Traditional Medicine in Turkey VII. Folk Medicine in Middle and... Author(s): Tetsuro Fujita, Ekrem Sezik, Mamoru Tabata, Erdem Yeşilada, Gisho...

Traditional Medicine in Turkey VII. Folk Medicine in Middle and West Black Sea Regions
Author(s): Tetsuro Fujita, Ekrem Sezik, Mamoru Tabata, Erdem Yeşilada, Gisho Honda, Yoshio
Takeda, Toshihiro Tanaka and Yoshihisa Takaishi
Source: Economic Botany, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1995), pp. 406-422
Published by: Springer on behalf of New York Botanical Garden Press
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TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN TURKEY VII.
FOLK MEDICINE IN MIDDLE AND
WEST BLACK SEA REGIONS'
TETSURO FUJITA, EKREM SEZIK,2 MAMORU TABATA, ERDEM YE?ILADA,
GISHO HONDA, YOSHIo TAKEDA, TOSHIHIRO TANAKA, AND
YOSHIHISA TAKAISHI
Sezik, Ekrem,YeEilada, Erdem(Gazi University,Facultyof Pharmacy,Ankara06330, Turkey),
Fujita, Tetsuro, Tabata, Mamoru, Honda, Gisho (Kyoto University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Kyoto 606), Tanaka, Toshihiro (Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu), Takeda, Yoshio
(TokushimaUniversity,Facultyof IntegratedArtsand Sciences),and Takaishi,Yoshihisa(Tokushima University,Faculty of PharmaceuticalSciences, Tokushima,Japan). TRADITIONAL
MEDICINEIN TURKEY VII. FOLK MEDICINEIN MIDDLE AND WEST BLACKSEA REGIONS. Economic
Botany 49(4):406-422, 1995. Traditionalmedicinein the middleand westBlack Sea regions:
Amasya, Bilecik,Bolu, (7ankiri,Samsun, Sinop and Tokatprovinceshas been studiedand 194
remediesobtainedfrom 96 plant and 5 animal speciesare compiled. Vernacularnames,parts
used, methodsof preparation,and medicinalusages are listed.
Tiirkiye'de Geleneksel Tababet VII. Orta ve Bati Karadeniz B6lgelerinde Halk Ilaglan. Orta
veBati KaradenizBolgelerindeAmasya,Bilecik,Bolu, (7ankirt,Samsun,Sinopve Tokatillerinde
halk tababetiincelenerek,96'si bitkiselve 5'i hayvansalolmak uzere 194 halk ilaci tespitedilmi4tir.Kullanilanmateryalinmahalli ismi, tedavidekullanilankisimlari,ilacin hazirlanq sekli
ve tedavidekikullandhqamaci ile ilgili bilgilerliste halinde verilmi4tir.
Key Words:
traditional medicine; Turkey; Black Sea region; north Anatolia.
allel with the topographic change, the climate
also shows variation and the heavy average annual rainfalls prevalent in the eastern parts, 2000
mm, which lessen in the west of Ordu, 500 mm,
(except in the far western part of the subdivision,
average precipitation 1000 mm).
We have already reported that the East Black
Sea region is poor in folk medicine in spite of
the rich flora, partly because of the economically
important tea and hazelnut cultivation (Sezik et
al. 1991). On the other hand, the agricultural as
well as industrial development has not been fully
realized in the middle and west regions of the
Black Sea subdivision, so that the socio-economical situation is greatly different from that of the
east region.
Little has been documented on the folk medicine of the west and the middle regions of the
' Received 3 February1995;accepted14 June 1995.
2
Correspondanceto: E. Sezik, Gazi Universitesi, Black Sea subdivision, except for the use of folk
Eczacilik Fakiiltesi, Hipodrom 06330, Ankara, Tur- medicine in the coastal provinces, Kastamonu
(Sezik, Zor, and Ye?ilada 1992) and the ethnokey.
The northern part of Anatolia by the Black Sea
is called Black Sea subdivision or North Anatolia. Since this subdivision comprises lengthwise areas showing differences in topographic
features, climate, ethnic origin, socio-economical welfare, etc., it seems reasonable to divide it
into east, middle, and west Black Sea regions.
High and continuous mountain ranges, which are
parallel to the coastal line in the eastern part of
Black Sea region (highest peak 3932 m, Ka9kar
Mountain), spread out from Ordu to the west,
where the highest peaks are set back from the
coast and the mean altitude declines. Several rivers (Kizilirmak, Ye?illrmak) run into the Black
Sea from the plateau, facilitating the infiltration
of coastal climate into the interior parts. In par-
Economic Botany 49(4) pp. 406-422. 1995
? 1995, by The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458 U.S.A.
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407
FUJITA ET AL.: FOLK MEDICINEIN TURKEY
1995]
8~~~~~LACK
SEA
|
f1
BOYABAT
S
16
OSMANCI%
BOL
|
9 10KIBRISCIK
GOLPAZAR1
k
2
GEEDE
sANIR
AMAyA
)
-
TA*VA
28
TORUMKA
SAICAKAYA
Fig. 1. Route of survey in the region and collection sites of the information. Numbers referringto the
2. BILECIK,S6giit,
collection sites of the informationare as follows; 1. ESKISEHIR,Saricakaya,Dagkiupliu,
Harmankaya,3. BILECIK,Boziuyuik,
Goyniicek,4. BILECIK,S6giit,Kepen, 5. BILECIK,Merkez,Deresakarya,
6. BILECIK,Golpazan,Dogancilar,7. BOLU, Dortdivan,YukariSayik,8. BOLU,Gerede,Ye?ilvadi,9. BOLU,
Seben, ?eltikdere, 10. BOLU, Kibriscik,Alanhimmetler,11. fANKIRI, Merkez,A,agi Pelitozii, 12. SINOP,
Merkez,Sazli, 13. SINOP, Dikmen, Babalioglu,14. SINOP, Boyabat,Akgakese,15. SINOP, Duragan,Sariyar,
16. SINOP, Duragan,Beyardic, 17. SAMSUN, Vezirkoprii,Karakoy, 18. SAMSUN, Vezirk6prui,Sofular, 19.
SAMSUN,Vezirk6prii,YukariNarli, 20. SAMSUN, Vezirkoprii,Daricayalani,21. (;ORUM, Osmancik,Zeytin,
22. TOKAT, Merkez,Sircali,23. TOKAT, Merkez,(erdigin, 24. TOKAT, Merkez,Tahtaoba,25. AMASYA,
Tasova,Destek, 26. AMASYA,Merkez,Kale,27. AMASYA,Merkez,Beldag,28. AMASYA,Merkez,Yuvakoy.
botanical utilization of plants in Akdag mountain in Amasya province (Alpinar 1979).
In the present report, in addition to plant drugs
used in the middle (Samsun, Sinop, Amasya, Tokat, (;orum, (;ankin) and the west (Bolu) Black
Sea regions, those in Eski?ehir (Central Anatolia
subdivision), and Bilecik (Marmara subdivision)
are also described in consideration of their geographical features (the areas studied are geographically included in west Black Sea subdivision).
METHODOLOGY
Detailed methodology for the field survey of
folk medicine has been described elsewhere (Sezik et al. 1991). Briefly, information was collected by interviewing with rural people in selected places. Field studies were performed in 28
villages which were selected from among differ-
ent parts of the subdivision (Fig. 1). Informants
were then asked to guide us to the places where
these plants grew or to bring the drug they use.
In order to eliminate information of secondary
sources,informantswerealso askedforthe source
of their knowledge.When a groupof informants
gave differentanswers to the medicinal use or
the local name of a plant, they were asked to
discussthe matterthoroughlyamongthemselves
to decide which statementwas reliable. Further
efforts were made to double-check any information provided by asking the opinion of older
people in neighboringvillages. Voucher specimens were preparedand numberedin dublicates
and stored in the Herbariumof Facultyof Pharmacy, Gazi University, and the Herbariumof
MedicinalPlantGarden,Kyoto University.Taxonomic determinationswere performedby Sezik, Ye?iladaand Honda (co-authors).
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TABLE 1.
FOLKMEDICINEIN MIDDLE AND WEST BLACKSEA REGIONS;SINOP, SAMSUN, TOKAT, AMASYA, 5ANKIRI
Plant name
Local namea
Fungi
Langermannia sp.
puslek
Anacardiaceae
Rhus coriaria L.
Aspidiaceae
Polysticum aculeatum (L.)
Roth.
Berberidaceae
Berberis crataegina DC.
Localityb
Partsc used
Use an
3
WP
hoskulak
21
WP
tozkulak
porsuk
19
4
WP
WP
As desiccant for
powdered [91A
As desiccant for
[93C018]
As desiccant for
To stop bleeding
5
LF
For gastric ulcer,
tetire
egralti
12, 13
HB
Against abdomin
[91D047]
kizamtk dikeni
14
RT
Against anal fistu
taken 3 times
As anthelmintic
karamuk
24
RT
Betulaceae
Coryllus avelana L.
yabani findik
15, 16
LF
For sunstroke; ex
covered with f
Boraginaceae
Echium italicum L.
kesikotu
19
RB
havaciva
23
RT
For wound heali
roasted in a pa
[93C008]
For wound heali
a pan and roas
muslin to obta
sultanotu
3
Caprifoliaceae
Sambucus ebulus L.
yiiyuin = yetiin
13
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LF, RT
LF
Against rheumat
fire and applie
dried leaves ca
roots are prefe
being pounded
effective [90D0
Against rheumat
fire and applie
TABLE 1.
Local namea
Plant name
ivdinotu
25
LF
iyidiin
12
LF
14
LF
gilaburu
17
24
22
LF
LF
FR
ayvadana
3
yava?ana
=
=
igdenotu
yiyden
patlangu=
6ziibiiyiik
Use and
Partsc used
LF
yidinotu
Compositae
Achillea setacea
Waldst. & Kit
Anthemis austriaca Jacq.
A. cotula L.
LoCalityb
23
yigdin
Sambucus nigra L.
Viburnum opulus L.
CONTINUED.
Against rheumati
a large boiler w
Juniperus sp. tr
treated by bath
Against rheumati
ty 23 [91D184]
Against rheumati
salt and garlic
Against rheumati
For abscesses (for
plied on absces
For hemorrhoids;
For prostatitis; in
As hypoglycaemic
int, dec [91D19
FL + HB
For stomachache;
For abdominal p
Against pneumon
cooked togethe
and T. polium,
of Urtica dioica
poultice and ap
Against stomacha
[91D087]
Against stomacha
akba?otu
koyungozu
5
24
FL
FL
papatya
26
HB
A. tinctoria L.
papatya
26
HB
Arctium minus (L.) Bernh.
ssp. minus
kocaot = kokarot
9
LF
[91D141]
kabalak
14, 15
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LF
For rheumatic pa
is treated with
prepared by bo
ate rheumatic p
fection of sunst
child, is covere
ver [91A 175]
For sunstroke; ex
and applied on
broad leaves of
TABLE 1.
Plant name
Local namea
Centaureasoistitialis L.
ssp. solstitialis
Helichrysumplicatum DC.
H. plicatum DC.
ssp. plicatum
OnopordumturcicumDanin.
Localityb
Partsc used
buyiikkabalak
aclkabalak
20
17
LF
LF
9aklrdikeni
11
SD
sanlik qiqegi
yayla 9igegi
yayla aicegi
4
27, 28
27
22
FL
FL
HB
FL
kangaldikeni
24
5
HB
SD
SD
kizilcik
13
FR
kirencikek?isi*
17
FR
zogal = kiren
26
SD
kocakavkas= ba?kavkas
Silybum marianum(L.)
Gaertner.
Cornaceae
Cornus mas L.
CONTINUED.
Use and
For sunstroke;e
Against inflamm
on inflammat
Against herpes i
roasted and ap
Againstjaundic
To pass kidney
For wound heal
For piles on han
[91D108]
For hemorrhoid
For hemorrhoid
For shortnessof
boiled in wate
Against diarrhe
[93C024]
For sunstroke;e
sack and sque
This pulp is s
then covered
[93C016]
For intestinal pa
[91D182]
Crassulaceae
Sempervivumarmenum
Boiss. & Huet. var. armenum
Cruciferae
Brassica oleraceaL.
var. capitata L.
temreotu
kelem
keremotu
13
LF
To remove war
juice [91D058
7
LF
To reduce inflam
barley flour, b
For maturation
ter heated on
For maturation
and mixed wi
Against abdomi
applied on ab
For maturation
22, 26
LF
23
LF
24
LF
25
LF
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TABLE1. CONTINUED.
Plant name
Local namea
Cucurbitaceae
Bryonia alba L.
Ecbalium elaterium A. Rich.
Localityb
Partsc used
Use and
ulungiil = ilengul
acidivlek
26
5
RT
FR
For hemorrhoid
Againstjaundice
r,tlanbuk = yabani kavun
26
FR
Againstjaundice
[91A148]
[91D085]
Cupressaceae
Juniperuscommunis L.
ardig, ardiggugucu*
22
FR
For cough, pain,
ardi, katranl*
karaardig= dikenardtci
22
26
TR
FR
Againstscabies,
For common col
ardt, giligilisi*
dikenli ardi9 evi*
4
12
FR
FR
5
TR
For common col
For hemorrhoid
For dysurea;int,
For maturationo
tion of tar with
ed in a pan an
or tar is direct
sanardic, sanardigevi*
8
14
TR
FR
Againstcolds (fo
For bronchitis,c
karakatran*
tikenardici
15
27
TR
FR
To ease cough; in
For anal fistula;
ssp. nana
[91D1 9]
J. exelsa Bieb.
[91D088]
J. oxycedrusL.
ardic katranl*
[91A187]
[91D025]
Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnus angustifoliaL.
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiastricta L.
E. amygdaloidesL.
var. amygdaloides
Gramineae
Hordeum vulgareL.
Zea mays L.
[91D094]
igde
10
RB
For dysurea;int,
sutlegen
14
LX
siutlegen
14
LX
To clean the spr
[91D021]
To clean the spr
[91D022]
arpa
misir
misir piiskiilu
4
27
27
FR
SD
ST
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For common col
For hemorrhoid
To pass kidney s
TABLE 1.
Local namea
Plant name
Juglandaceae
Juglans regia L.
ceviz
CONTINUED.
Localityb
Use and
Partsc used
2
8
9
FR1
FR'
LF
Against malaria;
Against rheumat
Against fever; ex
clothed patien
10
22
LF
LF
12, 15
16, 17
LF
Against rheumat
For rheumaticpa
used as bath [9
For sunstroke;ex
with the fresh
9
17
HB
HB
Against stomach
For sunstroke;ex
of Cornusmas
For wound heali
with the resin
wax, mixture i
It is applied ev
to 10 days [91
Against rheumat
are boiled with
talis "kiqkiran
both men and
For hemorrhoid
For swellings on
Against pneumo
[91A193]
Labiatae
Mentha longifoliaL.
Mentha sp.
e?eknanesi
sunanesi
[93C006]
Salvia aethiopsisL.
kizillik
7
RT
Salvia tomentosaMiller
?abla
4
HB
TeucriumchamaedrysL.
mayasilotu
7
23
24
HB
HB
HB
kisacikmahmut
crium chamaed
thea setosa, he
cotula, herbs o
T. polium L.
kisamahmut
koyunotu
4
24
HB
HB
pare a poultice
For common col
For abdominal p
chewed or dec
Against pneumo
above for T. ch
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TABLE1. CONTINUED.
Plant name
Local namea
Thymus longicaulis C. Presl.
keklikotu
Localityb
3
Partsc used
HB
ssp. longicaulis
var. subisophyllus
Use an
For stomachache;
[90D048]
T. transcaucasicus
Ronniger
T. zygioides Griseb.
kekik
7
HB
For common cold
kekik
4
HB
For stomachache;
var. lycaonicus
Leguminosae
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Vicia ervilea (L.) Willd.
V. faba L.
buyan
burvak
karafasulye
11
I
13
RT
SD
LF
For stomachache,
To ease cough, b
For maturation o
heated on fire
Liliaceae
Allium cepa L.
sogan
12
13
BU
BU
A. porrum L.
pirasa
10
BU
A. sativum L.
sanmsak
9
BU
hiizmek yapragi
12
19
BU
LF
For maturation o
For maturation o
a pan for a sho
then applied on
As hypoglycaemic
and 1 to 2 glas
[93C034]
Against rheumati
legs, joints [93C
Against worms; i
For wound healin
sagrek
23
SD
For maturation o
milk [91D128]
Smilax sp.
Linaceae
Linum usitatissimum L.
Loranthaceae
Arceuthobiumoxycedri
pardaburcu
HB
As panacea;int,
(D.C.) Bieb.
Viscum album L. ssp. album
9alurga burcu
kusbumu g6k9esi
kusburnu k6k9esi
9, 10
22
23
HB
HB
HB
For abdominal p
For hemorrhoids;
For hemorrhoids;
devegiilu
24
FL + LF
Against pneumon
Malvaceae
Alcea setosa (Boiss.) Alef.
6
cooked togeth
and T. polium
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TABLE1. CONTINUED.
Localnamea
Plant name
Localityb
Use and
PartsCused
themis cotula,
preparea poul
[91D148]
Malva neglecta Wallr.
ebegiimeci
3
LF
M. nicaeenais All.
ebegiumeci
14
24
LF
HB
For maturationo
poultice is app
For abdominalp
For abdominal p
to obtain a pou
Againstpneumo
setosa
Moraceae
Ficus carica L.
Morus nigra L.
yemis
dut pekmezi*
1, 2
1
LX
FR
For scorpionbite
Againststomach
juice is drunk
BK
To cure baldness
mixed with un
tained is appli
To treatherpes i
condensedfru
gargle[91DI86]
[9ODO55]
karadut
26
FR
Oleaceae
Olea europea L.
zeytin
Papaveraceae
Chelidoniummajus L.
Pinaceae
Abies bommiillerianaMattf.
-
kiunarsakizi
8
FR
To remove an ob
[93C037]
13
SS
Againstpains; ex
7
RE
Againststomach
[91A184]
8
9
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RE
RE
For wound heali
ed root of Salv
mixtureis then
appliedevery d
days
For wound heali
For maturationo
are filled in a h
TABLE1. CONTINUED.
Plant name
Pinus nigra Am.
Local namea
used
ctusedUseands]Pasc
Use and
15
7
7
I
RE
FR
IB
RE
an onion and t
The fingerwith
there for 3 to 5
For wound healin
For common cold
Against stomach
For maturationo
10
RE
For maturationo
7
RE
Against stomach
karacamsaklzi*
13
RE
cam yalamigl*
cam soymugu*
7
12
IB
IB
For cough, bronc
one spoonful is
Against stomach
To pass worms, a
14
IB
As panacea, for t
cam katrani*
karacam
8
8
25
10
13
YS
FR
FR
TR
RT
Against rheumat
Against hemorrh
Against worms, a
For maturationo
Against bronchit
bark, cut into s
and drunk as te
yam, gam pisesi*
23, 27
RE
For wound healin
beeswax and bu
cam, gam saklzi*
22
RE
For common cold
boiled in milk,
taze cam gugucu*
22
FR
9am piirii*
27
TR
For common cold
eaten while fre
For rheumatic pa
us sp. "ardic pi
boiled together
treated by bath
kunar kozalaikgl*
kiinar yalamigt*
cam saklzl*
ssp. pallasiana
body; ext [90D0
[91A205]
[91A186]
[91D188]
[91D192]
cam filizi*
gam kozalagt*
P. sylvestris L.
stomach [91D18
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TABLE 1.
Plant name
Local namea
P. major L
ssp. intermedia
P. major L. ssp. major
Plumbaginaceae
Plumbago europeaL.
Polygonaceae
Rheum sp.
Rumex pulcherL.
LoCalityb
Partsc used
Use an
23
YS
For tuberculosis
L of water and
taken orally ev
3
LF
hava yapragi
23
LF
siyilotu = baga yapragi
bagotu
24
26
LF
LF
duvarula
27
LF
siyilotu
sinirli kabalak
siyilyaprai
bey yapragi
7
17, 18, 20
13, 14
22
LF
LF
LF
LF
sinirlibey yapragi
21
LF
For maturationo
heated on fire
For maturationo
butter and app
For maturationo
For maturationo
gastric ulcer, st
honey and tak
For maturationo
For gastric ulcer
For maturationo
For maturationo
For maturationo
For maturationo
[91D110]
For cuts; ext, fre
RT, LF
For eczema on h
13
25
26
LF
SD
SD
For maturationo
For hemorrhoid
For bronchitis;in
[91D084]
gam
Plantaginaceae
Plantago lanceolataL.
CONTINUED.
sinirotu
mayasilotu
ciikiindiirmancart
akiufelik
efelik
2
Punicaceae
Punica granatum L.
nar
7
FR
For hemorrhoid
fruit is dried a
preparepills. T
nally to stop b
can be used fo
Ranunculaceae
Anemone narcissifloraL.
mayisriqegi
7
HB
To reduce inflam
are pounded a
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TABLE 1.
Plant name
Local namea
CONTINUED.
Localityb
Partsc used
Use and
kihklranotu yelotu
4
RT
boscuotu
6
RT
bohcaotu
8
RT
For edema in leg
Ranunculusarvensis L.
R. muricatus L.
sanpitrak
yakiotu
4
3
FL
HB
R. repens L.
mayisotu
22
HB
tiktikdana
25
FL
To drainthe edem
Againstrheumat
joints for less t
Against rheumat
applied on join
To drain a yellow
are applied on
Helleborusorientalis Lam.
Againstedema in
piece of root w
into a hole pun
flammationin
insertedinside
For edema in leg
boiled with two
used as bath fo
roots may be u
[91A206]
[91A210]
RosaceaeZ
Cydonia oblonga Miller
ayva
2, 3
LF
For common cold
10, 13
[91A211, 91A2
Malus communis Poir.
Potentilla reptans L.
elma
yllancikotu
27
14
FR
HB
For dyspepsia,to
Againstedema, r
Prunus avivum L.
kirazq6pu
26
SK
is pounded [91
As diuretic; int, d
P. mahlep L.
mehlep
23
LF
P. persica (L.) Batsch.
Pyrus eleagnifolia Pallas
ssp. elaeagnifolia
P. malus L.
tiltamsak
96rdiik
2
23
LF
FR
acuk, acuk pekmezi
acuk = elma azmasi
k6pek dikeni
25
26
4
FR
FR
FR, RT
Rosa canina L.
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For high fever;ex
milk or yoghur
lies naked on a
shine for persp
To stop bleeding
For diarrhea;int,
For sunstroke,as
As hypoglycaem
Against hemorrh
[91A199]
TABLE 1.
Plant name
Local namea
CONTINUED.
Localityb
Partsc used
Use and
For anal hemorr
Againstitching o
burnedand oil
plied on skin a
which causes it
As hypoglycaem
tea [91D118]
As hypoglycaem
kusburnu
22
23
RT
BR
Rubus hirtus Waldst & Kit.
dagdevegi
22
RT
R. sanctus L.
Salicaceae
Populus usbekistanicaKom.
ssp. usbekistanica
b6guirtlen
23
RT, BR
servi kavagi
10
BK
Againsttoothach
interiorpart of
caviety [91A21
Scrophulariaceae
Veronicaanagallis-aquaticaL.
karaot
7
HB
For abdominal p
herbs are said
milk to obtain
for abdominal
alleviate rheum
Solanaceae
Datura metel L.
Hyoscyamus niger L.
tatala
dipgnsiotu
3
3
SD
SD
di?otu
24
SD
batbit
26
SD
7
SD
8
SD
12
SD
Againsthemorrh
For toothache;e
fumes are inha
caused by a wo
To expel worms
way as describ
For worms in to
scribedabove
For pain in eyes
eyes are expos
which have a w
tient's eyes suf
rememberthe
For pain in eyes
posed to the v
worms causin
For eye itching,
embers and co
gozotu
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TABLE 1.
Plant name
Local namea
Lycopersicon esculentum L.
Thymelaceaea
Daphne oleoides Schreber.
Tiliaceae
Tilia rubra DC.
Ulmus minor Miller
ssp. minor
Umbelliferae
Coriandrum sativum L.
Urticaceae
Urtica dioica L.
U. pilulifera L.
U. urens L.
Localityb
Partsc used
Use and
are exposed to
strikes his head
To pass worms f
tail fat of sheep
posed to vapou
For maturation o
some sugar an
kumaclkotu
23
SD
domates
13
FR
6
RT
For malaria; int,
12, 25
14
27
FL
FL
FL
For common col
For cough; int, in
For common col
9, 10
RT
For fractured bo
densed to prep
a wrongly repa
bone to fix aga
To relax the mus
ease fixing of d
coban siipiirgesi
ihlamur
sastivi = sasshivi
Ulmaceae
Ulmus glabra Hudson
CONTINUED.
karaagac
karaagac
ki?ni?
dicirgen
=
isirgan
26
RB
3
FR
For stomachache
9
HB
For rheumatic p
tice is applied
As hypoglycaemi
For rheumatic p
Against snake bi
[91D133, 91D2
For rheumatic p
For hemorrhoids
For hemorrhoids
the patient suf
the poultice
For rheumatic p
For rheumatic p
isirgan
13
22
23, 28
HB
HB
HB
jincari
isirgan
27
5
HB
RT
HB
dicirgen
isirgan
7
26
HB
HB
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TABLE1. CONTINUED.
Local namea
Plant name
Localityb
ParIsc used
Use and
For hemorrhoid
wash anal fistula
Verbenaceae
VerbenaofficinalisL.
kangrenotu
24
HB
As antiseptic for
wounds, replac
Vitaceae
Vitis viniferaL.
devek = uziim qib1g1*
26
ST
For inflammed g
is applied on g
Animal
cattle
davar fi?kisi*
4
FE
For common col
is roasted and
is laid.
To treat anal fist
To treat anal fist
For sunstroke;ex
interior part of
freshly sacrific
For swelling on h
part is immedi
and hand is in
the patient sits
men to treat an
it is ineffective
hedgehog
turtle
sheep
kirpi
tosbaga
koyunderisi*
8, 14
14
17
MT
BL
FS
wildpork
domuz
20
WH
a In this column mainly local names of the vegetable or animal drugs are given. If more than one local name is used for the same material, names are separated
the vernacular name of the used part of vegetable/or animal drug is indicated. For example, "kssilcsk ek?sss" is the local name of the concentrated juice of Comus
b Numbers referring to the collection sites of information are given under Figure 1.
c Parts used: BL, blood; BU, bulbs; BK, stem barks; BR, branches; FE, feces; FL, flowers; FR, fruits; FS, fresh skin; HB, herbs; IB, interior bark of the stem; LF
RT, roots; SD, seeds; SK, stalks; SS, stem sap; ST, styles; TR, tar; WH, whole animal; YS, young shoots.
d Application: dec, decoction; ext, externally; inf, infusion; int, internally; +, together with; X, hybrid of; /, or.
'Immature fresh fruits.
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1995]
FUJITA ET AL.: FOLK MEDICINE IN TURKEY
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data obtained from field surveys conducted in
the selected sites of the subdivision are summarized in Table 1. Only the plants which could
have been identified taxonomically are listed in
the table with the Latin name, vernacular name,
locality, part used, preparation of remedy and
usage under their respective families which are
arranged alphabetically. If different vernacular
names are given for a plant specimen, data are
also classified according to their vernacular
names. Those plants that could not be fully identified for lack of botanical elements are not mentioned here, but elsewhere (Tabata et al. 1993).
Of 194 remedies originating from 96 plant species belonging to 41 families and 5 animals, 97
(50%) are recorded here for the first time as Turkish folk medicine (Sezik et al. 1991, 1992; Tabata
et al. 1994; Yeqilada et al. 1993a and literature
cited in these papers). Furthermore, 78 of 143
vernacular names (54.5%) of medicinal plants in
Table 1 are also cited for the first time here.
The largest number of plant species (49 species) are used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal ailments i.e., stomachache, abdominal pain,
hemorrhoids, ulcers, and diarrhea. On the other
hand, 41 species are used to palliate skin problems such as abscess, wounds, eczema, and swelling. Other common ailments treated with plant
remedies are: 34 species for respiratory system
affections (cough, bronchitis, common cold,
pneumonia), 20 species for inflammatory ailments (rheumatism, erysipelas), 15 species for
fever and pains; and 13 species for transmitted
diseases (herpes, malaria, tuberculosis, jaundice).
As shown in Table 1, the most widely used
medicinal plants in these regions are two subspecies of Plantago major, which have been
quoted in 12 localities with 10 different vernacular names but for the same utilization. This is
followed by Juglans regia, which is used in 9
localities with the same vernacular name to palliate rheumatic pain or to alleviate fever in sunstroke or malaria, and by three species of Urtica
which are used in 8 localities to alleviate rheumatic pain. Members of Coniferae order are also
used frequently for the treatment of various disorders: three Juniperus species (Cupressaceae) in
9 localities, two Pinus species and one Abies species (Pinaceae) in 11 localities. Rosaceous plants
are used frequently as herbal remedies; 11 species
421
from 7 genera are used for various disorders.
This is followed in frequency by composites, 10
species from 7 genera.
At a village in Amasya (locality 27) where the
ancestors of the inhabitants migrated from Georgia about 100 years ago, we found that not only
the vernacular names but also the utilization of
some plants was completely different from those
in the neighboring villages. If a plant growing in
the vicinity was known in Georgia, the plant bore
its Georgian name when used for the same purpose as in Georgia. A locally used plant unknown
to them in Georgia was called by its Turkish
name. For this reason, some utilizations and vernacular names are similar to those reported in
our previous paper resulting from our interview
with a Georgian old woman practitioner living
in a village in the east Black Sea region near the
border of Georgia (Sezik et al. 1991). For example, in this village the fresh leaves of Plantago
major are used externally for the maturation of
abscess in inflammatory wounds as it is practised
throughout Anatolia, but the dried leaves of the
same plant are mixed with honey and taken orally for a unique treatment of gastric ulcers. Interestingly, the same utilization is also observed
in the neighboring village (locality 26), but plants
were called by a Turkish name. It is known that
the leaves of another Plantago species, P. asiatica, are also used for the treatment of gastric
ulcers in Russia (Voitenko, Lipkan, and Maksyutina 1983). In this connection, we recently
have demonstrated that an aqueous extract of
Plantago major leaves shows a significant antiulcerogenic activity against a stress ulcer in mice
(Ye?ilada et al. 1993b).
There are some interesting applications of medicinal plants which are worthwhile to point out
here. The roots of Helleborus orientalis are used
for the treatment of an inflammatory cattle disease called "bohca," which is characterized by
swelling in extremities, lack of appetite, and diarrhea. For this purpose, a small nail-shape piece
of the root is inserted in a hole opened in the
external ear of the animal and kept there until it
falls off. During that period it is said a yellow
flux drains out from the application site and the
disease will be cured. In addition, it is recommended to add some powdered, oven-dried roots
to the feed for the cattle as a tonic. In the case
of toothache, a small piece of the root is put
inside a cavity in the tooth to stop the pain by
an anaesthetizing effect. As another example of
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422
ECONOMICBOTANY
[VOL.49
and Y. Ikeshiro. 1991. Traditionalmedicine in
interestingutilization, the gratedroots of Ulmus
Turkey I. Folk medicine in north-east Anatolia.
glabraare boiled and condensedto preparea red
Journalof Ethnopharmacology35(2):191-196.
ointment which is applied to a poorly repaired
, M. Zor, and E. Yeqilada. 1992. Traditional
bone fractureto correctit.
medicine in Turkey II. Folk medicine in KastaThe results of this study as well as those obmonu. InternationalJournalof Pharmacognosy30:
tained from a previous survey in the east Black
233-239.
Sea region (Sezik et al. 1991) suggesta greatpo- Tabata,M., G. Honda,E. Sezik,andE.
Yeqilada. 1993.
tential resource of traditional medicine in the
"A report on traditionalmedicine and medicinal
westernand the middle regions of the Black Sea
plants in Turkey",Kyoto University, Kyoto.
subdivision. Although western medicine is ac, E. Sezik, G. Honda,E. Yelilada, K. Goto,and
Y. Ikeshiro. 1994. Traditionalmedicine in Turcessible to the people in these regions to a large
key III. Folk medicine in east Anatolia; Van and
extent, many of them still continue to depend,
Bitlis Provinces. InternationalJournal of Pharat least in part, on herbalremedies,even though
macognosy32:3-12.
the herbal remedies are being replaced rapidly
Voitenko,G. N., G. N. Lipkan,and N. P. Maksyutina.
by modern medicine.
1983.
Effectof plantaglucidefrom Plantago asiatica leaves on the inductionof experimentalgastric
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
dystrophy.RastitelniResursi 19:103-104.
This study was financiallysupportedby a grant(No.0204148) from Ye?ilada,E., G. Honda, E. Sezik, M. Tabata,K. Goto,
the Ministryof Education,Scienceand Culture,Japan.
and Y. Ikeshiro. 1993. Traditionalmedicine in
Turkey IV. Folk medicine in the Mediterranean
subdivision.Journalof Ethnopharmacology
39:31LITERATURE CITED
38.
Alpinar,K. 1979. Vascularnamesandmedicinaluses
, E. Sezik, F. Fujita,S. Tanaka,and M. Tabata.
of the plantsof Amasyaregion.Bitki 6:243-249 (in
1993. Screeningof some Turkishmedicinalplants
Turkish).
for their antiulcerogenicactivities. Phytotherapy
Sezik, E., M. Tabata,E. Yeqilada,G. Honda,K. Goto,
Research7:263-265.
BOOK REVIEW
Handbook of Arabian Medicinal Plants. Shahina A.
Ghazanfar.1994. CRC Press, Inc. 2000 Corporate
Blvd. N. W., Boca Raton, Fl. 33431. 265 pp. (hardcover). $99.95. ISBN 0-8493-0539-X.
Few regions of the world have undergone such
sweepingchangesas the countriesof the ArabianPeninsula.With the developmentof the oil economy,there
has been a shift from the use of traditionalremedies,
usually based on the local flora, to medicines readily
obtainablein pharmacies.Thus, it is criticalto document the ethnobotanyof the region.This volume does
that.
The book is arrangedby plantfamilies.A shortparagraphintroducesthe familynotingits size, distribution,
and chemical compounds of medical interest.This is
followed by selectedspecieswith local names, description, distribution, phenology, medicinal uses, treatment, chemical composition, comments, and references. Some of these uses are new to me. For example,
I was unawareof the use of Citrulluscolocynthisas a
dye. For each plant there are helpful, if sometimes
stylized, line drawings.The bibliographyis up to date
with few errorsalthoughtitlesarelacking,inexplicably,
for some entries (e.g., Mansour,Saleh, and Boulos). I
was surprisednot to see referenceto the work by Bebawi and Neugebohrnfor northernSudan. An index
of uses for variousconditionsand diseases is included
as well as a generalindex.
While this book will be a valuable addition to the
literatureon uses of plantsin the region,it lacksa clear
focus. There is a brief discussion of traditionalmedicine, but we arenevertold how the plantswereselected
for inclusion nor how the information on local uses
was obtained. Perhapsa more accuratetitle would be
"Handbookof SouthernArabianMedicinalPlants"as
there are few detailed discussions of uses other than
Oman and Yemen.
This is a usefulbook at a substantialprice.The high
cost will limit its distribution.
LYTTONJ MUSSELMAN
OLD DOMNION UNIVERSrrY
NoRFoLK, VIRGIA
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23529-0266
`