How to Get Your  Message Across

How to Get Your Message Across
Fall 2010 Harvard Business F
ll H
d B i
Review On Point1
E. Phillips Polack, MD, MA, FACS
Clinical Professor Department of Surgery
West Virginia University
School of Medicine
[email protected] wvu edu
[email protected]
Information vs. Communication
ƒ Information = giving out
I f
i i i whereas
ƒ Communication = getting through in the complex organizational culture of Medicine
p
g
A definition of A
definition of
communication ƒ the process of a source stimulating meaning in the mind of the receiver by means of verbal and nonverbal y
messages
McCroskey, Richmond 2
SMRC Model of Communication
Polack & Avtgis 3
The McCroskey Model of Communication
Polack & Avtgis 3
How We Assimilate Information
ƒ Visual –
Vi l 30%
%
ƒ Auditory – 25%
ƒ Kinesthetic – 15%
ƒ Auditory and Visual – 30%
4
Richmond, Gorham ,
Dr. Ray I. Birdwhistell [a ballet dancer turned anthropologist who wished to study how different people communicate through posture communicate through posture, gesture, stance, and movement from the University of Pennsylvania] h U i
i f P
l
i ] concluded
ƒ 70% of the message is sent by body language, 23% by the tone or inflection of our voices and 7% by the words that we use.
Polack, Richmond, McCroskey 5
Group versus Team
Group versus Team
Groups –
G
individuals with individual interests i di id l i h i di id l i
and individual concerns working with each other other. Team – individuals who come together to produce a joint product. d j i t d t Safety = a joint product
Hackman, Johnson 6
Crew Resource Management [CRM]
Flanagan 7
Merrit, Helmreich
8
Change –
h
requires strategic i
i
p
planning and willing participants
g
gp
p
Culture
Culture can be defined as traditions, customs, C
l
b d fi d di i
norms, beliefs, values and thought patterning that are passed down from generation to generation. Infante, Rancer, Avtgis 9
Two major vehicles for cultural change
Education imparting knowledge
Education –
Training –
i i
acquisition of f
demonstrable skills
Polack, Richmond, McCroskey 5
ƒ SIR
ƒ MISER
à S =Vital Signs
à M =Mechanism of injury
à I =Injuries
à I = Injuries
à R =Response
à S = Vital Signs
à E =Environment
Environment
à R =Response to treatment
Rural Trauma Team Development Course, 3rd Edition © 10
Five Hurdles to Jump in Communication
Exposure
Attention – must be positive/concrete
Attention Perception – do they understand it? And is it useful?
R t ti – people will retain positive and useful Retention
l ill t i iti d f l messages for which they have a schema
R ll
Recall
McCroskey, Richmond 2
Misconceptions of Misconceptions
of
Communication
ƒ Words have meaning. ƒ Communication is a verbal process
ƒ Telling is communicating
ƒ Communication will solve all our problems
ƒ Communicating is a good thing.
Polack, Avtgis
Polack
Avtgis3
Misconceptions of Misconceptions
of
Communication cont.
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
The more you communicate, the better.
Th
i t th b tt
Communication can break down.
C
Communication is a natural ability.
i ti i t l bilit
Interpersonal communication is intimate communication
ƒ Competent communication is effective communication
Polack, Avtgis
Polack
Avtgis 3
ƒ Communication Costs
ƒ Communication Kills
The Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, 2007 11
“The problem with communication is the “Th
bl i h i i i h illusion that it has been accomplished”
George Bernard Shaw12
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How to Get Your Message Across. Fall 2010 Harvard Business Review On Point
McCroskey, JC, Richmond, VP. Fundamentals of Human Communication: An Interpersonal Perspective. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press; 1996.
Polack, EP, Avtgis, TA. Medical Communication: Defining the Discipline. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt. In press Richmond, VP, Gorham, J. Communication, Learning and Affect in Instruction. Action, MA: Tapestry Press; 1992.
Action, MA: Tapestry Press; 1992
Polack, EP, Richmond, VP, McCroskey, JC. Applied Communication for Health Professionals. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt; 2008
Hackman, MZ, Johnson, CE. Leadership: A Communication Perspective. 4
,
,
,
p
p
4th ed. Long g
Grove, IL: Waveland Press; 2004.
Flanagan, JC. The critical incident technique. Psych Bull. 1954;51:327‐359.
8.
Merrit, AC, Helmreich, RL. Human factors on the flight deck: The influence of national culture. J Cross‐Cult Psych. 1996;27:5‐24.
9.
Infante, DA, Rancer, AS, Avtgis, TA. Contemporary Communication Research. Dubuque IA: Kendall‐Hunt
© 3rd Edition. American College of R l T
Rural Trauma Team Development Course
T
D l
t C
Editi A
i C ll
f Surgeons, Committee on Trauma; 2010.
The Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, 2007 . Retrieved on April; 7, 2010 from www.ahrq.gov.
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Shaw, GB. Man and Superman; 1905.
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