Java EE 5, How to Utilize Project GlassFish? Wonseok Kim 2007/02/24

Java EE 5,
How to Utilize Project GlassFish?
2007/02/24
Wonseok Kim
Agenda
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Java EE 5 Intro
Project GlassFish
Business Logic and Data Access
Web Tiers
XML and Web Services
Tools
Big Picture
How to participate in Project GlassFish?
Summary
Java EE 5 Intro
Java EE 5 Introduction
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Theme: Ease of development!
POJO-based programming model
Extensive use of metadata @annotations and
defaults
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Simple and developer-friendly declarative model
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Reduced need of Deployment Descriptors
Simplified API
Dependency Injection
New APIs and frameworks
Java EE 5 Major changes
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EJB 3.0
JPA(Java Persistence API) 1.0
JSP 2.1, JSTL 1.2
JSF 1.2
Servlet 2.5
JAX-WS 2.0, JAXB 2.0, WSM 2.0, ...
StaX
J2EE 1.4 vs Java EE 5
Application
Item Measured
Adventure Number of classes
Builder
Lines of code
Number of classes
Lines of code
RosterApp
Number of XML files
Lines of XML code
J2EE 1.4
67
3,284
17
987
9
792
Java EE 5
43
2,777
7
716
2
26
Improvement
36% Fewer classes
15 % fewer lines
59% fewer classes
27% fewer lines
78% fewer files
97% fewer lines
Table: Sample Comparison between J2EE 1.4 and Java EE 5
Java EE 5 Products
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GlassFish (open-source)
Sun Java System Application Server 9
TmaxSoft Application Server JEUS 6
SAP NetWeaver Application Server
BEA WebLogic Server 10 Tech Preview
JBoss AS 5.0 Beta
Project GlassFish
Project GlassFish
https://glassfish.dev.java.net/
• Open Source (CDDL, GPLv2) Project
> Main GlassFish Project and Sub-projects
• Java EE 5 RI(Reference Implementation)
> Base of Java EE 5 SDK
> Base of Sun Java System AppServer 9
> Code base for other Projects
• Participation from
> Sun, TmaxSoft, Oracle, BEA and Individuals
• GlassFish v1 is released
• GlassFish v2 will be released soon
Timeline of Project GlassFish
Tomcat
Jasper
Catalina
JSTL
Struts JAXB
JAX-RPC
Crimson JSF
XSLTC
Xalan
Xerces
J1'04
June 2004
V2 M4
GlassFish
(current)
Launch
V1 final
V2 final
V1UR1
V2 Beta
J1'05
June 2005
J1'06
May 2006
Jan 2007
Apr 2007
Releases in Project GlassFish
• GlassFish v1
> Java EE 5 Compliance
> UR1 - bug fixes
• GlassFish v2
> New WS stack, performance, startup time
> Load balancing, cluster management, failover
> Some scripting support(Phobos)
> Community, Transparency, Adoption
• GlassFish v3
> Larger architectural changes
> Better modularization, better scripting support
GlassFish Major Technologies
• Business Logic and Data Access
> EJB 3.0 Container
> Java Persistence(JPA) RI – TopLink Essentials
• Web Tier
> Servlet 2.5/JSP 2.1 Container
> JSTL 1.2
> JavaServer Faces(JSF) 1.2 RI
> JSF Extensions, jMaki (Ajax)
> Phobos(scripting)
> Grizzly NIO Framework
GlassFish Major Technologies
• XML and Web Services
> JAX-WS 2.1 RI
> JAXB 2.1 RI
> WSIT (Tango) – WS Inteoperability
> Fast InfoSet
> StAX Parser - SJSXP
• Misc
> JMS
> Shoal - Clustering framework
> JavaMail 1.4
Business Logic and Data Access
- EJB 3.0 and Java Persistence (JPA)
EJB 3.0
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POJO style Simplified API
Simplified configuration
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Metadata Annotation - declarations on the code
Extensive use of defaults - Configuration by exception
ejb-jar.xml descriptor is now optional
Dependency Injection – IoC
Interceptor – cross-cutting concerns
Container do more things for developer!
Hello EJB
// Business interface
@Remote
public interface Hello {
public String sayHello();
}
// Bean class
@Stateless
public class HelloBean
implements Hello {
public String sayHello(){
return "Hello EJB!";
}
}
// No Home interface
// No ejb-jar.xml
Dependency Injection
@Stateless
public class PayrollBean implements Payroll {
@Resource SessionContext sc;
@Resource UserTransaction ut;
@Resource DataSource oracleDB1;
@EJB Calculator calc;
@Resource
private void setOracleDB2(DataSource db){...}
@PostConstruct
private void init(){
connection = oracleDB1.getConnection();
}
}
How to Utilize EJB 3.0?
• When to use Session Bean?
> Transactional business logic
> Data access logic (DAO) for JPA, others
> Web Service Endpoint
> IIOP communication with other systems
• When to use MDB?
> Asynchonous logic - JMS/JCA message handler
• POJO?
> Make test beans outside container (some tools will help)
> Convert a POJO logic into beans
• Benefit? Portable across vendors (JCP standard!)
Java Persistence(JPA)
• Persistence layer based on JDBC
• Similar to existing ORM solution
> Hibernate, TopLink
• Replacement of EJB Entity Bean(CMP)
• POJO style persistence model
> No more remote component, but local object
> No more EJB container-dependent
> Unit-testable outside container
> Usable as DTO(Data Transfer Object)
• Explicit persistence operations are required
> EntityManager API
Java Persistence(JPA)
• Rich O-R mapping
> Inheritance, multiple-table, composite keys, locking
> Standard mapping through annotations/XML
• Object-level Java Persistence Query Language
• SQL is generated for each type of database
• Runtime performance - Minimize SQLs
> Lazy fetching, Changeset, Batch update
> Caching (effective for most read operations)
• Pluggability of third-party persistence providers
• Support for Java EE and Java SE
Entity domain class
@Entity @Table(name="CUST")
public class Customer implements Serializable {
@Id @GeneratedValue
@Column(name="CUST_ID")
protected Long id;
protected String name;
@Embedded
protected Address address;
@OneToMany(mappedBy="customer")
protected Set<Order> orders;
public Customer() {}
public
public
public
public
...
}
Long getId() { return id; }
String getName() { return name; }
void setName(String name) { this.name = name; }
Address getAddress() { return address; }
EntityManager Operations
@PersistenceContext EntityManager em;
//persist
public Order addNewOrder(Customer customer, Product
product) {
Order order = new Order(product);
customer.addOrder(order);
em.persist(order);
return order;
}
//find
public Customer findCustomer(Long customerId) {
Customer customer = em.find(Customer.class,
customerId);
return customer;
}
EntityManager Operations
//update
order.setDeliveredDate(date);
bean.updateOrder(order);
...
public Order updateOrder(Order order) {
return em.merge(order);
}
//remove
public void deleteOrder(Long orderId) {
Order order = em.find(Order.class, orderId);
em.remove(order);
}
Queries
//Dynamic Query
Query query = em.createQuery("select c from Customer c
where c.name=:name");
query.setParameter("name", name);
List list = query.getResultList();
//Static Query
@Entity
@NamedQuery(name="findCustomerByName", query="select c
from Customer c where c.name=:name")
public class Customer {..}
Query query = em.createNamedQuery("findCustomerByName");
query.setParameter("name", name);
List list = query.getResultList();
JPA RI Project - TopLink Essentials
https://glassfish.dev.java.net/javaee5/persistence/
• Oracle contributed the initial code
• Co-work from Oracle, Sun and TmaxSoft
• Used in various products
> GlassFish, Java EE 5 SDK, Sun Application Server 9
> Oracle AS 10.1.3.1
> TmaxSoft Appliation Server JEUS 6.0
> JOnAS EJB 3.0 Container – EasyBeans
> Spring 2.0
> NetBeans 5.5
> ...
How to Utilize TopLink Essentials?
• JDBC coding is inefficient way and not portable
> Persistence framework is necessarily needed
> Most 90% RDB applications can benefit from this
• Migration from EJB CMP, Hibernate, TopLink
• Pluggable in
> GlassFish
> Tomcat, Geronimo, JBoss, ... other containers
> J2EE 1.4 containers
> General Java SE application
• Spring 2.0 JPA Support Pack is useful for
applications not based on Java EE 5 container
Web Tiers
JSP 2.1, JSTL 1.2
https://glassfish.dev.java.net/javaee5/webtier/webtierhome.html
• A new unified expression language (EL)
> JSP and JSF are consolidated into the unified EL.
• JSTL 1.2 is now part of the Java EE platform
• Support for Dependency Injection - tag handlers and
tag library event listeners.
• Minor updates...
• GlassFish v2
> Can use JSR-199 (Javac APIs in Mustang)
> 10x performance improvement on Java SE 6
JSF(JavaServer Faces) 1.2 RI Project
https://javaserverfaces.dev.java.net/
• Alignment with JSP – Unified EL
• Managed Beans support Dependency Injection
• Minor updates...
• GlassFish v2
> Performance enhancement
> Dependency Injection mechanism for other containers
Unified EL
JSF 1.1 + JSP 2.0 could not do...
<c:forEach var="color" items="${colorList}">
<h:inputText value="#{color.name}"/>
</c:forEach>
Both JSF 1.2 + JSP 2.1 can use unified EL
- deferred expressions #{...}
<c:forEach var="color" items="#{colorList}">
<h:inputText value="#{color.name}"/>
</c:forEach>
How to Utilize JSF RI?
• Why JSF for web framework?
> JSF is flexible and extensible framework
> JSF is the standard supported by various vendors
> JSF is gaining more and more popularity and adoption
> More reusable Components and Tools
> GlassFish itself using JSF for Admin Console
• Good combination with AJAX
• Pluggable in
> GlassFish or other web containers – Tomcat
• Participate in Extensions projects
JSF and AJAX
• Easy to make AJAX-enabled UI using JSF
• DynaFaces/JSF Extensions Project
> https://jsf-extensions.dev.java.net/
• Ajax4JSF Project
> https://ajax4jsf.dev.java.net/
• AJAX-enabled JSF components
> Sun Blueprint AJAX components, Oracle ADF Faces, Project
Woodstock...
• jMaki for existing Widgets
• Demo - Pet Store 2.0
> http://webdev1.sun.com/petstore/faces/index.jsp
jMaki – Ajax Framework Project
https://ajax.dev.java.net/
• JavaScript Wrapper framework for Java EE
• Common programming model for using
widgets from multiple AJAX toolkits
• Model for reusable Ajax-enabled widgets
> your own design or extending existing toolkits
> Bundled Dojo, Flickr, Google, Yahoo widgets...
• Java Developers use JSP/JSF for widgets
> Also supports Embedded JavaScript (Phobos), PHP 5.x
• GlassFish or other web containers – Tomcat, PHP
• IDE support - NetBeans plugin
jMaki with JSP
<%@ taglib prefix="a" uri="http://java.sun.com/jmaki" %>
...
<a:ajax id="cb1" name="dojo.combobox"
service="comboBoxData.js" />
<a:ajax name="flickr.search"
args="{
topic:'flickrSearch',
columns:3,
count:9
}"
service="xhp"/>
jMaki with JSF
<%@taglib prefix="a" uri="http://java.sun.com/jmaki-jsf"
%>
...
<h:form id="thisForm" onsubmit="return false;">
<a:ajax id="cbl" name="dojo.combobox"
selected="#{ComboBoxBean.country}"
value="#{ComboBoxBean.completeCountry}"/>
<input type="button" value="Show Selected Value"
onclick="alert(jmaki.attributes.get('thisForm:cb1').getV
alue()); return false;">
</h:form>
Grizzly – NIO Framework Project
https://grizzly.dev.java.net/
• NIO HTTP Connector/Listener for GlassFish
• Evolved into generic NIO Framework
> Support multi protocols (HTTP, UDP, etc.)
> Blocking, Non-blocking, Plain or SSL
> High-performance APIs for socket communications
• Extensible
> From the management of low level byte buffer to thread
management
• Used in GlassFish, Tango(WSIT),
OpenESB(JBI), Jetty, AsyncWeb, ...
• Still Evolving Project
Grizzly Performance
Grizzly/GlassFish
APR/Tomcat
Coyote/Tomcat
Static Small
Static Medium Static Large
Scalability
Test
Throughput
Tests
Servlets
JSP
Balanced Load
XML and Web Services
StAX (SJSXP) Project
https://sjsxp.dev.java.net
• Streaming event-driven, pull-parsing XML API
• Why another XML API?
> DOM API requires large memory and is slow
> SAX API is fast, but we cannot control the process due to
the push model
> StAX is similar to SAX, but requires much simpler
programming model and we can control (pull
model)!
• Benefits?
> More control to applications - pausing/resuming/skipping
> Easier to code than SAX
> Bidirectional - read and write XML documents
StAX comparison
Feature
API Type
Ease of Use
XPath
Capability
CPU and
Memory
Efficiency
Forward Only
Read XML
Write XML
Create, Read,
Update,
Delete
StAX
Pull,
streaming
High
SAX
Push,
streaming
Medium
DOM
In memory
tree
High
TrAX
XSLT Rule
Medium
No
No
Yes
Yes
Good
Yes
Yes
Yes
Good
Yes
Yes
No
Varies
No
Yes
Yes
Varies
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Table XML Parser API Feature Summary
http://www.developer.com/xml/article.php/3397691
StAX Example
//Get the factory instace first.
XMLInputFactory factory = XMLInputFactory.newInstance();
//create the XMLEventReader, pass the filename for any
relative resolution
XMLEventReader r = factory.createXMLEventReader(filename,
new FileInputStream(filename));
//iterate as long as there are more events on the input
stream
while (r.hasNext()) {
XMLEvent e = r.nextEvent();
System.out.println(e.toString());
//...PROCESSING LOGIC...
}
How to Utilize StAX?
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Also a part of Java SE 6 - JAXP 1.4
Can be used as a standalone tool/library
Being used internally within JAXB and JAX-WS RI
Use Adapters for existing applications
> StAX Utilities Project - https://stax-utils.dev.java.net/
• Try StAX for performance/usability in new apps
• Other similar projects
> StAX RI Project - http://stax.codehaus.org
> BEA StAX Parser - http://dev2dev.bea.com/xml/stax.html
> Oracle StAX Parser -
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/xml/
JAXB 2.0/2.1 RI Project
https://jaxb.dev.java.net/
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Java Architecture for XML Databinding (JAXB)
High-level programming model for XML
documents
Ease of Development
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Typed access to XML content
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Leverage Java SE 5 features
100% XML Schema support
XML -> Java or Java -> XML Schema binding
Databinding for JAX-WS 2.0
Schema Evolution
Partial Updateable Binding
JAXB 2.0 Generated Code...
@XmlAccessorType(FIELD)
@XmlType(name = "", propOrder = {"x","y"})
@XmlRootElement(name = "point")
public class Point {
protected float x;
protected float y;
public float getX() {
return x;
}
public void setX(float value) {
this.x = value;
}
public float getY() {
return y;
}
public void setY(float value) {
this.y = value;
}
}
<point>
<x>1</x>
<y>2</y>
</point>
Java Based Classes <=> XML Schema
@XmlType(name=”Employee”, propOrder=”name, id”)
public class Employee {
public String getName(){ ... }
public void setName(String ) {...}
public long getId() {...}
public void setId(long ) {...}
}
<xs:complexType name=”Employee”>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name=”name” type=”xs:string”
minOccurs=”0”/>
<xs:element name=”id” type=”xs:long”/>
...
How to Utilize JAXB 2.0/2.1 RI?
• Also a part of Java SE 6
• Can be used as a standalone tool/library
• High-level XML processing tool for applications
> XML Configuration processing
> Data transfer through XML
• JAX-WS is using JAXB as XML-Java binding
• Participate in other Projects
> XJC Plugins - https://jaxb2-commons.dev.java.net/
> HyperJAXB3 - relational persistence for JAXB objects
> JAXB-Workshop - tool for launching XJC / visualization
JAX-WS 2.0/2.1 RI Project
https://jax-ws.dev.java.net/
• Next generation of JAX-RPC 1.0
• Core Java Web Service/SOA technology
• Two types of APIs:
> High-level: Strongly typed (Java-based)
> Low-level: Loosely typed (XML-based)
• Embrace POJO concepts via annotations
• Descriptor-free programming
• Layered architecture
> Encoding, Protocol and Transport independence
• Integrated data binding via JAXB 2.0
• Support for traditional and RESTful WS
POJO Web Service
@WebService
public class Calculator {
public int add(int a, int b) {
return a+b;
}
}
• Public methods become web methods
• Or use @WebMethod annotations
• http://myserver/myapp/MyService?WSDL
Web Service Consumer
$ wsimport http://myserver/myapp/MyService?WSDL
> generates CalculatorService, Calulator, JAXB classes...
CalculatorService svc = new CalculatorService();
Calculator proxy = svc.getCalculatorPort();
int answer = proxy.add(35, 7);
• No need to use factories!
• Use of dynamic proxies to hide complexity
• XML is completely hidden from programmer
New in JAX-WS 2.1 RI (GFv2)
• JAX-WS 2.1 API compliance (WS-Addressing)
• Complete re-architecture and re-write of JAX-WS 2.0
for Performance and Extensibility
• Extensions
> WSIT, Spring support
> Pluggable Transport - In-VM transport, Servlet transport,
JMS transport, SOAP/TCP
> FastInfoset
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Data binding - JAXB 2.1
Server Side Asynchrony - AsyncProvider
Stateful Web Services
Hosting API
WS Performance in GF V2
GF V1
GF V2
JAX-WS 2.1 vs. Axis2
http://weblogs.java.net/blog/kohsuke/archive/2007/02/jaxws_ri_21_ben.html
WSIT (Project Tango)
https://wsit.dev.java.net/
• WSIT(Web Services Interoperability Technologies)
> Interoperability with Microsoft WCF (.NET 3.0)
> Implementation of WS-* specifications
> Foundation for building SOA
• Programming Model
> No runtime APIs for Tango
> Developer writes consumers/providers via JAX-WS and
EJB APIs
> Developer/deployer supplies config file to
enable/control Tango components (by hand or Tool)
Web Services Stack
Transactions in Action
@javax.jws.WebService
@javax.ejb.Stateless
@javax.ejb.TransactionManagement(CONTAINER)
public class Wirerer {
}
@javax.jws.WebMethod
@javax.ejb.TransactionAttribute(REQUIRED)
void wireFunds(...) throws ... {
websrvc1.withdrawFromBankX(...);
websrvc2.depositIntoBankY(...);
}
WSIT Server Programming Model
109 Deployment
META-INF/wsit-*.xml
WSIT NetBean
Module
By Hand
Other IDEs
WSIT
Config File
wsit.xml
Service
Servlet Deployment
WEB-INF/wsit-*.xml
WSIT Client Programming Model
109
Service
WSIT NetBean
Module
By Hand
Other IDEs
MEX/ GET
WSIT
Config File
wsit-*.xml
Client
Artifacts
WDSL
MEX/
GET
Wsimport
How to Utilize JAX-WS RI/WSIT?
• Also a part of Java SE 6
• High usability, secure and transactional WS!
• Endpoint Deployment
> In GlassFish
> With Light weight HTTP server
> On JDK 1.5 through http.jar distributed with the JAX-WS 2.1
RI bundle
> Bundled with JDK 6
> In any web containers such as Tomcat...
• Participate in other Projects
> JAX-WS Plugins and Extensions Project
https://jax-ws-commons.dev.java.net/
Useful Tools
• NetBeans 5.5/5.5.1 - http://www.netbeans.org
> 5.5.1 is for GlassFish v2
> Enterprise Pack - full support of Java EE 5 development
> Visual Web Pack for JSF
> jMaki plugin
> WSIT plugin
• Eclipse - https://glassfishplugins.dev.java.net/
> Eclipse plugin based on WTP 1.5
> Dali Project (JPA Tool) - http://www.eclipse.org/dali/
• Hudson Build System - https://hudson.dev.java.net/
> Continuous Build (like CruiseControl)
NetBeans 5.5.1
Eclipse Dali
Hudson
How to participate
in GlassFish?
The Aquarium – News on GlassFish
blogs.sun.com/theaquarium
GlassFish Community
• As Users
> The Aquarium – News and Blogs
> Forums: https://glassfish.dev.java.net
> Mailing Lists: user[email protected], ...
• As Contributors
> Share ideas – Tips, Howtos, Adoption stories,...
> Blogging!
> Samples, applications
> Documentation: http://www.glassfishwiki.org
> Issues(Bugs and RFEs) report: Issue Trackers
> Code patch: Submit on Issue Trackers and Mailing Lists
GlassFish Projects
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•
•
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•
•
•
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•
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•
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GlassFish Core&Container: JSP, Servlet, EJB...
TopLink Essentials: JPA RI
JSF: Java Server Faces RI, JSF Extensions
jMaki : AJAX Framework
Grizzly : NIO Framework
SJSXP: Sun Java Streaming XML Parser(StAX)
JAXB: Java API for XML Binding
JAXP: Java API for XML Parsing
JAXR: Java API for XML Registry
JAX-RPC: Java API for XML RPC
JAX-WS: Web Services
JAX-WS Commons: Plugins and Extensions
SAAJ: The Standard Implementation for SAAJ
WSIT(Tango): Web Service Interoperability Technology
GlassFish Projects
• Phobos: A lightweight, scripting-friendly, web application
environment(server-side JavaScript)
• Fast Infoset: Binary encoding for the XML Information Set
• Shoal: Java based clustering framework
• Glassfish-Corba: CORBA ORB that is used in the GlassFish
• Glassfish-plugins: Plugins for both NetBeans and Eclipse
• Blueprints solution catalog: Guidelines and best practices for
Java EE applications
• Glassfish-samples: Sample applications to demonstrate Java EE
• First Cup: A short tutorial for new Java EE developers
GF technologies Big Picture
UI
AJAX
WSIT
Web Services
JAX-WS
JSF
NIO Framework
Grizzly
Business Logic
JAXB
StAX
Other
Systems
Tools
EJB 3.0
NetBeans
Data Access
JPA
TopLink
Essentials
Eclipse
Hudson
XML
DB
Summary & Conclusion
• Java EE 5 has new/enhanced technologies
• Open Source Project GlassFish is the central place
for Java EE 5 and derived technologies
• Many technologies/impl can be used independently
– in other web containers or general Java SE app
• GlassFish v2 has lots of improvements, check it out!
• GlassFish has lots of interesting Sub-Projects
• Find out your flavor and try to use it
• You can also participate in Project!
References
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Java EE Official Site – Find out Java EE 5 materials
http://java.sun.com/javaee/
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Article: An Introduction to the Java EE 5 Platform
http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/J2EE/intro_ee5/
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Magazine: MicroSoftware 2006 July Cover Story – Java EE 5
Java EE 5 Tutorial – Learn how to use each technology
http://java.sun.com/javaee/5/docs/tutorial/doc/
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2006 JavaOne Online Technical Sessions – Audio, PDFs
http://developers.sun.com/learning/javaoneonline
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Project GlassFish
https://glassfish.dev.java.net
Author(Wonseok Kim)’s Blog
http://weblogs.java.net/blog/guruwons/
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