Chapter II How to Get the Meaning of Unfamiliar Words Words or vocabulary is considered a vital factor that influences effective reading, being able to read accurately and efficiently and to understand as much of the passage as you need to achieve your purpose. Comprehension failure could be a simple matter of not knowing the meaning of a word or a failure in specific reading skills. This chapter will provide readers some techniques to get the meaning of unfamiliar words. There are three possible ways to learn the meaning of unfamiliar word: 1. Using different kinds of context clues; 2. Using what you know of word stems and word formation; 3. Looking up the word in a dictionary (if the other two mentioned techniques are not possible) Guessing Word Meaning from Context Context refers to the words surrounding an unfamiliar word. These surrounding words provide clues to the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Using context clues to understand the meaning of unfamiliar words helps the reader save time since the reader doesn't have to look the word up in the dictionary and give the reader a good sense of how a word is actually used. Context may include the whole sentence, paragraph, situation, chapter, or even the entire book in which the strange word appears (Barnett, 1988). Clues are hints or things that suggest the meaning of the unfamiliar word. Clues the writer uses to clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word are as follows: 32 1. Situations refer to the consideration what happen or will happen in that situation and condition. The simple way for this technique is to find out some key words that can indicate the action in the sentence. Examples : 1.1 She walks briskly to class so that she wouldn’t be late. a. slowly b. quickly c. fortunately d. comfortably The situation is that she doesn’t want to be late for class. How should she walk? The answer will be that she has to walk quickly. Thus, briskly means quickly. 1.2 During the winter, having to take a cold shower makes me shiver all over. a. sleep b. shake c. cry d. warm The key word is the winter and the situation is to take a cold shower. We can infer that shiver means shake. When we take a cold shower in the winter it will make us shake all over. 1.3 We offered our condolence to the unhappy woman when her husband died. a. congratulation b. happiness c. gladness d. sympathy The situation is her husband died and the key word is unhappy woman. The question is what we should offer when someone feels unhappy because her husband died. Naturally we will offer her sympathy. So we can guess that condolence means sympathy. 33 2. Repetition is the occurrence of using words which have occurred before. There are several kinds of repetition where words or certain phrases are repeated for a stronger emphasis by the author and they refer to the meaning of aforementioned words. Examples : 2.1 He’s such a mournful person that just being around him makes me sad, too. a. happy b. sad c. glad d. big The above sentence the clue is being around him makes me sad that can lead us to know the meaning of “mournful” because the author use sad as repetition of word meaning. So we can guess that mournful means sad. 2.2 Many ships have vanished during hurricanes. All crews have disappeared and have never been found. a. disappeared b. broke c. threw d. appeared From the sentence the hint is have never been found that can guide us to guess that vanished means disappeared. 2.3 Students! Students! Please stop chattering and listen to me. Class has begun so you cannot enjoy talking. a. clapping b. playing c. talking d. going In this sentence the clue is Class has begun so you cannot enjoy talking that can hint us to know that chattering is the same meaning as talking. The author use repetition of word meaning. U U U U U U U U 34 3. Contrast is the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared; "in contrast to", "by contrast" an author writes contrast when he or she describes the difference(s) between two or more entities. The following examples describe using contrast to get the meaning of a new word. Examples : 3.1 One plate of rice usually suffices for me, but one plate isn’t enough for my husband. a. much b. enough c. a little d. a few The key word that can hint us know that suffices means enough is but that show the contrast of the two clauses. 3.2 My library at home is quite sparse; the central library, however, has a lot of books. a. large b. full c. few in number d. interesting From the above the correct answer is few in number. The key word that let us know the meaning of sparse is however and a lot of that show the opposition of the first clause. 3.3 While Drew is popular and …………… , Ben would rather stay at home alone, enjoying a good book. a. noisy b. uneducated c. sociable d. reserved The appropriate word that fit the blank is sociable because the clue that shows the contrast of the two clauses are popular and stay at home alone, enjoying a good book. These make us choose sociable as the correct answer. U U U U U U U U U U 35 4. Examples is another clue that make us get the meaning of a new word. Sometimes the author tries to help the reader get the right concept of their writing so they give some examples for their explanation. We can look at examples or look at words around that word which help to explain its meaning in the context. Examples: 4.1 The street is crowded with conveyances of all descriptions, such as buses, bicycles, cars and automobiles. a. transportation b. bus terminal c. convenience d. comfort From the sentence we can guess the meaning of conveyances by looking at the Examples—buses, bicycles, cars and automobiles—so we know that conveyances are means of transportation. 4.2 Iran is trying to restore many of its ancient buildings. For example, Persepolis—Iran’s oldest building---is being partially rebuilt by a group of Italian experts. a. destroyed b. partially rebuilt c. ruined d. wiped up From the sentence we can guess the meaning of restore by looking at the Examples --- Persepolis— Iran’s oldest building and also use the repetition technique for guessing the meaning of restore. So we know that restore is a mean of partially rebuilt. 4.3 Although the rigors of the job were great--for example, the long hours, the lifting of heavy loads, the very hot and then very cold temperatures outdoors-George didn’t complain because the pay was good. a. good results b. difficult conditions c. sleeplessness d. healthfulness 36 We can guess the meaning of rigors by looking at the Examples --- the long hours, the lifting of heavy loads, the very hot and then very cold temperatures outdoors. All situations as examples show us difficult conditions so we can guess that rigors are means of difficult conditions. 5. Typographical Clues such as, are the art and techniques the author uses for presentation of text in a manner. Usage of typographical signs, notably punctuation marks, parentheses ( ) or dashes --- and various elements of layout can help us not only easy to read but also visually engaging and hint us the meaning of new words. Examples: 5.1 Some ancient European families used the unicorn (in old stories, a horse – like creature with one long horn) for their symbol. From the sentence we can guess that unicorn means a horse - like creature with one long horn because words or phrases in parentheses is the explanation of a word in front. 5.2 Many scientists are now studying bionics --the field of science which uses information about the functioning of biological systems to help solve engineering problems. The same reasons as 5.1 we know bionics means the field of science which uses information about the functioning of biological systems to help solve engineering problems because words or phrases that come after dash are usually also the explanation of the word in front. 5.3 The number of climbers, tourists and trekkers (people who are interested in long distance walking) in Nepal has now reached one million a year. From the sentence we easily know that trekkers mean people who are interested in long distance walking by using typographical clue technique to get the meaning of trekkers. 37 6. Definition refers to a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol that the authors use for writings. Examples: 6.1 Mah Jong and Chi Far are popular games in Hong Kong. Chi Far is a Chinese numbers game played mostly by maids and working class housewives. From the two sentences we know that Chi Far means a Chinese numbers game played mostly by maids and working class housewives because the writer already tell us the meaning of Chi Far by telling its definition. Saying that Chi Far is…………… 6.2 I need a file for my work because it is needed to rub the rust out. A file is an instrument used for rubbing something to be a good shape. Similar to 6.1 the writer also tells us the meaning of Chi Far by telling its definition. Saying that a file is……………Why do some writers tell us the definition of words they used? It may be because they don’t want us to misunderstand. English word has more than a single meaning. Even though we can know the meaning from a dictionary but it will take time and it is not sure that we can take the right meaning to the text we read. The easy way to help us the writer gives the definition of words in the text they wrote. 7. Explanation refers to a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc. Look at the following sentence. Most domestic dogs are smart. 38 We can’t guess the meaning of domestic because there is not enough information. Domestic could mean, for example: either wild or hunting or tame. To get more information we have to continue reading. U U U U U U Most domestic dogs are smart. They can be trained for hunting. Now the first definition —wild— is improbable because of the second sentence. But we are still unsure whether domestic means hunting or tame. Read the following paragraph. Most domestic dogs are smart. They can be trained for hunting. They can also be taught to be watchdogs or guide-dogs for blind people. Now we can be fairly sure that domestic means tame in this context because of the information given in the last sentence; it helps to explain the meaning of domestic. More information gives us a more detailed explanation. A more detailed explanation will help us to make a better guess at the meaning of an unfamiliar word. 8. Appositive is a noun or noun phrase which explains or renames a noun which comes immediately before it. The writer uses a noun or noun phrase to modify another noun that come before it. The symbol the writer uses as appositive to describe a noun that lead us to know the meaning of an unfamiliar word is comma ( , ). We can guess that words or phrases which are between the two commas are the meanings of words in front it. Example: The nucleus of an atom, the center part which contains protons and neutrons, is the part with which scientists do most of their work. 39 By using the appositive we know that Nucleus means the center part which contains protons and neutrons. 9. Lexical Cohesion The act, process, or condition of cohering: the linguistic elements that make a discourse semantically coherent. Example: This red rose is a very beautiful flower. Red rose means flower. 10. Similarity Look at the following sentences. A cat may look big to a mouse. In the same way, a mouse probably looks monstrous to an insect. If we don’t know what monstrous means, we can learn its meaning by looking at the words around that word. Here the writer is comparing the sizes of a cat and a mouse. He is also comparing the sizes of a mouse and an insect. Monstrous is thus similar to big because the author uses the phrase in the same way. Therefore, we know that monstrous means very large or huge. Self Practice 2.1: In the following sentences, choose the most appropriate meaning of words that would fit each blank . 1. Be careful with this knife-- its edge is so keen that you can shave with it. a. long b. wide c. sharp d. clear U U 40 2. The students are continually perplexed by the professor’s actions. For example, last week he promised that there would be no quiz and he gave one; then he said he wouldn’t grade it but he did anyway and gave all the students Fs. a. confused b. happy c. uninterested d. patient 3. Although the rigors of the job were great--for example, the long hours, the lifting of heavy loads, the very hot and then very cold temperatures outdoors--George didn’t complain because the pay was good. a. good results b. difficult conditions c. sleeplessness d. healthfulness 4. The girl always prevaricated when she was caught in the act of cheating and didn’t want the truth to be known. a. ate a lot b. cried c. lied d. laughed 5. She had a lesion on her arm that would not stop bleeding. a. bracelet b. headache c. birthmark d. wound 6. He is a prestidigitator who entertained children by pulling rabbits out of his hat, swallowing fire, and other similar tricks. a. magician b. singer c. lawyer d. teacher 7. The mother showed her wrath at what the child had done by screaming at him and hit him. a. pleasure b. anger c. surprise d. sadness 41 8. When asked to serve as a chairman, Pual________stating that he did not feel capable of performing the duties of the office. a. objected b. accepted c. wept d. Rejoiced 9. Although measles is thought to be harmless childhood disease, it is more___________than most people realized. a. permanent b. widespread c. exciting d. harmful 10. Not all funerals have to be____________occasions; in New Orleans, relatives of the dead person often dance to a jazz procession while carrying the coffin to the cemetery. a. enjoyable b. happy c. solemn d. angry 11. In most colleges, at least one course in English is______, required, for degree. a. optional b. compulsory c. suggested d. desirable 12. In order to ______ a message by telephone there must be a wire connecting the telephones of the sender and the receiver of the message. a. take b. bring c. transmit d. carry 13. The claim that Mr. Soontorn failed the test was ______ because the professor gave him an A for the course. a. unlikely b. unjustified c. unusual d. uncommon 42 14. Joe Blow only had a very______ knowledge of Thai law, and thus was not able to explain to the student why they were not able to travel to Europe without a passport. a. extensive b. great c. significant d. superficial 15. Dictionaries became_________after the passage of the time because language changes continuously with new words being added, old words being discarded and meanings of words changing. a. old b. changed c. outdated d. useless Self Practice 2.2: Define the italic words in the following sentences by noting their context, and indicate what the clues are: Example; His schedule was hectic, but he managed to go out for basketball. A: Meaning : hasty / confusing / busy B: Clue : Contrast (but) U U 1. The prisoner was harassed---annoyed continually----by the jailers. A: Meaning :_____________________________ B: Clue :_____________________________ 2. After the foundation walls are completed, the floor structure is begun by setting in place the joints, a series of long, wooden, steel or concrete beams that support the floor. A: Meaning :_____________________________ B: Clue :_____________________________ 43 3. Although Harry is usually inept at sports, he surprised the coach and won the race. A: Meaning :____________________________ B: Clue :____________________________ 4. She is susceptible to the ideas of others. She believes most everything anyone tells her. A: Meaning :____________________________ B: Clue :____________________________ 5. There is a great variety of reptiles found in Thailand----for example, many types of snakes, lizards, crocodiles, turtles, ect. A: Meaning :____________________________ B: Clue :____________________________ 6. The increasing number of nosocomial infections in American hospitals is causing great concern. Nosocomial infections are infections which patients get inside the hospital. A: Meaning :____________________________ B: Clue :____________________________ 7. Decubitus ulcers, or bed sores, have for centuries caused a lot of trouble to patients and have resisted the efforts of doctors to cure them. A: Meaning :____________________________ B: Clue :____________________________ 8. The torrential rains during the rainy season in Thailand sometimes cause floods and damage to property. A: Meaning :____________________________ B: Clue :____________________________ 44 9. The number of climbers, tourists and trekkers (people who are interested in long distance walking) in Nepal has now reached one million a year. A: Meaning :____________________________ B: Clue :____________________________ 10. Recent years have seen increased use of air structures, that is, closed containers of soft material that become hard when fill with air. A: Meaning :____________________________ B: Clue :____________________________ Guessing Meaning from the Formation of Words Words not derived or compounded or developed from other words are called Simple or Primary Words (stem). They belong to the original stock of words in the language; as moon, take, bare, man From these Simple or Primary Words are formed other words. They are of two kinds :1. Compound Words A compound word is a combination of two or more words used to express a single concept. Consistency in the treatment of compounds is always difficult. There are wide variations in acceptable style, and the rules that do exist sometimes conflict or overlap. More important than absolute consistency in the formation of compounds is the union or separation of the elements so that terms can be easily read, understood, and pronounced. Look at Table 2.1 that shows some examples of compound words. 45 Table 2.1 Some examples of compound words Primary word Compound word news Newsstand, newspaper flower Flower petal, flowerpot pig Pigtail, pigpen, sand Sandpaper, sandstorm lady Ladybug, ladyfinger thumb Thumbtack, thumbprint, thumbnail copper copperhead eye Eyebrow, eyelid bed Bedrock, bedtime hand Handbag, handshake U U U 2. Derived Words or Derivatives Derivation is the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. It is a kind of word formation or it is the process by which words are formed from existing words or bases by adding affixes, as singer from sing or undo from do, by changing the shape of the word or base, as song from sing, or by adding an affix and changing the pronunciation of the word or base, as electricity from electric. They are formed; 1. by making some changes in the body of the Primary Words; as bond is derived from bind, feed is derived from food, song is derived from sing. HT HT TH HT TH TH 46 2. by adding something to the beginning or the end of the Primary Words; as, unkind is derived from kind, reclaim is derived from claim, manhood is derived from man fortunate is derived from fortune. kindness is derived from kind. joyful is derived from joy. amazement is derived from amaze. speaker is derived from speak. national is derived from nation. 3. Stem A stem, in linguistics, is the combination of the basic form of a word or it is part of a word which remains the same, while combining with different ending. Look at Table 2.2 that shows some example of word stems. HT TH Table 2.2 Some Common Stems Stem Meaning -anthro-,man enthropo-archrule; chief U U HT TH U -aster-; -astro-; star -stellarStem Meaning -audi-,-audit- Hear Examples anthropoid (of animal - like a man) patriarch (the father and ruler of a family or tribe) astronomy (the scientific study of the sun, moon, stars and other heavenly bodies) Example audible (able to be heard) U 47 Table 2.2 (Continued) -chrontime -corpbody -dictsay, speak -duclead -gammarriage U chronic (continuing a long time) corpus (a body of writing) diction (style of speaking or writing) bring induce (to lead on; to persuade) polygamy (the practice of having many or several marriage partners) -geoearth geography (the science dealing with the earth and its life) -graphwrite phonograph (a sound-producing machine using records) -hydr-, -hydro- water hydrophobia (fear of water; rabies) -lithstone lithoid (stone-like) -man-, -manu- hand manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) -mitsend; let go emit (to send forth) -mortdeath mortal (causing death) -onymname antonym (a word opposite in meaning to another) -pathyfeeling; suffering sympathy (harmony in feeling; compassion) -phillove philosophy (the study of language; love of speech) Stem Meaning Example -ped-, -podfoot centipede (a small animal with many legs) -polisCity metropolis (a chief city or capital city of a country) -port-portporter (one who carries luggage) 48 Table 2.2 (Continued) -chrontime chronic (continuing a long time) -pon-, -pooput; place postpone (to put off to later time) -posestate; offer for propose (put forward for consideration) consideration -psychmind psychologist (one who studies mental processes and behavior) -scopeinstrument for chronoscope (an instrument to measure seeing or small period of time) observing -scrib-, -script- write inscribe (to write or engrave words) -spectlook at inspect (to look over carefully) -spirbreathe respire (to breathe) -sophwise sophisticated (worldly-wise) -theo-, -thegod theology (study one God and of God’s relationship with man) -vertrue veritable (real; rightly named) -voc-, -vokcall vocalist (a singer) U U 4. Affixes Affixes are a group of letters added to the beginning of a word (in the case of a prefix) or the end of a word (in the case of suffix) to change its meaning or its use. (Anderson,1986). 4.1 Prefixes Prefix is an affix which is placed at the beginning of a word or an affix stem. (Crystal, 1980) or it is a group of letters that comes before the base form of a 49 word. A prefix changes the meaning of words. Knowing the meaning of common prefix helps us in two important ways. First, it helps us built our vocabulary and quickly guess the meaning of unknown words in a reading, especially if we are unfamiliar with the root. Second, knowing how prefixes are used with words can also make our writing clearer and more precise. Table 2.3 shows some example of common prefixes. Table 2.3 Some examples of English derivational prefixes: Prefix Meaning Examples a(n)not, without atonality, amoral, anarchy, anonymous, atypical abaway abduction, absolutism, ablution acr(o)- high, up, hill acropolis, acrobatics adnear, at adrenal aden(o)- gland adenectomy aer(o)- air aeronautics, aerodrome, aeroplane, aerodynamics agr(o)- relating to farming agriculture althigh altitude alteranother Alter-ego, alternate amlove amorous, amateur ambiaround, either, encircling ambiguity, ambidexterity, Ambisagrus an(a)out of anachronism andrman androgyny, androcentrism, android, androgen anemwind anemometer Anglo- English or British Anglo-Irish relations antebefore antebellum anthropo- relating to human beings anthropology, anthropocentrism, anthropomorphic U U HT U TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH HT TH HT HT TH HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH HT TH TH TH TH HT HT HT TH TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH HT TH HT TH TH TH TH TH HT HT HT TH HT TH HT TH 50 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix ant(i)aut(o)bar(o)bathybe- Meaning Examples against; opposite antidote, antibody, antisocial self autonomy, autobiography, automobile, autopilot heaviness, heavy barometer deep Bathyscaphe, Bathysphere completely, bemuse, bespeak, bewail excessively; forms transitive verbs benwell Benediction, benign bitwo bicycle, bijection, bicameralism, bisexual bi(o)life biology, biography, biopsy bibli(o)- relating to books bibliophilia, bibliography blast(o)- bud, germination blastocyst bradyslow bradycardia brom(o)- Stench Bromine, bromide bronch(o)- relating to breathing bronchitis cac(o)bad cacophony, cacography cad/cas- a fall cadence, cascade carcin(o)- relating to cancer carcinogenic cardi(o)- heart cardiovascular, Cardiac arrest hundred or cent-, centicentenarian, centimeter, centipede hundredth cephal(o)- head cephalothorax chrom(ato)- colour chromatic, chromosome HT HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT TH TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH TH TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH 51 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix chron(o)circumcocolpoconcontrcosm(o)countercrin(o)cryocrypt(o)cyt(o)HT Meaning TH time around with; together vagina with, together against, opposite world against, opposite cry(shed tears) frost, icy cold hidden cell (originally hollow receptacle) culpfault dactyl(o)- finger, digit detaking something away, the opposite dec(a)-, ten dek(a)decione tenth dem(o)- people derm(at)- skin ditwo, double HT HT TH TH HT HT TH HT HT TH TH TH HT TH HT HT HT TH Examples chronology, chronic, chronicle circumcision, circumlocution, circumference cooperative, co-belligerence, co-worker colpospasm connotation, Congress, congregation contradiction, contraception, controversy cosmology, cosmopolitan, cosmotheism counterpoint, Counter-Reformation, contraception endocrinology cryogenics, cryoelectronics, cryostorage cryptography, cryptozoology cytoplasm, cytology HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH HT TH HT TH TH TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH TH TH TH TH HT HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT HT HT TH HT HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH culpable, culprit dactylogram decentralisation, dehydration, Denazification, degrade HT TH HT TH HT decamerous, December, decimeter TH TH HT HT TH deciliter demographics, democracy dermatology, dermatitis dichromic HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH HT HT TH TH TH 52 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix HT Meaning TH day Through apt at teaching apart, separation, reverse, opposite, not dok, dox(o)- view, teaching doxology, dogma, orthodox dynam(o)- power, force dynamic, dynamite, dynamo dysbad, deformed, dyspepsia, dystrophy, dysarthria abnormal ecohouse economy, ecology, ecosystem, ecotage ectoouter, external ectomorphic, ectoparasite edaph(o)- soil edaphic relating to electr(o)electrocution, electroencephalogram Electricity embry(o)- embryo embryogenesis ento make ~ (transitive enrage, enlarge verb) end(o)-, inside endoscope, endothermic, entoblast ent(o)enne(a)- nine enneastyle, enneagram enter(o)- intestine enteritis earliest, most eoeobacterium, eohippus primitive HT didiadidact(o)dis- Examples diurnal diameter, diagnosis, diarrhea didactic dissent, discovery, disambiguation, disconnected TH HT TH HT HT HT TH TH HT HT TH TH HT HT TH TH HT TH TH HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT HT TH HT HT TH HT TH TH TH HT HT TH HT TH TH 53 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix ep(i)-, epherg(o)erythr(o)erot(o)ethnoeuEuroexexoextraHT HT TH TH florforegeoglossogynhemihemoheter(o)hex(a)hom(o)hydro- Meaning Examples upon, above, around epitaxy, epicenter, ephemeral work, labour ergonomics synergy, energy Red erythrocite love erotic, erotomania race, people ethnology, ethnolinguistics, ethnocentrism good eulogy, euthanasia, eugenics, euphemism European Euro-MP, Eurocentric former ex-wife, ex-president outside exoskeleton outside, beyond, extra-thin, extra-special extraordinary, extraterrestrial additional relating to flowers florist before, in advance foreskin, foreshadowing earth geography, geology language glossogeny, glossogony, glossolalia female gynaecology, gynoid half hemimetabolous, hemisphere blood hemophilia, hemophobia different heterogenous, heterosexual six hexapod, hexagonal, hexameter same homogenous, homosexual water hydrogen, hydry HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT HT HT HT TH TH HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH HT TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH TH 54 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix Meaning Examples hyperexcessive, over, hyperactive, hyperthyroidism, hypertension beyond hyp(o)- below , under hypodermic, hypnosis inintensively inflammable, invaluable innot infallibility, illiteracy, immoral, irrelevant interbetween, mutual intervention, international, internet intrawithin intramural, intravenous, intraocular kilothousand kilogram, kilowatt Lithorock lithosphere LusoPortuguese lusophone Mac- or "son of" (often used McCarthy, Kirsty MacColl Mcin last names) macrolarge macrobiology, macroscopic malbad malpractice, malnutrition maximany ,most maximal, maximum McDonalds-like, McMcJob, McPaper (See McWords) often derogatory megamillion, very large megabyte, megaphone, megalopolis mesomiddle mesoamerica, mesoscale metaafter, beyond metacarpal, metaphysics microone millionth, very microgram, microorganism, micronation small midin the middle of mid-term elections, Mid-Autumn Festival HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT TH HT HT TH TH TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH TH TH HT TH HT HT HT HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH TH TH TH HT HT HT HT HT HT TH HT TH TH TH HT HT TH TH HT HT HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH TH 55 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix milliminimismon(o)multimycomyri(a)nonnonO'HT HT TH HT TH TH Meaning thousandth small bad, wrong one, single many relating to fungi Ten thousand not nine (son) of (often used in last names) eight HT TH HT HT TH TH TH HT HT TH HT TH oct(o)-, oct(a)omniall oo- ("oo - egg, ovum oh") outmore, to a greater degree over- (noun) more than normal, too much over- (verb) to do too much, to (verb) over pent(a)- five HT HT TH HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT TH TH TH HT TH HT HT HT TH HT TH HT TH TH octane, octopod, octagon, October HT TH HT TH HT TH omnidirectional, omnivore, omnipotent oocyte HT HT TH TH outdo, outrun overpopulation, over-consumption, overlord TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT HT HT HT TH TH TH HT HT Examples milligram, milliliter miniskirt, miniseries miscarriage, misanthropy, misogyny, mistake monolith, monorail, monotony, monocle multiculturalism, multilingualism mycology, mycoprotein myriagon, myriad nonsense, non-denial denial nonagon O'Brian TH HT TH HT overlook, overspend, oversee TH pentagon TH HT TH HT TH HT TH 56 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix Meaning peri(o)- around, about, enclosing, near photolight, photon phytorelating to plants postafter prebefore profor, in favor of psycho- mind, mental pyrofire, flame quadr-, four quartquinque- five quint(i)- fifth, five reagain, repeatedly rect(i)proper, straight retrobackward scler(o)- hard semihalf, partial sept(a)- seven sex(i)six SinoChinese spasm(o)- spasm spermseed HT TH HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH TH TH HT HT HT TH TH HT HT TH TH TH TH HT HT TH TH TH HT HT HT HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT photograph, photosensetive, photosynthesis phytogeography, phytoplankton postpartum depression,postmodernism prediction, preview, precedent, prenatal care pro-choice, protagonist psychology, psychosomatic pyromania quadrangle, quadruplet, quartic, quartile TH TH HT HT HT Examples perimysium, pericardium, periosteum, perinatal TH HT TH HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH quinquesection, quintiped, quintet reduction, reflection, revolution rectify, rectangle retrograde, retrospective scleroderma, atherosclerosis semi-automatic, semi-detached heptachord, September sexivalent Sino-American relations spasmatic, spasmolysis spermophile, spermine HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH TH HT TH 57 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix Meaning spher(o)- sphere, ball sphygm(o)- Pulsation splen(o)- spleen splanchn(o)- viscera schiz(o)-, split schist(o)staphyl(o)- cluster, uvula stom(ato)- mouth stylpillar subbelow, less than, under,2 superextremely, more than,2 syntogether, united, at the same time tach(y)- rapid, accelerated tel(e)distance, distant HT TH HT HT TH TH P HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH staphylococcus, staphyloplasty stomatitis, stomach stylus, stylist, stylopodium subset, subsonic, subway, subtitles TH HT HT TH HT TH HT P superhuman, Superego, supersonic TH HT HT TH HT end god across, beyond three HT TH synergy, synchronicity, synesthesia HT TH HT TH tachycardia, tachymeter, tachyon telecommunications, television, telephoto lens, telodynamic teloblast, telophase theology, theogony transfer, transubstantiation, transatlantic, Trans-Siberian railway triangle, tricolor, triptych HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH TH tri- TH P P tel(o)theotrans- Examples spherical, atmosphere sphygmomanometer, sphygmograph splenomegaly splanchnopathy schizophrenia, schistocyte HT TH HT TH HT TH HT 58 Table 2.3 (Continued) U U Prefix Meaning Examples twitwo twilight, twig, twin ultraextremely, beyond ultramontanism, ultraviolet certain limit unnot, opposite, take unconstitutional, undelete something away underbelow, incompletely underestimate, underage, undercook unione, single uniform, unification uphigher upscale, update, upgrade, upheld urfirst, original urtext ur(o)urine uric, urinal vitalife vitamin, vital withtogether, united withhold, withstand zoorelating to animals zoomorphic, zoology HT HT TH TH HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT HT TH TH HT HT HT TH TH TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH TH HT TH 4.2 Suffixes Suffix is an affix which is placed at the end of a word or stem. (Hartmann, 1972) or it is a group of letters that comes after the base form of a word. The suffix changes the way a word used. Example: ex- is the prefix and -able is the suffix, both added to the stem -port- = exportable (that can be exported). Table 2.4 shows you some examples of English derivational suffixes. 59 Table 2.4 Some examples of English derivational suffixes Suffix Part of speech Meaning Examples -able adj capable, can do usable, notable, comfortable -ably adv notably, fashionably -ad noun group triad, monad -ade noun lemonade, accolade, blockade -age noun forming a noun marriage, mileage, garage -agogy noun leading pedagogy, demagogy nominal, focal, -al adj aspect of (compare -ality) -al noun abstract noun refusal -ality noun property (aspect, proportionality, sexuality behaviour, condition) (see -al and -ity) of -an adj urban -an adj, noun republican, Roman, veteran -ance noun relevance, annoyance, repentance -ancy noun pregnancy, redundancy, vacancy -ant adj relevant, dominant, pleasant -ant noun assistant, immigrant, inhabitant -ar adj linear, alveolar -ar noun beggar, liar -ard noun drunkard, coward, wizard, steward -ary adj ordinary, secondary, military U U HT TH HT HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH HT TH HT TH TH U HT HT HT TH HT TH TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH TH TH TH HT HT HT TH HT TH TH TH HT TH 60 (Continued) Part of speech noun noun noun adj noun verb noun noun Table 2.4 Suffix -ary -arch -archy -ate -ate -ate -athlon -ation U HT U TH HT TH HT TH HT TH -ation HT noun TH -ative -atory -cele, coele, coel -cele -centesis -cephalic chondrion -cide HT TH HT adj noun noun TH Meaning ruler, leader rule, leadership Examples dictionary, library, seminary monarch, tetrarch gynarchy, anarchy literate, desperate, fortunate certificate, advocate concentrate, oscillate pentathlon, decathlon invitation, pronunciation, starvation concentration, oscillation, narration talkative, lucrative, affirmative laboratory, conversatory mucocoel or mucocoele HT TH HT TH HT sporting event state or concept of HT from verb with -ate, state or concept of body cavity TH TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT HT TH noun noun adj noun TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH noun tumor, hernia puncturing relating to the head small grainlike structure murder, killing agent HT TH hydatidocele amniocentesis, rachicentesis anencephalic, macrocephalic mitochondrion HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH suicide, vespacide, regicide, fratricide HT TH HT U HT HT TH TH HT TH TH 61 (Continued) Part of speech Meaning Noun practice noun expressing the quality of an adjective -cycle noun circle, cycle, unit of radio frequency -dom noun state or condition of -ectasia, noun stretching out -ectasis -ectomy noun surgical removal -ed adj -ee noun changes verb to a noun (the object of that verb) -eer adj -eme noun linguistic unit -emia noun blood condition -en adj -en verb -enchyma noun cellular tissue -ence noun -ency noun -ent adj -ent noun Table 2.4 Suffix -city -cy atrocity diplomacy, literacy, idiocy HT HT U HT TH U HT TH Examples HT TH HT epicycle, hydrocycle TH HT TH HT TH TH TH HT HT freedom, boredom, kingdom brochiectasis, telangiectasia TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH TH TH TH TH TH TH U HT HT HT HT HT laryngectomy, vasectomy bored, tiled employee, referee, payee HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH engineer, overseer lexeme, phoneme, morpheme leukemia, anaemia golden, wooden, written, frozen lessen, deafen, frighten mesenchyma, karyenchyma independence, violence, absence frequency, clemency, consistency different, excellent, independent resident, regent, superintendent TH HT TH TH HT HT HT HT HT TH TH TH HT TH 62 Table 2.4 Suffix -eous -er HT U U TH -ergy -ern -ery -ese -esque HT TH HT TH -ess HT (Continued) Part of speech Meaning adj noun changes verb to noun (the subject of that verb, see also -or) noun work adj direction noun adj, noun nationality, language adj in the style of noun TH female Examples courteous write, writer HT TH HT TH energy, synergy western, northern slavery, machinery, nunnery Chinese, Lebanese, Portuguese Pythonesque, Romanesque, picturesque actress, waitress, stewardess, priestess synesthesia, kinesthesis HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH HT HT TH HT TH HT TH TH -esthesis, -esthesia -etic -ette -fare noun sensation, feeling adj noun noun -ful adj energetic, sympathetic, frenetic small diskette, statuette, usherette how things are going / welfare, fanfare, warfare coming along full of, having some hopeful, useful or much a scandal Watergate, nipplegate knowing prognosis, diagnosis angle polygon, pentagon HT TH TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH -gate -gnosis -gon HT TH TH TH U HT HT noun noun noun HT TH HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH HT HT HT TH TH TH 63 Table 2.4 (Continued) Suffix Part of speech U -gry HT U noun TH -hedron -holic noun adj -hood noun -iable -ial -ian -ian -ian -iant -iary -iate -ible adj adj adj adj, noun noun adj adj verb adj -ibly -ic -ical adv adj adj HT TH HT TH HT TH TH TH U HT HT Meaning adjective form of only 2 or 3 nouns in the English language seat, face love, addiction state/condition of, a group sharing characteristics HT TH HT Examples anger, hunger HT TH HT TH icosahedron, tetrahedron alcoholic HT TH TH HT HT TH TH brotherhood, falsehood HT adulthood, TH sociable special, filial, remedial mammalian Brazilian, Christian librarian, barbarian, physician deviant, defiant tertiary asphyxiate, deviate capable, can do (same incredible, terrible, visible as -able) incredibly, responsibly, terribly (adjective) neurotic, electronic, historic historical, phonological, economical HT HT TH HT TH TH HT HT TH TH HT TH 64 Table 2.4 (Continued) Suffix Part of speech Meaning -ics noun the study of U HT U TH Examples Physics, Aerodynamics, Forensics, economics (categorical) property hominid, tepid, candid, fervid (aspect) of (compare -al) expedieny salient, sentient, expedient cashier, financier, gondolier to become, make clarify, specify, basify, vilify tactile, facile, volatile large numbers million, billion delicious, ambitious, religious, vivacious noun from verb, in doing, acting the process of bedding, stuffing, roofing action, companion adjective from noun; foolish, selfish, greenish, tallish sort of; approximately nationality, language Spanish, Turkish, English doctrine, act, practice, Protestantism, alcoholism, condition Buddhism, southernism person dentist, socialist, cellist adept fashionista HT TH HT HT TH -id adj -iency -ient -ier –ify, –fy -ile -illion -ious noun adj noun verb adj -ing noun HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT -ing -ion -ish HT HT TH TH -ish -ism HT TH HT TH HT TH adj adj, noun noun HT TH TH -ist -ista noun U HT TH TH TH HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT HT TH HT HT HT HT HT noun noun adj TH TH HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH TH TH 65 Table 2.4 Suffix -ite -itis -itive -itude -ity U HT TH HT TH HT TH -ium HT -ive HT TH TH (Continued) Part of speech Meaning Examples Noun member of a group socialite, Carmelite noun disease, inflammation hepatitis, gingivitis adj sensitive noun attitude, gratitude, Beatitude noun expressing state or normality, formality, banality condition noun metallic element sodium, Calcium (exception: helium) adj make the noun an defensive, aggressive, passive adjective noun organization/organisation, categorization/ categorisation verb to cause, to be, to materialize/materialise, idolize/idolise become used for hip hop slang Americizzle noun movement (ability telekinesis thereof) adj lack of homeless, useless, careless noun diminutive, or ringlet, hamlet, anklet denoting a relation to some part of the body adj having the qualities of childlike HT TH HT TH TH TH TH -izzle -kinesis HT TH HT -less -let HT TH TH -like TH HT HT TH TH TH HT HT TH TH TH TH TH HT HT HT TH HT HT HT HT HT TH HT -ization/ -isation -ize/-ise HT U HT HT TH TH HT TH TH HT HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH 66 Table 2.4 (Continued) Suffix Part of speech Meaning -ling noun smaller, younger, cuter or weaker version of the noun root OR sharing an identity or quality of the noun root (e.g. as a follower) -ly adj -like, having the attributes of -ly adv -like, having the attributes of -man noun person -mancy noun divination by U U HT TH Examples darling, duckling, earthling, sapling HT TH HT HT HT TH HT HT TH -mania TH noun quickly TH fireman, statesman crystallomancy, bibliomancy, necromancy an irrational but kleptomania, megalomania, irresistible motive for mythomania a belief or action abstract noun movement, amazement, government measuring device barometer, thermometer measure symmetry, geometry, isometry testimony, ceremony HT TH HT TH HT TH noun -meter -metry -mony TH TH U HT HT noun noun noun HT TH TH HT TH HT -ment TH TH HT HT HT stately, monthly TH TH TH TH HT HT HT HT TH TH TH HT HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH 67 Table 2.4 (Continued) Suffix Part of speech Meaning -morphism noun form -most adj -ness noun abstract noun -nik noun Slavic origin; corresponds to " - er" -ocracy noun system of government -ogram noun writing, description -ography noun study of -oid adj resembling -oid noun resembling -ologist noun one who studies a scientific subject -ology study, science U HT U TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT Examples isomorphism, homomorphism utmost, innermost kindness, ruthlessness, darkness otkaznik, beatnik HT TH HT TH TH kakistocracy, democracy, androcracy ideogram stenography, geography solenoid, hominoid planetoid archaeologist TH HT noun TH subject of an "-omics" study of rules knowledge of name, word changes verb to noun (see also -er), person HT -omics -onomy -onym -or HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH noun noun noun noun HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH biology, psychology, planetology genome HT -ome TH HT HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH proteomics, economics astronomy antonym, consonym, heteronym actor, governor HT TH HT HT TH TH TH HT HT TH HT HT TH TH HT TH 68 Table 2.4 (Continued) Suffix Part of speech Meaning -or or -our noun -ory adj -ory noun -ose adj full of, like, given to; carbohydrates -osis noun process, action, formation, diseased condition -ous adj adjectival suffix -phagy, noun eating -phagia -philia noun attraction -phobia noun fear -phone noun, adj sound, audio; speaker of a language -phyte noun plant, used in botany to create terms which categorise plants based on their lifehistory, growthform U HT U TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH mitosis, osmosis, ostosis, psychosis HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH porous, disastrous, nervous monophagy HT TH TH HT TH TH TH HT HT HT TH HT HT Examples candor, fervour, color auditory, sensory history, repository verbose; globose HT TH TH HT hemophilia acrophobia, mysophobia telephone, homophone; Anglophone TH HT TH TH HT U TH HT TH TH HT HT HT TH HT HT HT TH TH therophyte, halophyte HT TH HT TH TH 69 Table 2.4 (Continued) Suffix Part of speech Meaning -polis noun referring to city or big area -science adj knowing -scope noun from Greek skopos, view; instrument for viewing and observing spaces -script noun written -ship noun abstract noun, state of being -sion noun noun that has been altered from a process -some adj -stan noun land, country -ster noun person -t adj -th, -eth adj ordinal number -th noun forming a noun -tion noun noun that has been altered from a process U HT U Examples Metropolis TH HT HT omniscience microscope, telescope TH HT TH HT HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH manuscript, transcript friendship, relationship, dictatorship decision, illusion TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT HT TH TH tiresome, awesome, fulsome Afghanistan youngster, gangster burnt, spoilt tenth, millionth, twentieth growth, health, depth, strength evaporation, introduction HT TH TH TH HT HT TH TH TH HT HT HT HT TH 70 Table 2.4 (Continued) Suffix Part of speech Meaning -tom, noun part or segment -tome -tropism noun to turn -ty noun -uary noun -ulent adj U U HT Examples dermatome TH HT HT TH TH HT TH -uous adj -ure -us noun noun HT TH -ville noun HT TH -vore, noun / adj vorous -ward or adj, adv -wards -ware noun -ways adj -wise adj HT TH HT phototropism certainty, loyalty sanctuary, mortuary turbulent, fraudulent tempestuous, unctuous, sensuous failure, exposure, temperature ulcus HT TH inflammation city, town from Nashville French HT TH HT to devour TH carnivore, herbivore HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT direction southward, inward, upward HT TH HT TH HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT TH -wright noun -y adj TH HT HT TH software hardware, software, freeware sideways, longways direction clockwise, lengthwise playwright, wheelwright, person who makes shipwright having the quality runny, messy, chewy of, inclined to HT TH TH TH HT HT HT TH HT TH HT TH 71 This is an incomplete list of suffixes in English. Note that this list includes only derivational suffixes (which form new words, often of a different part of speech) and suffixes which serve to mark the part of speech. It does not include the inflectional suffixes which only produce new forms of a word without changing the part of speech, eg -s for the plural of nouns. In conclusion, knowing the meaning of stems and prefixes can help us in quickly guessing the meaning of unfamiliar words in reading. They are the useful, timesaving skills. We won’t have to constantly consult our dictionary, and we can follow the text more easily and knowing the form of suffixes is also very helpful. If we know the way a word formed by adding suffixes, we will quickly know the meaning of unknown words. For example, the suffixes can be used to form personal nouns; - ian musician, politicain - er reader, writer - ist economist, scientist - or actor - ant attendant, HT HT TH TH HT TH HT TH HT Self Practice 2.3: In each item, select the best definition of the italic word. 1. In retrospect, we could have been wise to leave our money in the bank. a. Many years ago b. In fact c. Looking around d. Looking back 2. No matter what Fred said, Jim contradicted him. a. laughed at him b. said the opposite c. yelled at him d. didn’t listen to him U U TH 72 3. The doctor is a specialist in the human respiratory system. She knows most about_________ a. bones b. nerves c. lungs d. the stomach 4. If a man is a bigamist, he___________________. a. is married to two women b. has two children c. is divorced d. will never marry 5. There was a great antipathy between the brothers. a. love b. dislike c. difference d. resemblance 6. Dan says he is an atheist. a. one who believes in one god. b. one who believes in many god. c. one who believes there is no god. d. one who is not sure if there is a god. 7. Janet is interested in autographs of famous people. a. signatures b. pictures c. personalities d. families 8. The immigration authorities deported Mr. Jensen because he did not have a legal passport. a. searched through his body b. sent him out of the country c. locked him up d. questioned him 73 9. The government is financing a study of the effects on man of living in a megalopolis. a. an apartment in a large building b. a dangerous part of a city c. a city with a large police force d. an extremely large city 10. Dr. Swanson has written articles about interstellar travel. a. underwater b. high-speed c. outer space d. long-distance Looking Up Words in a Dictionary There are many ways that we can find out about words. The best known way to find out about a word is to use a dictionary. What are some of the things we find out when we use a dictionary? There are numerous things we can find in a dictionary. The first and obvious things in a dictionary that people think of are definitions. The words are all in alphabetic or A-B-C order. Words sometimes have more than one definition. There is also other information about words such as their function or part of speech, their pronunciation, as well as origins, or roots, of words. Other useful information can be found in the dictionary as well. Information such as English to metric conversion tables, maps, Presidents of the United States, explanations of common symbols. Here is a list of some of the things that we can learn from a dictionary. 1. Spelling. A dictionary shows the accepted spelling of every word that is listed, as well as the spelling of irregular verb forms and plurals. 2. Pronunciation. Each dictionary has a special way of showing how words are pronounced, including stress. 74 3. Syllable division. This helps in spelling and pronouncing words and indicates where the word should be divided at the end of a line. 4. Derivation. A dictionary includes the history of each of each word indicating its origin and development through different languages before it became an English word. 5. Meaning. Almost every word has more than a single meaning. Different meanings are given, often with illustrative sentences. Special technical definitions are also listed. 6. Part of Speech. There are determined, of course, by actual use in a sentence. A dictionary indicates, however, whether the word is commonly used as a noun, pronoun, verb (transitive and intransitive), adjective, adverb, conjunction, or preposition. 7. Usage. Your dictionary will tell you whether a word is chiefly British or American, or whether the word is formal, colloquial, dialectal, archaic, poetic, or slang. The information is often important in writing. 8. Synonyms and antonyms. Frequently words of similar meanings (synonyms) or words of opposite meaning (antonyms) are listed, with explanation of the distinctions. 9. General information. Information about persons and places is listed, either within the alphabetical arrangement of the words or in special sections at the back. For example, a dictionary will tell you the location of Roanoke, the population of Katmandu, or the dates that Cleopatra rules. How to Use a Dictionary First, think of the word to look up. Then open the dictionary to as close to the first letter or two of the word as possible. Then either turn back or forward to find the word. To help the search, dictionaries have guide words to help. Guide words are at 75 the top of each page. The first guide word is the first word on a page, and the second guide word at the top of the page is the last word on the page. Using the guidewords, you should find the word you a looking for easily. It will be between the words. Self Practice 2.4 Here are some sample definitions of words from an English dictionary. After each definition there are some sentences using the word that has been defined. Your task is to select the correct definition for each sentence. Put the letter a, b, c and others of the correct definition in front of the sentence. 1. Pinch ( V) (a) be too tight; hurt by being too tight (collog.) (b) steal; take without permission (c) be very mean; live sparingly or economically (d) take in a tight grip between the thumb and fingers; have in a tight grip between two hard things which are passed together. _____1. I pinched my finger in the door way. _____2. Who has pinched my dictionary? _____3. Their parents had to pinch and scrape in order to save money for their clothes. _____4. These shoes pinch me U 2. Open (adj.) (a) not blocked (b) not filled (c) not hiding anything; honest (d) spread out; unfolded (V.) (e) to cause to start (N.) (f) the outdoors. 76 _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. ……...5. ……...6. The story opens with a snow storm. The flowers are open. She loves to spend life in the open. Let’s be open with each other. The job is still open. An open river is one without ice. 3. Nurse (N) (a) a woman employed to take care of a young child. (b) a person who is trained to take care of sick people. (c) to suck milk from woman’s breast. (d) to act as or be a professional nurse. (e) to take care of as or like a nurse ……….1. She spent some time nursing during W.W.II in a military hospital. ……….2. The number of male nurses has increased recently. ……….3. Since she has no one to take care of her baby during her working hours she has to hire a nurse. ……….4. All her time goes into nursing her old father. ……….5. A baby feels secure while nursing at her mother’s breast.
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