Policing the Seas: How to Regulate the Kristina Maria Gjerde

Policing the Seas: How to Regulate the
Use of the Ocean’s Resources
Courtesy of Donald R. Kobayashi
Kristina Maria Gjerde
IUCN Senior High Seas Advisor
[email protected]
Good Governance for Sustainable Marine Development
Cascais, Portugal, June 3-5, 2013
United Nations Convention on the Law of
the Sea (UNCLOS, 1982)
Weaknesses in ABNJ
• Clearly defined rights and
• Obligation to protect and
preserve the marine
• Address all forms of marine
• Conduct prior assessments
• Cooperate on global and
regional basis
• Few incentives for
• No mention of marine
biodiversity, precaution, etc.
• No provisions for protected
• No global rules for EIAs; no
cumulative assessments
• Fragmentary regional
Gjerde, K. 2012. Challenges to Protecting the Marine beyond National Jurisdiction, 27 IJMCL 839–847
 Shared responsibility
 Conditional access
 Effective enforcement
Shared responsibility
 Update and harmonize
Para 158: ...We therefore commit:
1. to protect, and restore, the health, productivity and
resilience of oceans and marine ecosystems, and
2. to maintain their biodiversity,…
3. to effectively apply an ecosystem approach and the
precautionary approach…
to deliver on all three dimensions of sustainable
Rio+20 Outcome Document
“The Future We Want”
Shared Responsibility
© Philippe Rouja
Add specific mandate for MPA networks
and other area-based conservation tools
Ban et al, 2013. Systematic conservation planning, Conservation Letters,
Shared Responsibility
Modernize regional oceans management
Ban et al. 2013, Cons. Letters
Disclaimer: Maps for information only and do not express opinion on boundaries
Condition access
Strengthen procedures for
Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs),
including cumulative impacts, and
Druel, E. 2013. Environmental Impact Assessments in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction”, IDDRI
Credit: Elliott Norse
 Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs)
Deep Sea Bottom Fishing on the High Seas
• States and RFMOs to protect
“vulnerable marine ecosystems” and
ensure sustainable fisheries
• Prevent “significant adverse impacts”
(SAIs) including through
– prior impact assessments
– adoption of management
measures to prevent SAIs
 or not authorize fishing to
UNGA RESOLUTIONS 61/105 (2006), 64/72 (2009) &
66/68 (2011)
FAO International Guidelines for the Management of
Deep-sea Fisheries in the High Seas (2009)
Credit: Deep Atlantic Stepping Stones Science Team_IFE_URI_NOAA
Condition access
Strengthen implementation
United Nations, NY
Effective Enforcement
Globalize monitoring, control and surveillance
AIS satellites
Autonomous buoys
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
Subsea cables
Brooke SD, Lim TY, and Ardron JA. (2010) Surveillance technical options, MCBI
Elements of a new agreement for ABNJ
Shared responsibility
Update and harmonize
Add specific mandate for MPA
networks and other area-tools
Modernize regional oceans
Conditional access
Adopt global procedures for EIAs
and SEAs
Strengthen implementation
Address equity issues
Effective enforcement
Globalize monitoring, control
and surveillance
Legally binding agreement under UNCLOS
most effective
Much can be done now!
Thank You!
[email protected]