Lovingly In Charge: How to Get “Out in Front” of Children with Challenging Behavior S E S S IO N 1 : T H E A- B- C O F BE H AVIO R C H AN G E Classical Conditioning Remember Pavlov and his dog? Fido salivated at the sight of food. Food = untaught stimulus Salivation = untaught response Pavlov rang a bell just before presenting food. Bell = taught stimulus Salivation = taught response Says Fido: “It’s a natural thang!” Says Fido: “There’s just something about that bell!” Operant Conditioning (The ABC’s) A = Antecedent (stimulus) B = Behavior C = Consequence What’s That Again? A = what happened before the behavior? B = behavior to decrease or increase C = what happened as a result of the behavior that will make it more or less likely to happen again Functional Behavior Assessment “A systematic method of assessment for getting information about the purposes (functions) a problem behavior serves for a person. Results are used to guide the design of an intervention for decreasing the problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior.” Cooper, Heron, & Heward (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River; New Jersey 07458. It’s All About Reinforcement If it happens when the person is alone . . . It’s probably automatic reinforcement. If it happens when people are around . . . It’s probably attention reinforcement. If it happens when the person is asked to do things he doesn’t like to do . . . It’s probably escape reinforcement. If it happens when the person is told he can’t do or have something he wants . . . It’s probably tangible reinforcement. Four Primary Functions for Behavior Automatic (sensory stimulation or pain attenuation) Attention Escape Tangible Types of Formal Assessment Anecdotal Questionnaires, Interviews, Checklists Does not involve direct observation of the behavior Descriptive Documentation of behavior and environmental events Scatterplots, ABC reports Direct observation of behavior and environment but no direct manipulation of either Experimental Analysis Highly valid, but difficult, intrusive, contrived Anecdotal Functional Assessment Structured approaches to gathering information from parents, teachers, caregivers, and in some cases, the individual whose behavior is assessed. Questions About Behavioral Function (Paclawskyj et al., 1996) Functional Assessment Interview (O’Neill et al., 1997) Behavioral Diagnosis and Treatment Information Form (Bailey & Pyles, 1989 Stimulus Control Checklist (Rolider & Van Houten, 1993) Motivation Assessment Scale (http://www.monacoassociates.com/mas/aboutmas.html) Functional Assessment Screening Tool (Iwata, et al., 1998) Motivation Assessment Scale (Durand & Crimmins, 1992) Assesses functions of sensory/automatic, escape, attention and tangible reinforcement 16 questions (4 for each of 4 functions), 7-point scale from always to never Question example: “Does the behavior seem to occur in response to your talking to other persons in the room? (attention) Problem Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) (Lewis, Scott, & Sugai, 1994) Assesses functions of peer attention, teacher attention, escape/avoid teacher attention, and assessment of setting events (factors that make occurrence of behavior more likely) Questions have a 7-point range from least to most Statement example: “When the problem behavior occurs, do peers verbally respond to or laugh at the student? (peer attention) Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST) (Iwata & DeLeon, 1996) Assesses functions of social reinforcement (attention, preferred items), social reinforcement (escape), automatic reinforcement by sensory stimulation, automatic reinforcement by pain attenuation Answer “yes” or “no” as to whether statements are descriptive Question example: “When the behavior occurs, do you usually try to calm the person down or distract the person with preferred activities (leisure items, snacks, etc)? (social reinforcement of attention, preferred items) Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) (Paclawskyj, Matson, Rush, Smalls, & Vollmer, 2000) Assesses functions of attention, escape, nonsocial, physical, tangible Statements with a 4-point range Statement example: “Participant engages in the behavior to try to get a reaction from you. (attention) Descriptive Functional Assessment Direct observation of problem behavior and the antecedents and consequences under naturally occurring conditions. ABC (Antecedent->Behavior->Consequence) Charts Continuous observation Scatterplots ABC Continuous Recording Antecedent Behavior Task prompt/instruction Attention diverted Social interaction Tantrum Engaged in preferred activity Aggression Preferred activity removed Alone (no attention/activities) Consequence Social attention Reprimand Preferred item Task Removed Task Demand Attention diverted Experimental Analysis A natural science approach to the study of behavior as a subject matter in its own right founded by B.F. Skinner. Methods include: rate of response as a basic dependent variable, repeated or continuous measurement of clearly defined response classes, within-subject experimental comparisons instead of group design, visual analysis of graphed data instead of statistical inference, and emphasis on describing functional relations between behavior and controlling variables in the environment over formal theory testing. Experimental Analysis Commonly referred to as “analog” experimental analysis, meaning that . . . The assessment conditions are analogous to those operating in the natural environment, except that . . . These conditions are designed to reduce the “extraneous noise” that makes it so difficult to identify functional relationships in the natural environment (hence, contrived). Analog assessments are considered “state of the science,” a standard against which other types of assessment are typically compared. Analog Experimental Analysis Four environmental conditions are created: Alone: barren environment, no consequences Attention: therapist/leisure materials, therapist pays attention following challenging behavior Demand: therapist presents task, task terminated following challenging behavior Play: therapist/leisure materials, no demands, no consequences Function Determines Treatment When the function is: Attention – intervene with as little attention as possible; pay much more attention for wanted behavior Escape - don’t use time out or withdraw/change expectations at least until appropriate request for escape is made Tangible – allow person to get what they want only after appropriate request/behavior, or offer suitable alternative Automatic/Sensory - provide & reinforce acceptable ways to get satisfaction or incompatible activity Functional Behavior Assessment “A systematic method of assessment for getting information about the purposes (functions) a problem behavior serves for a person. Results are used to guide the design of an intervention for decreasing the problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior.” Cooper, Heron, & Heward (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2 nd ed.). Pearson Education, In c. Upper Saddle River; New Jersey 0 7 458. Replacement Behavior It is not enough to eliminate problem behavior. Problem behavior must be replaced with functionally equivalent behavior. Replacement Behavior If Johnny can’t get attention by hitting his peers, how can he get attention? If Johnny can’t escape noise by hitting his head, how can he escape noise? If Johnny can’t get what he wants (tangible) by stealing it, how can he get what he wants? If Johnny can’t get oral gratification (automatic or sensory) by hand-mouthing, how can he get oral gratification? Functional Assessment Steps (Simplified Version) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify problem behavior. (B) Identify antecedents & consequences. (A & C) Identify function of behavior. Implement functionally equivalent intervention that includes functionally equivalent replacement behavior. Take data to measure responses. Did the problem behavior decrease? Did the replacement behavior increase? Case Study: Brian 13 years old Pervasive developmental delay Oppositional defiant disorder Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Displayed aggression, property destruction, tantrums Bruised teacher and disrupted classroom Cooper, Heron, & Heward (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River; New Jersey 07458. Results of ABC Assessment for Brian Antecedent: Adult attention diverted to another student; denied access to Nintendo by teacher Behavior: Yelled at teacher, “That’s not fair! Why do you hate me?!” Consequence: Told to “calm down.” Results of ABC Assessment for Brian Antecedent: Teacher attending to another student Behavior: Hit sofa, attempted to leave classroom Consequence: Given choice of activity and verbal warning to stay in classroom Results of ABC Assessment for Brian Antecedent: Teacher attention diverted to another student Behavior: Yelled, “Stop!” at another student Consequence: Reprimand from teacher: “Don’t worry, Brian. I will take care of it.” Results of ABC Assessment for Brian Antecedent: Class instructed to work independently at their seats on math homework for 20 minutes. Behavior: Asked to go to the bathroom, then engaged in tantrum behavior when told to finish math first. Consequence: Given choice of other activities Hypothesis Statements for Brian When adult or peer attention is diverted from Brian, he engages in a variety of problem behaviors, which result in attention from adults and peers. Hypothesized function: attention from adults and peers. Hypothesis Statements for Brian When Brian’s access to preferred toys and activities is restricted, he engages in a variety of problem behaviors, which result in gaining access to preferred toys and activities. Hypothesized function: Gain access to preferred toys and activities (tangible function). Hypothesis Statements for Brian When Brian is required to perform difficult or undesirable tasks, he engages in a variety of problem behaviors, which result in the tasks being removed. Hypothesized function: Escape from difficult and/or non-preferred tasks. Interventions for Attention Function When adult or peer attention is diverted from Brian, he will raise his hand and say, “Excuse me . . .” and adults and peers will provide attention to Brian. Intervention: Teach a new behavior Interventions for Attention Function During independent work times, adults will provide attention to Brian every 5 minutes to increase the probability that Brian will appropriately work independently, which will increase adult opportunities to praise and attend to appropriate behavior. Intervention: Change the antecedent. Intervention for Tangible Function When Brian’s access to preferred toys and activities is restricted, he will say, “Can I have that back, please?” and the teacher will provide access to preferred toys and activities. Intervention: Teach a new behavior. Interventions for Escape Function When Brian is required to perform a difficult or undesirable task, he will say, “May I take a break now?” and the teacher will allow Brian to take a break from the task. Intervention: Teach a new behavior. Interventions for Escape Function When Brian is required to perform difficult or undesirable tasks and he engages in a variety of problem behaviors, he will be required to continue working on the task and the time-out intervention will be discontinued. Intervention: Change the reinforcement contingency. How Do I Know What’s Happening? Reinforcement Punishment Occurs when whatever happens immediately after/as a result of a behavior increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions. Occurs when whatever happens immediately after/as a result of a behavior decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions. Say What? Often, when treatment is working, the behavior gets worse before it gets better. E X T I N C T I ON D I S C O N T I N U AT I O N O F A R E I N F O RC EM E N T O F A P R E V I O U S L Y R E I N F O RC ED B E H A V I O R E X T I N C T I ON B U R S T A N I N C R E A S E I N T H E F R E Q U E NC Y O F A BEHAVI O R W HEN EXTI NC TI ON I S INITIATED Reinforcement vs Bribe Reinforcement Earned by the child for appropriate behavior AFTER she emits the behavior. Bribe Given or promised to the child to induce her to stop inappropriate behavior BEFORE she stops the behavior. Who’s Getting Reinforced Now? IF YELLING IS WHAT WORKS, WHY IS IT NOT OK? Welcome to Adulthood Parenting, Teaching, Coaching Be lovingly in charge (firm not angry). You make the rules, not the child. It takes planning ahead, paying attention to what’s happening, and consistency. The job lasts for the duration. You can do it!
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