How to……make a scientific poster!

How to……make a scientific poster!
The majority of your work as scientific researcher consists of performing experiments,
analyzing data and writing articles. Of course it is important to get your results
published and get famous in your research field, but promoting your results during
meetings, congresses may also be very important for networking and gaining new
The focus of many courses (for PhD students) is to improve writing skills, but we
think that also presentation of your work (orals and posters) should also be trained.
This essay (based on several websites) will not focus on oral presentations, but will
highlight important topics concerning poster presentations. A poster has multiple
purposes such as: (1) source of information, (2) conversation starter, (3)
advertisement of your work, (4) summary of your work.
In a large exhibit session, a typical viewer tends to stop or slow down only at the
exhibits that catch the eye. You only have a few seconds to attract someone's
attention. To have a successful exhibit you need to know not only how to catch the
viewers attention but also how to clearly and accurately present the purpose and
results of your scientific research.
The information here is intended to provide you with practical knowledge for making a
scientific, interesting, but most of all, clear and understandable poster.
Below several aspects are discussed, including:
- Section 1. Content of the poster
- Section 2. Layout of the poster
- Section 3. Extra (creative) ideas to give your poster something extra!
- Section 4. Putting it all together
- Section 5. Presenting your poster
Good luck!
On behalf of the board of NIER,
Meindert Crop
Section 1. Content of the poster
The best presentations make just one point, loudly and clearly. You might have
tested two or three closely related hypotheses, but they should all revolve around the
same single point. If you find that your research sheds light on two different issues,
then plan to give two separate presentations.
An effective poster is...
Focused = focused on a single message;
Graphic = Lets graphs and images tell the story; uses text sparingly.
Ordered = Keeps the sequence well-ordered and obvious.
We can’t help you in defining your central message, but we encourage you to spend
some time thinking about it and putting it into words. This will be helpful not only in
assembling your poster but also in talking to colleagues at the meetings. Do your
best to develop a summary of your work that you can state in 25 words or less,
preferably words that real people use. For example, imagine you are on a plane on
your way to the meeting, and you tell the person sitting next to you that you are a
grad student at Primate U. He responds, "Oh, how interesting. What, exactly, do you
study?" If you can answer that question in a clear and concise statement, in a
language that the guy sardined in next to you will really understand, then you’re halfway there. This exercise will demand that you cut through the jargon and fluff to the
heart of your research, and that is all that you will have time (or rather space) to give
us in your poster.
Once you know your central message, then you need to decide about supporting
information. The best posters (in our opinion) generally follow the guidelines of a
published paper, with sections like Introduction, Methods, Results, and
Discussion/Conclusions/Significance. However, you will have to present this
information in much less space than you would get in a journal. Thus, you will have to
keep doing that 25-words-or-less exercise as you move from one section of your
poster to the next.
1.1 What is the central message of your Introduction?
This section should start with your general research objectives, then provide a few
lines about the context of your work, and end with a clear statement of the
hypotheses or predictions that you tested.
1.2 What is the central message of your Methods?
Unless your material relates directly to methodology (e.g., a new way of collecting
urine samples from uncooperative subjects), you should strive to keep your methods
section brief. Give us the bare essentials about the subjects, study site, and protocol.
Don’t be so brief that we can’t figure out what you did, but do give some thought to
what is really relevant to this particular talk. If some facet of your project is peripheral,
then leave it out.
1.3 What is the central message of your Results?
What did you find? Did your tests come out the way you expected? This section will
probably involve little text and more graphics (much more on that below).
1.4 What is the central message of your Discussion and Conclusions?
This is a big one because it is really your take-home message. Again, in 25 words or
less, what is the dramatic finding that you want your audience to remember? And
why should they care? This is very important, because your colleagues will want to
learn not only about what you did but also about why it is significant. Be prepared to
address this issue, briefly in your poster and in greater depth when talking with your
1.5 Acknowledgements and References:
These are auxiliary sections that often appear in the lower left corner of a poster.
"Acknowledgements" is your opportunity to thank research assistants, funding
agencies, those who were especially helpful in preparing your presentation, etc...
"References" allows you to list the full citations of any literature you cited in your text.
Regarding the number of sources to cite, we recommend using just a few (perhaps a
half-dozen or fewer), focusing on those papers that are seminal in your field or
particularly relevant to your research.
An effective poster provides minimal text. We will make this point over and over again as we
go along. You must be complete, so that a person can understand the project based solely
on what is written, but you must be tremendously concise, for no one wants to read ten
pages of text while there are still 100 other posters waiting to be seen. Thus, your first
important steps in developing your poster will be cutting brutally through the chaff and finding
the crucial points to present.
1.6 Peer review:
Throughout the entire process, we encourage you to discuss your developing poster
with your friends and colleagues. When you think you have got the content outlined,
at least verbally, try it out on your professor, your office-mate, your mother. If they get
what you are trying to say, then you’re on the right track.
General tips!
* For increased audience interest. It is necessary to catch and hold audience attention before
they can receive your message.
* For increased understanding. If information is of a complex or technical nature, it may be
necessary to communicate the information visually as well as verbally for the message to be
* For enhanced retention. People retain visual images far longer than the written word.
* For increased efficiency. Studies indicate that the same message can be communicated
faster by using visuals.
Section 2. Layout
This section makes more specific suggestions about the content of your poster.
(Below, we will address the nuts and bolts of putting it all together.) You must bear in
mind, however, that each presentation is different and so the best approach will
depend upon the material you are presenting. You will also be limited by the allotted
space, which will vary from meeting to meeting. Be prepared to take these guidelines
and modify them to meet your own unique needs.
2.1 Text:
The most effective posters provide minimal text!!! Few of your colleagues will
have the patience to read through a lot of verbiage. Furthermore, most of your
colleagues will be standing at a great distance from your poster, as they jockey for
position to get a look at your work. Thus, the rules on text are "less is more" and
"bigger is better."
A certain amount of text will be necessary, especially in the Introduction and
Discussion sections. Here are some thoughts:
Put each "section" (e.g., Intro, Methods, etc.) on a separate piece of paper with its
title centered at the top. This will be easy for your readers to follow.
Write out no more than one page of text for each of these. As we will soon be
suggesting use of a huge font (see below) that doesn’t give you many words (maybe
50 to 100 per section).
Use clear and simple language. Cut out the jargon as much as possible. In this
context, it is also helpful to use short, uncomplicated sentences. Your readers will
digest the material better this way.
Consider using "bullet statements" to make your points short and clear. For example,
your Introduction section might consist of three "bullet statements" of your research
objectives, as follows:
Research Objectives
The aim of this study was to explore:
the effects of …on …
the influence of …on…
the relationship between…and…
It might then provide a more conventional paragraph on previous studies of this
nature, but keep that sort of thing short. You’ve mainly included it to remind your
reader that you are familiar with the related literature. Then this section might end
with some bullet statements of your hypotheses.
Your Methods will also work well this way, as you bullet through subjects and
protocol. Finally, do the same sort of thing for your Results and Discussion sections.
If these bullet statements are in big, bold letters, your audience will know within 60
seconds what you set out to do, how you did it, what you found, and how it fits in to
the larger picture. That’s the kind of poster we like to see. You can use additional text
to fill in a little detail, but remember that you will also be there to answer questions, so
you might find that this outline format is all you need.
2.2 Font:
Choose a type-face that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman, Aerial or
Courier. Studies show that text written in all capital letters is hard to follow; it is better
to use bold print than all caps, though you are then limited on making those bold-type
statements that will stand out from the rest of your text. Many people find that a
"serif" script is easier to follow than something "sans serif." Use the same type-face
throughout your poster.
You will probably use a variety of font sizes. Your title and authors’ names, running
along the top of your poster, should be huge, no less than 72 point. The title of each
section of your paper should also be large, perhaps 60 point. Your bullet statements
(or however you choose to make these important points) should really stand out – try
48 point or larger. Additional text should be no smaller than 24. You can get away
with 18 for sections like Acknowledgements and References Cited, but don’t go any
smaller than that.
2.3 Color:
In general, black type on white paper is best, though studies show that a cream
colored background is a bit easier on the eyes. Avoid using brightly colored paper;
we will be working color into your poster in other, more effective ways below.
Using color in your text can be helpful when done right. For example, you might use
red ink for your very most important points, like your research objectives, findings,
and their significance. However, don’t go berserk with this. Too many colors get
distracting. You want them to remember your work, not just a Technicolor haze.
2.4. Images:
(1) Graphic images:
Graphic images can be helpful in your Introduction in the form of flow charts. If you
are trying to present the notion that several variables interact (e.g., some of the ideas
presented in the examples above), then a good flow chart might be just the thing.
Graphics are most important in the Results section. A picture really can replace a lot
of words (you know we’re in favor of that!), and a good graph will be understood far
more readily than a description of that same information. On the other hand, be
careful about how much you pack into that graph. You might be tempted to compile
all of your data into one megahistogram, with ten different variables for each of your
sixteen individual subjects across three months of testing, all stacked up in various
colors and elaborate shadings and splashed across three dimensions, but please
take pity on your audience. Try to keep it simple.
First of all, think about what type of graph is best for the type of data you are
Bar-graphs: If you are comparing two or three subjects (or groups) for two or
three variables (e.g., large groups vs. small groups for rest time, play time and
feeding time), then a bar-graph is great. A "stacked" bar-graph is good if you are
trying to express proportions of the whole (e.g., out of 10 trials, what proportion
ended in success vs. failure, with "success" at the bottom of the bar and "failure"
stacked on top, and a separate bar for each subject). If the total for each subject (or
group) doesn’t add up to 100%, then it is better to put the variables side-by-side, with
a cluster of bars for each subject.
Line-graphs: Line-graphs are good for displaying change over time (e.g., how
weight increased over the 12 months of testing). One line-graph can accommodate
several sets of data (e.g., how weight, time with mother, and time with peers changed
over time), but too many lines can get confusing. Again, keep it simple. Better to
present two graphs that are easy to digest than one that makes your audience want
to move along to the next poster.
Pie-charts: Pie-charts are good for presenting proportions of the whole (e.g., a
daily activity budget: the proportion of the day your subjects devoted to playing,
foraging, resting, grooming, traveling, etc.). Two pie charts next to one another allow
you to make a comparison (e.g., the daily activity budgets of two or more groups). In
this way, they are like stacked bar-graphs. In general, though, bar-graphs are good
for a very few series (e.g., success vs. failure) while pie-charts are better for many
series (e.g., rest, eat, travel, etc.).
Once you have decided what types of graphs to use, you then have to generate
them. Making your graphs by hand is absolutely fine; all the same rules outlined
below still apply. However, most of you will have access to computers with snazzy
graphics packages. But please bear this in mind: Just because it is possible to
achieve a certain effect doesn’t mean that it is desirable to do it that way. Don’t get
carried away with the bells and whistles. Instead, think about what you are trying to
express, and the clearest, simplest way to express it.
Use of color: Color is very helpful in presenting your results. For example, three lines of
color representing different measures will be far easier to follow than three lines that are all
black and differentiated only by little squares or circles. So color is good, but use some
restraint. Your computer might encourage you to assemble a graph with 13 different data
sets, each in a different color, with colored titles and subtitles, colored axis titles, a very
colorful legend, and a faint map of the world in the background. This might seem like a great
way to capture your audience’s attention, but the final product will look like Walt Disney just
hurled on your poster. Better to keep it simple.
Hopefully your data will be accommodated by two or three colors. Choose colors that are
bold and clear, and use them consistently throughout. Thus, if one graph presents "success
vs. failure" for one trial, and another graph "success vs. failure" for another trial, then keep
using that same red vs. blue for all of these graphs. Skip to a different pair of colors if you
move on to "male vs. female." If you can keep it to a few basic colors, you might use the
same colors in your poster board for an aesthetically pleasing ensemble (see more on that
below). Bear in mind that some of your audience may be red-green colorblind; this might
affect your choice of color scheme.
While your data sets will be most effective in color, make the rest of your graph (e.g., the
titles, axes, labels, etc.) in basic black. Follow the same rules described earlier for font sizes;
make sure things are easy to read.
Be sure to have all of your axes clearly labeled and a good legend in place. Titles
and subtitles should be brief but descriptive so that your reader knows immediately
what this graph presents.
Don’t bother to use a graph to present a very basic comparison (e.g., average weight
for low-ranking females was 4.6 kg, for high-rankers was 5.2 kg). This information
comes across better in a simple statement.
A general suggestion: A great way to present a lot of your material in a relatively
small amount of space is to exhibit the predictions and results together on the same
"page." This is in striking contrast to how we do things in a printed paper. There, you
offer predictions in one area (usually the Introduction) and your Results sometime
later. This leads to some redundancy which is ok in a published paper but
undesirable in a poster. Thus, we recommend that you use just one 8.5x11 sheet of
paper, perhaps on its side ("landscape"), to present Prediction #1 and Results (in a
great big font, of course), and a second horizontally oriented sheet of paper directly
below with the associated bar-graph. Here’s an example:
Prediction #1
Members of the Large Group will maintain consistent food intake throughout the year, while
members of the Small Group will experience seasonal fluctuations in food intake.
1. During the dry season, food intake was higher in the Large Group than the Small Group:
1800 cc/day > 1100 cc/day, t=24.33, p<0.001.
2. During the rainy season, food intake was lower in the Large Group than the Small Group:
1800 cc/day < 2700 cc/day, t=18.33, p<0.001.
Figure 1
A full-page, two-color bar-graph showing food intake for the large group and small group, wet
season vs. dry season.
This format gives your reader all of the important stuff, from the prediction to the stats
to the graphic display, all located together on your poster where it is easy to
understand. You can use this routine for two or three predictions and thus exhibit
graphically, with minimal text, the big points of your presentation.
(2) Other images:
You can hardly go wrong with big, beautiful photos of your subjects. These always
catch the eye and also serve to inform your audience immediately about the species
in question. Your methods section can also be enhanced with photos, especially if
you have used some new apparatus or want to show your subjects in action with their
joysticks. If you work in the field, photos of your site at different times of year might
clarify a point about seasonal changes. Photos of your field assistants are also
appreciated. You might even consider putting a photo of yourself next to your name
and the poster’s title, so that interested colleagues can easily locate you.
Photos break up the monotony of text and graphs, resulting in a more balanced and
aesthetically pleasing display. However, this will only be true if your photos are of
high quality. Choose images that are clear (rather than out-of-focus), of good color
and contrast (rather than too light or dark), and easy to make out (rather than
where’s-the-monkey-in-this-picture?). As with fonts, bigger is better: 8x10 images are
best, preferably with a matte finish so there isn’t so much glare.
Photos can be treated just like the materials you have printed out on your computer: Trim
them to size and glue them to the poster board.
As for making those photos in the first place, just a few words: If you have used print film in
shooting the pictures, you can take the negatives down to any photo lab and they will make
up nice enlargements (e.g., 8x10’s), but that can get expensive. If you have a friend with a
photo scanner and photo printer (or perhaps your department has this equipment), you can
get the same quality product at much lower cost. These are about the only options if you use
print film.
If you have used slide film, a photo lab can make prints for you (usually very expensive as
they have to make an "internegative" first), or someone with the right computer equipment
can scan in your slides and print out great quality images, just like with print film. However,
slides offer one additional option, good if you’re low on funding and don’t have access to
fancy computer gear. Some office supply stores (like Staples or Kinko’s) can take your slide
and simply photocopy it onto a regular piece of paper. There is no question that the quality is
severely reduced, but the images are perfectly usable, and at about $2.00 per shot (vs. up to
$40 per shot at a photo lab), this might be an attractive way to go. (Theoretically it would also
be possible to photocopy your snapshots, enlarging them up to 8x10, but the final product
would probably be very fuzzy.) Whatever way you produce your photos, try to get a matte
finish rather than glossy to cut the glare.
If you are setting out to take new pictures just for your presentation (e.g., of your subjects
running through their trials), think about shooting one roll of prints and one roll of slides, for
maximum flexibility. (You may be presenting some of this information in a talk next time and
then you’ll want the slides.) Most print film is easily developed in an hour at the drug store
these days, but on slide film, be sure to use something that a lab can develop quickly, as
certain types have to be sent out and you could find yourself waiting many days. Ask your
local photo lab which type of slide film will be best for these purposes.
2.5 Peer review: As you are developing your visual aids, continue to ask for
feedback from your friends and colleagues. Print out your text and your graphics and
hand them around the department. Folks will come up with good questions, ideas
that hadn’t occurred to you, suggestions on more effective turns of phrase or use of
graphics. They may also spot grammar and spelling errors. Developing any sort of
presentation is an iterative process. Allow plenty of time to make your poster over a
number of times.
Don’t forget to show your friends and colleagues the final product. Get it all arranged on a
bulletin board or conference table and have folks take a look. Be prepared to remake things if
someone makes a particularly helpful suggestion. You might also have them fire some
questions at you, all in preparation for that big night.
Section 3. Extra (creative) ideas
There are, of course, a lot of fancy things you can do if you have the time, energy,
and creativity to give your poster something extra.
One fairly straightforward option is to add an extra color by putting a contrasting
matte between your poster board and your white sheets. This can coordinate well
with the data you are presenting. For example, if your Results section displays data
sets in red and blue, you might echo that theme by using red and blue backing for
your segments. In this case, your 8.5x11 blue poster board would be covered with a
7.5x10 piece of red construction paper (or something similar), and on top of that
would be glued your 6.5x9 white sheet. If you adopt this approach, plan your
segments to the correct size, and work hard to get all of those colors lined up evenly.
You don’t want to make your readers "seasick" with lines canting at various angles.
Other recommendations for designing your poster include using different colors of
poster board for the different sections of your poster (e.g., red for Intro, blue for
Methods, green for Results, etc.). This has the advantage of clarifying for your reader
where one section ends and another begins, but bears the risk of reducing the
poster’s cohesive appearance, so proceed with caution on that. If each of your
sections requires only one 8x11 segment, then a bold title at the top of each page will
make the organization clear.
If you are a creative person, it will be tempting to get more and more elaborate in
your poster design, but remember that you want your audience to say, "Wow, this is
important work," rather than, "Wow, what cute little monkey motifs he has scattered
all over the pages." Put most of your effort into editing your text and designing
effective graphics.
A handout: We strongly recommend that you write up a brief hand-out to accompany
your poster. This will allow you to provide a little more detail about your work (though
it isn’t meant as an opportunity to author a full paper on the topic) and will also
achieve the important goal of sending your audience away with your work and your
name in hand. The ideal handout is just one to three pages long, with all of the
important points of your talk in both text and graphics. An envelope of these can be
attached to your poster display area so that your colleagues can easily collect them.
!! Make a handout to accompany your poster!!
Section 4. Putting it all together
There are many ways to construct a poster. We are only going to discuss one option,
one that emphasizes flexibility in design and ease of transport, but still makes a
strong presentation.
We recommend splitting your poster up into small pieces, preferably standard
8.5x11-inch segments. It is easy to find poster board precut into this size, and your
final product tucks neatly into your briefcase or filing cabinet. In addition, you can
move the pieces around so that they best suit the allotted space. Imagine how you
would feel if you had put together one large unit with a horizontal orientation, only to
find that your assigned display area demanded a vertical orientation. Having your
work presented in smaller bits will offer you important flexibility. It might also allow
you to add and subtract pieces if, for example, you use some of the same material for
another purpose later.
The first step in construction is choosing your backing. Poster board is best as it is
easy to find in a wide array of colors, it is inexpensive, and it provides a rigid surface
that isn’t easily damaged. Card stock is too flimsy but foam core is probably heavier
than you need. Choose a clear but subtle color. Neon orange may be fine for a yard
sale but royal blue or forest green is better for a professional gathering.
The second step is to print out your various segments (e.g., the page on Introduction,
the bullet statements with your hypotheses, the bold bar-graphs) on heavy white (or
cream colored) paper. Card stock is good here for a little more durability. Be sure that
you use new printer cartridges for nice, clear print. Try to use a laser printer as ink jet
pages smudge when they get wet, even weeks after they’ve been printed. Plan and
print each segment a little smaller than 8.5x11 as you will want to leave a colored
border of poster board showing around each page. Thus, if you plan to leave a halfinch border of color all the way around, you need to plan your segments (be they text
or graphics) accordingly.
You may find that some of your segments don’t demand an entire page (e.g., the
Acknowledgements or References Cited might need only a few lines each). One
option is to combine sections onto a single page. Or simply cut things in half if you
have a section that only needs 5x8 inches. Likewise the title and author segments
might give you some trouble. Most posters present the title in one solid line across
the top, with authors’ names in a solid line below, and academic affiliations below
that. It might seem a little choppy, but in the long run, you are probably better off to
have a long series of, say, 11x3-inch segments that you can pin up separately onto
your display area.
Once you have gotten all of these bits printed out and trimmed to size, you have only
to attach them to the poster boards. Spray adhesive is great for this, but glue sticks
can also work well. Be sure you have extra materials on hand in case something
wrinkles or smudges and you have to remake that segment. However, once the white
sheets are glued onto the poster board, you’re done.
Section 5. Presenting your poster
Most poster sessions are held in large "ballrooms" or other such venues. Each poster
is assigned a numbered display board. You may have gotten word in advance about
the day of your poster session and what number is yours. If not, this information can
be found in your registration materials.
When you arrive at the conference site, you will check in at the registration desk and,
whether you’ve prepaid or registered on site, you will receive a packet of materials
that includes (among other things) your name-tag, a conference schedule, a set of
abstracts of all presentations to be offered, and a map of the meeting rooms. We
recommend that you immediately find the date, time, and location of your poster
session (i.e., the room in which it will be held and the space number that you will
occupy). As soon as possible, visit the room where your poster session is to take
place and find your space. This will be the time for surprises, like learning that your
horizontal poster has to fit into a vertical space. Better to know sooner rather than
later. You will also get a better idea of the set-up, including how best to attach your
poster to your display space. If you haven’t brought the right materials (you brought
duct tape when push-pins would have been better), you might still have time to go
out and purchase something more useful.
When the day of your poster session arrives, go and put up your materials in a timely
fashion. You will be wise to come to the meeting prepared for emergencies. Bring
along push-pins AND duct tape. Think in advance about the best way to arrange the
segments of your poster (your creativity and good judgment will be in demand here),
but also consider alternatives in case the space isn’t what you had in mind. Be
prepared for disaster and then you will coast along smoothly when no mishaps arise.
Presenting your poster:
A poster session really serves multiple purposes. Your colleagues will come to see
your work, of course, but these sessions also provide opportunities for social
interaction that paper sessions don’t allow. Thus, you will be presenting your material
in the midst of pandemonium as people elbow past one another toward friends or the
hors-d’oeuvre table, voices rise in vain efforts to be heard over the crowd, and
someone spills wine on your new suit. Think of it as a test, a trial by fermented grape.
You will be expected to stand next to your poster for approximately two hours,
answering questions from those who stop to read your poster. You will literally be
standing, so wear comfortable shoes. Your attire should be professional, but the ASP
is also a fairly casual bunch so a full suit (men’s or women’s) isn’t really necessary.
You aren’t being asked to testify before the Senate but neither are you attending a
frat party. Aim for something in between.
At the session itself, it is important to remember that YOU are on display as much as
your work. You carefully constructed that poster to make your points in very few
words; however, some people still won’t want to read through it themselves, and
other folks will demand more detail than you provided. You must be well prepared to
answer their questions. Spend a little time before the meetings refreshing your
memory on the relevant literature, on the various methods your predecessors have
used to test this hypothesis, on the statistical tests you used and why. Think about
the best way to present the material verbally to compliment what you have printed up
for your poster. You will be asked the same questions over and over again, about
what you were studying and why, about how to interpret this graph or that statistic, so
be prepared to explain those things clearly, concisely and repeatedly. This may feel
redundant for you, but remember that each of them is hearing it for the first time. Also
remember that many of the people you talk to come from very different subfields than
yours, so speak to them professionally but limit your use of specialized jargon
Finally, remember that there may be folks out there who you’d really like to impress,
even if you don’t recognize them. Don’t ignore someone who is standing at your
poster, no matter how much you want to ask your friends about the restaurant they
went to last night. Your job for the evening is to present yourself and your work to
your academic community. Greet each new-comer with a confident Hello and offer to
answer any questions that he or she might have. Be enthusiastic about your work.
Try not to get so engrossed with one visitor that you ignore the rest. And hang in
there until the bitter end because you never know what might happen. It could be the
last five minutes of the session, you are tired and ready for some dinner, and you
really don’t feel like running through the entire chatter again. But the nondescriptlooking guy in Levis and a cowboy shirt who straggled in just as you were about to
start taking down your poster might be the one to offer you the post-doc of your
dreams. Don’t blow it. But don’t forget to have fun, too. Attending a conference can
be one of the most beneficial career moves you make in a year. Don’t get so
wrapped up in attending talks or reading posters that you miss meeting that professor
you’ve always admired. Throw yourself into your own presentation, but relax and
enjoy yourself once it’s all over. Next year will come soon enough.
Useful sites:
♦ 2002 WICB/Career Strategy Columns (Archive): Do's and Don'ts of Poster
Presentation: Steven M. Block. This guide offers advice on preparing a good
scientific poster.
♦ Designing Effective Posters This
29-page tutorial is one of three Kansas University Medical Center Web sites on
Effective Presentations . This site illustrates elements of layout and design for
poster presentations, common errors in design and how to avoid them, and it
provides a convenient reference for students and faculty. Click on these topics for
descriptive details: Planning the poster, creating the title banner, layout of the
poster, dealing with illustrations and with text, and poster assembly. There are
even a few Folklore, Tidbits & Hints. "A nifty example of a poster presentation
(complete with a quiz at the end!)" is provided.
♦ Scientific Literature and Writing- Poster Presentations. Nice examples of
♦ Information about poster making (by Brian Pfohl)
♦ Advice on designing scientific posters (by Colin Purrington);
♦ Information about Poster Presentation of Research Work