate in making standards?
• Why do companies participate? (Cargill, 1989)
– A standard is a change agent, a strategic tool to influence the
– Participate if a proposed standard affects their business,
responds to a problem, focuses on their market need
– Standardization is an effort to guide momentum in the
market (p. 69)
• Creating a standard is a form of collective consensual
leadership, leadership by conviction
– Standard is a guidepost that points towards the future of a
• It provides predictability to business (p. 48)
• It provides constancy to user operation (p. 70)
Why participate in making standards?
Why do consumer organizations participate?
(WTO, 2005, p. XXVII):
• Standards are important for consumer goods like food,
drugs, vehicles, electrical appliances, safety equipment
• Standard requirements regarding design (toys),
ingredients (paint), process of manufacture or
production (meat), performance (helmets)
Why participate in making standards?
Consumers (cont..)
“Consumers expect that services and products will be consistent in
quality, durability and ease of use. International Standards are
voluntary rules and guidelines that help to ensure:
• safer, healthier, more environmentally sound products and
• products with improved quality and reliability;
• better operational compatibility between products and greater
consistency in the delivery of services;
• improved choice and access to goods and services;
• lower costs for consumers;
• better product or service information.” (ISO/IEC, 2003)
Why participate in making standards?
Governments need standards for
• Regulation (e.g. minimum standards for
consumer protection)
• Economic growth
– Information and compatibility
– Education on standardization is part of the national
economic strategy (e.g. Asian countries)
Why NOT participate in standards
Who does not want standards
• Those with a stake in the status quo (e.g.
company with a large market share in the
area of standardization)
• These parties sometimes participate in order to
frustrate the standards process
Many kinds of standards
Terminology standards
Safety standards
Health standards
Procedural standards
Compatibility standards
When does standardization take place?
Anticipatory – Responsive standardization
• Anticipatory standardization
o standardize before technology has been developed and
• Enabling standardization
o Parallel standards and market development
• Responsive standardization
o standardize technology variety available on the market
 Established by Act of decree 56 on 1st Jan 1970
 Sole statutory body that is vested with the responsibility of
standardising and regulating the quality of all products in
 Headed by a Director-General
 Supervised by the Federal Ministry of Industry, Trade and
 Governing council is called the Nigerian Standards council Members of the Board drawn from private and public sector
 The main reference point in matters of standardisation as well as
quality and technical competence required to launch Nigerian
products into the competitive global market.
Functions of SON
 To organize tests and do everything necessary to
ensure compliance with standards designated and
approved by council.
 To undertake investigations as necessary into the quality
of facilities, materials and products in Nigeria, and
establish a quality assurance system including
certification of factories, products and Laboratories
 To ensure reference standards for calibration and
verification of measures and measuring instruments.
 To foster interest in the recommendation and
maintenance of acceptable standards by Industry and the
general public
Functions of SON Cont.
 Develop methods for testing of materials ,
supplies and equipment including items purchased for
use of departments of the Government of the Federation
or a state and private establishment
 Register and regulate standards marks and specifications
 Undertake preparation and distribution of standard
 Establish and maintain such a number of laboratories or
other institutions as may be necessary for the
performance of its functions
 Compile and publish general scientific or other data
 Resulting from the performance of it’s functions
 From other sources when such data are of importance to scientific
or manufacturing interest or to the general public and are not
available elsewhere.
Functions of SON cont..
 Advise departments of governments of the
Federation or a state on specific problems relative
to standards specifications
 Sponsor such national and international conferences
as it may consider appropriate
 Co-ordinate all activities relative to it’s functions
throughout Nigeria and to cooperate with corresponding
national or international organisations in such fields of
activity as it considers necessary with a view to securing
uniformity in standards specifications
 Undertakes any other activity likely to assist in the
performance of its functions
The Role of SON
SON is the apex standardisation body in Nigeria.
Staff strength of over 1,000 personnel
Operates in almost all of 36 states of Nigeria
SON primary role is to prepare standards which are
use to monitor quality and safety of products
• SON prepare standards through an open process of
consensus by all stakeholders
• More than 500 Technical Committees/Work
Groups members
The Role of SON cont’d
Member of ISO, ARSO, IEC (Affiliate), CAC
National Enquiry point for WTO
Secretariat/Codex contact point for Nigeria
70% funded by Government and 30% through
service charges
• SON has five (5) major specialized laboratories and
is in the process of upgrading these.
The Role of SON cont..
• SON has developed over 1,000 standards
• Presently, 502 standards are in process of
• 45% of SON standards are fully or substantially
aligned with International standards
• SON Technical Library houses over 100,000
International and National standards (ISO,
The Role of SON cont.…
Standards Development
Product Testing
Personnel Certification
Process Certification
Quality/Environmental System Training
LPG Tank Certification
Laboratory Accreditation
The Role of SON cont.….
• Assist Importers/Exporters/Manufacturers on
standards issues.
• Product Certification
• Laboratory Accreditation Training
• HACCP Training
SONCAP – Control of Substandard
 An offshore scheme for checking and controlling
importation of substandard and unsafe products into
the country
 Oversea manufacturers submit their products meant
for Nigeria market to IEC accredited labs in case of
electrical/electronics products or ISO/IEC Guide
17025 accredited labs in case of other products
 Upholds the WTO agreement on Technical Barrier to
Trade (TBT)
There are many types of standards
Standards are everywhere
Standards influence everything we do
Participating in standards development can
therefore be very important for companies,
consumers and government
• Standards participation and compliance
guarantees market shares.
SON can provide access to power quality
standards such as……
1. IEEE Standard 141-1993
Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants, aka the
Red Book.
– A thorough analysis of basic electrical-system considerations is presented. Guidance is
provided in design, construction, and continuity of an overall system to achieve safety of
life and preservation of property; reliability; simplicity of operation; voltage regulation in
the utilization of equipment within the tolerance limits under all load conditions; care and
maintenance; and flexibility to permit development and expansion.
2. IEEE Standard 142-1991
Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power
Systems, aka the Green Book.
– Presents a thorough investigation of the problems of grounding and the methods for
solving these problems. There is a separate chapter for grounding sensitive equipment.
IEEE Standard 242-1986,
Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and
Commercial Power Systems, aka the Buff Book.
– Deals with the proper selection, application, and coordination of the components which
constitute system protection for industrial plants and commercial buildings.
Contact Information
For inquiries concerning this lecture, contact:
E-mail: [email protected]
Also attached in word are a list of power generation
quality standards for the consideration of the