Document 194150

WEEDS
AND
HOW
THEM
ERADICATE
TO
BY
SHAW
THOMAS
W
Formerly
Professor
of
Agriculture
College,
THIRD
Guelph,
in
the
Ontario.
EDITION
(REVISED)
Ontario
Agricultural
COPYRIGHT.
1911
BY
THE
WEBB
"
PUBLISHING
CI.A288-982
CO.
PREFACE.
The
from
resulting
prevail
It
is
be
extent
will
be
to
methods
been
written
some
measure
the
third
the
the
of
part
of
which
as
editions.
reference
author
indebtedness
that
to
in
That
it
of
that
this
need.
weeds
are
based
upon
wishes
to
Hon.
Geo.
book
it
has
will
In
are
has
eft'ective
recent
included
also
in
been
methods
mentation.
experi-
acknowledge
H.
in
this,
considered
not
Much
to
weeds
effective
This
hope
to
tion
informa-
most
them.
is
as
of
lack
a
ference
indif-
to
farmer
the
to
the
could
presence
a
great.
very
much
the
to
supply
eradication
weeds
loss
so
the
fighting
discussion
with
The
not
in
which
is
such
edition, several
previous
added
farm
reference
of
farmer
prevented.
tolerated,
with
to
is due
the
the
to
extent
that
true
prevented
the
loss
average
measure
on
in
the
the
on
equally
great
not
of
aggregate
Clark,
his
Seed
of
Commissioner
for
the
use
'Tarm
H.
Experiment
spraying
certain
of
which
book,
this
Dominion
the
of
L.
Bolley
and
of
the
for
Station
to
North
the
Paul,
machinery.
Minn.,
Feb.
2,
SHAW.
191
1.
sor
Profes-
Dakota
ilkistration
THOMAS
St.
in
from
reproduced
Canada,"
Canada,
contained
cuts
are
Weeds
of
of
CONTENTS
PAGE.
I.
Chapter
The
Prevalence
of
Weeds
7
II.
Chapter
The
Evils
which
Arise
from
the
of
Presence
Weeds
13
III.
Chapter
The
Weeds
Possibility of Destroying
Chapter
The
Concerned
Agencies
and
Propagation
IV.
the
in
of
Principles
and
in
the
Destruction
of
Thistle
of
.VI.
Weeds
of
the
Family
113
Family
VII.
of
Specific Modes
Troublesome
the
of
Weeds
of
the
tard
Mus149
^
Chapter
Eradication
58
Weeds
Eradicating
Eradicating
of
40
Applicable
Generally
Chapter
Methods
Weeds..
V.
Chapter
Specific Modes
Distribution
Noxious
Chapter
Methods
21
VIII.
Weedy
Grasses
Chapter
IX.
Eradicating
Weeds
175
Miscellaneous
196
CHAPTER
PREVALENCE
THE
''Cursed
is
herb
of
was
hurled
of
prints
than
He
sooner
no
than
they
with
they
the
harass
all
his
the
It
that
is
true
have
that
from
by
the
to
the
day
in
home
till
sows,
and
perplex
him,
best
devised
methods
the
its
dispute
he
his
around
to
that
foot
the
pitches
themselves
plants
the
permanent
to
the
that
bread
commences
it
eat
ejected
sooner
more
commence
shall
from
followed
entrench
they
of
doom
the
his
From
his
days
shalt
was
no
in
the
centuries
earn
He
builds
or
to
have
man.
thou
man
brow.
weeds
present
tent
when
sake;
thistles
reads
the
lost,
his
of
So
down
paradise
sweat
; and
thy
it all
and
also
field."
Eden,
of
eat
thee
to
the
of
gates
a
thou
forth
bring
for
ground
thorns
life;
thy
WEEDS.
OF
the
shalt
sorrow
I.
and
it.
soil
sion
posses-
and
thus
cate
complifor
duing
sub-
earth.
at
never
the
same
been
time
tilled,
that
we
in
find
lands
some
8
Weeds.
but
weeds,
they
number
the
of
multiply
to
the
those
but
to
any
the other
been
varieties
inhabitants
weeds
amid
which
they
grow.
weeds
that
the weeds
is
that
than
in various
the
to
thus
find
other
their
have
do
favorable
the
and
are
Some
other
brought
to
greatly
a
duced
intro-
the
kindly
sorts,
them,
of
grain
of
take
not
surroundings
new
seeds
with
the
which
The
w^ays.
with
with
from
come.
imported
people who
the
countries
sowing,
cies.
spe-
countries
infested
conditions, but
new
native
settled
imported along
for
eign
for-
ous
numer-
more
been
be
to
long
that
different
have
brought
have
find
the
have
various
are
varieties
that
far
are
from
inhabitants
these
lands
in
frequently
drawn
the
of
unable
seem
ral
natu-
peculiarly liable
are
exist
ited,
lim-
only
in the
aggressive
Regions
is not
extent
we
of
soil, and
great
hand,
cultivated,
and
do
the
to
species
which
surroundings
On
native
are
like
times
often-
nently
pre-emiincreased
development.
The
(i)
in
"prevalence
on
any
which
the
number
and
locality;
these
multiply.
various
weeds"
of
of
weed
(2)
on
species
depends
species found
the
are
extent
allowed
to
to
Prevalence
The
J.
number
number
of
which
infest
United
has
The
the
yet been
not
their
to
purpose
or
to
even
their
number.
numerous
in
Europe,
been
and
addition
that
native
are
of
portion
trouble
Our
weeds
are
which
seems
imported
of
wild
some
oat,
Europe
foreigners.
in
portion
from
of
of
ox-eve
of
as
they
number
In
America
The
the
the
the
greater
harassed
giving
now
America.
and
Europe.
varieties
the
of
of
are
completely
so
of
quite
that
long
troublesome
provinces
northern
have
inhabitants
the
to
most
central
known
weeds
that
of
good
species,
continent, the
the
those
inhabitants
the
noxious
to
stantly
con-
passing century.
every
the
is
in America
now
constantly increasing
to
yet
probably
it is well
variety with
not
approximation
are
varied
where
various
an
Weeds
and
as
have
give
to
try
ada
Can-
no
serve
the
enumerate
has
number
It would
increasing.
the
determined.
distribution
and
fully told,
of
of
provinces
accurately
their
weeds
portions
the
of
The
of
species
different
and
story of
been
various
9
species.
weed
of
the
States
Weeds.
of
aggressive
Canada
at
in
home
and
Dominion
United
thistle,
States,
The
same
sow
thistle.
the
the
was
is true
daisv, the burdock,
The
the
Weeds.
10
wild
the
mustard,
the
prickly lettuce,
all
nearly
that
are
from
a
this
foreign
are
characteristic
them
for
fuse
not
even
the
and
so
individualities.
found
been
to
a
whence
they
the
harm;ful,
while
a
certain
crops
majority
may
termed
be
eral
sev-
them,
as
have
flourish
in the
even
lands
life in any
varieties, as
some
as
the
for
greatly
not
are
thistle,
sow
thistle,if given
Canada
the
render
found
weeds
in
check
by
in this country
what
cultivation, that
cultivation
good
crops
;
to
growing of
A
large
quite unprofitable.
such
modes
the
soon
kept
good
their
they
of weed
others,
the
of
that
presence
and
will
chance,
likely
conditions
new
dandelion,
the
grass
brought
of
some
than
desirable,
is not
instance
quack
and
came.
Although
form
For
extent
greater
lose
to
favorable
so
in
nationalities, do
as
thistle, the
Canada
the
weeds
people who
they are
so
come
us,
numerous
unlike
blend
life
weed
to
more
weeds,
and
of
Foreign
than
hither,
remain,
forms
source.
indeed
and
troublesome
greatly
country
cockle
corn
various
the
thistle, the
Russian
but
of
as
other
is
is to
necessary
varieties
treatment
be
may
say,
to
by
grow
require
if, when
cific
spe-
the
Prevalence
is made
attempt
prove
of
varieties
harmful
is not
of
be
safe
would
to
do
to
all
forward
it would
that
say
at
the
Canada
forty,
or
reflect
present
time
a
dozen
2.
The
to
allozved
to
certain
varieties
been
Some
find
of
The
wild
oats
mustard,
in the
Red
is
in
some
localities,and
which
simply
ing.
alarm-
Canada
of
been
have
a
sense,
taking
is this true
thistle, and
and
lar
simi-
quack
grass
Valley
grain-growing sections,
ity.
local-
weeds
Notably
River
to
to
half
have
extent
in
are,
the
one
any
noxious
possession of the land.
of "wild
thirty
than
more
of
States
than
weeds
multiply
them
varieties
United
in
which
of
to
the
to
greatly encouraging
multiply.
allowed
ing
com-
are
incorrect
not
more
entrenched
extent
it be
would
ing,
Notwithstand-
number
seldom
kinds
which
the
in
it is
we
number
time.
be
not
and
that
the
weeds
do
it would
varieties
new
state
present
list,nor
probably
really noxious
and
as
so,
icate
erad-
subject,
definite
a
entire
the
cover
judicious
name
the
the
of
ously
really seri-
difficult to
In
large.
very
number
the
are
and
crops
knowledge
our
not
to
which
it is
them,
Happily
weeds
of
ii
exterminate
to
successful.
to
Weeds.
of
of
wild
barley
and
Weeds.
12
the
Russian
thistle
the
numerous
of
in
soil
the
few
left
there
to
named
Unless
taken
and
more
agriculture.
It
of
agriculture
criticism
of
the
hope
of
of
weed
written.
that
to
weed
the
the
forms.
than
interested
weeds
in
to
weed
book
will
reader
stay
by doing
all
the
modes
the
cherishes
to
in
of
this
writer
on
our
it, when
In
decrease.
something
aggression,
utmost
of
tide
of
withering
a
practiced
great
increase
stigma
defectiveness
are
those
are
will
and
the
his
their
stay
the
invasion
has
been
the
hope
self
him-
exert
of
progress
best
a
ity.
rapid-
injury
a
country
doing
extension
annihilate
surely
than
measures
great
rather
The
every
is
that
increase
progress
and
the
on
the
be
tion
genera-
alarming
they
to
any
cultivation
weeds
with
them,
more,
present
next
effective
some
destroy
to
the
more
still
varieties
increasing
are
for
so
no
probably
Other
tions
sec-
are
the
during
plants
destroy.
to
some
mustard
would
grow
In
that, though
ripen
to
generation,
others.
wild
seeds
allowed
were
in
to
utterly
seriously
ious
nox-
CHAPTER
THE
WHICH
EVILS
II.
of
which
evils
weeds
are
and
many
so
that
offer
to
ground
utility
in
from
the
that
weeds
at
A
the
green
as
but
mature,
found
far
to
the
time
same
crop
thus
a
better
purpose,
afford
sown
the
on
their
nitrates
It
is
true
turned
be
if
land,
green
to
they
before
crop
it
commonly
more
to
their
on
of
the
we
on
and
escape
enriching
under
ing
will-
weeds
sometimes
in
found
leaching.
through
may
ceivable
incon-
seem
enlarging
the
so
;
Nevertheless,
utility.
persons
soil
great
be
for
excuse
arresting
seeds
suited
should
one
presence
very
it would
purposes,
plowed
be
and
fertilizing
account
will
that
find
for
their
great
their
of
value
are
many
an
sometimes
good
very
the
from
arise
any
PRESENCE
THE
WEEDS.
OF
The
FROM
ARISE
sow
a
and
one
pasture
will
if
also
crop
that
erly
prop-
will
necessary.
hinder
the
Weeds.
14
of
escape
of
crop
nitrates
owing
weeds,
sufficient
they
either
in
service
useful
In
tolerated
at
them
injure
(3) they harbor
(4) they add
grain
for
of
insects
to
and
not
they rob
their
due
be
the
share
(2) they also
and
crowding
market
tage
advan-
any
(i)
moisture;
greatly
land,
same
should
weeds
plants
by
whatever
them.
from
and
plant food
of
offset
all, because
useful, cultivated
much
above,
to
the
upon
farming
good
of
be
named
ways
will
gained
be
ously
spontane-
to
give trouble
than
more
to
the
is grown
crop
much
of
a
formity.
uni-
greater
grow
numbers
to
sure
are
its
to
weeds
Whenever
in
effectively than
more
shading;
and
plant diseases;
the
labor
for
seed
of
ing
clean-
(5) they
;
frequently interfere with a regular rotation
value
and
(6) they are usually not of much
as
food.
the
to
To
all these
that
statement
unchecked,
grow
the
the
things
be
may
longer they
greater
are
is the
added
left
work
share
them.
completely subdue
Weeds
rob
useful plants of their due
Weeds
of plant food and moisture.
feed
upon
required
/.
as
grow,
the
to
precisely the
useful
and
they
plants
draw
same
kinds
which
among
heavily
of
upon
;
food
thev
the avail-
Weeds.
Injuries from
able
soil
moisture.
of
capable
the
from
soil than
either
that
a
crop,
crop
or
precisely that
of
that
one,
and
plant
food
their
period
plant
food
the
and
be
will
of
at
available
Weeds
2.
ing
weeds
and
time,
the
is
plant
weeds
food
to
will
the
the
case
utilized
by
urally
nat-
which
itself,and
more
as
the
plants
the
at
grow
in
the
of
power
present
leave
This
gathering
varieties
in
vigorously
latter
same
race.
nearly all
When
possess.
useful
nearly always
superior
they usually grow
crop
in
plant food
When
plants behind
to
externally
will be
the
them.
weeds
useful
It should
food
as
the
to
soil itself.
the
commence
the
owing
cost,
crops
injure useful plants by crozvd-
shading
and
much
in
the
found.
plant
of
quantity
from
that
water
during
proportion
are
readily as
after
come
of
The
in
fertilizers
quite as
they deprive
consume
take
they
forgotten
commercial
weeds
be
in which
applied, often
they
weeds
found
amount
growth.
which
soil
numbers
not
which
of
When
that
crops
and
vigorous
therefore,
the
their
as
crop,
usually more
greater depth.
a
in
growing
useful
the
more
moisture
and
are
to
penetrate
often
are
food
gathering
systems
root
They
15
a
of
crop,
than
is intended
the
to
1
6
Weeds.
thickly that it will require all the
that can
be given it to enable
it to
room
perfect its growth, it follows that the injury
weeds
will be in
through crowding from
and
proportion to the number
vigor of the
weeds.
Weeds
also
more
quickly
grow
than
useful
plants, hence
by their shade
that perfect development of the
they hinder
useful
abundant
plants which
sunlight is
so
grow
to
necessary
Weeds
5.
chinch
the
Certain
form
growth,
The
lice.
the
to
and
other
occur
add
grain for
it not
would
in
for
not
for
by
able
favor-
mildew,
rust,
Some
diseases.
much
market
the
be
wild
mustard
rank
a
conditions
of
plant
the
of
eases
dis-
turnip
similar
and
spread by them.
are
Weeds
4.
furnishes
the
on
plants, and
formed
dense
cabbage, cauliflower, and
of the
also
harbor
development
plant
by their
weeds,
shade
weeds
lodgment
other
ous
injuri-
various
excellent
an
dense
of
growth
and
waste
rows,
winter
furnish
bug
insects.
fence
Weedy
stubble
places,and
and
injurious insects
harbor
diseases.
plant
to
secure.
cleaning grain
labor
of
for seed.
and
of
presence
necessary
the
to
to
intended
weed
spend
for
ing
cleanWere
seeds, it
much
sale.
time
It is
Weeds.
i8
cleaning
the
the
of
presence
weeds
ripening
thes'"
seeds.
hand
in
to
grains,
prevent
them
which
crops
produce
of
nature
succ^^sful
considerations
and
requirements
and
the
when
suitable
weeds
become
in
rotation
the
of
growth
instances, this
render
to
rotation
regular
prompt
the
the
of
weeds.
The
may
of
the
adoption
taken
of
When
the
crops
the
itable
prof-
In
some
be
great
so
of
crops
unprofitable
been
can
balance
practiced.
crops.
hindrance
have
measures
kets,
mar-
soil
even
more
these
quite
ities
capabil-
soil, the
in any
growth
upon
obtaining supplies
is
numerous
lar
reguevery
on
rotation, they greatly hinder
a
a
the
to
fertilityof
sustained
be
a
of
facilities for
The
cannot
agriculturists.
relate
as
ular
reg-
a
vx^illdepend
rotation
the
plant food.
without
is admitted
fact
most
always
the
the
This
the
by
such
as
is
ious
nox-
seed
of
successfully
on
rotation.
of
of certain
kinds
any
ing
prevent-
frequently interfere zvith
rotation.
Ordinarily, farming
carried
of
of
Weeds
5.
The
seeds
grasses,
from
be
the
in many
and
clovers,
accomplished by
only possible way
The
process.
be
cannot
to
these
the
until
remove
meas-
ures
for
crops
6.
time
a
Weeds
If
be
weeds
the
a
usually they
feed
stock
because
it be
food, unless
of
possessed
them
render
of
many
become
of
early stage
in
they are
Quack grass,
but
quack
It,
we
than
value
that of
of
a
use.
regard
a
weeds
the
or
their
at
for
is
food
mischief
that
paratively
com-
that
exception,
an
when
and
in
than
we
eradicating
other
any
so
are
undisturbed.
weed.
ligh't
The
compared
trifling,
which
we
a
valuable
grass,
it in
life
growth
forms
more
very
stock, and
troublesome
most
prevalence,
them
sow
of
live
found
difficulty
cannot
with
their
kinds
the
consider
is not
are
juices which
left
it is true,
proper
weed
woody
consequence
grass
other
many
of
so
generally
weeds
to
live
their
bitter
or
distasteful
them
is
it
the
when
acrid
waging
When
value.
no
all forms
Nearly
young.
as
would
for
supplies of
short
of
value
much
extermination, but
them,
upon
value
beast, there
of
of
are
such
much
necessity
war
of
desired.
of
of
or
same
against them
be
not
were
man
19
growing
not
may
usually
for
either
not
as
are
for food.
food
the
necessitate
may
Weeds.
Junes from
In
arises
ought
tolerate their presence
never
from
to
for such
Weeds.
20
Finally,
the
the
unchecked,
to
the
the
presence
of
would
be
soil
They
are
more
introduction
not
involves
of
labor.
the
semi-arid
greatly
even
well.
very
approximate
to
annually
but
weeds,
in
it is
a
increasing,
weeds
themselves
must
always
increase
which
roots,
crops
impossible
cost
of
labor
destruction
large
since
add
these
be
the
of
in
and
corn
the
sum,
this
and
continent
the
cost
increase
in
an
sibly
pos-
crops
would
in
very
except
also
raising
to
portions
many
continually
weeds
It
weed
moisture
growing
in
tery
mas-
longer
Weeds
as
also
the
no
of
such
engaged
expended
that
of
cost
cultivation,
those
know
conservation
is
but
of
farm,
any
the
which
get
is
districts.
the
to
require
as
the
on
for
forms
fallow
bare
simphfied.
time,
Once
noxious
necessity
for
of
tilHng
of
art
fallow,
respect
more
it not
responsible
bare
much
life, and
the
the
in
the
absolute
less
grow
required
much^
very
to
Were
the
weeds,
costly
only
labor
them.
or
of
left
are
is the
greater
subdue
completely
for
zveeds
longer
number.
of
as
of
one
is
duing
subthe
CHAPTER
POSSIBILITY
THE
The
in
flourish
with
nearly
To
dark
so
blot
extent
that
they
form
twentieth
century,
and
are
run
over-
of
whole
do
one
they
great
the
of
progress
a
on
sides
the
an
boasted
every
places
the
occupy
great
the
upon
they
literally
are
throughout
everywhere
In
in
all
above
They
ing.
alarm-
another,
or
the
hand.
luxuriate
clean,
road
every
prevail
be
them.
continent.
reproach
upon
civilization.
its
The
extent
all
nearly
lead
one
to
abandoned
were
which
should
farm
and
in
simply
every
form
one
Gardens,
crop.
is
on
field
every
weeds
Canada
in
sections,
many
noxious
abound
They
the
of
and
States
WEEDS.
DESTROYING
OF
prevalence
United
III.
to
parts
of
suppose
all
content
which
efforts
to
weeds
this
continent
that
the
to
gather
destroy
from
in
prevail
would
farmers
them,
their
had
and
fields,
Weeds.
22
in the
allowed
to
to
arise, in
belief
As
the
there
make
to
as
matter
much
the
work
of
the
impossible,
that
or
long
so
looked
the
repaid by
when
obtained
their
once
is harbored
and
expense
not
be
will
be
will
that
gains
greater
as
upon
them
completely eradicating
be
their
as
belief
the
the
ever
long
so
as
writer,
that
hope
outlay of labor
the
the
will
is
eradication
and
unprofitable.
a
farmers,
of
weeds
labor
continent
this
of
complete
seems
lack
a
itself to
shadow
a
destroyed by
in
so
presents
is not
weeds
apathy
possibilityof destroying
incurring
expense
This
weeds
the
least, from
at
part
in the
without
there.
grow
what
merely
of crops,
form
is
destruction
effected.
Four
which
propositions
bear
the
upon
of
eradication
is the
writer
of the
that
affirmative
as
(i) The
be
he
throughout
of
ers
done.
these
of
them
makes
the
forms
eradicated
whole
farms
are
of
these
that
ositions
prop-
strongly
as
follows
life
weed
on
plete
com-
confident
as
continent
resolve
the
So
weeds.
possible.They
completely
of
subject
soundness
noxious
submitted
now
are
every
if the
:
can
farm
farm-
it shall
be
Weeds.
Possibility of Destroying
eradication
(2) Complete
without
the
in
weeds
When
it will
keep them
much
the
he
will
heart
is
his
I.
life
can
be
be
farm
where
their
seeds
exist
be
that
interfere
completely
the
are
It
be
By
so
icated,
eradtually
effec-
they will practically
implies
even
is made,
back
rotation
any
banished
attempt
brought
can
with
desired.
farm.
completely
they
be
lifecan
troublesome
more
can
that
to
cease
they
cation
eradi-
may
every
on
the
exterminated
may
complete
that
that
whose
one
no
weeds
that
it is meant
that
the
eradicated
weed
of
to
be
them,
reflection
forms of weed
noxious
assertion
forms
will
farm,.
own
completely
the
of
read
who
the
upon
noxious
the
weeds.
some
in
kept
unconscious
distasteful
really set
The
tively,
rela-
are
propositions
these
be
of
farms
means
no
comfort
finds
they
on
by
doubtfully by
received
but
is
that
fact
where
noxious
from
writer
The
little outlay,
but
so.
larger
free
entirely
control,
profitsof farming will be,
The
(4)
done
be
under
once
are
easily possible,with
be
to
work
way.
proper
(3)
effected
be
can
outlay, if the
heavy
23
from
every
except
again by
that
as
natu-
Weeds.
^4
ral
other
or
these
from
grow
with
but
seem
to
little
hold
held
in
in
can
with
that
be
turn
destroyed
difficulty. Many
the view
check
that
and
while
kept
the
plants which
the
watchfulness,
necessary
be
agencies, and
persons
weeds
may
from
seriously
they cannot
hindering the growth of crops,
be wholly destroyed. They claim that while
weeds
be thus
far conquered, nevertheless
may
they will come
again, and therefore
that
the hope of eradicating them
pletely
comis not
hold
this
view
then
adopt
who
Those
of
method
some
ing
clean-
fairlysuccessful, and
low
during the years that immediately folfield no
further
give the same
special
field that
attention.
proves
The
is that
consequence
this
again requires to be put through
special cleaning process,
owing to
field
soon
some
the
of
increase
the
weeds
which
by
partially eradicated
If this practice were
one.
but
it would
one,
untenable
and
cherished.
ingly.
shape their practice accord-
They
a
be
to
involve
theory, that
the
in
is cherished
interested, that
the
the
vious
pre-
good
a
of the
correctness
correcting
uprooting evil,it is better
rather
than
wholly. So
belief
were
to
do
long
error
it partially
as
the
by those who are most
of
complete eradication
26
Weeds.
effort
the
no
from
in
not
made
thus
clean
of
The
2.
zveeds
the
argue
the
be
the
truth
time
of
but
to
truth.
in
who
is that
by
is not
of
the
sources
actual
to
very
lack
very
of
the
bearing
shall
line of
to
to
belief
the
that
cannot
be
The
reasoning.
is
will
not
this
of
Evidence
in
thing
be"
they
the
be
kind
farmer
readers
Therefore,
because
our
necessary
upon
be
accomplishment
well.
an
converts
"the
that
plentiful,as
in
It w^ould
cherish
which
reject.
To
w^ould
many
which
such
any
of
know
must
weeds
testimony
inclined
due
way.
little purpose.
Those
hath
only
its
proposition
fashion
winning
to
evidence
evidence
the
proper
a
this
in
reference
reached
farms
own
of noxious
heavy outlay
zuithout
done
work
been
noxious
have
time
eradication
effected
be
succeed
not
our
the
in
banish
if
our
influence.
abstract, theoretical
spend
believe
to
in
can
Though
kept clean,
complete
can
should
possibly
he
now
will
presented
measure
if
and
ises,
prem-
agriculture
possibilityof being able
weeds
from
their farms,
are
their
result.
this
should
neighbors
from
all that
doing
about
bring
weeds
engaged
one
refrain
to
banish
to
the
data
cost
from
of
other
cleaning
Possibilityof Destroying
farms
from
back
his
upon
evidence
the
that
work
in the
time
that
condition.
it.
In
use
of
some
they
had
the
In
daisies
with
be cut
glory
blossoms
foliage of
their
revelled
the
Wheat-thief
and
sprinkled in
some
than
plentifullystrewn
Bindweed
the
had
vent
pre-
fields,ox-eye
pastures
The
yellow
variety to
lent
field,and
in
fields
some
that
stones
fence
numerous
docks
Burwere
borders.
plentifully
were
localities,while
in others
obtained
and
footing. Quack
more
to
that
countless
and
false flax
thistle had
sow
in
own.
among
along
pest
painfully profuse.
was
clean
a
stage
the
mustard
every
beauty
strewn
wild
in
this
meadows
under
spring grain
green
of
tion
Sta-
prevailed to
the whole of
thistles
all their
of the
the
with
of
several
spangled
a
fields
in the
maturing
numbers.
over
infested
so
to
thistle
at
1888.
not
was
extent
the
of
autumn
farm
as
accomplished
was
Canada
less
or
were
crops
the
The
greater
the
fall
must
experience, and
own
supervision
At
the
writer
Agricultural Experiment
the time
it came
Guelph from
at
a
the
27
Ontario
the
his
weeds,
Weeds.
one
over
taken
grass
field.
one
a
firm
had
lized
monopo-
Ragweed
or
possession
acing
men-
two
of
was
fields.
small
Weeds.
28
here
areas
fixed
and
its firm
Here,
grip
then,
was
the
pastures.
for
capital opportunity
a
in
experiment
of
some
on
had
blueweed
there, and
eradication
the
noxious
of
weeds.
It would
correct
eradicated
that
till
time
this
A
few
from
year
to
year,
instances,
came
the
in
soil
for
of
It may
that
cultivation
to
To
cost
estimate
of
with
condition
be
many
the
proportion
charged
The
the
injury
absolute
Station
complications
to
of
the
were
into
ous
vigor-
conditions
be
said
of
these
to
in
the
that
outlay
of
that
of
can
the
weeds
be
all
ous
variin
ficient
suf-
annoyance
the
crops.
precision
arise
that
the
the
into the
Farm
would
indicated
growing
eradication
utmost
which
impossible task, owing
an
the
still survived
serious
cleanliness
of
probably
to
this
bringing
first
present
were
cause
real
or
none
life
to
from
was
favorable
weed
numbers
book
spring
to
them.
pletely
com-
was
years
seeds
the
when
any
these, in nearly all
but
fairness, however,
forms
life
stragglers
ready
that
say
five
little
from
existence
occurred
the
in
written.
to
of weed
varieties
these
of
one
be
not
in
to
fixing
should
be
and
crops
respectively.
hoped
for
is
an
Weeds.
Possibility of Destroying
approximation
estimate
approximate
1891,
make
and
51
pp.
probably,
course,
and
made
was
an
lished
pub-
Report of the Ontario
College and
Experimental
Agricultural
for
Such
cost.
Annual
in the
Farm
real
the
to
2g
can
be
quotation
from
No
52.
better
adopted here
than
Farm
the
Department
portion of this report, prepared by the
The
cussed
writer.
subject in hand is therein dis-
to
a
following language:
"The
question of the cost of cleaning this
farm
will doubtless
be raised by the enquiring
in the
In
am
reference
for
that
was
hand
the
return
The
spudding.
certainly all
pay
them.
much
of
each
year
On
were
grown
On
process.
harvest,
exact
spudding
in
cost
in
spudding
which,
that
during
was
at
In
would
two
the
crops
cleaning
after
gang-plowed
for
the
in
the
no
account
outlay
catch
was
for
time
1890 the
498^
$1.25
paid
producing
expended
amount
1889.
of
land,
the
land
obtained
I regret
grown.
the
the
per
hours
by
day of
I
which
that
crops
be.
that
say
was
hoed
compensation
frequently
of
for
the
to
only outlay for
direct
no
it should
that
this, I desire
to
satisfied
there
it is well
and
mind,
one
ten
was
crops
kept
hand
spent
son,
per-
hours,
Weeds.
30
would
amount
thus
time
spent
489 hours,
to
the
For
two
spudding
include
spudding
the
in the
of
that
is to
cost
of
rental
fallow
does
road.
On
of
have
been
calculation
that
the
the
be
included, would
the
land
on
process
years,
the
year,
with
team,
absence
the
or
of
crop,
$4,000.
to
assumption
all
fallow, when
bare
and
is hired
than
acres,
it each
and
lowing
fol-
more
three
these
on
in
spudding
by the
$3,200
is based
the
certainly
pasture
man
from
of
cost
400
in the
added,
for
the
of
not
two
is
be
during
labor
in the
not
cleaned
for
expended
as
and
one-third
say,
of land
labor
arable
been
This
the
suppose
of
hired
would
This
outlay
would
years
had
bare
the
outlay
estimate
whole
Now,
farm
this
$61.12^/2.
the
was
1889
year
and
thereabouts,
the
much
as
the
three
$250.00.
this
then,
that
liberal one,
in
years,
the
amounted
cost
$123.44.
years,
a
would
on
1891
farm
which
spudding
supposition
the
upon
was
In
$62.3 ij^.
to
rental
of
the
to
$10.00
bare
fallow
fully $8.00
land
per
acre."
When
done
be
the
by the
nearly
when
the
so
work
of
farmer,
costly
labor
of
to
man
the
it will
the
not,
person
and
team
of
is
course,
doing
it
is hired
as
;
Possibilityof Destroying
in whatever
but
times
several
cost
it may
way
more
Weeds,
done, it will
be
than
acre
per
31
the
for spudding
actually paid per acre
the Ontario
during the three years in which
Station
at
Agricultural Experiment
weeds.
Guelph was
being freed from
sum
noxious
When
J.
it will
little
outlay,
them
keep
to
opinion.
that
the
will continue
that
to
will
be
noxious
will
that
to
come
found
will
banished
benefits
is
cost
than
only
all
of
out
That
eradicated,
certainly true,
to
control
under
once
is
say
weeds
accruing.
when
more
to
all time, and
costly
process
keep coming
it will
it is
lar
popu-
that
one,
through
even
again
ready
many
hopeless
the
to
to
counter
completely
a
weeds,
come
they
a
them
keep
proportion
find
is
strate
demon-
to
Nevertheless,
We
task
This
it should
that
strangely
runs
but
check.
argument
any
its correctness.
which
cated,
eradi-
once
in
reasonable
so
scarcely require
one
are
easily possible, with
he
is
proposition
zveeds
equally
and
that
true,
but
them
keep
partially
wholly
banished
is
altogether illogical.
Such
reasoning would
assumption that when
they
are
involve
weeds
relativelyeasier
to
the
are
able
unten-
tiful
plen-
fight than
Weeds.
32
.
when
they
be
wise
a
reduce
and
the
there
is
limit
a
to
to
step farther
and
cleaned
would
that
and
but
that
and
cleanliness
be
farm
the
think
that
render
it altogether
be
and
tage,
advan-
be
can
the
made
to
still greater
farm
a
labor
the
tion
reduc-
be
can
to
to
a
only
the
farm,
a
advantage
be
if
not
if
greater
dirty
yield profit to
profit will
to
further
reasonable
seems
clean
on
which
with
it
a
it would
course
weeds
is very
farmer,
go
while
go.
that
clean
partially
of
beyond
not
farm
a
that
commendable
number
ought
If
few, and
are
partially
this
owner,
correspondingly
perfectly cleaned,
of
cost
maintaining
with
continually decrease
increasing perfection of the cleanliness.
the
will
be
It may
''clean,"
well
So
from
long
place
as
to
the
made
freedom
weeds
in
this
as
weed
place by
able
clean.
be
to
birds, waters,
be
never
here
noxious
of
necessarily used"
sense.
state
applied
as
presence
to
to
Though
perfectly free
following
year
a
in
seeds
and
winds,
from
carried
are
of
such
shall
is absolutely
it
noxious
number
cies
agen-
we
farm
year
is
relative
a
means
one
the
farms,
on
a
term
from
work
that
say
the
that
of
were
to
weeds,
weeds
Weeds.
34
and
Experimental
page
52, the
"It
three
or
desire
to
the
second, that
to
farms
them
desire
so
it;
without
cleaned
thus
cleaned
the
will
it
in
keeping
be
more
and
an
annum,
field
a
clean
by
the
cultivation, in
autumn
cultivation
necessary
to
of
the
grown.
When
crops
hand
to
of
per
keep
this
of
outlay
and
outlay required
includes
in
year
not
for
100
farm
clean
more
than
above
good
should
weeds,
the
cultivation.
and
not
acres.
forth
hence-
$75.00
ordinary
private roads, fence
pastures,
the
essential
spudding,
$25.00
over
unbroken
When
the
than
at
keeping
difficult,providing
easily be kept
can
fields clean
expect
of
work
exercised.
is
spud
to
the
be
not
cleaned, the
estimate
province
are
production
per
viction
con-
bare
addition
thus
be
may
firm
the
is cleaned,
of
they
I
and
vigilance
use
if
their
ing
resortordinarily without
fallow ; and, third, that when
clean
due
We
farms
outlay,
great
farms
two
in
this
of
:
farms.
it is my
farmers
clean
venture
to
cleaning
to
made
are
general
are
that
fi^rst,
say,
have
here
On
1891.
statements
that
reference
that
may
for
amiss
be
remarks
in
nature
following
not
may
Farm
This
ders,
bor-
by-places."
Weeds.
Possibilityof Destroying
Some
of
the
statements
just given
may
appear
practical
to
into
farms
them
small
such
number
a
will
views
that
however,
of
it
regard
made
he
laid
of
experience
Ontario
of
that
year.
but
on
An
per
entire
time
expended
his
in
$1.25
view
man
should
first
honestly
own
farm
found
This
so.
a
100
ion,
opin-
and
on
in
hand
to
of
And
acres.
done
in
of
ten
512
was
hours,
hours,
less
this cost
the
tion
Sta-
spudding
way
cost
than
includes
indicated
borders, unbroken
by-places," in addition
the
the
by
account
considerably
sum
work
accurate
day
on
management
amounted
per
say,
the
book, and
the
as
to
is sustained
"private roads, fence
pastures,
has
so
many
is not
no
clean
spent
It
$64.00,
$25.00
the
at
free
he
by
Agricultural Experiment-
the
kept
which,
1892
Guelph.
at
feels
and
added,
ing
keep-
advocate
by
profitablydo
be
then
upon
in this
down
cannot
it may
the
to
bringing
who
opinion
until
attempt
lines
that
this
such
as
the
the
writer
enthusiast,
mere
a
looked
be
The
enthusiasts.
and
those
that
of
even
entertained
be
to
seems
so
idea
condition
clean
a
quotation
extravagant,
The
men.
the
in
35
cultivable
to
portions.
that
Weeds.
36
The
4.
profits of farming
larger zvhere
much
of
will
be
surely
if
but
mind,
the
made
reflective
the
to
The
here
it is
is wanted,
proof
kept
are
weeds.
proposition
apparent
tively
rela-
he
farms
noxious
entirely free from
correctness
will
easily
found.
Since
food
same
the
for
Where
the
are
plants
plant
food
crop,
for
than
useful
stated
yields
The
more
are
in
much
weeds
will
be
in
will
view
be
been
of
weeds
for
the
growth
furnish
shade
of
should
reason
not
that
grasses,
to
them.
the
the crop
as
was
Here,
to
weeds,
advocated
the
by
through
proportion
the
of
more
injured,
correspondingly
has
in pastures,
of
crop
feeders
weeds
much
a
than
Moreover,
very
grow.
ravenous
shading by
less
weeds
crop,
the
much
numerous
the
are
that
previous chapter.
a
noxious
thev
the
by the
strength
the
which
plants.
injury
and
just
of
weeds
in
be
more
is used
crowding and
plants, crops
the
in
crops
weeds
than
will
there
food
of
portion
a
up
the
that
follows
plants, it
take
former
identically
upon
useful
as
the
where
plant
feed
weeds
the
and
too,
ber
num-
crop-
diminished.
that
times
some-
be cut
they
down
age
encour-
inasmuch
This
as
would
Possibility of Destroying
be
equivalent
of
nutriment
abundant
more
the
of
labor
useful
weeds
weeds
Again,
which
the
weeds
corresponding
of
harvesting
the
they
grow,
whether
these
Grain
crops.
the
to
latter
of
woody
more
than
growth
in
fibre, and
increase
and
to
all
by
be
increase
a
a
the
which
amid
cereal
or
much
are
to
with
must
crops
weeds
in
extent
and
are
no
increase
followed
crops
where
reap
are
shade
profits. Weeds
labor
difficult
deeper
the
to
there
return,
in the
decrease
ment
argu-
too, the
is not
that
grasses
crops
present,
are
be
Such
crops,
proportion
in labor
increase
in
the
Here,
in
a
and
possibly furnish.
can
handling
will be
to
growing
purpose.
labor
.
consigned
the rankest
than
than
alone.
ground
be
should
robbed
grasses
nutritious
and
the
occupying
37
by overshadowing v^eeds,
of sunhght, would
absence
in the
grown
that
saying
to
Weeds.
abound,
tivated
culmore
since
its
branching in their habcereal
plants, are more
of greater
are
height
latter
characteristic
proportionately the
a
resulting from
tendency to a more
longed
pro"
state
of
more
the
of
greenness
plants. Cultivated
difficult
abound, since
to
weeds
harvest
in
some
crops
portions
are
where
frequentlyhinder
much
weeds
free-
Weeds.
38
of locomotion
dom
the
impede
and
used,
the
of the
working
implements
the
ling
difficultyof handweeds
Moreover,
materially
increase
crop.
the
increase
and
men,
part of the work-
the
on
difficultyof curing
by prolonging
crops
grass
proportion
in
period, and
both
cereal
the
curing
this
as
to loss from
prolonged, the liability
weather
otherwise
with
less
is
market
wanted,
which
The
from
the
and
labor
required
hand
that
other
the
case
the
that
turbed
dis-
in
in
be
evils, some
of
Chapter
II.
cleaning the ground
the
with
farm
may
in
increase
profits are
reduced.
extent
With
labor
the
to
necessity
greater
a
crop
usually
lead
may
mentioned
been
and
that
foods
various
increases
some
artificial fertilizers,and
have
is this
crops.
turn,
farm
to
weeds
to
of
certain
weeds,
than
would
rotation
of
growing
relations,
purchase
of
even
in
rily
necessa-
disturbed
desirable
This,
the
the
to
to
as
profits that
A
leads
grown.
for
the
accrue.
generally
numerous
so
regular rotation, they
the
interfere
that
become
weeds
disturb
adverse
increased.
is
When
is
period
More
growing
of
fore
there-
ularly
particcultivated
multiplication of
especially is increased,
weeds
because
Possibility
labor
more
the
labor
thus
of
this,
than
horse
by
not
to
this
and
also
is
those
with
thoroughness
have
when
of
be
to
weeds
the
crops
can
lying
idle
not
be
in
bare
is
of
also
grown
fallow.
fallow
it
tive
effecing
noth-
say
occasioned
because
the
bare
to
by
to
from
make
to
the
the
which
resorted
be
plentiful,
that
bare
results
only
the
managed
are
loss
to
of
multiply,
with
which
frequency
greater
weeds
it, but
practice
who
would
have
hand
the
as
not
will
labor
such
labor
been
it
The
frequency
would
fallow
bare
has
require
as
of
greater
Because
America
clean.
increased
increase
the
from
labor.
modes,
hand
relatively
always
which
them
other
by
cleaning
the
and
in
crops
keep
to
fallow,
that
grow
weeds
conclusion
some
39
remove
rows,
untenable
reached
labor
the
is
the
pay
to
employed
expensive
more
Weeds.
Destroying
required
is
line
from
of
of
by
the
when
seasons
of
the
land
CHAPTER
CONCERNED
AGENCIES
THE
IV.
BUTION
DISTRINOXIOUS
OF
PROPAGATION
AND
THE
IN
WEEDS.
The
means
distribution
weeds
and
stock
road
been
and
tillage
wild
;
; waters
of
under
these
;
his
of
some
control
them
that
along
concerned
his
roads
far
as
"
as
or
the
the
are
entirely
last
partially
as
tioned
men-
under
bution
distri-
weed
vehicles
used
birds
Some
are
as
but
of
ent
inher-
themselves.
are
is,
;
the
and
;
control,
"
is
pass
farmer's
goods;
railways
agencies
or
of
that
implements
;
;
weeds
the
means
the
etc.
winds
;
etc.,
carriage
machines
thrashing
animals
the
live
farmyard
;
crates,
vehicles,
farm
powers
of
for
used
grain,
farm
;
stufifs
feed
noxious
seed
:
etc.
packing-cases,
manures;
have
seed,
purchased
;
following
clover
seed,
grass
the
the
in
of
propagation
chiefly
are
concerned
agencies
or
upon
that
his
;
Weeds.
42
freely
as
and
grasses,
useful
the
seeds
be
may
of
adopted,
for
sowing.
The
seeds
found,
the
useful
and,
it may
seeds
of
agency
for
the
extent
though
as
the
Renewing
the
for
exchange
things
many
the
seed
new
influx
of
weeds.
source
of
which
has
the
farms
to
the
there
dissemination
many
of
forms
and
spoken
a
less
of
a
it has
with
an
of,
fruitful
than
that
it furnishes
arrival
the
is
troublesome
weed-seed
been
others,
most
is
the
by
along
frequently comes
this
just
same
it; but
the
weed
graiias by
or
by
Although
explanation
of
small
farmers,
too
ful
fruit-
smaller.
grown
of
seeds
a
the
to
are
ous.
continu-
as
of
seed,
commend
as
they
also
are
of
among
which
wide
as
which
are
new
seed
practice
common
that
the
distribution,
is
perhaps
ing
clean-
seeds
dissemination
stock
of
purchase
in
is
it
separate
seeds
millets
not
seeds
are
of
added, is
be
The
seeds,
to
useful
that
size
seeds),
the
weed
very
found
are
process
any
therefore, of these
of
they
clover
or
from
weeds
intended
are
in which
grass
clovers,
owing, in
similarity in
and
impossible, by
that
useful
the
their
to
seeds
(especially in
almost
of
grains;
instances,
many
to
those
as
weeds,
upon
the
our
pres-
Distribution
of
ence
which
farmers
Moreover,
local
well
world,
the
foreign
seeds
medium
of
furnished
when
would
seeds
of
them.
Farm
seeds
carried
the
mane
weed
and
be
the
from
hair
this
the
is
get pure
that,
too
even
precaution, there
long
the
seeds
to
Very
farm
as
there
market,
open
brought
our
of
a
farm
wool
of
localities.
seeds
cluster
about
tail.
When
the
by
weed
by being
live
stock
Sometimes
the hair
animals
ious
nox-
farms
frequently
upon
other
tions,
sta-
claiming
say
As
that
or
be
to
in the
introduced
in
brought
takes
live stock.
are
When
assurance
will
he
stations
danger
will
means
that
danger.
weeds
of
probably
bought
some
weeds.
degree
farmer
no
are
be
2.
our
farmer
be
entirely
through
agricultural experiment
those
the
sible
impos-
distributed
it would
for
old
the
market
foul
of
are
the
; but
much
seeds
In
open
in
its dangers
it is almost
in the
considerable
a
has
work
new,
seed
buy
from
the
sorts
obtained
be
its benefits.
as
in
as
to
free
This
by
test
various
the
to
are
countries.
as
sometimes
that
seeds
foreign
will
otherwise
not
suitabilityof
trial the
farm
seed
could
we
43
for.
account
of
Propagation.
and
are
of
the
given
Weeds.
44
of
the freedom
pasture,
a
or,
is
as
times
some-
of the farm,
the case, the freedom
seeds lose their hold, and, dropping
these
ground, begin at once to grow and
bought
multiply. If a flock of sheep were
where
weeds
in a locality
abounded, and
were
brought to a clean farm, and there
in a corner
of a field while they
hurdled
ety
and variwere
being tagged, the number
to
the
o"the
be found
that would
weeds
in that spot the next
surprising.The writer
season
can
of this statement
correctness
stock
various
of
distribute the seeds
weeds
by
droppings. This mode
though somewhat
of
should
and
removing
noxious
farm
with
be
cattle from
weeds
which,
testifyto the
from personal
observation.
experienceand
Again, live
sorts
growing
would
be
to
as
of their
means
tion,
distribu-
weed
local,is
borne
mon,
com-
very
in mind
when
fields infested
other
yet, may
portions of
not
of
be
with
the
infested
them.
J. Purchased
very
are
Weeds
are
feed stuffs.
ties
localifrequentlyintroduced into new
by being carried in the feed stuffs that
brought from distant places to supplement
the
food
that is grown
upon
the
Distribution
when
farm
local
especiallyis
supplies
live stock
is
until
have
fodder
baled
are
carried
for
more
than
of
as
be
may
first been
them
mill
fodders
without
certain
farms
be
barnyard
generally
noxious
bring
in
countless
know
very
or
pose
pur-
weed
Persons
which
or
have
and
who
grinding
seeds
weed
to
numbers.
Weeds
manures.
manures,
them.
steaming
to
steamed
crushed,
or
to
Farmyard
in
are
subjected
screenings
ground
in countless
of
tion
distribu-
weed
being
found
a
nov^
fed, for the
they are
destroying the vitalityof such
purchase
4.
are
since
may
v\^ell
as
before
ground
their
v\^eed seeds
them
in
of
grains
fodders
that
fodders
grains,
while
steaming,
are
distances
without
fed
usually
transporting
of transport,
ease
long
even
of
Now
grains. Indeed,
means
dangerous
in
feed
in
distributed
existed
has
distances.
long
are
not
thus
been
long
difficultywhich
who
in those
case
grains and fodders; but only locally,
recently, in the latter, owing to the
both
seeds
More
dairying or the fattening of
carried
extensively. Weed
on
where
as
45
short.
run
be the
likelyto
this
localities
seeds
Propagation.
and
numbers
a
fact
well.
are
by the
which
More
tributed
dis-
agency
farmers
especially
Weeds.
46
they distributed
are
which
which
the
these
of
feed
the
of
the
seeds
is
manure
that
weeds
manure
for
used
seeds
which
the
purchased
these
the
are
aside, the
entirely
free
Although
common
material
weed
character,
have
etc., that
frequently
ious
Nox-
straw
packed
which
transport
is
heap
which
for
often
are
uses.
or
have
When
purchasers,
thoughtlessly
manure
seeds
introduced
of the
means
during
the
of
carriage of goods.
by
the
means
in
for other
by farmers
by the
brought home
upon
cies
agen-
by
goods have been
The
packing-cases
goods
packing
out
the
to
foreign.
and
are
localities
new
in
the
it
find
local
be
purity
distributed,
are
Packing-eases, crates,
shipment.
held
most
not
hence
farmer;
distributed
distant
weed
chaiT
the
in
has
the
into
weeds.
foul
likely to
than
cities
him
weeds
are
are
rather
looking
from
of
one
from
purchaser
exceptional
be
and
used
The
the
ures
man-
towns
are
and
as
of
which
by
into
buys
obtained
from
which
towns
in
the
sources
come.
in
probably
manure
been
often
he
in
various
stuffs
interest
what
5.
feed
stuffs
same
would
the
to
places
of
means
purchased
are
cities, owing
by
or
tied
emp-
thrown
it contains
are
Distrihiition
then
centers
of
miles
where
distant
of
any
of
In
would
the
this
hard
their
As
similar
a
it may
sections
seeds
with
brought
which
the
this
in
of
is
ity
proxim-
seeds
sowed
6. Road
the
driven
to
carry
that
they
and
horses,
sides,
road
the
often
allotments
farm
are
or
ment
state-
same
of
the
introduced
before
of
ragweed
furnishes
this
of
weed,
vehicles.
they
Noxious
frequently brought
'along the
this
days
first crop.
wheels
sort
the
pioneer settlers
thus
and
seeds
the
and
into their
their
in
used
their
by
ate
tion,
distribu-
provender
for
the
who
Northwest,
that
in the
convenient;
is true
weed
travelers
them
animals
wherever
of
mentioned
be
weed
many
by
otherwise
for; and
method
early settlement,
weed
in
weeds
cities.
to
weed
tion
explana-
presence
of
be
may
an
of
account
especially true
more
find
we
appearance
to
point
nearest
species
fact
where
be
the
plants
thousands
or
same
sudden
the
centers
new
from
47
produce
to
hundreds
perhaps
growing.
of
Propagation.
given opportunity
in
of
and
weed
and
vehicles
which
highway.
a
The
familiar
distribution.
also of
others
to
farms
have
been
spread
example
of
of
The
seeds
that
grow
Weeds.
48
along
the
mud
public roads,
dirt
and
wheels
this
of
Sometimes
miles,
farmer
the
the
also
are
farm
In
considerable
which
These
cultivation.
of
or
from
one
even
from
one
of
established.
when
the
stick
to
of invasion
to
weed
of
Weeds
are,
to
of
various
this
those
field
to
This
thus
is
plow,
carried
another,
and
another;
are
it is
which
the
to
field to
distribution
to
root-stocks.
creeping
a
is true
weeds,
readily cling
of
cesses
pro-
weeds
are
the
by
tillage, to
of
cultivator, and
being
to
kinds
of
means
portion
centers
new
those
part
the
While
all
root-stocks
harrow,
by
one
farm
they cling during
multiply by
for
by
distributed
of
especially true
more
from
extent,
extent
some
in
farm.
manner,
of tillage.
implements
of
and
powerless
sense,
similar
a
the
another.
to
ordinary
also
this sort
conveyed
/.Implements
a
a
to
used
vehicles
from
;
is, in
farmer
himself.
protect
seeds
others
to
the
conveyed
but
himself,
belonging
the
the
by
merely
in
the
onto
thus
are
cling
vehicle,
brought
are
they
not
that
passing
every
they
way
dust
and
carried
are
or
thus
constantly
especially
that
ground is so damp
the implements used.
true
it tends
Seeds
or
eeas.
w
50
Railzvays.
p.
Railways
effective
wonderfully
weeds,
of
by
of
means
in
cars
litter
which
animals
falling
soil
along
track
the
kind.
their
in the
seeds
contained
fall to
and
often
In
of the
they
great
in which
Birds
and
carried
the
food
enjoyed
to
which
without
duce
reprois
weed
the
that
in
leaks
other
have
is
being
the
cars
they
their
to
the
ways,
largely
become
of
and
new
where
viously
pre-
sprig of
have
not
is
grew
some
seeds
weed
carry
A
seeds
they
the
unknown.
distances.
the
grain
and
;
explanation
into localities
were
Birds.
which
to
introduction
the
weeds
troublesome
10.
these
country
for
responsible
in
quite suitable
conditions
germination.
grow
of the track, where
sides
the
find
railways
the
through
escape
seeds
oftentimes
that
in
weed
commence
third
A
fact
found
shipped
and
The
suppHed
are
ground,
the
to
cars
noxious
contains
frequently
these,
these
bedding
is carried.
live stock
which
with
fodder
the
and
other
supplied to the horses
the
in constructing them, and
used
of
a
bution
distri-
the
in
agency
be
to
seem
left
plant
a
the
by
up
distant
place
molestation.
on
capsules
caught
its seeds
to
afford
Some
a
bird
where
can
of
be
the
Dtstrivution
seeds
start
for
instinct
leads
forests, and
soil has
the
fond
being
the
local
of
desirable
store
weed
away
and
sometimes
than
more
a
part
not
they
here
dropped
at
unconsumed
into
and
the
for
12.
potent
of
weed
Waiters.
in
the
building
loads
their
there
the
which
of the
are
so
leave
they
may
thus
are
the
on
nest,
which
and
that
seeds
vigorous life,and
work
in
age
foli-
the
use
manage,
mouth
in
also
way,
The
return.
they bury or
layng up their
carry
can
the
upon
list of
their
gathering these, they
to
attempt
for,
weeds,
in
when
weeds
When
nests.
or
weeds
They
of
stems
animals
diet, they include
seeds
supply.
the
cultivation.
wild
of
of
edges
where
to
Sometimes
foods.
winter's
lairs
certain
we
unexpected
Certain
varied
a
The
fact
the
subjected
distributors
of
seeds
the
localities
animals.
Wild
//.
are
been
this
along
other
in
never
In
of
weeds
and
way,
infrequently
not
results.
of
appearance
51
distribution.
weed
explanation
an
the
by
nest-building
similar
to
find
of
centers
new
fall
carried
thus
Propagation.
and
tributed
dis-
soil, or
burrow,
spring
at
are
left
or
length
again
commence
the
distribution.
Few
agencies
distribution
of
the
are
more
seeds
of
Weeds.
52
than
water.
heavy
by
turned
into
of
the
in
when
in
the
this
of
present,
farmers
seeds
of
their
upon
fields
intervene
his
way,
/J.
are
of
widely
winds.
when
for
the
distributed
the
is
seeds
that
they
are
less
care-
as
allow
ally
annu-
the
farniers
seeds
strewn
The
numbers.
in
way
to
farmer
to
some
careless
reprehensible
most
neighbor.
Some
This
attachments
air
this
unoffending
Winds.
weeds,
in
law
the
compel
and
troubling,
cease
the
year
exposed.
long
weed
have
is
protection
will
in countless
is for
only remedy
thus
So
long
fields, so
levels
to
year
higher grounds
weeds
to
ripen
noxious
lower
levels,
seeding
effectual
invasion.
ried
car-
deposited
are
are
ing
melt-
lower
from
are
are
fresh
A
no
the
seeds
they
the
on
their
the
on
of
is
they
by
to
that
there
this sort
when
numbers
recede.
uged
del-
valleys are
weed
which
float readily,
as
rivers
or
surfaces
At
on
or
scattered
way
the
the
rains,
such
waters
over
from
the
snows,
soil
seeds
When
streams
countless
the
on
such
especiallyof
weeds,
the
through
enable
which
have
them
to
of
those
downy
rise
fully matured.
agriculturist,many
agency
of
especially true
of
life
weed
of
forms
in the
Happily
the
seeds
so
Distribution
endowed
do
not
of weeds
sorts
to
way
these
their
for
but
fill
are
seasons
the
troublesome
should
be
ever
it is
doubly
seeds
of
their
allowed
in
driving
in
of
the
well
as
The
their
the
able
are
distribute
power.
remain
It should
While
tainly
cer-
reflect
to
to
seeds
its seed,
mature
weeds,
of
rise in the
seeds
as
weed
noxious
case
to
greatly
is
it
of
form
no
so
which
Winds
ried
car-
are
while
weeds.
that
important
others,
weight,
concern
some
of
phere,
purifying the atmosalso engaged, especiallyin certain
of the year, in scattering everywhere
seeds
of
exceedingly
many
winds
the
that
with
us
a
sustaui
to
distances;
distances.
short
have
Some
able
are
their greater
of
account
on
to
many
they
it is free.
as
incredible
flight to
Hence
which
to
travelers
downy
proper
continually finding their
are
silent
as
of
53
fertilized
are
trouble.
centers,
new
passage
enough
much
farmer
lack
for
grow
fertilization; but
give the
Propagation.
and
by
of
capsules long
air.
weeds
of
their
some
after
the
by
rying
car-
weeds
their
instances
growth is over
; in some
until the approach of spring.
These
even
shaken
often
out
are
by the force of the
winter
driven
winds, and
incredibly
are
season
Weeds.
54
ing
long distances, till at length they find a restplace. Then, when
spring arrives, they
their
begin
In
the
wind,
find
we
driving
in
for
forests
In
some
the
have
of
first time,
been
but
which
baseless
that
opinion,
into
14.
say,
on
the
by
means
former
a
seed
from
seed
lying
in the
soil.
Inherent
themselves
to
form
It is this
soil.
given
grow
rise
the
to
by
many,
also
by
their
by
method,
around
whole
one
what
which
the
creeping
and
powers
seeds
around
ground
reproduced
of
inherent
ripening
of
spread
means
own
which
parent
else
or
germ,
been
has
selves.
them-
of the weeds
powers
Weeds
termed
in
thev
still cherished
without
life
they
ages
removed.
ing
originate spontaneously, spring-
weeds
that
has
which
appear
time
a
been
from
weeds
for
less
count-
have
or
principal product of the
phenomenon
the
would
in
recently
the
s:reat that
so
weeds
which
areas
instances,
numbers
of
power
solution, namely,
of
appearance
the
for
and
difficult
numbers
the
reproduction.
explanation of what
an
be
sudden
broken
of
carrying
otherwise
the
work
distribute
be
may
;
that
is
shed
are
stem,
root-stocks.
By
families
are
parent
stem
or
the
often
in
a
Propagation.
and
Distribution
single season
by the latter
; and
are
continually spreading and
wider
wider
and
enable
reproduction
without
weeds
aid
the
of
into
brought
another
these
of
With
agencies that
continually engaged
weed
distribution, and
have
not
of
appalling.
While
multiply
and
of
to
man
this
the
that
true
resolute
and
is very
there
of
in
be
constantly
the
weeds
to
to
no
to
tunities.
oppor-
there
it is
defeat
who
tilized
unu-
pass
that
war,
soil
strives
seems
crowding
this
can
tiller of
thought
the
great, the power
is greater, unless
them
rush
that
of
task
of
it is true
discharge
no
the
power
of
others
is allowed
power
While
be
the
tioned
men-
work
the
with
first
at
destroy
with
or
one
been
in
also
weeds
spread
limitless
by
have
mentioned,
eradication
have
they
once
agencies.
the
been
idly,
rap-
agencies
the
centers
new
of
powers
of
when
previously mentioned,
been
occupying
multiply
to
any
weeds
many
These
areas.
55
can
equally
for
the
persistently
his
keep
farm
clean.
It has
of
some
we
These
already been mentioned
these
agencies of weed
can
are
exercise
the
but
agencies
little
of
or
nature
that
over
tion
distribuno
"
control.
as
wind
Weeds.
56
and
and
water,
animals
and
birds.
we
must
their
here
before
they
Where
under
patience, and
easier
weeds
bring
which
to
inherent
seeds,
will
required
weeds
shedding
allow
The
power.
will
always
of
eradication
the
allowed
been
spread
to
or
weed
the
creeping root-stocks,
persistency
If
of
power
own
power
control
to
pletely
practically comagencies are
control, as that of the
our
the
under
of
tillage
is, by
us.
When
its
least
to
control
have
they
at
of
care,
have
the
than
soon
duty
our
agencies so far as we
judicious exercise of this
found
as
partially
but
implements
as
the
be
or
are
machines,
watchfulness,
weeds
seeds.
their
control,
our
to
Our
may.
appear,
agencies
thrashing
or
they
mature
the
we
kill the
is to
subjected
are
best
cerned,
con-
are
inevitable,
the
to
wild
as
these
as
we
as
possible after
as
far
when
influence,
resource
So
agencies
submit
fight them,
and
other
such
them
to
of
be
efforts
our
the
effect
the
of
seeds,
do
so;
to
by
means
of
defeat
of
the
this
time
the
extermination.
farms
our
and
ripen
to
measure
complete
upon
to
itself
measure
multiply
their
plant
by
it is because
if
the
we
they multiply
CHAPTER
METHODS
V.
PRINCIPLES
AND
APPLICABLE
IN
GENERALLY
DESTRUCTION
THE
OF
WEEDS.
conflict
the
In
methods
general
for
the
are
also
which
a
of
shall
we
the
specific
in
particular
The
which
writer's
may
in
there
treatment
of
ter
chap-
present
methods
weed
tion,
destruc-
chapters
of
treat
applicable
are
ticular
par-
only
cases.
methods
general
applicable
of
general
following
modes
and
;
the
the
applicable
the
degree
eradication
In
consider
in
weeds
tain
cer-
which
less
or
modes
the
weeds.
principles
and
to
are
principles
all
specific
only
there
greater
of
certain
apply
and
and
destruction
sorts
the
in
applicable
are
weeds,
with
weed
in
opinion,
be
and
destruction
are
described
which,
the
of
as
principles
most
follows
quence,
conse-
:
in
of Eradication.
Methods
of
habits
the
able
be
to
as
so
of
adopted,
ripen
for
may,
a
necessary)
them
infest
to
the
from
omitted
time, be
the
allow
as
crops
been
has
that
which
weeds
the
of
seeds
such
that
so
rotation
of
scheme
the
the
in
them
with
way
The
(2)
sorts
is infested,
farm
possible.
modification
(when
rational
most
deal
to
various
the
one's
which
with
weeds
of
aU
of
growth
study of
careful
persistent and
The
(i)
59
rotation.
in the
(4)
seeds
are
due
of
purchased,
to
weeds
with
care
at
perfectly
(5)
the
The
;
are
found
care,
when
free
and
form
of
before
to
see
weed
from
from
noxious
such
that
of
due
a
weed,
it is used.
from
seeds
they,
as
too,
seeds.
care
to
especially
farm
are
exercise
the
also
to
exercise
they
that
see
respect
home
directly
cleaned
such
as
due
thrashing machine,
comes
to
is, perfectly free
that
pure,
of
grown
are
any
exercise
The
seeds
are
and
localityconcerned.
perfectly
of
careful
methods
climate
soil and
of
conditions
the
upon,
these
of
adaptation
wise
the
fixed
been
have
tion
eradica-
of
methods
certain
When
(3)
see
when
infested
is
that
it
with
thoroughly
Weeds.
6o
The
(6)
the
chaff
exercise
from
the
suspected of
burnt
and
The
the
that
is
farm
weed
any
it is
is
seeds,
thoroughly destroyed
also
screenings are
carefully
far
extent
of
growing
this
as
(9)
of
growing
infested, to
cultivated
the
crops
largest extent
practicable.
The
(8)
growing
that
may
be
of
the
fact
almost
at
because
(10)
destruction
(11)
The
the
they
that
food
is
of
be
can
the
cut
desirable, and
erties.
prop-
for
sheep
the
pastures.
at
home,
of
far
as
required by
instead
farm,
to
"smothering"
in
growing
profit.
practicable, both
that
weeds
the
with
found
their
alfalfa,
and
soiling crops,
utilizing
of
possible, of
of
of
The
of
time
any
clover
done
be
can
The
because
stock
that
see
after.
upon
also
to
care
fanning mill, when
containing
all
that
(7)
so
due
othei-vvise
or
looked
of
the
as
live
purchasing
it
elsewhere.
(12)
farm
The
keeping
constantly
possibly
(13)
be
The
of
work,
at
the
so
land
far
as
of
this
the
can
effected.
stimulation
vigorous
of the soil to
production
by
means
a
stantly
con-
of
Methods
thorough
of Eradication.
and
working
6i
large
a
of
use
manure.
The
( 14)
the
to
largest
The
(15)
the
farm,
can
be
exercise
if
The
the
with
down
(17)
The
has
as
been
thorough
of
as
two
of
and
due
crops
grazing
heed
always
as
those
the
of
work
the
able
the
it
of
plishment
accom-
possible time.
of
cleanliness
maintenance
perfectlyas
to
tion
eradica-
making
and
state
the
be
to
shortest
a
distributed
agencies.
possible,
it in the
all the
to
are
undertaken,
as
ripening
three
or
weeds
once
once
(19) When
been
has
secured,
thereafter
their
upon
sheep.
defeat
(18) When
ripen
season
giving
or
possible
utmost
seeds
of
same
agencies by which
and
propagated, so
counteract
possible.
means
sowing
succession
them
of the
by any
prevented.
(16)
is
weed
no
cultivation
autumn
that
extent
that
precaution
in
practice of
of
possible under
it
all
circumstances.
It is
greatly important that these
methods
of weed
principles and
should
be
well
observed;
for
important than those
understood
these
are
specificmodes
general
tion
destruc-
and
even
fully
caremore
of
weed
62
Weeds.
destruction
which
described
are
In
chapters.
the
in
fact, unless
farm
management
of
heed
general principlesand
these
to
of
weed
be
completely
destruction,
weeds.
for
As
general
we
writer
the
to
test
principles
and
putting them
here
down
set
benefit
such
brother
remarks
Study
I.
with
war
of
annuals,
to
zvinter
are
stantly
con-
will
most
experience
in
in
study
its
habof
these
habits.
classified
are
as
implies, complete
name
in
instances
some
a
single
son,
sea-
they
may
fall, particularly in
They
Common
shepherd's
their
perennials.
existence
the
the
In
methods
our
with
plants,
their
annuals.
his
of grozvth.
fit in
sections.
warmer
these
destruction,
thinks
biennials, and
growth
of
in this
weed
adapt
other
although
class
and
them
as
habit
by
practice, he
must
we
cycle of their
start
of
habits
weeds,
Annuals,
the
their
like
Weeds,
it his
make.
to
growth,
fighting
with
value
farmers
he
as
him
entitles
war
methods
into
question
important
made
to
specific directions, for the
in
his
of
utmost
hope
our
the
our
methods
never
in
has
in
the
pay
can
successful
years
many
we
lowing
fol-
the
purse,
are
then
examples
chickweed
the
called
of
this
and
Habits
while
cheat,
winter
More
annuals.
to
annuals
while
among
corn,
oats,
plants of
ripening
on
whatever
the
time
must
come
that
sort
of
weed
that
farm.
be
adopted
to
in
destroyed
a
single
decay, and
many
many
without
years
even
of
weeds,
their
time;
as
those
vitalityfor
so
that
sufficientlynear
of
whenever
the
may
ing.
ripenall
it not
to
be
that
resist
for
vitalitybeing
lost
in
seeds
wild
the
of this class
mustard,
incredible
an
is
soil
remain
Some
from
power
their
be
This
that
were
year
great
impaired.
or
sooner
would
weeds
have
seeds
many
seeds
through
will
means
the
prevent
fact, the
In
the
be
of
from
prevented
year
may
if the
weeds
of
sort
are
on
annual
season,
by
when
many
as
year
completely destroyed
true
and
seeds
years,
later
or
farm
any
their
successive
single
a
particular
any
class
this
but
have
we
crops
then, that
follows,
live
can
pigweed,
and
wheat,
flax, spring
It
others.
cultivated
our
spring.
ordinary
or
foxtail
begin
of
summer
ragweed,
are
winter
are
approach
of
examples
Common
weeds
the
crops,
annuals
commonly,
toward
grow
wheat
winter
and
63
cultivated
our
among
rye
Growth,
of
they
surface
are
retain
length of
brought
by cultivation,
64
Weeds.
other
by
or
congenial
taken
into
spring
force
the
be
and
up
buried
cultivation."
of
annual
year
after
year,
in
their
fail to
cannot
all be
Biennial
their
and
are
deep
and
burdock
the
"autumn
the
seeds
ripening
agencies
cerned
con-
ally
effectu-
are
checkmated,
the
time
this class of weeds
destroyed.
weeds
two
characterized
into
the
an
by
soil.
an
of
of
tap root, growing
During
starch
abundance
a
cycle
Many
years.
is utilized
furnishes
the
complete
in
root, which
producing
means
from
the
when
large quantities of
this
may
are
when
kept
when
come
existence
them
The
and
dissemination
after
they
annuals
crops
are
will
quick germination
all events,
weeds
looked
will
At
to
in the
are
that
of
seeds
cultivated
of
growing
this
them
as
that
destroyed.
secure
are
and, second,
;
so
to
prevent
seeds
the
once
that
cultivation
germination,
fitted to
best
of
at
means
weeds
seeds
modes
such
quickly
soil
of
their
maturing
most
The
be, first, to
the
during
they
Hfe.
destroying
should
adopt
time
any
growth,
vigorous
in
annuals
from
of
season
spring into
be
at
means,
are
the
of
excellent
the
first year
stored
next
up
in
year
in
seeds.
example
The
oi
Weeds.
66
Perennials,
from
to
year
there
with
with
with
weed
it for
perennial,
The
is
call
it, is
is also
but
is
the
of
with
the
and
necessarily
soil
the
surface.
that
has
stocks
has
than
one
become
that
more
buds,
increase,
recently
has
not
does
been
compact.
up
not
perennials
inasmuch
stirred
creeping
the
to
follows,
It
creeping
been
each
sending
which
easilypenetrated by
more
and
capable of
their
from
favorable
is
favors
may
root-stocks
latent
conditions
destroy
field
"creep,"
directions
cultivation
is
izontal
its hor-
or
creeping
many
of
seed,
of
run,
various
which, under
that
from
means
which
These
vigorous growth,
fresh
a
plant to
a
only.
plantain
reproduced
soil in
stem.
one
as
ordinary
a
by
we
example
the
is
as
or,
seed
common
propagated
furnished
weaken
from
and
only
not
are
then,
perennial
perennial
ereeping perennial, as we
the
parent
a
alfalfa
root-stocks,
through
perennial
the
purpose,
weed,
while
The
crop.
the
The
reproduced
of
sort
another,
our
daisy
ox-eye
this
and
root,
perennial
ordinary root-stock,
an
call
may
perennial weeds
root-stock.
creeping
a
Of
classes, viz., the
ordinary
an
implies, live
name
year.
two
are
their
as
so
is
root-
stirred,
Whenever
of Grozvth.
Habits
root-stocks,
these
upon
is
given
severed
attempts
plant.
Hence
hinder
than
cultivated
crops
for, is also
in
of
cared
so
complete
a
moist
weather,
likely to
mote
pro-
class
this
of
growth
the
rootlet
into
more
summer-fallows
of
influence
The
weeds.
and
is
stem
impulse
fresh
Each
in
that,
it is
cultivation
ordinary
of
growth.
to develop
their
to
example,
parent
tillage,a
of
by the implements
their
bear
to
for
as,
from
off
them
breaking
brought
is
action
disturbing
any
by
which
the
poorly
are
direction.
same
perennials are also likely to cling
implements of tillage,and thus be
Creeping
the
to
carried
and
from
part of the field
one
to
the
common
of
just
in
said
moist
sure
are
will bear
of
quack
of
examples
we
readers
our
have
we
and
tle,
this-
thistle, and
familiar
perennials;
another,
Canada
The
sow
furnish
grass
fields.
other
even
to
the
weather,
us
the
to
ence
experiin what
out
tendency
ing
creep-
of
vation,
cultitheir
promote
increase.
To
labor
destroy creeping perennials
either
cultivation
where
the
air
and
to
to
smother
bring
their
them,
or
roots
to
must
we
else
the
by
face,
sur-
to
they will perish by exposure
sunshine.
By "smothering"
68
Weeds,
them
is
under
ground.
kept beneath
summer,
the
this result
be
If
constantly
creeping perennials
surface
the
will be
whether
the
whatever
gained
made
means
of
are
ground for
months
during the early spring and
they will perish in a single season,
some
and
them
keeping
meant
of
use
may
effect
to
it,
spudding, plowing, cultivating,or
covering.
It
is
sometimes
asserted, and
is
commonly
accepted
more
creeping pereimials are
destroy
than
assertion
is
means
and
supported
their
(2)
their
push
way
It
making
this
be
each
modes
and
should
the
sort
weeds.
to
This
the
of
number
weed,
these
of
their
also
plants produced,
seeds
take
produced
vitality,and
seeds
one
things
seeds
their
and
in
that,
other
must
every
but
remembered
We
which
weeds,
also, have
comparison,
by which
fresh
of
biennial
be
considered.
account
difficult
propagation, namely,
alone.
to
and
perennials
of
means
by
that
true,
as
creeping root-stocks,
through the soil in
direction, annual
ordinary
classes
tion
asser-
specious argument,
whereas
creeping perennials have
of propagation, (i) their seeds,
that
two
other
the
are
the
have
into
by
the
distributed
crops
that
Habits
infested
are
and
the
of Grozvth,
by each particularkind
which
power
pastures and
Some
annuals,
seeds
themselves
in
sess
pos-
nent
perma-
places.
waste
such
ragweed,
as
countless
in almost
of weed,
kinds
various
the
maintaining
of
69
numbers,
bear
whereas
produced by creeping
perennialsis usually not very large. The
diversion
of the energies of creeping perennials
from
increase
seed-bearing
to
by
number
the
root-stocks
their
of
means
seeds
of
far
unfavorable
to
the
excess
of
seed
is, therefore,
so
reproduction that
production in annuals
their
the
counterbalances
than
infrequentlymore
advantage gained by creeping perennials
by
reason
not
of
which
of
weeds,
that
the
when
weed
water,
seeds
the
the
for
of
seeds
a
or
by
mustard,
which
some
annual
of
sorts
some
is
so
great
able to retain their ability
longer period than
much
of"
an
animals,
dangerous
of
the vitality
Moreover,
annual
transported from
are
tion
propaga-
creeping perennials. Again,
seeds
advantage
more
be
to
seem
grow
of
of
powers
of wild
those
as
seeds
dual
they possess.
they
to
the
goes
powers
place
they
far
biennial
or
are
to
place by
to
given
match
the
possessed by
perennial weeds,
such
an
as
the
the
Weeds.
70
thistle,in their
place
to
Weeds
those
of
clovers
likely
those
those
of
seeds
find
and
harmful.
these
it has
because
of
of
account
uncongeniahty
such
of
localities
of eradication
be
weeds,
to
to
remove
great,
by hand;
annuals
get
a
footing,
On
of
others
congeniality
soils,it will be found
will be
-and
conditions.
the
the
tivated
culvery
very
conditions, and
as
in
in
prove
done
able
unfavorable
named,
some
not
of
home
not
localities
ers
clov-
forms
biennial
be
great
of
seeds
places is
to
same
these
along
separating
required
such
generally
perennials may
in
permanent
labor
the
than
the
to
some
they might
from
in
much
are
places, although
waste
The
weeds
whereas
and
many
seeds
the
Again,
congenial
a
fields
in
from
with
distributed
experienced
grasses.
pastures
not
do,
life,particularly some
weed
as
as
their
weeds
of
and
is
winds.
grasses,
cereals, owing
difficultythat
the
of
along
widely
mature
place
seeds
weeds
be
to
which
with
and
perennial
from
agency
their
mature
the
ordinary
more
the
through
which
travel
abilityto
weeds
most
that
difficult
annuals, in others
will be biennials, in others
or
they
they will be ordi-
of
Change
perennials, and
nary
Rotation.
yi
yet others, creeping
in
perennials.
Modify
2.
with
weeds,
drop
out
crops
as
it is
allow
rotation
Some
weeds,
grow
as
winter
early
in
the
weeds
mature
for
of
winter
dropped
of
out
of
those
late.
grows
meadows
and
after
up
have
it matures
Grass
this
the
been
its
in the
the
vious
pre-
infested
hay
are
short
a
v/ill be
ripen
the
that
reason
stead,
mentioned
example,
for
Ragweed,
rye,
mature
not
in their
weeds
weeds
these
for
grown
habits
kindred
Other
facilitated.
the
of
destruction
the
crops
of
and
rye,
rotation
the
spring
time, and
of
wheat,
seeds
wheat,
hay, but ordinarily they do
for the
in spring cereal
crops,
weeds
these
begin their growth
autumn.
If, therefore, in
winter
which
their
seeds
and
fields
the
seeds.
those
ripen
The
in crops
such
ripen their
annuals,
to
infest
example,
season.
time
a
which
to
grow
as,
for
weeds
the
they
conflict
the
In
greatly advantageous
the
of
where
soil
rotation.
the
and
greatly
their
monly
com-
more
early cereal
cut, and, if
seeds
seeds
before
crops
turbed,
undisfrost.
seed, therefore, in fields infested
sort
purpose
of
weed,
of
should
producing
not
meadow
be
sown
until
with
for
the
Weeds.
^2
seeds
ragweed
in
reduced
through the growing of crops
Other
require late cultivation.
weeds,
such
the
as
the
Canada
with
crop
should
them
Farmers
them
for
even
especially
with
limited
a
those
this, the
modification
ultimate
found
J.
a
very
Adapt
methods
to
to eradicate
conditions
of
etc., which
we
the
bearing on
therefore, upon
of
the
where
tion
destruc-
made,
the
will
weed
conditions.
In
should
we
that
we
be
find
to
course,
of
fully
care-
These
important
weeds,
destruction.
to
tion,
cultiva-
exist.
an
our
follow
soil, climate,
growth
their
that
for
this
weeds,
methods
have,
their
matter.
adapt .the
conditions
feres
inter-
been
is not
of
difficult
more
standing
Notwith-
remains
weed
eradication
attempts
those
of
and
have
a
tion,
rota-
modification
required
sort
any
to
of
revenue.
truth
tend
growing.
scheme
which
cash
it, as
averse
time;
the
crops
of
much
is
tivated
cul-
will
is
crop
fixed
of
upon
required
the
their
when
so
source
of
grown
usually
of
kind
some
be
while
are
modification
the
piece of ground
a
cultivation
destroy
chief
when
infested
constant
in all kinds
thistle,grow
that
so
crops,
badly
to
greatly
number
which
of
become
have
In
and,
stiff
Weeds.
74
of
expenditure
habits
that
of
labor,
weed
which
under
banish
generally
weed
a
for
will
that
will
what
would
some
under
others.
4. Sozv
be
to
great
should
care
of
for the
seeds,
sowing
distribution
useful
shown
in
been
our
for
of those
foreign
land.
he
It
may
us
be
the
be
in
chase
pur-
The
home.
way,
that
been
his
for
seeds
himself.
for
sown
It has,
enough
deceived
the
so,
preparation
at
other
have
that
kept
seeds
agency
is not
farms
widely effected
IV.
weeds
unfit
wholly
to
for
pursue
Where
more
of
this
assure
under
down,
to
grown
is
Chapter
laid
in the
in any
than
through
to
also
and
agepcy
crops
fast
exercised
be
of weeds
the
through
and
hard
seed.
clean, and
made
that
be
may
clean
only
therefore,
course
proper
conditions
under
are
be
cannot
a
and
absolutely
equally applicable
be
be
ers
oth-
under
be
weeds
of
circumstances
all
our
apparent,
destruction
the
rules
is
will
energetically
persistently applied,
It
some
farming"
while
;
ditions
con-
Under
"good
"specific methods,"
necessary.
by the
it grows.
ordinary
conditions,
affected
as
the
study
must
we
was
as
doubtless,
nearly
brought
the
are
all
to
man
seeds-
clean,
If
his
seeds
small
picked,
have
can
carefully hand-
been
not
certain
no
;
and
hand-picking
assurance
that
they
are
preparation for sowing
in the
in which
great variety of seeds
the
75
by critical examination
except
clean
have
he
Seed.
Clean
Sozv
of
deals
he
chased
question. Purseeds, therefore, should not only be
examined
cleaned
in
with
the
but
should
them
is
weeds
also
of
are
are
clovers
and
particular care
purchase of any
oftener
carried
grasses
than
should
purchased, or
neighbor who
else
seeds.
pure
attempting
but
a
small
and
any
seeds
It
to
a
raise
to
this
to
that
are
to
buy
other
seeds
ways,
in
the
crops.
at
grow
home
commonly
now
them
from
a
reputation for growing
would
portion
noxious
in
has
in
these
wise
be
seeds
of
in the
exercised
be
seeds
of
sorts
many
tiny
scru-
are
indeed,
It may,
careful
most
from
growing, so long as
ground for suspecting that
them.
As
growing among
any
seeds
raised
are
be
discovered
are
that
the
and
care,
seeds
crops
they
there
the
utmost
receive
while
weed
the
if weed
again
them,
of
is out
well, too,
be
one's
of the
own
crop
seed,
for
to
when
select
this purpose,
special pains to prevent
weeds
from
maturing their
portion ; and this plan should
take
"jd
Weeds.
be
followed
all
especially
seed,
has
with
been
already
frequently
brought
crops
to
farms
our
in
us
seeds
weed
the
for
It
clovers.
that
mentioned
for
grown
and
grasses
come
to
the
seed
the
grains
of
purpose
The
danger
effecting a change of seed.
here, though not
easily altogether averted,
cereal
such
grains
a
in the
be
a
or
so
from
seed
less
farmer
as
seed
to
seedsman
cheaply is,however,
concerned
or
to
as
is not
it
is
his
purchase
be
careless
so
raising,
own
seed
unclean
because
it
not
likelyto
his
is, and
now
seldomer
who
whether
would
of crops
much
of
sift
tion
it, deteriora-
than
rapid
would
as
from
would
seed
foolish
the
by
seed
the
this class
unclean
sow
carefully prepared
seeds
of
The
required.
all
If
screening
smaller
of
change
to
of
much
very
as
were
process
all the
out
of
lessened.
be
yet
may
can
be
bought
be
greatly
is clean
farm
clean.
clean
the
thrashing
Thoroughly
it.
machine
using
before
Thrashing
from
machines,
a
especially if they come
5.
farm
with
should
to
at
be
work.
the
a
reputation
carefully swept
If, in
first to
run
uncleanness,
for
before
addition, they
empty
for
a
being
are
short
set
made
time,
Watch
and
the
box
are
is
seeds
that
often
instrumental
from
one
club
together
and
machines
attention
chaff
mill
should
and
receive
chaff
from
being prepared
other
screenings
steamed
before
they
the
likely to
the
should
do
seeds
weed
grown
screenings
ever,
How-
weeds
that
burned.
or
strewn
The
crop
in
The
if fed
contain
or
wise,
other-
surfaces
not
are
proportion
which
is
for
boiled
on
they
obtained
tion.
atten-
indeed
ground,
a
prevent
suspected,
or
be
harm.
have
screenings.
the fanning
are
market,
in
times
some-
grain
being fed;
any
small
careful
winnowed
be
of
are
from
most
to
machine
will
seeds
seeds
farmers
grain
be
should
often
farmers.
should
use,
it has
power
to
for
seeds
a
which
weed
the
weed
fighting
the
are
reason,
screenings
Whenever
in
of
them
Because
several
same
disadvantages
general adoption.
The
weed
for
tread
methods
Give
where
another,
individual
by
these
any
from
machines
carrying
the
by
run
used
the
grain
purchase
For
own.
6.
in
advisable
found
their
in the
thrashing
locality to
been
obvious
7;
caught
are
that
fact
the
their
Screenings.
destroyed, the danger
completely averted.
more
even
of
Grain
the
of
collect
cleaning
it is
Weeds.
7^
relatively
destroy
to
thus
are"
large
very
,
these
hence
;
weed
the
nity
opportu-
seeds, when
collected, should
by
no
they
be
means
neglected.
Groiv
7.
cultivated
is desired
subdue
to
cultivated
reasons
obvious.
are
these
crops
every
period
the
of
of
weed
life.
necessary
for
time, the
but
too,
and
it
greatly
crops
yet
to
the
from
the
when
it has
fight with
to
they
This
been
on
year
these
in
weeds
increased.
the
very
may
so,
have
the
;
and
cling
to
them,
of
the
they,
in this
in
numbers
farmers
fact that
in
that
soil, so
Many
not
good
time
germination
their
year
of
growing
the
soil
the
from
reduces
are
crops
of
destroyed
in
form
every
are
season.
opinion that,
point
in
lying
up
the
for
season,
production
are
of
almost
at
working
that
grow
single
almost
stimulates
seeds
way
of
destroys,
weeds
it also
weed
growing
only
not
The
cultivation
the
the
the
to
practicable.
The
The
it
zvholly,
grown
gives opportunity,
combating
crops
be
is
that
extent
greatest
weeds
noxious
should
crops
Wherever
crops.
to
weeds,
a
the
tivated
cul-
helpful. They
have
the
very
been
crops
these
grown
fields,
same
fields
true,
have
have
but
cer-
Cultivated
Groiv
tainly
been
not
otherwise
decreased, rather
could
result
of
would
than
possibly
cultivated
in which
for
they
for
in
not
are
crops
the
destruction
single
a
to
ripen
the
ion
opin-
value
in
weeds
the
tivated
cul-
of
eral,
gen-
with
fight
these
fallow
bare
creeping perennials
is
view^
mistaken
a
arisen, doubtless, from
the
too
practice of staying the destructive
common
the
over
with
crop
the
oftener, after
and
will,
job
of
the
in the
be
It is
as
work
of
crops
so
soH.
The
are
too
grown,
if
true
and
Going
season.
hoe
twice,
once,
cultivation
weeds
rule, make
a
fairly dry
only
hand
stray
perennials, except
remain
the
horse
all
removing
appear,
in
early
too
processes
or
raised,
least, that
as
This
season.
It has
one.
of
to
in the
at
or,
effective
so,
the
helpful
creeping perennials ;
sion
succes-
been
cling
be
other
a
allowed
destroying
not
are
where
been
may
No
had
farmers
that, whatever
crops
follow
for
gradually
increased.
had
Other
its seeds.
for ;
have
crops
weed
no
79
cared
properly
weeds
the
Crops.
ceases,
that
a
may
thorough
destroying creeping
far
as
weather
success
that
their
seeds
must,
ever,
how-
is to
where
sufficient
be
plete.
com-
cultivated
attention
is
Weeds.
8o
of keeping them
given to the work
quite
to
clean, their growth only serves
age
encourin general, and
the increase
of weeds
of creeping perennials in particular. Their
not
cultivation
furnishes
the
to
stocks
lateral
robust
of annuals
vigor
taken
with
their
seeds
in
than
worse
cultivated
that
concerned,
cannot
is, so
far
modified
a
8. Grow
raising
be
;
of
found
and
common
only
Where
fully,
success-
destruction
of
form
son,
sea-
bare
the
is
low,
fal-
in
this
ter,
chap-
and
alfalfa.
Where
the
favorable
to
their
are
the
concerned,
grown
farther
clover
conditions
making
of
are
weed
as
not
perfect
thus
end
be
in
is
beginning.
the
crops
take
may
not
at
was
the
also
quently
infre-
care
weeds
seeds
weed
described
as
the
root-
cultivated
a
annual
field at
as
it
where
great numbers,
the
far
so
weeds
the
it not
sufficient
and
it, these
of
state
will
of
that
so
;
that
is grown,
the
extension
creeping perennials. It is
favorable
the
to
development
happens
the
able
favor-
very
of
equally
crop
conditions
crops
place.
of
helpful
more
red
valuable
on
their
clover
in
the
especially is
clover.
in
These
weed
growth,
and
alfalfa
reduction
this
of
of
true
crops
are
destruction
82
Weeds.
soil
the
to
and
this most
for
they
of
ground
may
the
in
for
crops
the
This
of
work
the
Groiv
p.
for
farm
the
tendencies
feed
have
is
instances
in
grown
found
the
derived^from
be
extent
same
then
be
found
be
their
fact
to
which
grow
in
hence
the
can
the
same
these
crops
cut
them
because
soiling crops
cultivation
As
be
can
and
mature;
grow
smothering
they
on
ful,
help-
to
that
two
be
to
requirements
their
to
of
very
it advisable
duplicated
year.
work
are
other
single season,
a
over
destroying
the
In
will be
weeds
opportunity
in many
the
gone
will
which
owing
the
; to
certain
before
last
speedily completing
in
render
This
them.
It
the
may
crops
especially where
of
service
season
of
which
soiling crops.
green
ing
grow-
extermination.
eradicating weeds,
cut
the
purpose
greatly helpful
be
to
to
after
precaution
last
much
the
profitably be
very
spud for
growing.
the
that
creeping perennials
the
hence
destruction.
weed
mentioned
these
cutting
;
of
store
than
reasons
render
Be
also
with
plant food
other
under,
abundant
consistently be given
may
them
plowed
are
more
a
necessary
attention
may
they
providing
so
which
when
be
can
benefits
to
some
soil
are
in
not
Soiling Crops.
Grow
designed
be
other
grown
for
nearly ripe
before
crops
is
power
may
;
greater
grain to be
them
obtained
from
required
; yet if they are
be allowed
to
for winter
fodder, they may
if
than
V
smothering
their
hence
seeds, they
than
thickly
more
sown
their
mature
to
83
they
become
so
of
the
them
among
example,
yet be
and
cultivation
the
to
and
the
ripening their
seeds
their
they
these
is
grow
crops
during
may
the
crops
be
weeds
looked
that
becomes
season,
an
dency
ten-
a
weeds,
Some
w^eeds
; in
crops
the
fact,
possibly ripen
which
amid
after.
Because
frequently
upon
and
from
prevented
cannot
be growti
same
has
soiling crop
fact
; hence
increase.
these
in
seeds
the
thistle
these
of
way
as
sow
annual
may
properly
further
of the
weeds
further
their
if the
For
this
in
crops
vigor
the
weeds
of
soiling
grow
seed.
perennial
mischievous
most
biennial
many
of
allowing
ripen their seeds
to
siderable
con-
that
grown
such
the
or
weaken
prevent
to
these
before
opportunity
have
be
may
that
cut
possess
their
mature
cut
thistle
Canada
of
they
to
weeds
of
sorts
to
being
without
feeding value,
many
the
enough
is mature
grain
their
were
the
two
same
cultivation
excellent
means
ing
soilfield
of
for
Weeds.
84
destroying
the
throughout
grow
weeds
such
as
thistle, whose
Canada
the
early
in the
seeds
very
late ;
of
have
not
to
Call
10.
need
it, the
forms
are
it to
aid
of
much
take
to
an
for
early
ing
subject-
process.
Those
in
that
where
numbers
crippled
who
sheep
keeping
sheep
in their
that
do
are
of
forms
some
entirely disappear,
soon
very
their
desirable
of sheep.
told
be
well
as
mature
as
growing
fallow
the
in the
to
life
leads
seeds
their
if it be
or,
kept in sufficient
weed
like
season,
such
or
experience
had
whole
gives opportunity
soiling crop
lands
habit
mature
as
season,
advantage
weed
speciallytroublesome
a
other
powers
of
gradually disappear, while
still other
forms
weakened
are
though they
On
be entirelydestroyed.
not
pasture
may
will
with
stiff clay subsoils, sheep
lands
for the
match
than
a
eventually prove more
growth
and
Canada
thistle,if the pasture
kept closely
such
cropping
so
eaten,
may
several
but
be
is at
required
all times
seasons
to
of
effect this
and
some
Nearly all biennial weeds
perennials as, for example, the ox-eye daisy,
will be greatly checked
when
thus pastured ;
end.
and
the
ragweed
same
and
is true
wheat
of
annuals,
some
thief.
If
sheep
as
are
Feeds
Grow
allowed
thus
render
act
to
extermination,
in
nent
permafence
private roads, along
on
in
and
and
corners
places generally. In order that this
be done
thoroughly, the pastures
may
from
be
early
kept closely eaten
waste
work
should
weeds
spring. Many
succulent
that
whereas,
when
advanced
stage
to
feed
of
hunger;
sheep
will
the
weeds
are
unless
that
spudding
profitably be
no
hand
the
be
may
destruction
probably
weeds
is
in which
kept
hand
or
complete
to
There
weeds
by turning
as
force
thus
greatly reduced.
way
used
sheer
cutting
required
tently
persis-
impelled
are
are
;
more
a
will
the
through
when
closely cropped,
at
they
and
them
eat
growth, they
of
and
tender
so
the
them
upon
then
are
reject them,
is
weed
of
work
in the
borders, in grain stubble
their
they will
especially
more
pastures,
85
scavengers,
as
service
excellent
Home.
at
can
them
so
into
mutton.
Grow
II.
food
food supplies at home.
supplies
to
grow
to
purchase
in
farming, viewed
economy,
is not
that
even
them
at
home,
elsewhere,
from
when
the
taken
into account
is much
affected
the
is
safe
a
aim
than
rather
rule
standpoint
question
at
To
all.
of
It is
of
weeds
a
by considerations
rule
of
86
Weeds.
location, soil, climate, and
and
is therefore
but
so
these
is
be
the
thus
to
made
possible
increase
to
example,
silo
to
whereas
if
raised
they
for
the
grew
tually disturbed
where
which
weeds
which
supplies
true
that
or
cannot
less extensive
a
more
a
necessity,as
of
but
all
of
live
weed
where
stock
grains
be
so
corn
to
sold
efifec-
evident
at
grown
to
the
prevent
producing
seeds, a power
crops
food
the
when
It
elsewhere.
of
food
scale
supplies
purchased,
them
is
on
is sometimes
and
the
ing
keep-
largely engaged
in
;
were
be
equally
are
dairying
are
seeds
the
generally
possess
purchase
the
not
the
purchased
are
grain
their
ripening
he
the
power
in
the
weeds
that
crops
it is
has
for
those
in
grow
supplies
grow
from
them
and
food
farmer
the
home,
;
weeds.
fodder, it gives
among
of
effort
will prove
is grown
to
sake
all
home
at
reducing
checking
they might
them,
that
for
attempt
may
in
;
should
The
extent.
winter
as
aim
supplies
corn
opportunity
which
from
used
be
ample
when
the
production
greatly advantageous
For
its limitations
that
food
grow
greatest
conditions,
it, notwithstanding
considerations,
usually
to
without
not
important
other
when
is
the
in,
ence
pres-
suspected,
Keep
should
be
fed,
was
as
ground
they
ground,
are
in
contained
into
the
the
seeds
be
steamed,
find
way
thus
into
its
soil of
the
weed
containing
the
contained
seeds
from
in
getting
fodder
the
is
which
practice
a
seeds
to
prevented
unless
manure
the weed
sure
fodders
purchased,
cannot
the
and
When
are
them
is
them
Even
sheep, unless
to
portion of
a
manure,
farm.
fed
are
being
IV.
Chapter
in
87
before
steamed
or
grains
Land,
the
on
mentioned
such
when
Crop
a
into
and
cut
generally
is
impracticable.
Keep
12.
the
conflict
the
with
kept constantly
of
soil
and
the
will be
to
above
In
should
be
kinds
some
;
the
In
in
autumn,
the
of
nature
will
farm.
grown
many
As
naturally
the
be
season.
grain
be
rye
of
or
followed
sections,
and
tioned
men-
was
same
of
crop
the
soiling crops
9, two
generally
crop.
in the
climate, soil, and
upon
in section
may
The
raised
so
be
helpful
very
weeds.
ordinary
an
meadow
sown
of
sometimes
Again,
catch
be
largely
requirements
may
Upon
found
destroying
crops
depend
work.
at
land
work.
can
cultivation
of
the
weeds,
at
a
easily get two
crops
year
this can
be done, the necessary
we
where
work
constantly
land
by
may
followed
a
be
the
Weeds.
88
spring
next
roots,
be
may
cut
Such
crop.
green
be
may
rape,
turnips,
crop.
When
the
effects
destruction
are
of
are
crops
farm
the
cropping,
such
is
rather
helpful
of
the
advantage
as
than
thus
keeping
nitrates
the
largely prevented
to
the
the
tility
fer-
further
soils
soil
the
at
are
being washed
from
on
incessant
arable
of
weed
described,
otherwise
is
vated,
culti-
stock
of
here
the
all these
As
process
There
by
of
feeding
have
we
and
of
one
way
soil.
in
that
work,
the
home,
at
for
only
a
grown
drills and
marked.
very
use
has
by
the
in
as
followed
crop
in
grown
rye
quick-growing
followed
is
mentioned,
crops
soiling
the
the
oats
as
be
other
corn,
under
crops
and
some
or
and
vigorously,
soihng
grown,
peas
of
crop
plowed
or
green
a
this is done,
When
rape.
or
by
summer
or
out
rains.
by
jj.
Stimulate
fidly.
dealt
Weeds
with
stimulated
when
become
the land
vigorous
is
soil
infertile
When
little harm
crops
in
left
for
are
them,
produce plenti-
much
land
the
when
to
the
be
can
to
is
kept constantly
productivity
to
lack
easily
more
run
down
of proper
and
ing.
manur-
strong, weeds
compared
than
do
with
but
the
Weeds.
90
is also
crops
It may
weeds.
will
season
for
catch
such
this
result
Practice
of
are
seeds
be
thus
be
may
the
The
got
rid
There
stand
in
of
the
repay
a
view
is not
All
the
a
ground
that
two
way
late
the
advent
single
:
to
sown
that
that
at
weed
the
encouraged
are
the
of
crops
weeds
while
under,
lay.
out-
largely
the
as
weed
to
from
grow
or
by
plowing
autumn
of
be
tilling
the
soon
that
soil
can
destroyed by harrowing
are
in the
means
means
with
ods
meth-
cultivation."
well
weeds
myriads
of
best
very
plowed.
turned
in
lying
w^ay
the
other
land
cultivating,or by
that just precedes
this
In
As
surface
the
germinate.
these
culti'o'ation.
harvest
the
should
time
the
so
destruction.
above
are
duces
proto
cultivation
removed,
grass
when
;
which
is "autumn
will
soil after
weed
sown
hurtful
be
the
if any
that
Autumn
of the
also
of
one
adopted
use
seeds
weather
dry
autumn
questionable
made
the
the
that
germinate
not
will
weeds,
be
to
are
the
sometimes
of
weeds.
of
with
to
will
crops
destruction
the
that
dry
so
case,
14.
It is
be
is the
growth
war
good for
happen
winter.
plants
will
In
be
season.
real
difficulties
( i ) The
season
which
at which
Prevent
this
work
is to
(2) there
is
available
for
that
the
of
are
so
to
that
and
the
for
manure
be
required
if the
is
the
catch
should
their
their
of
a
farm
undertaken,
hinder
that
weeds
usually
be
the
the
the
same
crop,
green
crop
would
as
the
while
the
seeds
ripen.
to
noxious
to
our
power
When
it may
not
with
the
weeds
always
of
ripening
it, but
by
We
weeds
all in
is foul
soil
manure.
green
so.
the
for
successful, there
fertilityof
that
very
necessary
tl"e main
of
been
weed
infest
the
ing
turn-
destroying weeds,
doing
the
for
grown
of
be
remarked
cultivation
if it is at
seeds,
should
be
manure,
allow
never
prevent
are
has
application of
no
effort
It may
in the
75. Allow
to
of
crop
increase
an
much
autum.n
mainly
purpose
The
it is absolutely
much
as
farm.
that
under
plowing
reason
important
harvest
the
the
destroying
crops
are
the
labor
horse
for
on
; and
one
of
green
after
plowing
busy
a
httle
too
them.
as
91
method
that
catch
under
kept
very
secure
when
is
purpose,
this
essential
made
done
frequently
advantages
weeds
be
little is
too
Seeding.
the
be
seeds
ripen
to
ing
cleanis first
possible
of
the
the
ripening may
fying
largely prevented by modi-
rotation
for
a
time.
When
once
Weeds.
92
a
farm
is
fairlywell cleaned,
inexcusable
least those
at
to
do
is
so
best
which
show
to
interests
The
with
the
these
in
which
in
was
the
following
said
above,
reasonable
most
will
will
of
that
from
preventing weeds
seeds
is by a modification
be
of
correctness
when
apparent
unreasonableness
large portion
of
while
just
we
may
crop
that
and
be
and,
second,
weeds
in
will
them
at
comparatively
In
with
be
without
injury
grow.
well
mature
cannot
to
any
of
described
at
the
case,
and
adopted
their
ripening
of
rotation.
the
a
at
a
once
free
amid
however,
very
other
some
season
from
weeds
crops,
certain
from
infliction
the
weeds,
of
different
some
crop
a
crop
grow
prevented
the
best
be
can
consists
which
that
with
Several
the
growing
as
also
think, first, of
we
of
course
opinion will
this
weeds
chapter.
^or
The
of
and
be
one
means
to
one's
to
it grows.
specific modes
length
As
seeds
"
them
hindering
particular weed,
the
crop
of
"
defended.
be
cannot
their
ripening
allow
indifference
specific modes
from
vary
To
an
which
weeds
troublesome
most
are
it is simply
noxious
seeds.
their
mature
allow
to
then
of
ripening
able
consider-
which
the
;
they
hope
of
With
Grase
having
clean
a
vv'eeds
farm
quantities ever
allowed
are
will
the
be
ripen their
the
Grase
16.
with
effective
There
method
in
fields
three
can
in
in
are
other
grazing;
grazing
from
put
a
in
grain
Among
a
the
area
excellent
crops
the
that
crops
two
the
attacking
weeds
there
tages
advanweeds
that
thus
thus
land
condition
will
best
;
the
for
follow
be
may
nated
germithe
of
produced
land
is thus
growing
such
adapted
:
seeds,
the
annuals
or
in grazing.
and
in
this
large quantity
very
of
and
sheep along with
relatively may
small
three
which
in
among
of
cially
espe-
do
have
to
encouraged
by
more
or
To
production
method
eaten
no
season
sheep.
especially in the seeds of
be lying in the soil ; the
are
be
succession
two
same
enclosures,
is
farm
may
probably
is necessary
this
Germination
crops
the
following
of
weeds
the
seeds,
weeds
with
be alternation
The
any
by growing
down
or
If
in
even
fighting weeds,
succession
grazing them
effectively it
it
of
is
of
annuals, than
crops
upon
reduced.
off several
sheep.
if noxious
clean, notwithstanding
number
considerably
very
93
one
limited.
wholly
that
vain
a
ripen
to
so
to
never
fact
is
allowed
are
Sheep,
to
the
grazing.
provide
Weeds.
94
such
grazing
small
grains,
weeds
Give
control
of
some
and
varied
so
weeds
come
means
by which
that-
these
suffice
to
weeds
the
concentrate
they
directions.
about
as
of
wise
a
us.
to
as
rising
tide
When
this
direction,
When
this
so
many
which
propagated,
means.
our
energies
to
a
to
in
us
keep
out
so,
the
others
has
be
ters
wa-
breach
one
several
at
various
would
by closing
weeds
when
course
everything
to
ing
keep-
on
direction
come
try
heed
It will not
and
one
the
are
small
give
to
while
is
So
many
then
are
Such
embankment
the
left open.
in
in
bay
at
time
same
they
others
yet
agencies by
and
us,
that
can
we
control.
the
agencies
other
in
and
afford
cannot
we
of
any
to
It
weeds
them
of
our
are
of
cannot
we
which
by
some
under
completely
that
modes
the
all modes
to
IV
Chapter
partially control,
but
station
propagation.
and
distributed, that
are
are
in
stated
was
fighting
experiment
careful attention
distribution
weed
thus
satisfactory.
very
//.
The
sorghum.
in
author
Minnesota
the
at
was
the
other
and
rye
and
corn,
rape,
of
experience
winter
are
been
will
still
come
there
is
only
are
done
to
one
left
resource
Work.
Thorough
Make
to
This
us.
95
will
we
now
describe.
should
is
and
single
season,
which
remain
of
weeds
are
in
the
As
push
carried
spring
two
to
into
possessed
of
once
out
in
and
to
life
the
in
modes
lack
the
is
a
seeds
the
usually
modes
themselves,
of
destruction
at
four
sible
pos-
class
this
so
extremely difficult and
rule, creeping perennials
a
so
soil
quite
to
It
by the
merely checked
employed, and by no
the
Hence
by them.
They
are
the
than
is
as
the
in
the
expensive.
process
perennials
soil.
the
in
rather
It
it.
only
except
renders
that
ble
possi-
the
of
sible,
pos-
as
shortest
the
creeping
thoroughness
adopted,
of
to
destroy
to
the
pleteness,
porportion to its comthe brevity of the period
completing
in
occupied
the
direct
in
usually
in
cheapness
The
time.
complete
as
effected
be
and
made
be
When
undertaken,
is
weeds
of
eradication
work
work.
thorough
Make
18.
soil
reducing
"
to
five
them
the
with
so
that
will
a
They
and
plow
that
they
years
again
grow.
direction.
every
fro
left
root-stocks
commence
everywhere,
or
cleaning processes
ed
destroymeans
in from
have
similar
have
so
ess
procto
be
Weeds.
96
undertaken.
been
completely
and
the
those
which
seeds
that
cleaning
have
been
would
when
the
To
costly
work
lack
rather
thorough
so
in
is done
would
pared
com-
cleaning
mistake
that
weeds
is to
thoroughness,
undertaken.
clean
than
do
them.
subdue
not
work
seem
may
is
no
cheaply
of
way
when
as
comparatively
a
that
as
in
there
weeds
of
of
but
time, but
when
cost
a
been
has
war
field
with
war
weeds,
the
rid
getting
greatest
a
make
at
The
fields
at
reduce
them.
involved
the
soil
nominal
cost
with
on
clean
They
merely
in
once
Men
the
at
made
it
carry
and
anew.
from
ed,
being accomplish-
was
maintained,
the
ing
remov-
up
the
the
with
be
can
in
of
been
field
the
for
cleanliness
have
season,
came
remained
weeds
one
taken
afterwards
process
the
then
been
these
in
destroyed
means
proper
the
had
Whereas,
short
time.
jp.
Maintain
cleanliness.
has
been
once
maintained
from
To
are
required.
of
good
effect
the
crops
to
this,
two
First,
farm
may
the
must
year
at
things
general
be
ordinarily
be
it should
secured,
year
liness
clean-
Where
good,
be
ards.
all hazat
least
ment
manageso
grown,
that
and
Weeds.
98
Notwithstanding the great
spud in maintaining cleanHness
it must
be
used
with
are
numerous
weeds
the
hmit
it will
that
limit
the
not
in
it.
possible
equally
judgment
the
spudder
acres
day, it
whether
weeds
than
to
considerable
latter
purpose
The
method
will
any
farm.
be
at
owing
to
amount
reducing
instead.
to
to
maintain
it; although,
it is
helpful
is to
somewhat
for
to
the
not
first
on
all
costliness
the
of
labor
maturing
on
parts
of
the
involved
a
:
to
possible
be
follows
forth
put
from
cleaning
ly
economical-
be
as
be
must
seeds
new
in
procedure
work
effort
It may
result
the
of
the
( I ) The
of
also.
where
done,
five
to
question
rather
secure
extent,
the
open
resorted
designed
in
unless
three
mode
be
not
will
but
case,
an
for
that
limit
a
from
least
upon
difficulty
writer,
over
What
paying
every
other
is
spud
farm,
the
some
cleanliness
a
of
is at
should
The
in
get
can
a
well
the
fix
to
certain
a
spud.
it and
securing
apply
When
somewhat
and
labor,
experienced
It is not
the
use
depend
scarcity of
farms,
on
beyond
to
the
of
discrimination.
pay
will
is
value
vent
pre-
the
to
secure
this
of
the
farm,
work,
in
and
it ; in
to
time,
Method
used,
been
of
made
each
field
weeds,
is
order
further
farm
year
these
the
will
The
will
noxious
in
field will
will
in
have
which
it, by
process
and
from
waste
the
be
still
places
of
commencement
with
spud.
If it
the
the
with
weeds
be
if thus
occupied
upon
used
from
in
the
too
scythe
instead.
these
rotation.
in
or
In
the
It
a
es
placweeds.
noxious
cleaning
that
numerous
the
with,
twice
over
happens
spud,
dealt
quite free
gone
are
the
by
should
depend
As
maintamed
upon
be
time
bly
reasona-
spud, until,
process,
be
be
from
cleaning
seasons,
should
on.
should,
dealt
the
season.
rotation, the
pastures
mower
few
one
the
grown
being
and
be
be
of
cleaning
places
be
should
crops
The
the
to
freed
carried
(3)
a
thus
the
of
fields
it in
set
rotation, and
it would
as
use
be
farmer,
make
the
the
means
out
with-
should
the
these
cleanliness
cultivated
of
the
to
field by
the
of
thorough
possible
the
to
cleaning
as
that
reference
resources
work
attained
be
cleaned, these
be
to
year
with
the
to
have
measures
fields
two
or
each
chosen
99
difficulty.
One
(2)
will
end
the
great
aside
judicious
where
however,
Farm.
of Cleaning
farm
should
Weeds.
loo
practically free
be
of
rotation,
first
the
-
beginning
of the
Many
farmers,
of
use
the
idea.
of
cost
the
is
beyond
no
other
from
so
all.
weed
cheaply,
or,
work
seeds
of
and
described,
from
foul
the
is
three
with
the
the
is
to
in
On
the
the
;
of
five
as
be
the
manner
by
ed
maintain-
In
:
at
ordinary
farmer
The
low
fal-
bare
by the
Fairly good
weeds
some
also
which
their
manner
other
least,
maintained
used.
field be
when
while
freedom
soil, while
years
the
that
can
be
but
;
at
the
kind
some
in
minate
ger-
dance.
abun-
gone
over
with
we
have
here
that
field will
taken
hand,
that
are
will
entirely probable
weeds
first.
used
it
doubt
process.
reproduce
after
spud
a
lie there
Unless
the
writer
cleaned
in the
weeds
upon
use
the
thus
is not
done
left
be
to
sure
be
the
score
its
means
other
some
end
chimerical
a
intrusion
be
field to
may
in
stands
practice, the spud
or
the
indeed,
matter
a
on
of
conceivable
The
as
of
shadow
the
the
from
look
way
it
to
mind
noxious
selects
any
involved
labor
in the
truth,
counting
however,
object
the
by
undertaking.
in
spud
They
weeds
from
we
in
be
hand
in
as
at
if the
spud
have
indi^
Use
the
of
cated, all stray weeds
they
do
can
The
weed
be
intrusion,
has
hundred
one
methods
of
crops
grown
cleaning
process,
that
when
been
secured,
state
of
is
the
in
the
in
than
met
by
the
crops
it
be
free
reasonable
mentioned
charge
increased
gone
over
of
the
On
twice
weeds,
assumption
and
be
more
which
of
a
on
that
the
ing
weed-cleanthe
tion
assump-
hundred
one
a
means
reason
which
necessitates.
part
other
returns
by
for
and
crops
should
the
this
spud
the
cleaning
pages
once
made,
be
to
by all the
show
has
of
means
in
here
maintaining
of
by
every
from
are
weed-
the
cleanliness
cost
cultivation
process
the
acres,
of
be
these
will
improved
farm
cost
weeds
described
that
the
incurred
destroying
the
all
managing
hundred
of
direct
expense
estimate
that
the
it may
cleanliness
only
the
to
state
a
every
be.
to
respect
not
for
This
land.
supposition
upon
With
should
year
a
cultivating and
they ought
as
of
the
on
$40
of
state
a
attained,
or
from
freedom
once
been
acres
based
is
where
$30
than
more
off before
cut
maintaining
of
cleanliness
will be
loi
harm.
any
cost
Spud.
year
the
the
acre
to
keep
further
cost
of
Weeds.
102
labor
hours
ten
more
than
$40.
When
the
acres
day.
a
demonstrated
the
cleaning
have
Ontario
but
when
of
weeds
thus
days
der
over
would
The
in
twenty
ten
been
in
the
of
or
however,
can,
in
acres
day,
a
Twenty
destroyed.
farm
twice,
hence
more
than
would
even
thousands
even
the
more
regarded
be
to
are
a
were
of
out
grew
half
acres
the
farm
of
in
take
whole
able
be
work
over
should
be
to
has
the
employed
not
$30
again,
person
be
to
are
be
rate
possible
gone
hundreds
some
the
over
and
ten
over
not
ment
Agricultural ExperiTen
at
acres
Guelph.
One
exceptional.
easily get
is
results
these
entire
ly
fair-
easily
at
instance
one
the
become
has
writer,
ordinary efifort
than
as
and
Farm
in
and
done,
over
frequently
been
day,
this
the
Station
would
spud
a
That
of
experience
work
should
it with
over
$2.00,
of
day
a
to
farm
a
workman
a
for
already named,
sum
once
clean,
go
v^hole
the
this
doing
$1.50
is from
for
outlay
to
in
involved
the
spud-
the
cost
named.
sum
however,
not,
.
require
One
field
devoted
not
to
be
gone
of
to
require
the
a
any
over
farm
cultivated
thus
would
crop,
spudding.
twice
a
year.
probably
and
Several
be
would
fields
Use
which
had
require
to
for
reason
the
be
cultivated
of
the
that
Hence
should
not
the
be
and
farms.
most
are
are
usually
and
that
abandon
its
field
only
a
that
the
few
while
may,
to
at
plants
a
in
small
in
spud
the
in perfecting
upon
that
spud
it,
used
tried
once
those
the
never
ly
it fair-
thenceforth
v^illmake
greatest
on
to
which
a
farmer
in
anything
the
it, and
number
a
of
few
ing
maintain-
it
with
ten-
a
has
growing
few, perhaps,
so
"
time,
same
is
it
thinks
in
Suppose
crop
that
it clear
use
farm.
a
thistles
do
have
unwilling
the
cleanliness
acre
year.
use.
is of
spud
them
spudding
using
have
little reflection
A
the
who
always
for
cleanliness
to
who
those
ding
spud-
one
remember
to
part
a
little used
so
averse
those
are
plowed
pastures
that
maintaining
is well
It
who
that
suffice
and
once,
as
outlay for
than
$25 a
more
little known,
so
clean
certainly unfortunate
It is
is
harvest
would
season
also.
be
cultivation," and
so
not
than
more
after
become
a
would
they would
soon
soon
103
grain
over
gone
''autumn
in
Spud.
produced
or
would
the
of
scarcely
them.
have
stalks
ragweeds,
worth
dock
some
of
and
it
But
mustard,
a
few
Weeds.
I04
other
noxious
fence
day,
cockle
one
person
weeds
these
be
or
plants
of
would
infinite
would
is also
weeds
It may
farmer.
a
be
consists
of
blade
like
of
from
to
the
that
been
mately
ulti-
these
a
that
of
is
a
a
end
junction with
follows
round
of
the
:
handle,
broom,
chisel, but
the
usually
as
as
shaped
is
the
of
uses
spud
light
which
writer,
the
the
scribe
de-
to
spud
described
which
that
of
chisel
The
resembling
labor
here
the
of
to
may
made,
It
form
adapted
best
sponding
corre-
subduing
amiss
be
estimation
the
is
effected.
not
that
future
A
the
in
never
weeds
have
otherwise
required
these
the
these
in
saving
of
tens
produced
of
supply
all
which
efifectuallychecked.
also
in
and
seeds
have
in
If this
spud.
existence, and
into
come
some
remove
thousands
thousands
the
Now,
can
the
in
be
may
burs.
with
the
done,
while
;
there
corners
burdocks
one
weeds
and
of
somewhat
more
the
handle.
ering
tapblade
Its
c'hid
Spud
Weeds.
io6
strip
this
the
in
walks
he
trip,
in
proceeds
field
whole
the
until
manner
ing
adjoin-
an
and
width,
equal
of
of
center
is
gone
over.
The
him
short
a
the
should
spudder
The
this
of
frequency
depend
the
on
used
be
file,to
whenever
spud
always
be
forgotten, especially
Simple
is
havoc
is matter
for
weed
root
it
roots
two
severed
his
it in
as
he
soon
work.
is
either
both
surprise
be
how
the
in
One
diameter
spudder
person
that
tle
lit-
very
trampled
upon
would
make
It
respects.
large
severed
of
exercise
these
dexterously
inches
when
field
another
in
can
the
spud.
be
there
appear,
for
grain
a
off, whereas
cut
when
how
may
the
using
grain will
constant
a
in
use
of the
or
work
opportunity
dexterity
so
soils,
stony
know
can
the
as
great
will
in
never
it.
want
may
never
it is
but
file should
The
constantly kept.
spudder
will
cutting edge
good
a
be
the
necessary.
soil ;
the
of
that
greatly important
be
sharpenings
the
nature
sharpening
for
may
with
carry
by
used.
may
is well
and
strong
the
spud
Burdock
be
easily
skilled
in
Use
MODES
Bare
the
of
Fallon;.
ADVANTAGE.
DOUBTFUL
OF
destroying
widely practiced of
of
Modes
said
that,
benefits
the
doubtful
of
fallow; and
work
made
the
opinion of
are
these
will
writer
yard
farm-
these
but
both
the
the
in
costly
are
usually
can
may
in
helpful
they
bare
the
of
of
very
they both
and
them
(i)
eradicating weeds,
of
modes,
of
Both
manure.
be
ered,
consid-
are
from
Two
be
it may
fermentation
(2) the
occasion
on
which
arising
times
some-
are
with, namely,
stable
or
weeds
things
character.
dealt
be
now
all
when
even
107
pensed
dis-
be
with.
I.
The
bare
bare
weeds,
the
service
in the
for
Since
same
is
the
that
very
expensive,
the
have
bare
whole
season,
a
rendered
has
where
it is
effective
very
good
properly
mode,
other
been
a
method
fallow
land
the
requires
practiced
so
a
destroying
In
cially
espe-
creeping perennials.
the
during
fallow
past, and
it is
managed
fallozv.
crop
expensive
when
modes
one
compared
of
in
the
with
treated
of
too
of
some
weeds
the
method
fact, far
fighting
previously
low"
fal-
raised
be
that
;
unused
"summer
cannot
it is evident
lie
to
in
season
usually
as
which
in
this
io8
Weeds.
chapter.
Where
expensive
modes
it will
be
fallow
for
When
form
the
same
of
the
ground
excellent
weeds
for
the
and
that
crop
other
the
season
for
the
nearly all
secure
fallow
bare
These
crop.
winter
rye,
In
the
ofif until
great
same
without
and
way,
the
in
worked
to
adopted
on
the
with
of
larly,
Simiin
low
fal-
bare
and
the
so
nary
ordiof
missing
crops
may
June,
the
weeds,
wheat.
soil
the
a
include
barley.
pastures
time
some
winter
be
season,
benefits
the
wheat,
injury
sow
the
of
early
by the
early-maturing
and
plowed
may
of
rest
of
mature
followed
be
may
with
after.
come
which
crops
that
destruction
preparation
is to
of
fallowed
in the
the
in
as
portion
the
sowing
be
may
results, both
the
the
ing
fallow-
the
during
to
grown
is grown,
crop
rape,
prior
season
the
crop
of
or
be
after
late
a
to
modified
crop
or
resort
to
some
some
before
When
of millet
one
let
say,
season,
is done.
to
to
in
bare
destruction.
necessary
let it be
fallow,
the
to
of weed
thought
that is
;
resort
to
the purposes
bare
the
less
faithfully practiced,
are
unnecessary
it is
and
other
these
The
and
be
same
be
then
surface,
until
eaten
with
it is time
course
early-cut meadows,
Use
with
the
wheat
is
is much
mentioned,
this
described
of
will
be
very
all
arise
of
a
when
seasons
serious
of
out
almost
be
grown
bare
the
incurred
from
loss
a
"
reduces
fallow
soil
(i) the
becomes
loss
of
fertilityby
of
nitrates; and
It
that
of
the
(3) increased
is obvious,
great
a
ting
get-
especially in
is also
nitrates
would
which
if
a
ing
leach-
were
crop
as
the
in
in
the
soil,
quence.
conse-
entails, therefore,
(2)
crop;
does
without
humus
fallow
reason
fallow
compact
more
a
tion.
designa-
Inasmuch
the
bare
of
soil.
land.
the
upon
it
that
falls, there
entirely prevented
The
the
fact
in
nearly
so
that
bare
rain
soil
above
previously
season;
same
the
low,
fal-
remarked
be
expended
much
loss
by
to
the
is
the
crop
bare
effective
been
the
from
labor
low
fal-
cultivation"
of
costliness
amount
a
has
referred
be
a
fallowing
of
of
crops
should
"autumn
as
better
the
any
what
resembles
not
such
of
length
this sort
after
mode
Where
the
working
It
109
results.
grown,
weeds.
destroying
The
Fallow.
increased, and
coming
may
not
left for
season
that
Bare
equally good
almost
winter
the
of
a
certain
loss
leaching
out
impaction of
then, that
in
our
Weeds.
i lo
.
with
fight
bare
weeds
fallow
Where
in
only
the
should
we
of
cases
fallow
bare
resort
the
to
extreme
sity.
neces-
is resorted
to
as
of
the
work
destroying weeds,
should
be
done
most
thoroughly, especially
far as
so
creeping perennials are
cerned.
conWhere
these
are
only partially
destroyed, the residue remaining in the soil
favorable
conditions
for
are
given most
a
means
lateral
extension,
root
and
hence
for
future
multiplication.
In
the
opinion
accompanied
the
the
process
spring;
other
may
of
a
of
of
this
rye
at
buckwheat,
peas,
quick-growing
be
greatly
plowed
reduced
fallow, and
time
be
its mechanical
For
on.
in
followed
weeds
the
land
improved
texture.
will
in
at
the
following
by
or
a
some
in
turn
be
will
of
by this modification
bare
much
The
while
sown
which
be
crops
soil
going
rape
crop,
under.
the
the
be
once
green
be
may
under
plowed
may
of
enriching
is
ing
fallow-
possible,
growing
fallowing
crop
and
autumn
crop
of
writer, the
whenever
by the
purpose
instance,
the
should,
process
for
of
the
the
same
fertilityand
in
Manure.
Fermenting
Fermenting
2.
process
destroying
found
probably
is
substantial
germinating
the
seeds
weed
weeds
result
of
useful
its
of
remain
it is to
of
advantages
reducing
mechanical
and
resorted
present
As
to
the
a
in
unless
it in
rule
fighting weeds
pointed
seeds
out
that
effected
be
in
or
should
the
never
the
seeds
of
sorts
are
known
that
to
necessary
all, for
some
to
if the
"have
resort
modes
been
of
already
faithfully practiced,the
are
will
chemical
unusually large quantities.
it is not
at
process
many
so
therefore, with
manure,
to
soil where
farmyard,
destroying weeds,
of
the
field.
especiallytroublesome
be
always
the
in
the
in
heaps
Fermenting
its most
practicable, the
should
than
wasting
be
with
process
there, rather
object
is attended
whenever
that,
nature
the
constituent.
in the
manure
a
seeds
especiallyof
valuable
most
reduction
The
of
much
of
properties,more
nitrogen,
be
with
it, except
removal
the
the
cannot
destroy the
to
in
present
of
in
price paid
the
Manure
costly.
too
the
service
powers
in it, but
sufficientlyfermented
of
fermented,
is
manure
render
may
yard
farm-
Where
manure.
stable
or
iii
at
length
be
found
in
the
Weeds,
112
will
manure
remark
is
of
that
stable
desired,
rather
than
to
the
seeds
where
purchase
stable
it
of
manure
manure.
insignificant
an
connection
weed
judicious,
more
to
account
on
bringing
purchased
is
this
In
quantity.
reduced
be
to
is
artificial
well
to
there
danger
where
farms
used,
increased
is
it
may
be
fertility
fertilizers
Weeds.
114
which
tioned
habits
their
in
closely resemble
may
The
weeds
chapter
are
of
growth.
which
in
discussed
are
included
all
these
the
in
this
thistle
ily
fam-
family. This is the largest
flowering plants, including some
sunflower
of
or
thousand
twelve
small
usually
in
heads
heads
and
single flowers,
of
up
minute
flowers.
of
most
our
plants,
the
of
a
in
family
valuable
economic
well
as
are
numbers
These
daisy, the
of
number
includes
many
inal
medic-
and
of
many
as
reality they
large
very
The
as
They
regarded
thistle, but
the
or
made
are
those
as
are
stalks.
the
commonly
quite
are
dandelion,
of
tlie ends
at
of
parts
considerable
in
ten
flowers
inconspicuous.
together
arranged
all
individual
The
world.
the
in
species
or
worst
our
weeds.
six
The
the
troublesome
most
thistle, the
ragweed,
modes
these
in
the
based
weeds
ox-eye
and
the
here
and
chapters
on
the
discussed
are
hnrdock,
those
which
actual
The
lettnee.
described
which
follow
They
perennial
daisy, the
ivild
among
farmer.
the
to
thistle, the
Canada
the
are
here
weeds
of
dealing
are
are
experience
sozv
the
cific
spe-
with
discussed
nearly all
of
the
Description of
writer;
were
however
An
of
submitted
which
merely
these
theories
sketch
dealt
with.
is
given
This
not
a
be
theories,
on
might
each
of
115
with
could
they based
outline
sketch
be.
of the
was
in
prepared from
case
living specimens
illustrated. The
root
ment
develop-
weed
the
Thistle.
Canada
are
confidence
correct
weeds
every
they
hence
degree of
felt
the
plant is shown, as well as that
of the portion above
ground. In the work
of
of exterminating
weeds, a knowledge
their habits
of root
growth is frequently
of each
of
quite
the
much
importance
growth habits of
plant ordinarilyvisible
of
of
as
the
as
edge
knowl-
a
the
portions
the
to
eye.
'
(l)
THISTLE.
CANADA
THE
(Carduus arvensis)
from
is a creeping perennial which
grows
soils
four
feet high, according as
one
to
and seasons
It is of an
upright habit
vary.
towards
branched
of
growth, somewhat
much
the
it is not
top, especiallywhen
it is pressed for room
crowded, but when
it has
Its leaves
but
are
a
single stem.
armed
with
sharp prickles,which, either
when
especially
or
dry, but more
green
when
to
exceedingly unpleasant^
dry, are
The
handle.
crimson,
Canada
Its
and
thistle
blossoms
have
a
are
of
a
beautiful
pleasing fragrance.
Weeds.
ii6
continues
and
May,
of
frost
severe
in
blossom
its
thistle
Canada
The
seeds
off
cut
to
in
also
in
into
comes
matures
latter
month,
When
former.
the
little below
a
time
the
and
the
the
in
just
or
It
August,
principally
above
until
grow
in
early
up
autumn.
July and
sometimes
but
comes
face
sur-
sprouts
put forth
ground, it will at once
the point of excision, several
below
sprouts
thus
of
the
coming
the
around
up
parent
stem.
Canada
The
all kinds
thistle
in
in this
and
The
timothy
Canada
both
the
latteft
which,
broken,
as
at
and
find
moist
is
its seeds
and
almost
are
bear
soon
once
the
start
vers,
clo-
the
of
grasses.
by
propagated
of
its
creeping
means
penetrate
in open
incredible.
latent
root-stocks
to
with
ripen
other
numerous
as
duced
pro-
are
especially by
more
genial
con-
a
bottoms.
seeds
some
direction, and
that
root-stocks
not
Its root-stocks
soil in every
distances
Its
thistle
of
in
crops'that
of
almost
grow
cereals, several
root-stocks, but
of
with
country.
all the
of
means
mucks
in all kinds
It grows
those
it does
of soils,but
home
will
grow,
even
the
soils to
These
buds,
become
under
Description of
are
only
not
wind,
the
everywhere
kinds
carried
but
by
clovers
and
ripen.
They
of
manure.
they
means
CANADA
THE
grasses,
are
Its
also
of
and
the
of
seeds
by
distributed
also
are
117
distances
incredible
grains
of cereal
Thistle.
Canada
conditions.
favorable
least
the
the
seeds
several
all
of
of the
THISTLE.
among
distributed
which
by
they
means
ii8
Weeds,
Modes
The
of Eradication.
following
effective
modes
are
of
of
some
with
dealing
the
most
this
most
pernicious weed:
Modifying
1.
fields
with
the
thistle
dealt
with
by
one
far
allow
below,
drop
the
seeds
thistle
foUozved
by
vated
crop.
Plow
after
harvest.
plow
.
that
Keep
crop
that
crop
deep
to
come
cultivator
the
cultivated
sufficient
and
take
spring
up
yield,
that
be
suitable
planting
off
clean
creeping
from
pains
the
ing,
plow-
autumn
for
under
until
the
line
to
of
In
the
time
Give
insure
keep
sake
by the
crop.
to
root-
showing
after.
cultivation
in
thistles
late
the
thistles
the
spring, keep
a
is
kind
thistles
until
should
which
any
the
up
the
ground
the
immediately
with
shallow
cut
cidti-
other
land
the
will
stocks.
of
they
tion,
cultiva-
spring
some
or
Plow
breaking
the
ripen before
and
corn
ivithoiit
above
will
cut.
plozving
of
rotation,
which
crops
to
Autumn
2.
cifically
spe-
modes
the
the
of
out
the
be
can
of
practicable, all
as
be
can
Until
infested
described
so
rotation.
the
the
the
a
of
the
use
for
this
good
thistles
rows
cut
hand
the
if
hoe,
work
up
to
this
done,
tliere
should
not
the
The
has
season
effective
most
been
and,
wel)
left,
dry
a
one.
ever,
how-
work,
the
preceding
the
done
;
thistle
one
of
part
been
have
will
be
twice
been
has
point
with
or
ceased
has
119
crop
once
necessary,
if the
provided
the
over
cultivation
horse
the
after
Go
hoeing.
by hand
off
Thistle.
of the Canada
Eradication
autumn.
ploiving, folloivcd by zvintcr
early, and this again by a cultivated
rye cut
the ground
Plow
deeply in August,
crop.
practicable. Sow
as
as
early in the month
J.
August
in
rye
early
and
one-half
the
rye
to
the
it is headed
the
the
Then
cultivate
of
but
and
in section
the
Canada
at
once
it is not
well
conserve
until
for
rape
cultivated
the
for
above.
has
with
week
a
writer, this mode
thistle
to
ground
care
2
winter
for
once
quick-growing
other
as
soon
as
effectivelybury
will
the
Cut
ground deeply
the
harrow
drill
to
two
acre.
per
soiling or
that
of
rate
spring,
Plarrow
moisture.
described
the
plow
stubble, and
it is time
some
for
plow
the
bushels
three
out,
of
kind
at
following
Then
fodder.
any
September
In
of
proved
suited
as
ence
experi-
destroying
very
to
crop.
crop
the
or
tive,
effec-
stiff soils
Weeds.
I20
which
will
readily
not
cultivated
grow
crops.
Another
August,
and
and
then
quite
effective
so
inasmuch
not
the
as
fodder
for
or
On
the
cleaned
here
grain
and
soon
under
and
June,
crop
of
hay
surface,
until
Work
so
the
found
the
the
plowed
that
arrives
from
land
removed,
has
crop
all thistles
time
Plow
clover.
been
the
meadozv
or
plow
after
in
a
rape.
land
and
from
with
the
or
has
in
remove
followed
one
year
acres
weeds
in
mended
recom-
following
twenty
land
harvested.
the
the
noxious
possible
as
for
effectively
so
treatment
Breaking up pasture
sowing to fall zvheat
a
by
it is grown
of
hours,
which
crop
pasture
which
the
all
spud
thistles
the
been
over
go
fifteen
to
in
that
could
person
have
mode
the
by
does
pastured
Agricultural College
farm
tle-infest
at
Guelph, this-
Station
fields
is not
silo.
the
Ontario
Experiment
plowed
is
just described,
one
when
as
autumn
mode
when
rye
them
smothering
4.
the
effectually weaken
so
ten
This
in
rye
it both
ground
crop.
as
the
sow
the
following
the
to
pasture
before
spring,
for
is
way
ground
as
been
upon
will
be
for
sowing
kept
Weeds.
122
grain
fields
harvest
to
should
the
should
with
grasses
after
harvest.
but
of
when
inch
or
that
at
again
cut
effects
as
the
thistles
times
three
a
disappear
to
borders,
7.
In
year,
they
have
been
of
the
or
three
will
with
to
be
soil
thistles
open
them
subsoils
resorted
two
spud
or
found
fence
as
manent
per-
character
clays,
years
many
will
two
on
lands
also
have
to.
Observation.
experiment
for
disappear, but
the
writer,
procedure
stiff
In
year
very
from
largely by the
to
the
permanent
of
mode
our
a
on,
generally.
thistles
subsoil.
and
are
pastures,
from
removing
mowings
cause
from
waste-places
governed
and
the
of
cut
and
soil
are
thus
pastures,
be
destruction
;
the
later
experience
entirely
them
an
development,
way
be
spud
of
been
Removing
must
surface
have
lanes,
pastures.
the
their
the
the
with
same
regards
In
their
destroying
cut
their
of
in
beneficial.
when
are
below
stage
with
itself
in
not
in
service
more
sown
similarly dealt
will
they
fields
and
be
season
much
soming,
blos-
spud thistles before
To
blossoming
from
thistles
meadows
before
over
gone
the
prevent
and
found
be
The
in
facts
removing
relating
Canada
to
an
thistles
Eradication
and
contained
twenty
several
in
was
also
took
annual
p.
50,
in
1889
are
took
The
second
9th and
spudding
to
89
1
8th,
1
spudding
and
took
7 hours.
September,
in
1891
valued
at
board."
for
a
total, for
the
$1.25
The
20
per
annual
last
day
of
The
cost
of
and
three
The
acres.
10
cost
In
July
ding
spud-
on
clean
now
1890,
day of
26th
second
the
the
ond
sec-
hours.
done
The
in
The
^2
was
for it is
"
July
August
6 hours.
1889, $9.00
; or
$33.i2j^
took
field
the
cleaning
$22.50
and
hours.
on
hours.
about
on
son.
per-
80
done
took
first
one
took
from
done
7th, and
done
of
was
40
the
was
in
took
was
September
1
spudding
and
10th,
hours
100
spudding
first
spudding
first
the
1890
fully
the
given
1891,
as
for
station
"The
menced
com-
writer, who
the
facts,
the
follows:
as
and
and
1889,
The
of
report
for
been
experiment
of
it.
in
field
pasture,
The
summer
part
at
The
had
superintended by
work
in the
the
nent
perma-
farm
permanent
smitten.
badly
In
in
years
and
acres,
123
Agricultural
interesting.
prove
may
a
Station
Experiment
College
Guelph
from
Ontario
the
in
pasture
Thistle.
Canada
weeds
noxious
other
was
the
of
"
was
$i.62"'2
of
years,
labor
was
out
hours, withof
maintain-
Weeds.
124
ing cleanliness
remains
than
in
this
should
pasture,
a
There
THE
some
trouble
the
to
it will
be
of
them
sufficient
for
which
is
while
thistle
thistle
upright
perennial
;
hairy
or
they
are
milky
prickles
a
blossoms
great
sow
are
plant
and
top.
and
from
yellow,
producers
of
are
and
seed.
has
an
from
soil
reaches
is
its leaves
the
[email protected]
when
thistle
exudes
of
grows
Canada
hollow,
The
perennial,
somewhat
Its
stems
are
its flower
when
bruised
them.
harmless.
the
a
thistle,
bristly,especially
fluid
upon
of tliis weed
the
the
the
(Sonchiis
varieties
but
to
as
sometimes
Like
towards
rather
it
much
here
known
The
high,
sow
eradicate.
other
feet
height.
branched
stems
it
soil, and
creeping
a
growth,
quite congenial
greater
the
form
to
of
habit
give
thistle
only
is
the
purpose
annuals.
are
three
to
our
sow
all the
nearly
of
difficult
very
sow
the
more
of
not
variety
it is the
arveiisis),as
do
cultivator
only of the
corn
perennial or
is
be
not
varieties
speak
one
as
THISTLE.
SOW
several
are
thistle,but
sow
long
$2.50.
(2)
corn
field, so
plants
The
Its
are
the
Description of
The
perennial
appearance
in
the
until
and
will
It
blossoms
in
seeds
in
July and
August.
any
kind
at
gives
least
ripens
or
which
its
it grows;
moist
stiff
with,
the
it is
loams,
only
and
clays.
of
crops,
earlier
somewhat
simultaneously
July,
THISTLE
all kinds
seeds
grow
soil, but
thistle, like the
sow
thistle, infests
it
rich
in
trouble
perennial
of
SOW
in
home
most
The
It
PERENNIAL
THE
its
makes
to
in
grow
125
continues
and
May,
its
Thistle.
thistle
sow
autumn.
ripens
Sow
the
crops
crops
of
ada
Canand
than,
amid
which
Weeds.
126
this
is not
statement
and
clover
red
is
It
which
As
float
question
about
are
increase
of
to
if
have
they
air
the
where
It
the
ous,
numer-
is
once
an
open
of
power
long flight,like the seeds
thistle.' The
perennial sow
also
is
of
means
and
its
like
sketch.
latent
Its
seeds, like
thistle,
distributed
of
are
this
those
intruder
"described
repeated
the
large
very
in
of
the
carried
ada
Can-
and
widely
with
about
the
the
grasses.
of Eradication.
to
be
taken
for
destroying
essentially the
are
for
thistle, and
here.
a
Canada
is show^n
those
cereals, clovers,
means
Canada
as
ous
numer-
constantly being
by being
Modes
The
buds,
thistle
are
of
those
the
rapidity by
"creepers" bearing
of
number
much
root-stocks, which
which,
thistle, are
seeds
with
propagated
taining
sus-
of
a
Canada
in
rapidly
place
ripen.
by
which
very
very
any
allowed
in
its seeds,
attachment
its seeds
numbers
are
of
means
downy
neighborhood
they
by
to
the
possess.
its
the
able
of
reason
they
alfalfa.
propagated
are
being, probably,
true
the
eradication
therefore
need
same
as
of
the
not
be
(3)
The
daisy (Chrysanthemum
is a
simple perennial
ox-eye
canthemum)
branching
habit
two
feet
to
one
much
it does
usually
in
foot
one
not
height.
large flowers, consisting of
bordered
disc
the
to
the
of
eye
white
with
of
resemblance
to
disc
Marguerites," have been
bouquets during recent
It is
a
The
resist
great
producer
ox-eye
daisy
in
marked
a
heat, cold, and
in
blossom
continue
under
The
the
when
seeds
the
of
power
the
ground
seeds
have,
or
cut
are
in
an
have
off
for
plant,
late
as
of
to
to
the
it will
September.
degree,
the
stalk,
pulled
their
quite ripe, and
can
commences
uncommon
on
It
influences
conditions
been
from
rise
called
June, according
as
center
given
hardy.
It
maturing
stalks
the
pestilent weed.
the
some
blossom
to
is very
degree
or
cied
fan-
seed.
drought.
May
locality,and
of
a
yellow
The
years.
less
the
none
It produces
in favor
much
*'
is
in
flowers, sometimes
The
however,
a
grow
The
probably
has
a
rays.
the
ox
an
name.
with
from
It grows
growth.
high, according to soil and
than
more
leii-
of
conditions, but
crop
127
DAIS/.
OX-EYE
THE
Daisy.
Ox-eye
the
of
Description
out
roots
they
of
even
the
before
also
pos-
128
Weeds.
sess
great
may
appear
vitality. Although
but
allowed
are
ground
the
to
that
to
singly at first, yet if they
ripen their seeds, these fall
and
grow
eradicate
to
almost
the
impossible.
of
it to
on
deal
loose
it also
and
crops,
not
cultivated,
and
in
of
and
the
amid
troublesome
are
This
means
carried
the
weed
its
about
It
tures
pas-
destroying
It
in
seeds
is
most
of
daisies
of
those
It is least
grow.
crops,
seed.
the
is
is most
the
with
distributed
is
land
pastures,
of
roots
they
in
of
especially as these
cultivated
effective
of
the
permanent
interlaced
which
in
very
in
those
kinds
permanent
more
much
become
crops
in
all
where
eradication
older, since
grow
then
in
meadows,
browse
all soils, but
places generally.
waste
difficult
in
infests
grows
as
woody
troublesome
It
texture.
the
it is young.
grows
and
vigorous
relished
will
they
when
daisy
extremely
an
to
part
but
growth,
ox-eye
is most
in
be
cannot
It is not
with.
extent
some
The
of
its
is
daisy
is
and
pastures
cultivation
by live stock, owing
nature
in
thickly
so
spudding
by
Hence,
places where
introduced, the ox-eye
to
again
up
weed
waste
difficult weed
plants
the
and
these
it.
entirely by
commonly
timothy
and
Weeds.
130
of Eradication.
Modes
The
following
that
in
have
have
ox-eye
Modifying
the
rotation.
Drop
until
infested
rotation
the
dealt
been
August
2.
this
and
Grow
a
cultivated
again by
destroying
in
have
may
of
the
been
of
to
a
land
weed,
pasture
it
crop,
sufficient
under
of
up
the
of
tion
germina-
that
may
be
infested
the
and
they
to
daisies
have
had
of
with
the
middle
plant
to
of
some
cultivate
are
an
ing
plantcase
the
is
it until
The
and
In
which
deeply
land
crop.
taking pains
care.
before
that
cultivation
weed
the
ing
plowstirring
the
to
meadozv
cultivated
plow
the
to
of
daisies
and
3
soil dormant.
meadow
then
rye,
a
section
The
the
favorable
be
seeds
the
Plowing
5.
the
by
methods
the
under
necessary
in the
lying
in
cultivated
a
thistle.
turn
winter
by
in
of
Canada
will
will
crop
treated
the
soil
the
fields
followed
rye
described
as
we
June
of
crop
crop,
where
above,
meadow
with.
^
crop.
the
plozving, followed
early
cut
rye
daisy:
the
of
out
successful
most
with
dealing
1.
found
been
tion
eradica-
of
modes
the
are
thus
June
;
vated
cultiit with
turned
opportunity
Eradication
of
crop
a
grow
seeds.
their
ripen
to
Plow
crop.
after
and
harvest,
soil
one
seeds
follow
this
Sowing
5.
it for
if
winter
wheat
Where
it may
soil
the
soil
next
be
should
be
season
grown.
be
occasional
the
made
some
to
kind
a
the
until
ter
win-
grow
stirring
the
of
lying
spring
the
close
germinate.
of
of
crop
September.
to
seeds
cut
or
work
in
until
weed
June,
system
desired
be
field with
best,
sown
continued
that
be
by
year,
with
rye
fallow
bare
not
the
may
the
may
wheat,
season,
next
until
thought
the
on
cultivated
a
infested
rye
Follow
or,
ground
the
the
pasture
millet;
spring,
the
rye
Sow
hay.
In
hay,
for pasture or
bare
millet, or
fallow and
wheat.
and
rye,
the
crop.
to
following by
winter
lightly
induce
to
necessary,
cultivated
another
tivated
cul-
a
field
with
preparation
this, if
and
the
germinate.
to
and
again deeply just
interval
give the
harrowings
more
or
daisy
crop,
cultivation,
infested
then
In
winter.
before
work.
the
autumn
the
to
ing
follow-
the
roots
by spring cultivation
followed
131
necessary
complete
and
After-harvest
4.
be
of
or
to
Daisy.
Ox-eye
It may
corn
in order
year
the
of
cereal
of
in the
Then
may
Weeds.
132
by
If
cultivated crop
Gvozving a
6.
grain crop
a
cultivated
a
crop
of
should
be followed
by
should
also be
and
The
grass.
with
over
gone
found
a
weed, then
clover,or
clover
should
spud, and
oif.
in it be cut
it
which
grain crop
the
view
a
grain crop,
with
sown
with
the
lowing
fol-
ineadozu.
to
sozvn
is grown
destruction
the
to
and
then
be
daisies
any
ably
Spudding will prob-
lows
in the meadow
be necessary
which folthe grain crop, more
especially
during
the first year
for
growth. The best time
it
daisy.is when
ox-eye
of its
spudding
is in blossom,
the
as
at that
time the weeds
are
very easilyseen.
When
spudding the ox-eye
sometimes
with
be
the hand
free the adherent
handle
to
fibrous
roots
of the weed
off with
cut
7. In
daisy,it may
to catch the plant
necessary
and strike it over
the spud
earth from
the
have
which
been
it.
permanent
pastures,
ever
Wher-
etc.
practicable pasture-lands that are
infested with ox-eye
daisy should be broken
up
and
methods
dealt
described
lands which
must
wnth
cannot
remain
in
one
or
above.
other
In
of
pasture-
be cultivated and
permanent,
the
along
fore
there-
fence
Description of
borders,
the
on
the
Burdock.
133
sides of roads, and
in waste
places generally, it is difficult indeed
deal
with
this
to
Any plan that will
maturing its seeds will in
prevent it from
time prove
effectual,but several years will
the weed
will be
probably elapse before
from
such
fully banished
places.
pest.
(4)
The
burdock
known
of
and
about
for
its
denying
of
the
the
most
which
It
so
it would
write
is
a
BURDOCK.
(Arctium lappa)
easilymanaged, if
destroying
that
THE
it is
about
gone
almost
seem
the modes
is
the
superfluous
that will prove
that
the
burdock
general of the weed
disgrace the farms
biennial, the
leaves
work
properly,
extermination, yet there
fact
well
so
of
to
ive
effectis
is
no
one
tions
abominaof
which
today.
are
in the early stages of the
large even
growth of the -plant. Its seed is borne on
branched
a
stem, which
pushes up from
amid
the center
of the leaves to a height
very
of
from
of
its
two
to
five
feet.
first year
nial,
being a bien-
The
growth, the burdock,
does not produce any
seeds, but in the
second
it produces them
in immense
year
numbers.
V
The
seeds
are
matured
in
Weeds.
134
enclosures
the
at
the
The
stems.
so
adhere
almost
to
THE
large plant
in
state,
the
grow,
and
and
that
in
they
which
find them
we
BURDOCK.
it has
represents
perfected
cattle that
the
burdock
in
dead
the
its growth.
to
the
hair
pasture where
also to the wool
they oftentimes
hooks
Hence
of
circular
sacs,
clingingin large numbers
horses
branches
everything with
sketch
after
the
with
in contact.
they come
of
seed
armed
shape, are
The
end
of
of
they
sheep, which
render practically
valueless.
the
Description of
burdock
The
down
into
artificial
suffer
readily
in
burdock
of
young
around
the
matured
sometimes
surface
It is
long
are
weed,
free
from
and
give
along
ground
of
much
cultivated.
fence
the
trouble
few
inches
of
even
many
is
this
so
all soils
other
No
of
many
the
continent.
of
the
borders
to
and
It
outlying
and
cities,towns
farm,
so
fields.
prone
where
than
plant
nearly
our
of
over.
more
water.
weed
up
be
our
in
are
thrown
fact,
in
grow
the
off above
pods
and
in
the
cially
espe-
season
it is much
places of
The
seed
allows
states
the
off.
and
a
this
neglected portions
villages,and
waste
of
will
pre-eminently
itself
be
perhaps, is found
provinces
and
will
harvest
its hold
burdock
The
is
the
retain
seed
ground,
else, which
to
root
more
the
within
the
but
stem,
forgetfulness
anything
that
of
The
If cut
month.
parent
after
weeks
July,
shoots
not
chiefly in
and
after
formed,
the
is broken
flower
latter
or
it does
dry weather.
even
crown,
natural
hence
into
June
root
tap
the
good,
sketch
the
in the
the
from
comes
months
is
135
strong
a
soil wherever
the
drainage
shown
as
sends
Burdock.
intrench
in
but
it does
the
soil
is
the
not
well
136
Weeds.
The
burdock
of
means
is
solely by
propagated
of
is possessed
seed, which
its
It
vitahty.
much
through
the
to
seeds
most
plant
is
ripen
upon
agency
hair
and
left
continue
in
be
amid
which
during
plant
during
up
fresh
numbers,
burs
hair
when
already
of
not
his
they
fail to
cattle
feed
its
and
upon
find
the
cut
the
growth,
mowed
when
pushes
once
mentioned.
notice
not
grain
or
ripens its seeds
as
dock
bur-
thus
it at
year
and
will
hay
When
injured, and
second
may
the
of
year
the
fields, it will of
with
stems
farmer
tion
eradica-
successful
Where
grows.
little
the
after.
of
most
fields.
first
is but
will
they
burdock:
off
it
the
off
the
cut
upon
years
modes
in cultivated
is found
course
for
found
the
cidtivated
In
them
there
the
are
been
with
dealing
its seeds
of Eradication.
following
I.
sheds
it
its
burdock
a
that
so
mals,
ani-
which
If
adhere.
give trouble
have
of
it, and
Mode's
that
domestic
wool
stems,
about
to
The
of
undisturbed,
its
uted
distrib-
generally
very
the
readily
ground
ttie
is
in
great
Although
this, the ripened
lodgment
wool
the
of
in
his
aftermath
the
sheep
or
138
Weeds.
"
troublesome
most
in
continent
traveled
has
is
now
States.
and
good
more
3 feet.
and
seeds
from
which
they
almost
any
will
and
Wild
does
or
at
cattle
pasture,
but
have
rich
not
The
ment
attach-
air,
winds
to
but
reached
the
loams
give
will
sustain
much
crops,
not
to
trouble
but
out
branches
Horses
of
it.
soils,
various
best
in
grows
in
extent
some
on
it in
in
blooming stage
fond
grow
cut
seeds.
produce
are
are
other
up
it off
crop
they
lettuce
cultivated
plants
send
than
rather
its seeds
the
will
will
early
up
once
in turn
which
the
by
It matures
If
they
they
comes
season.
midsummer.
before
seeds.
distance.
the
in
capable of
is
float in the
to
carried
pale
a
downy
a
be
not
are
10,000
them
be
may
lettuce
Wild
to
the
nary
ordi-
on
will
blossoms
with
enables
hence
late
8,000
provided
are
feet, but
vigorous plant
a
of
numerous,
are
height
The
It
plants will attain
6
average
but
rate.
sections
5 to
on
states,
rapid
a
many
from
than
bearing
at
strong
the
yellow,
Atlantic
soils
soils
foothold
a
branches
The
of
height
the
virosa)
(L.
obtained
in
common
on
them
westward
United
the
have
first to
appears
this
of
form.
grain
It
crops
freely
in
Description
WILD
of
Wild
LETTUCE.
Lettuce.
139
Weeds.
I40
meadows
fence
and
pastures,
borders
Wind
is the
the
seeds
also
may
clover
in
and
wild
Modes
in
1.
dealing
Modifying
pasture
and
grow
be
the
modes
found
been
wild
with
those- of
of
cultivated
lettuce
fields
:
meadow
Drop
for
time
a
This
will
only
infested
with
the
Cut
the
crops.
with
ful
success-
rotation
the
cation
eradi-
of
most
rotation.
the
out
necessary
seeds
the
grasses.
the
are
have
and
ing
distribut-
of Eradication.
following
that
in
along with
of
some
places.
waste
lettuce, but
distributed
and
The
other
sides, along
principal agent
of
be
road
on
weed.
2.
Mozving
and
with
plants off
spudding.
the
scythe
sufficient
frequency
maturing
seeds.
they
may
off
them
below
the
be
with
surface
to
of
prevent
Farms
they
cannot
the
of
spud
ous
numer-
Wild
maturing
kept
inch
an
or
ting
cuttwo
earth.
the
(i)
be
not
are
from
easily destroyed by
eradication
the
them
prevent
When
Observations,
difficult
to
with
mower
or
where
of
free
lettuce
care
the
from
is
not
is taken
seeds.
it in
(2)
an
action
the
on
(6)
kinghead
RAGWEED.
several
are
troublesome
most
grows
fifteen
twenty-one
to
to
head
is
from
three
have
usually
six
to
between
color
The
marked.
shaped,
They
of
are
and
by far the
are
more
conditions,
vigorous,
them
and
seeds
are
ripe
produced
on
the
but
growing
blossoms
The
high.
feet
King-
feet.
four
more
when
and
sketch
the
favorable
yellowish tinge,
a
but
height of from
in
inches, though
height
the
grow
ragweed,
the
to
soils it will, under
some
stems.
Ragweed
ones.
commonly
of
of
varieties
variety represented in
known
kinghead
as
one
the
farmers.
slender, much-branched
plants, with
the
trated
concen-
the
of
part
141
(Ambrosia art emisice folia) and
annual
triUda) are
{Ambrosia
Ragweed
There
without
neighborhood,
infested
Kinghead.
and
Description of Ragweed
the
leaves
small
and
of
are
the
in
contrast
a
lower
is not
helmet-
dark
hue.
portions
flower-bearing parts of the branches,
They are so light
numerous.
are
very
and
they
they float readily in water,
the
and
that
possessed
are
These
until
late
of
weeds
in
the
great
vitality.
usually
season
;
do
they
not
develop
sometimes
do
Weeds.
142
COMMON
RAGWEED.
Description of Ragweed
these
time
these
to
of
and
seeds
free
much
very
that
revel
have
that
make
in
While
well
and
the
first
the
kinds
after
not
the
or
stiff
they
loamy
soils
of
humus.
soils
muck
do
but
not
clays, except
along
rich
water
crop
the
growth
has
all kinds
season-
them'
in
they push
disturbed, produce
enormous
clover
River
weeds
in
In
pests.
on
removed,
an
a
Red
these
serious
been
in
them
in the
of
of
its seeds
mature
it mature
soils, as
stubble
in
grow
does
for
rank
of
but
and
usually
grain fields makes
all
that
drained,
will
nor
cutting
In
Valley,
all soils
valleys, or
not
crops,
meadow.
of
watercourses.
ragweed
grain
blossoming
water,
in
July
conditions
in
loams
headway
it does
crops,
in
been
and
of
friable
black
depressions
furrows
from
large proportion
in
much
time
stagnant
a
of
soms
blos-
The
season.
grow
prefer
contain
They
will
from
before
stubbles
the
attendant
the
weeds
before
crops
produced
are
precise
with
These
In
late in the
till frost, the
varying
growth.
grain
143
disturbed, they continue
if not
until
grow
Kinghedd.
in meadows
or
cutting.
crops,
are
in
harvested,
are
the
seeds
their
ripen
not
and
rapidly
and
if
crop
Weeds.
144
KINGHEAD
OR
GREAT
RAGWEED.
146
Weeds.
weeds
those
to
down
abound.
The
from
that
most
they spring
as
following
that
in
have
cultivation.
Modify
the
Happily,
grown
nor
of
forms
soon
the
as
the
late
then
cereal
should
be
plowing
of winter.
the
crops
that
Autumn
is
be
not
should
timothy
allowed
be
fields
reduced.
much
harvested,
are
given
is
soil in autumn,
in the infested
occasionally
ous
seri-
attention
clover
plowed
be
give
require
should
of
is
autumn
cultivation.
nor
crop
ragweed
ground
may
seed
a
and
not
cereals
meantime,
produce
until
of
working
the
kinghead.
careful
where
tion
eradica-
rotation, and
will
in the
any
and
autumn
rotation
late-ripening
but
to
the
to
not
can-
successful
most
the
to
modification
given
cut
they
of
rotation
the
attention
special
found
ragweed
Modifying
J.
them
that
modes
the
are
been
with
dealing
under
of Eradication.
Modes
The
done,
keep
so
they
seeds.
their
mature
be
to
up,
water
where
can
is
jected
sub-
are
of
lands
circumstances,
down
which
farm
a
periodical overflow
a
coming
such
of
parts
-or
disked.
stirred
on
cultivation
the
is
until
As
the
It
the
approach
peculiarly
Eradication
helpful
destroying
in
reason
that
than
early,
the
the
late, rather
season.
carried
Grow
crops.
taking special
is
147
for
weeds,
grow
cultivated
crops,
cultivation
Kinghead.
these
plants
the
in
Growing
2.
and
of Ragweed
that
the
through
the
care
well
on
tivated
cul-
season.
Using
J.
the
newly
sown
in the
autumn
will
mowing
should
The
surface
to
of
often
formed
it should
course
seeds
4.
in
the
Spraying.
fields of
small
if
six
about
work
before
had
and
of
and
stem,
of
any
the
may
in
kinghead
or
the
when
the
(i) When
to
are
be
of
following
plants
are
high.
pastures
any
are
meadows
in
applied
inches
should
the
way.
Ragweed
Observations,
or
the
before
recommended
chapter,
the
to
ragweed
the
on
same
effective.
be killed or materially
grain may
by spraying with any of the
checked
materials
of
done
be
mower
close
as
are
possible, for
as
down
the
very
done
Pastures
ripen.
treated
be
be
seeds
low
of
use
found
be
ground
the
that
reason
the
grass,
the
fields
When
moiver.
done,
opportunity
to
broken
wherever
seeds
the
be
infested
of
ripen.
ows
meadup,
the
practicable,
the
(2)
weed
When
have
the
Weeds.
148
plants
effect
soon
but
well
are
the
if its seeds
have
be
be
may
in
reducing
soil,several
the
to
the
upon
it
growth.
...i:-
.r.
during
render
be
(3) Sheet)
service
weed,
this
allowed
earlier
essarily
nec-
tion
eradica-
substantial
of
weed,
will
of
work
will
become
to
years
prevalence
the
this
effected.
completely
especiallyif they
more
^A"
made
of
allowed
been
elapse before
can
spudding
extermination
in the
numerous
hand
reduced,
stages
to
of
feed
its
CHAPTER
METHODS
VII.
ERADICATING
OF
WEEDS
MUSTARD
mustard,
false
weeds,
flax, French
wild
radish,
well
as
as
vegetables,
garden
and
may
flowers,
turnip.
be
recognized
as
the
parts
borne
arise
from
They
are
long
the
flower
have
of
a
the
The
decided
plants
buds
the
this
from
when
family
ripe
stems
of
into
the
seeds
usually
crushed.
are
base.
ends
lengthen
to
are
the
stages
and
site
oppo-
usually
at
at
the
flowers,
which
above
leaves
odor
of
all
in
yellow,
gradually
with
base.
fours
leaves
of
of
shape
or
clustered
which
racemes,
unopened
ily
fam-
this
The
white
cluster
closely
branches,
the
at
a
of
(foot-stalks)
stems
on
flower
cauli-
cross.
a
usually
are
cabbage,
in
are
and
common
our
the
by
penny-
purse,
plants
The
wild
as
or
of
the
as
pairs, forming
which
such
weed
some
large
a
shepherd's
peppergrass,
cress,
contains
family
troublesome
of
number
THE
FAMILY.
mustard
The
OF
annuals
Most
or
Weeds.
150
annuals, though
winter
and
biennials
are
perennials.
weeds
The
in
occur
thin
included
As
meadows.
seeds
difficult
to
combat
sections
where
the
same
are
developing
As
of
of
most
annuals,
the
they
and
rotation
is
introduction
other
annuals,
seeding
most
oily or
of
the
the
the
tion
cultiva-
with
where
which
crops
the
require
plants
many
from
seeds
family
have
covering
for
with
as
the
as
this
quent
fre-
the
which
decay, they maintain
soil
ing
matur-
by
Naturally,
plants of
prevents
vitalityin
killed
practiced,
of
the
in
following spring.
of this family are
preventing
mucilaginous
tard-like
mus-
annuals,
and
effective, but
is
the
give littletrouble
cultivation.
frequent
of
the
easily
small
when
good
weeds
are
are
other
root-leaves
bloom
early
very
and
winter
as
starting into
of seeds
grain, they
many
grow
rosette
a
and
rapidly
wheat
grown,
weeds
and
lawns
in
by ordinary means
grains are grown
tinuously
conland
for a period of
winter
grains
fall,and
family usually
grow
the
with
Where
winter
they
small
on
years.
in this
grain fields, gardens,
ripen their
a
few
a
years,
of
an
ually
effecttheir
and
if
Eradication
allowed
to
give trouble
for
once
The
of
weeds
that
this
will
first
be
that
in
so
reason,
generally applicable
brief
by
false
mustard,
flax,
the
mustard,
tumbling
of this group
members
For
so
cating
eradi-
in
usually equally
are
wild
the
quite similar,
check.
and
weed
French
of
most
discussed, followed
descriptions of
will
thereafter.
of
are
is
which
methods
the
in
seeds
is effective
them
others
keeping
151
of
crop
growth
which
of
one
a
long time
a
family
method
a
ripen
of
habits
of Mustard.
which
quently
fre-
most
are
troublesome.
in
methods
the
Among
eradicating weeds
mentioned
be
may
which
of
the
mustard
clean
sowing
cultivated
growing
pulling
results
wise
as,
from
stubble
/.
with
or
more
cultivated
a
Sowing
clean
ways
in
seeds
two
use
effective
of
a
stubble
rowing
har-
regular
fields,
fallow, hand
bare
of them
example, following fall
for
family
spraying. To obtain the best
these
methods, it is sometimes
and
to
crops,
of
used
seed,
spring grain, maintaining
rotation, fall cultivation
be
may
this
most
seed
of
crop
is
keeping
chapter in
of
these
together,
of
cultivation
in the
one
of
the
the
most
cussed
dis-
weeds
As
check.
plants
spring.
are
the
small,
Weeds.
152
they
quite easily
are
removed
barley by screening.
and
difficult to
take
of
out
proportion
will
larger
grains.
oat
difficult to
in
They
alfalfa, however,
and
size
same
and
Care
plants.
clover
should
and
free
are
shape
grass
from
as
the
of
seeds
as
they
as
the
small
a
the
exceedingly
of
seeds
taken
of
these
the
of
in
to
clover
about
are
seeds
seeds
more
crease
are
be
wheat
are
oats,
the
from
remove
They
seed
stick
from
these
ing
purchasthat
see
they
other
and
weeds.
in
fields
early spring,
the
grain begins
is
about
effective
similar
and
four
be
in
to
harrow
benefited
should
in
effective
the
it be
the
on
pull
out
mustard
weeds
in
spring.
drilled
fall-sown
the
is
given,
also
it thus
be
grain,
young
broadcast
It
three
grain
only
can
where
and
be
may
the
the
it
quite
instances
some
on
young
is
high,
young
method
used
the
by harrowing
advantage
will
as
inches
where
areas
grain
again when
harrowings
This
wet
In
plants.
especially
well
five
to
when
and
appear,
killing the
in
even
will
to
three
small
spring-sozvn
Harrozving
2.
quently.
freticed
prac-
as
the
grain
as
fields, nor
ground is very
not
particularly
grain,
as
the
weeds
Weeds.
154
conditions
Lire
will
rowings
then
kill the
germination
encourage
in turn
be
can
the
to
which
strongly
the
5. Fall
be
can
seed
after
cleared
of
this
in the
of
is
the
in
removed
of
method
of
autumn
a
graph,
para-
cultivated
crop
do
the
give
not
thorough cultivation
quick-maturing,
Growing
a
and
any
fighting
will
which
crop
weeds
in
the
the
as
foregoing
the
are
mustard
except
family
early enough
seeds
which
with
weed,
vated
culti-
a
where
soiling
the
by
previously noted,
mustard
practiced.
smother
is
section,
Fields
by
As
trouble
vigorous
on
is up,
grain
ground, by
advised
spring.
serious
the
infested
if it is followed
weeds
field
rowing
practiced, har-
preceding
spring.
thoroughly
remains
the
the
sary
neces-
recommended.
in the
cultivation
in
it is
cultivation, followed
crop
pretty
be
the
is
in the
crop
on
is
followed
be
If
grain
and
method
can
below.
spring
in
to
This
cultivated
cultivation
autumn
outlined
as
seed, which
a
small
grow
in
more
it
outlined
as
weeds,
when
of
growing
spring,
of
har-
small
destroyed.
particularly good
by
Occasional
right.
are
at
to
the
prevent
quantity
annual
same
to
time
be
the
is also
weeds
tend
ing
ripena
in
good
con-
Eradication
155
of
cultivation
fall
with
junction
of Mustard.
stubble
fields.
The
6.
the
throughout
class, both
this
maintain
lost
considerable.
bare
fallow
the
throughout
with
for
a
of
a
spring
late
planting
of
good
a
all kinds,
and
through
does
throughout
the
/. Hand
mustard
and
numbers
they
when
have
methods.
than
carried
spudding,
from
the
weeds
lowing
fal-
than
while
season,
idle
lie
to
lose
a
it
crop.
weeds
small
the
occur
introduced,
pulling
as
crop.
fighting
thus
by
rank-
a
or
manure
land
greatly
Hand
in
when
first
been
tion
sec-
practicable'only
is
similar
in
expensive
and
bining
com-
followed
crop
of
the
year
pulling
by
harrowing
entire
the
require
not
made
green
is less
the
maintained
advised
cultivated
method
is
is
weeks,
or
to
modification
and
few
soiling
is
be
can
disking
the
growing
of
required
A
which
year
is
fertilitywhich
fall cultivation
the
This
soil
is
3
labor
weeds
leaching, especially where
through
the
fighting
the
the
it, and
rainfall
of
of
in
effective,
though
season,
method
expensive
an
is maintained
fallozv which
bare
reduced
is
weeds
field and
in
or
when
by
other
effective
more
then
can
burned
or
be
other-
Vi/eeds.
156
wise
This
destroyed.
with
have
which
seeds
from
wild
and
mustard
the
similar
of
power
after
even
sary
particularly neces-
is
the
weeds,
their
maturing
plants
removed
are
the
8.
ground.
A
Spraying.
method
quite commonly
practiced
in
and
recent
years,
be
to
many
of
one
mustard
weeds
in
is
iron
begun
it is
only
in
become
even
as
take
the
recent
it is at
of
methods
the
of
sowing
and
crop
in
in
sections
rotation
w^hich
after
land.
crop
of
method,
not
can
generally
more
It
the
the
practiced,
vation,
culti-
of
weeds
crop
of cultivated
where
is grown
as
effective,
growing
but
ognized
rec-
such
definite
no
grain
is
growth
where
small
practice
This
rotation.
includes
is
crops
the
seed, thorough
checking
but
1896,
fighting weeds,
clean
however,
those
the
salt,
were
developed,
present
place of
of
weeds
that
general.
tures,
pas-
chemical.
about
years
all
at
and
kill
country
bating
com-
broad-leaved
other
to
by
of
means
solution
a
some
or
this
in
considered
other
with
been
sections
some
now
best
experiments
first
in
fields, meadows
spraying
sulfate,
has
the
and
grain
Spraying
is
has
which
crop
on
the
Eradication
The
by Spraying.
zvhich
iveeds
by spraying
broad-leaved
plants,
included
and
bull
like
these
the
prevent
Other
roots.
found
with
the
in
applied,
or
the
should
four
on
be
inches
clover
grain
field
been
have
crops
other
The
of
the
plants
formed
It
oats,
weedy
best
been
grains,
with
sown
grass.
Flax
it is three
or
which
in meadows
or
effective
is not
quack
of
seeds
these
taining
con-
in
ing
fight-
foxtail,
grass,
or
grasses.
time
mustard,
are
in
sown,
them.
wild
small
after
sprayed
delions
dan-
of
if properly
brome
or
these
high. Spraying is injurious to
be used
not
alfalfa,and should
-and
any
timothy
as
not
have
may
be
usually
spray,
the
the
from
fighting
in
injure
not
which
grain,
will
The
to
season
shoots
new
sprayed
possible exception
lawns.
will
grasses
the
better
and
biennials
be
must
methods
cheaper
weeds,
of
Canada
the
and
throughout
growth
those
as
even
latter, however,
times
such
Perennials
thistles.
several
and
dandelion,
ragweed,
of
most
family, kinghead,
mustard
the
in
ously
seri-
or
include
checked
the
killed
be
can
157
to
is when
Frenchweed,
in blossom,
pods,
spray
as
the
but
or
before
plants
are
the
false
first
flax
they
have
often
not
Weeds.
158
entirely killed
and
stems
the
of
spray
in
toward
or
will
be
not
should
the
rain
the
leaves
and
Weeds
growth
Usually
weeds
the
application
be
rain
is
nent,
immi-
its effectiveness.
when
when
the
is
slow.
it
if
sufficient, but
is
additional
an
numerous,
ten
or
chemical
the
wash
than
week
a
a
days
later
may
necessary.
used
materials
The
of
solutions
or
mustard
55
considered
for
gallons
of
required to cover
land properly.
the
The
of
in
proper
be
on
an
the
ing
destroy-
solutions
these
weeds
peras)
(cop-
About
weeds.
similar
any
use
to
ally
usu-
fate,
sul-
sulfate
Iron
chemical
and
are
sulfate, copper
iron
generally
effective
most
spraying
in
salt.
common
is
to
work
easily killed
are
the
the
spraying
one
if
done
cloudy weather,
the evaporation
destroy
rapid
is
The
Naturally,
will
more
are
the
locality,but
the
when
done
be
leaves
apply
to
be
can
rapid.
not
as
off
v^ork
vitality
early June.
or
applied in damp,
evening, when
is
spray
with
May
effectiv-e
most
time
roots
the
after
even
varies
the
sufficient
proper
course
usually
it is
seeds,
The
killed.
are
and
spray
contain
may
mature
to
the
by
acre
50
are
of
strength of the
Eradication
solution
is about
sulfate
to
growing
of
barrel
of
water,
will
lawns
of
good
small
solution
of
work
when
these
for
spraying
it is to
is to
area
the
eradication
knapsack
with
a
of
sprayer
nozzle
one,
the
is to
type
be
can
give
will
a
not
sprayer
the
use
a
a
machine
to
nary
ordiif
pumps,
power
piece
frontis-
or
from
from
a
the
machine,
a
$75
ness
effectivein any
sufficient
which
a
in
in
$150,
to
is essential
spray;
lar
simi-
dealers
size and
with
one
in
give a fine,
satisfactory. If
It is desirable
select
the
in
strong, misty
do.
of
shown
It
as
patches
sprayed,
^
If
will
purchased
machine.
small
be
This
with
used.
spray
found
for
spraying apparatus
the cost
varying with the
to
of
rials
mate-
varies
be
any
which
be
is necessary.
to
a
proper
sprayed,
of
bucket
or
misty spray, will
a
large acreage
case
be
particular weed,
some
of
of
gallons
50
the
which
on
or
fitted
pounds
15
one-third
salt, in
machinery
a
about
or
and
young
to
12
iron
pounds
75
are
From
make
acreage
only
water;
of
used.
are
the
of
159
pounds
100
weeds
common
for
strength
The
if the
rapidly.
sulfate,
copper
to
75
gallons
50
sufficient
are
by Spraying.
power
sprinkler
purchasing
can
be
used
i6o
Weeds.
for
other
if
purposes
of
spraying
potatoes
possible,
such
orchard
or
the
as
and
truck
crops.
The
of spraying varies
cost
the material
used, the machinery
it is
applied, and
it.
The
and
sulphate,
the
run
market,
quantity
used.
Salt
of
than
should
in
acres
and
horse
another
team
or
needed
for
is done
The
rapid
close
weeds
They
Hax,
French
zvecd
mustard.
outlined
found
in
the
are
or
The
the
effective
penny
methods
foregoing
in
outfit,
the
zvild
combating
40
this
unless
commonly
to
driver
water
given
are
like
the
haul
water
cost
25
will
ing
spray-
supply.
family for
this
of
most
are
the
to
descriptions
which
work
the
sprayer
for
to
team
not
to
necessary
and
man
acre,
probably
from
spray
addition
In
day.
a
is
field
A
cents.
75
an
according
the material,
should
and
three,
illustrated
that
be
the
salt,
cents,
75
as
phate,
sul-
iron
$1.25
local
cheapest
more
low
apply
common
than
more
as
or
to
which
to
it be
in the
cost
the
and
cost
not
with
necessary
whether
material,
may
to
time
the
copper
should
according
which
the
are
ones
some.
trouble-
found
false
mustard,
and
cress,
of
cial
spe-
bling
tum-
eradication
pages
these
will
and
be
sim-
1
62
Weeds.
the
closely resemble
of
seeds
of
varieties
some
rape.
mustard
Wild
as
the
that
weather
comes
gets
up
It grows
immense
grows
to
when
eighteen
height
of seeds.
of
it ripens amid
inches
but
surface
of
season
rapidly,
very
number
the
as
soon
seeds
will
growth
MUSTARD.
WILD
but
the
come
lasts.
spring
really warm,
near
sufficiently
germinate as long as the
an
in
in
more
grain
height.
and
matures
It sometimes
than
two
crops
Its
feet,
is about
seed
pods
about
usually
are
first flowers,
inch
an
those
or
163
Mustard.
Description of Wild
earlier
by the
borne
The
length.
in
in May
early in
or
plants, appear
June, but the late plants will produce seeds
of September, or
even
into the month
on
later.
Fortunately, it is not a plant that
developed
withstand
can
found
to
pastures,
or
wheat
or
has
been
for
at
spring
claimed
least
fiftyyears
into
vigorous
of
surface
the
retain
the
of
power
it
soil, but
lying in the
that they may
when
germination
winter
of
fields
positively known
is not
will
its seeds
ows
mead-
in
extent
in
or
It
rye.
long
how
considerable
any
it is not
frost, hence
severe
lie buried
yet immediately
and
brought
life when
the
soil
under
will
grow
in
to
favorable
conditions.
mustard
Wild
soils,
but
home
in
equally
not
friable
good drainage,
luxuriance
on
clays it does
will
given
Wild
crops
fair
make
the
grow
at
most
soils that
it will also
of
possess
in
great
loamy prairie soils. On stiff
not
readily; but it
so
grow
headway
in these
even
when
opportunity.
mustard
that
is
It
well.
limestone
but
all kinds
are
it matures
grows
sown
in all kinds
in the
its seeds
spring,
before
the
of
and
grain
ally
usu-
grain
in
164
Weeds.
which
it grows
where
spring grains
with
contest
wild
that
serious
amid
to
which
which
will
yield
been
from
place
weed
evident
in
way
produce
that
at
the
mustard
the
grain
had
seed
means
its way
is also
farm
to
in
a
not
to
the
It is also
with
farmer
it.
has
The
means
of
very
great
;
usually
by
ing
thrashof
rying
car-
It is further
which
droppings
carried
centers
farm.
by spring floods
the
but
grain.
on
of
means
are
new
potent
farms
over
manure.
seeds
Some
being carried
of
by
place by birds,
finds
distributed
case
any
crops
grain
is distributed
to
it from
the
of
one
if the
as
agencies.
machine
by
be
the
result
the
well
mustard
various
the
it must
the
soil cannot
a
and
with
as
of
to
there.
Wild
this
that
feed
mustard
time,
same
but
persons
interfere
yields
the
difficult
a
some
understands
who
of
be
by
not
the
it grows,
plants
crop
does
with
one
any
will
argued
mustard
extent
chiefly grown
are
weed
been
that
It is manifest
ripe.
this
It has
one.
a
is
it grows
cattle, and
frequently
when
this
difficultyin
by
tributed
dis-
is the
ing
deal-
(2)
False
flax
known
from
the
notion
that
it has
flax
is
usually
inches,
parent
some
that
thickly
than
more
grow
ground.
false
flax
is
blossoming
of
and
the
In
blossoms
are
as
comes
shown
of
the
its
false "flax
is
the
growth
upper
of
its
tions
por-
stems
sketch.
in the
of
cannot
after
mainly
small, and
up
above
leafy, but
plant consist
pods,
around
year
plants
stages
passed
been
have
inches
somewhat
is
seeds
the
few
earlier
stage
the
seed
a
erably
consid-
frequently
of
some
teen
eigh-
about
previous
it
stem,
flax
False
it grows
the
the
eracy
degen-
cultivated
of
height
Where
numerously
shed
the
in
order.
sometimes
but
higher.
so
the
its
mistaken,
flax, whereas
another
to
grows
but
originated
of
plant
a
probably gained
prevalent,
cultivated
of
saliva), sometimes
flax, has
name
165
FLAX.
FALSE
{Camelina
wild
as
Flax.
False
Description of
The
pale yellow
a
color.
Ordinarily,
annual,
in the
grow
to
False
although
that
flax
considerable
later
in
it
the
seeds
hardy, and
frost.
Its
an
as
to
commences
portions of the
which
is very
usually
classed
are
can
year
ous
previ-
matured.
withstand
seeds, which
are
i66
Weeds.
FALSE
FLAX.
False
Description of
the
ripe plants
the
machines
which
shed
have
flax
flax is
soil
of
kind
stiffest
the
loams
of
infests
clays
the
It
considerable
wheat,
rye,
does
have
fall, and
involved
stray
sprung
up
humous
peculiarly
and
meadows
but
in
found
be
the
the
any
plants, however,
in the
preceding
survived
preparing
in
in
home
at
flax
will
plants
have
wide
to
usually grow
in
spring crops,
not
These
crops.
or
a
mild,
the
False
stray
usually
in
extent
sometimes
cultivation
ground
for
being
in the
sown
This
seeds
spring.
plant is distributed
of
the
by farmyard
cattle, but
being
in
and
wheat
on
equally
seems
prairie.
winter
pastures.
these
It
in any
will grow
flourish
of
smaller.
winter
to
it will
soils.
of
range
adapted
false
seeds
much
are
that
weed
a
hence
meadow,
they
are
of
the
to
of
amid
seeds
seeds
The
jar
crops
their
resemblance
flax, but
False
of
ground.
some
common
the
cutting
many
grow,
the
upon
in
when
by the
disturbed
are
used
they
167
easily shed, hence
are
numerous,
very
Flax.
any
crops
and
it is
more
carried
in
other
way.
the
In
it grows,
by droppings
widely
seed
the
of
means
which
amid
manure,
by
of
this
distributed
timothy
fact
we
of
by
than
find
a
i68
Weeds.
chief
false
of
it
of
explanation
flax
Observations,
flax
it will
In
be
well
be
sown
or
barley;
is
attended
be
of
is found
flax
for
of
(4)
way;
it is well
that
would
be
year;
(3) that
for
to
the
the
case
place
take
while
the
the
the
in
be
can
meadow
cutting
before
der
remain-
alfalfa
crops
inasmuch
change,
first
and
cut
harvested
ordinary
the
make
false
in detached
be
where
that
seed
when
may
be
to
dency
ten-
from
merely
parts
as
thing
natural
the
to
germinate
may
riably
inva-
tion
cultiva-
autumn
to
infested
crop
substituted
in
the
should
spring grain,
soiling purposes,
the
usual
owing
lowing:
fol-
the
important
most
in meadows
patches, the
used
with
(2) that
weed
fall of
in the
seeds
false
with
mind
in
grass
the
to,
the
bear
along
always
conflict
the
to
(i) That
wheat
formerly
where
centres
new
appearance
known.
not
was
in
sudden
the
of
the
as
alfalfa
flax would
false
ripe.
(3)
as
annual,
seeds
WEED.
pennycress
but
in the
when
autumn,
and
it has
also
arvense),
(Thlaspi
Frenchweed
known
FRENCH
stinkweed,
not
it will
yet
live
is
an
produced
through
the
Weeds.
170
to
Those
grow.
autumn
blossom
which
in
get
May,
and
start
a
by
the
in
the
arrival
FRENCHWEED.
of
the
all be
harvest
shed
on
season
the
the
seeds
ground.
It
will
nearly
is claimed
Mustard.
Description of Tumbling
early
the
in
will
season
Frenchweed
will
clays, and
vegetable soils of
stiff
on
grain
meadow
injury
m.ore
early
than
along with
in
are
they will
Tumbling
mum)
family.
simply
Europe
is
as
TUMBLING
thought
which
also
tributed
dis-
be
droppings
the
they
of
veyed
con-
are
The
by wind.
great vitality, but
unless
weed
they
of
localities
"Tumble
it
amid
(Sisymbrium
some
that
carried
are
are
near
MUSTARD.
bad
it is called
the
carried
mustard
In
ripen
soil.
the
is another
it does
through
may
in
possessed of
not
germinate
(4)
or
ripen late.
extent
and
of
which
of cereals
some
water
surface
the
crops
They
and
to
and
They
manure
cattle, and
seeds
seeds
the
crops,
seeds.
the
pasture
distributed
grown.
by
than
which
is
of
they have
the
grain
Frenchweed
medium
most
those
to
mature
least
more
to
turn
vigorously
luxuriantly on the
prairies. It harms
cultivated
or
in
grow
much
crops
fallen
have
winter.
of
coming
the
before
which
seeds
from
plants
that
171
weed,"
mustard
the
it
but
Hungarian
was
altissi-
brought
is
known
in
central
mustard.
to
this
It
con-
Weeds,
172
of
construction
the
About
Indian
date
Canadian
the
When
they
to
room
of
seed
The
reddish
about
the
height
varies
with
The
flowers
are
close
it
numj"er
The
feet
resemblance
to
of
plants
but
high
soil and
the
merous
nu-
small, and
are
two
has
quite
are
pale yellow and
a
but
When
color.
brown
grow
a
of
grain
numerous,
enormous
an
seeds
commonly
bears
not
branches
they bear
pods.
dark
a
to
winter
or
small
slender.
the
grow
and
amid
are
and
long
are
tion
sec-
and
annual
an
it grows
its branches
crops,
large
a
adjoining portions
is
mustard
Tumbling
annual.
over
that
States.
United
the
Since
Northwest,
the
into
extent
to
around
farmers
the
spread rapidly
it has
some
of
Saskatchewan.
Head,
of
1889, it began
year
attention
the
arrest
way.
rail-
Pacific
Canadian
the
in the
employed
Austrians
by certain
tinent
season.
the
plant
wild
common
mustard.
Tumbling
between
season
the
grains
the
frosts.
autumn
at
mustard
or
even
time
The
time
same
will
a
of
seeds
as
those
the
spring
usually
of
all
at
grow
the
little earlier, but
and
mature
small
under
Mustard.
Description of Tumbling
certain
conditions
of
ripen until the arrival
TUMBLING
If
more
cut
off
branches
before
will
will
they
the
173
continue
autumn
to
frosts.
MUSTARD
the
be
blossoming
produced.
stage,
Weeds.
174
While
of
is
it
crops,
cereals.
Where
vigorous
start
weeds
the
from
when
weeds
the
does
mustard
tumbling
peculiarly
these
in
the
of
classes
any
cause
the
crops
and
will
k^eep
in
or
various
ously
vigor-
most
in
humous
essentially
It
pastures
grow
thrives
it
soils, but
in
will
plant
weakly,
are
them.
trouble
serious
but
reason,
overshadow
soon
in
early
spring, they
that
those
on
an
for
This
meadows.
get
check
give
all kinds
troublesome
in
will
not
infests
their
composition.
mustard
Tumbling
by
agencies
such
the
seeds
the
first
effective
will
this
means,
As
the
in
the
stop
as
destroyed,
again
direction
blowing
of
the
of
spread
other
are
they
will
wind
will
plants
then
be
the
these
such
weed
be
by
useful.
which
gathered
fields
an
anything
prevented
changes.
and
potent
is
this
fence,
into
of
most
wind
the
fence
out
the
its distribution,
and
the
far
by
wire
a
mustard
along
and
is
birds
water,
millet, but
and
mentioned
agency
that
If
cereals
of
dangerous.
and
wind,
as
chiefly
propagated
is
when
lect
colup
from
the
CHAPTER
ERADICATION
The
VIII.
OF
THE
includes
grass
family
most
useful
wheat,
oats,
barley,
grasses,
and
of
our
great
botanical
hand,
it includes
weeds,
of
quack
they
other
farmer
the
The
the
three
and
foxtail.
grass
is
prairie
which
a
pastures
rather
On
and
quickly
land
that
of
their
in
for
or
to
eradicate.
to
to
grasses
the
northern
wild
grass,
serious
oats,
squirrel-tail
or
weed
succumbs
but
to
be
in
pest
meadows,
cannot
in
as
troublesome
barley
very
ence
persist-
oats,
and
quack
Wild
also
wild
very
Canada
are
other
cereals
troublesome
of
States
the
the
difficult
very
most
farmers
United
are
reason,
and
to
the
some
trouble-
similarity
with
as
grow,
all
the
of
habits
seed
of
root-stocks,
the
or
and
which
some
creeping
forage
most
our
because
corn,
the
On
of
number
as
valuable
some
grass,
such
all
divisions.
their
growth
and
most
which,
large
a
plants,
is the
GRASSES.
WEEDY
one
tion.
cultiva-
cultivated,
176
Weeds.
cutting
before
in
the
the
preventing
other
weedy
some
one
beginning
of
the
their
by
grass,
scutch
called
either
which
the
are
soil.
but
stronger
and
and
they
life.
are
The
and
know^n
to
they
season,
much
of
root-stocks
the
they
(Poa
grass
in
more
quack
to
and
three
each
stems
grow
feet, according
of
them
and
way,
every
tenacious
are
grass
to
the
com-
larger
unyielding that they
through
push their way
The
fill
soon
considerably
vigorous
very
generally
Quack
grass.
much
are
more
of the potato.
one
blue
root-stocks
strong
of
resemble
quitch
grass,
that
numerous
so
quack
as
it is
couch
or
Canadian
pressa),
but
is
repens)
names,
perennial,
They
of
roots
growth.
quick
grass;
creepmg
a
nearly
GRASS.
grass,
quack
be
mended
recom-
most
(Agropyron
dog
and
is
of
the
may
methods
great variety of
a
grass,
of
QUACK
in
and
they
habits
grass
known
mentioned
the
one
(l)
Quack
three
paragraph,
the
all
Nearly
quite closely resemble
using
for
in
spread.
grasses
by
approach
ive
ripens will be effect-
its
of. this
eradicated
grass
seed
of
so
have
been
the
tuber
the
to
height
soil and
is terminated
bv
Weeds.
178
Quack
in the
Its
season.
about
August,
It
timothy.
of
makes
grass
soil, but
soils
of
least
at
home
Quack
from
is
entire
is very
seeds
for
its seeds
clovers,
ripen
for
those
and
of
both
manure,
Quack
It
of
food
grass
home-made
has
furnishes
of
a
some
a
nutritious
agation
propits
it gets
a
other
out
tle
this-
Canada
of
grasses,
those
as
of
some
alsike
of
means
time
same
timothy.
the
through
crops
thistle, quack
those
example
where.
else-
of
once
sow
the
at
it
and
of
easily distributed
by
the useful
grains and
of
as
of
means
the
is
these
than
crowding
Like
cereals, and
the
It
autumn,
by
on
perennial
is
the
of
and
work
the
When
great.
the
late
period
its power
loams
all kinds
until
footing,
also
in
constantly
kind
in
grows
root-stocks.
of
and
grass
creeping
grass
clays,
of
any
texture.
open
easily destroyed
this
and
to
in
those
almost
partial
early
mature
as
more
goes
crops
in
stiff
early spring
during
time
grow
most
in
growth
usually
same
decidedly
a
is much
seeds
the
will
good
a
and
moth,
mam-
It is also
of
agency
and
the
tributed
dis-
farmyard
purchased.
redeeming
considerable
-character,
ties.
qualiamount
both
as
Eradication
pasture
and
affords
a
hardy
that
of
the
of
cold
destroy it.
deHberately bought
few
years
the
plants
and
fail
When
growth.
become
this
renovated
be
is so,
Quack
grass,
however,
correct
Other
grass
and
holy
dropseed
or
be
may
it,
of
All
by the
the
to
is doubtless
it.
resemble
closely and
wheat
grass,
these
grasses
methods
eradication
are
vanilla
it include
of
the
its
when
which
western
grass.
for
it
row.
har-
generally
view
take
for
grass,
eradicated
below
this
less
or
mistaken
"sometimes
may
the
is
of
grasses
more
grass
rid
to
one
weedy
quack
that
pasture
pest, owing
great
a
difficultyof getting
is desired, and
absence
the
a
vigorous
with
again
as
after
by simply plowing
it down
upon
sowed
and
a
the
leveling
looked
it
matted
so
so
heat
the
but
produce
to
is
Hence
pasture,
its roots
hay it
It
and
winter
179
as
cannot
been
easily
cut
aftermath.
provide permanent
to
when
considerable
summer
has
and
hay,
as
Grass.
of Quack
mended
recom-
of
quack
grass.
Modes
of
,
the
When
quack
of
grass,
it, and
attempt
effective
this
in
a
Eradication.
is
work
single
made
to
should
season.
destroy
be
The
made
fol-
Weeds.
i8o
of
modes
lowing
found
and
After-harvest
the
lightly,and
fields
Then
the
of
roots
draw
with
should
them,
time
if
plowing
the
in
to
no
work
late
third
bring
up
fresh
furrows
or
largest possible
exposed to the
frost
weather
for
burning
the
action
of
the
each
it,
time
In
disturbing
When
land
from
land
so
surface
the
frost
efifect
a
same
of
admit
the
of
amount
into
the
time
together
has
the
weather.
plow
are
root-stocks.
should
wet
windrows
they
deeply
more
soil.
the
operation
will
weather
in
the
arrives, rib the
directions,
The
a
shake
carted
be
may
Repeat
ground
autumn
two
enough
even
the
on
If
them.
however,
case,
go
when
and
autumn
order
and,
heap.
compost
using
from
rake,
root-stocks
the
second
free
dry
with
to
light
be
not
the
necessary,
into
burn
tivated
cul-
a
harrow
roots
the
dry enough,
sually
unu-
plow
cultivator
grass
horse
the
then
if
"
the
and
harvest,
ordinary harrow
the
spring-tooth
also
be
cultivation,
autumn
After
crop.
infested
of
season
cultivation
by spring
followed
it will
rainfall.
heavy
a
in
successful, except
I.
with
dealing
the
ing
by turnopposite
that
the
shall
in
(i) of
be
ter.
winkill-
Eradication
the
ing
(2) of
and
the
In
that
roots
are
spring
occasionally
the
and
horse
it is time
cultivated
deemed
them
from,
until
if necessary,
also
roots,
it such
other
some
or
this
cultivate
Then
work
hand
the
along
necessary
vator
culti-
dry weather,
of
time
soil.
the
and
harrow
corn,
crop.
properly, giving
be
in
rake
plant
to
by
-the
use
ing,
plow-
the
exposed
freeing
i8i
Grass.
of Quack
crop
as
may
of
line
the
rows.
2.
been
the
deeply,
less
not
be
can
results
plowed
will
that
all the
disk
should
the
Grow
growing
Grow
both
corn
that
the
the
The
so
care
The
land
every
dry
ing
dur-
season
in succession.
in
corn
The
the
effective.
of- corn
that
a
if
and
subsequently
very
of
land
buried.
In
so
ways.
much
over
days
crops
thorough
deeply
run
crops
two
two
with
prove
Then
depth
satisfactory.
season.
will
planting the
so
be
then
method
J.
is
grass
grow
greater
a
done
be
inches,
9
or
more
fourteen
to
this
to
even
should
plowing
seven
be
8
than
has
grass
the grass
to
for hay. Allow
the
near
blossoming stage.
Then
it for
hay.
plow the
mow
be
deeply after
cut
until
it
under
Ploiv
it
succession,
can
be
cultivation
quack
g'rass
vated
cultishould
will
be
Weeds.
i82
all
between
destroyed
The
following
land
the
season
quite frequently
June.
Then
bushel
of
millet
thus
secured
disk
the
quack
Observations.
If
of
of
one
of
growth
smother
that
grass
the
over
rate
The
should
corn.
middle
the
at
acre.
per
the
plants of
until
millet
sow
seed
the
run
of
rows
any
have
may
survived.
is
the
quack
An
thoroughly
cleaned
Ontario
the
at
season
farm
at
used
being
that
more
was
given
It
corn.
this
to
In
both
a
be
the
wet
labor
horse
possible to eradicate
expenditure of
an
such
a
be
never
for
would
result.
at
in
Indeed,
when
disturbed
such
a
some
stirring the
than
Station
corn
a
the
crop
quack
too
crop
in
respect
hand
labor.
it would
labor
one
cultivation
is true
and
however,
season,
in
remarked
be
careful
this
very
cultivated
should
crop
usually receives, and
to
was
method
the
and
constant
be
Experiment
1891,
in
Guelph
by
completely
field
this
by
lined
out-
then
out,
will
grass
infested
destroyed.
method
followed
thoroughly
autumn
first
the
scarcely
grass
out
with-
costly
quack grass
the ground
for
should
is wet,
growth of the grass
by
respects be encouraged
time
soil.
the
fence
In
and
removing
then
cleaning
manure
applicable
in
It
must
be
not
it will
be
the
wild
that
grass
is
troublesome
has
been
banefulness
farmers
utterly
year,
in
from
but
the
though
not
in
but
there
to
we
this
to
some
In
the
the
distinctive
wild
oat
all
wild
it
will
oat
of
the
vigorous growth
early spring.
are
advise
seasons
weather
to
its
exterminate
The
its most
that
pest
would
different
resemblance
annual
an
pernicious and
fact, the attention
land.
moist
warm,
is
most
pains
their
it makes
itself
OAT.
In
no
at
wise
places, other-
fatua)
our
given
spare
readily
grow
WILD
THE
merits, but
to
weed
giving trouble.
weeds.
never
patches.
the
that
or
only
continually pushing
of
one
litter
small
such
(Avena
oat
be
would
would
of
in
described
piling
forgotten
time,
a
as
mode
case
field and
(2)
The
the
destroyed
be
into
this
out
with-
for
mode
by
it, but
be
should
weed
the
upon
out
another
found
grass
ground
the
183
be
usually
fence
the
However,
smother
Oat.
dislodge quack
first
above.
to
it will
borders
difficult to
very
Wild
the
Description of
the
of
spring,
It bears
siderable
con-
oat,
common
points
chaff
of
ference.
dif-
scales
Weeds.
i84
adhere
which
hairy, while
scales
The
not
so
a
WILD
is
usually
twisted
is seldom
or,
When
varieties
these
hairless.
are
stiff
its base
which
awn,
;
in the
is either
awn
if present,
bent.
and
OATS.
near
varieties, the
wanting
long,
thick
are
and
coarse
has
oat
grain
cultivated
in the
are
wild
the
to
is not
the
awn
tivated
cul-
entirely
stiff,and
so
of
the
wild
Weeds.
i86
weather
the
unless
the
of
growth
in
various
not
give
Its
under
have
in
unrotted
The
wild
by
the
these
the
mixed
is
the
has
grown.
the
their
of
by
vitality for
should
manure
is
to
grains,
grow
among
always
on
of
them,
its seed
It is also
since
manure,
is
no
of
means
freely mixed
will
rot
it
which
the
unless
thoroughly
suspected
small
amid
seeds
years,
placed
freely
among
its
years.
most
very
crops
once
heap,
which
the
and
grain.
being
When
manure
are
to
ground
portion of
a
thrashed
from
when
ripen before
distributed
straw
pains be taken
seeds
the
light that there
preventing it
with
have
the
so
the
years
of
to
sure
to
largely
its seed
for
seeds
it is
with
very
in
that, if left
reason
therefore
life
is distributed
oat
crops,
and
buried
been
great
conditions, although
manure
of
means
for
suitable
tures.
pas-
of
into
spring
does
or
possessed
to
grow
oat
in meadows
are
will
also
wild
The
It
adapted
it will
but
autumn,
moist.
well
are
trouble
seeds
vitality, and
or
that
soils.
other
and
warm
cereals,
serious
brought
they may
be
soils
in
luxuriates
in the
spring, nor
in the
early
very
of
straw
maintain
the
utmost
the manure,
be
done
before
the
the
land
if wild
oat
being present
in
it.
Eradication
The
also
watercourses
wild
of
seeds
of
Darnel
and
give
They
eradicated
be
some
by
wild
the
for
found
wild
with
modes
the
are
been
have
dealing
in
in
the
oat.
of Eradication.
following
that
the
weedy
trouble
much
can
Modes
The
in
carried
annual
are
recommended
here
means
by
it is also
farm
the
by being
cheat
which
sections.
some
animals.
droppings
grasses
seeds
localities
new
On
machines.
distributed
further
187
the
down
carry
into
brought
thrashing
Oat.
Wild
higher levels, and
from
oats
are
the
of
tion
eradica-
of
successful
most
oats:
cultivation,
After-harvest and autumn
fields
In
crop.
follozved by a cultivated
borne
which
have
plow the
grain crops,
this can
be done, starting
land just as soon
as
I.
the
grain
the
many
could
later
wild
of the
recently
time
be
shed
oat
the
to
Plow
on.
or
harrow
a
ground
germinate,
easily be
induced
second
the
have
which
seeds
whereas
time,
"
that
been
at
may
to
land
fields
being
early plowing
upon
induced
not
cultivate
this
for
reason
of
shocks
the
from
removed
been
have
the
before
even
process
this
they
germinate
and
then
occasionally,
i88
Weeds.
until
wild
Other
of
of
time
the
seeds
oat
if the
the
moist
not
In
any
it must
autumn
as
in
the
spring. When
plow deeply,
the
cultivated
the
stir the
surface
plant
the
soil
corn
in
of
the
in
other
some
of
days
soil
Then
the
come,
of
section
occasionally
or
that
has
lower
is
readily.
moist
autumn
surface.
to
to
late
portion
brought
time
and
that
so
soil
the
readily
so
warm
the
retain
to
remembered
be
the
season
germinate
germinate
not
to
twice
or
if the
when
not
tions
por-
agement
encour-
once
tends
soil, and
do
upper
additional
rolled
be
fall.
the
encouraged
especially
oats
case,
be
an
rolling
the
the
do
they
land
the
of
moisture
be
process,
for
in the
thus
It will
in
plowing
lying
soil may
the
germinate.
during
be dry,
late
will
the
be
spring-
until
it is
cultivated
crop.
Growing
2.
cultivated
two
land,
giving
autumn
the
in
crops
careful
cultivation
succession
and
of 'the
of
the
Grow
crops.
attention
cultivation
preparation
to
cultivated
tzvo
to
to
soil for
crops
on
the
the
the
ous
previquent
subse-
seed, and
while
they
growing.
are
Encourage
plants, and sozv
germination,
J.
a
late crop.
kill the
Allow
young
the
wild
of
Eradication
to
the
land
should
order
in
be
at
harrowed
once
of
germination
the
started
has
land.
the
over
or
June.
These
wild
then
be
the
lower
will
once
plowed
section
of the
at
seeds.
contain
should
process
will
oats
remain
should
be
all
the
4. Seed
most
is to
will
seed.
ways
the
But
few
soil.
If
successive
years,
in
wild
a
of
One
tivated
culoats
the
to
alfalfa.
The
quency
fre-
the
alfalfa
remaining
same
oats
cutting of
germinating
year
wild
the
the
up
eradicate
of
of
bring
to
land
any
should
slice,which
next
the
If
to
furrow
seed
prevent
any
survived
ground
again
of
before
cut
destroyed.
land
to alfalfa.
effective
to
sown
The
the
run
follows, the wild
corn,
as
crop,
be
in
crop
first half
followed.
be
then
be
have
The
upper
be
again
may
seed.
produced
have
oats
that
oats
the
the
should
crops
in
then
should
barley during
millet
stray
It
encourage
another
should
disk
the
to
oats
When
soil.
the
of
section
the
ground
The
germinated.
have
that
oats
plow
early spring. Then
the
myriads of
to bury
in the
start
oats
189
Oat.
Wild
the
the
harvested
is
the
of
seeds
soil
will
crop
maturing
from
oats
the
alfalfa
for
eral
sev-
the
wild
lose
their
.
power.
The
two
methods
last
Weeds.
190
submitted
western
north-
specially applicableto
are
conditions.
Observations,
with
wild
darnel,
oats,
should
care
all districts infested
In
(i)
be
cheat, the
or
taken
to
get
est
greatseed
pure
for sowing,
especiallyof spring oats, wheat,
will in
barley, for these weedy grasses
and
(2) If these
weeds
seeds, owing
mixed
get
than
ripen earlier
cases
many
exist
their
to
of
of
straw
these.
farm, their
any
lightness,are
the
with
on
any
the
to
sure
thrashed
,
grain, and
to
the
wild
the
thus
get into
oats, whenever
there
contains
essential
rotted
Owing
fall,
for
for
the
be
must
germinate
after
by
harvest.
in
and
warm
to
deal
with
Northwest,
the
to
The
in the
where
oughly
thor-
be
(3)
germinate
in the
do
not
this
as
weed
as
fore,
pains, there-
induce
its seeds
to
tion
possible cultiva-
its seeds
will not
the
wild
oat
American
the
it is particularly
used.
of
unless
moist, the
seed
does
earliest
autumn
that
greatest
to
As
suspicion
being
eradication
taken
of
it should
before
others.
many
seed
the
a
oat
cultivation
autumn
much
that
its reluctance
to
is
wild
Owing
manure.
vitality of
remarkable
manure
the
autumn
minate
geris
weather
is very
and
hard
Canadian
days
are
Description of Foxtail.
never
enough
warm
of
the
vigor,
seeds.
The
weed
that
the
to
to
even
less
of
in
continent
great
feet.
is better
nearly
to
land
the
grass
greater
a
section
every
known
summer
as
It grows
where
able
suit-
so
with
six
states
grass.
extent
is
it grows
(Setaria glauca)
pigeon
or
soil there
tion
germina-
FOXTAIL.
Northwestern
in the
the
secure
height
a
(3)
Foxtail
to
191
has
or
of
the
tilled,
been
It gives great
only for a few years.
kind
where
trouble
in prairie countries
one
for
is frequently
cereal
of
many
grown
if
even
succession
in
years
is also
the
on
troublesome
a
foxtail
Green
in the
methods
of
usually
one
adjoining
{Setaria viridis) is
is
species which
East,
Practically the
description applies
grows
when
foot
it, and
to
treatment
are
to
the
but
bear
a
a
very
few
close
sam.e
same
applicable.
tail
Fox-
height of
about
matured,
inches
more
the
although
with the richness
height varies much
soil.
It is capable of maturing seeds
when
corn
the
related
closely
common
and
It
in the
in all crops
bek, particularlyin Iowa
states.
lands.
same
high.
resemblance
The
to
the
of
the
even
leaves
those
of
Weeds.
192
millet, but
head
they
is covered
produces
have
gets
favorable
cold
conditions
in
has
similar
the
grow
when
in
will
Foxtail
soils, but
It
crop
in
rich
on
infests
but
grown,
which
these
in
grow
in
the
growth
such
Foxtail
of
of
the
extent
of
form
trouble
cultivated
on
early period
It
is
in
sown
at
cially
spe-
the
plants frequently
as
to
greatly
hinder
crops.
is distributed
and
class
riates.
it luxu-
much
cereals
the
numbers
birds, wind
greater
these
time.
soils
give
or
seeds
every
mature.
crops
in
as
of
every
the
to
troublesome
spring,
almost
not
the
tions
condi-
mature
almost
wheat,
owing
meadow,
and
prairie
does
winter
rye,
these
space
on
grow
and
moist.
sufficiently
under
rapidly
very
of
tivation
cul-
lie in
which
it is
incredibly short
an
of
seeds
the
potatoes,
corn,
plants produced
under
arrival
the
After
in
as
which
seeds,
germinate
until
ceased
grow
it
soon
as
the
autumn.
crops,
soil will
grow
and
warm,
weather
The
to
vitality, will
great
The
seeds.
commences
soil
the
smaller.
fine, soft hairs, and
with
many
Foxtail
much
are
through
water,
and
probably through
the
to
that
agency
a
still
of seed
Weeds.
194
grain,
Other
be
and
droppings
weedy
grasses
manure
annual
eradicated
include
the
by
barnyard
of
animals.
which
methods
can
given
below
fingergrass,
grass,
and
crabgrass.
The
Modes
of
following
are
that
have
dealing with
Modifying the
of
acreage
2.
the
at
once
fields
will
most
rotation.
ful
success-
which
the
Increase
cultivated
wheat,
pastures.
Practice
have
as
autumn
possible
greatest
ploughed,
removed,
seeds
the
to
cation
eradi-
of
foxtail:
cultivation.
cultivation
If
found
permanent
Autumn
modes
winter
rye,
and
grasses
the
been
in
1.
Eradication.
cereals
grown
soon
the
as
the
maturing
be
prevented,
but
cultivated
crops.
of
extent.
are
of
many
of
not
is
grain
the
of
all
them.
3.
Groiuing
of
especially crops
should
season
./.
grain
with
as
manv
as
practicable,
corn.
In
continued
be
the
these
late
as
more
in
tivation
culthe
possible.
Harrozving
in
far
so
crops
tivated
cul-
Grow
the
the
spring
teeth
in
grain.
with
a
Harrow
the
light harrow,
it, just after
the
fox-
Eradication
tail
plants
above
appeared
surface
the
should
the
or
work
of
will
also
of
in
195
numbers
large
is
grain
the
When
wet.
the
done
harrowing is judiciously
helpful to the crops
prove
thus
This
the
ground.
when
attempted
be
never
ground
are
have
Foxtail.
of
which
with.
dealt
Pasturing ivith sheep. Utilize
pasturing off the stray plants
sheep
5.
in
and
in
and
which
of
aftermath
the
in
eating off the
frequently grow
cereal
in
crops,
clean
crop
of
corn,
when
amid
the
the
Observations,
the
should
aim
the
secure
seeds
in
the
cereals
year
to
found
which
year
to
will
Until
upon
sown
the
in
in
a
the
to
feed
to
eft'ectively
most
of
these
the
in
same
cease
the
weed
germinate
get
it will
weed
to
the
To
(2)
necessary
are
will
sheep
season.
germination
of
waste-
fighting this weed
to
give prominence
removed.
be
they cannot
complete mastery
be
In
soil.
stubbles
injury
proper
which
quick
plants
in
turned
are
the
be
methods
those
without
(i)
tures
pas-
plants growing
sheep
at
corn
of
flock
A
and
corn,
and
crops
all the
out
of
the
among
in
meadows,
of
myriads
corn
places generally.
soon
it
to
spring
lands.
the
ably
probgrow
from
IX.
CHAPTER
OF
MODES
SPECIFIC
ERADICATING
LANEOUS
MISCEL-
TROUBLESOME
The
trouble
in
farmer
which
have
preceding
three
the
the
to
States
United
thistle, the
buckwheat,
and
these
are
and
zvild
thief
and
botanical
and
family,
wild
the
the
is
pests
the
that
west.
THE
one
of
has
ever
It
wild
blue-
Canada
States.
Wheatthe
to
same
thistle
Russian
the
With
in
of
these
tions,
excep-
this
chapter
related.
Russian
tragus)
do
sian
Rus-
three
eastern
mentioned
weeds
(l)
The
as
last
belong
buckwheat.
closely
not
are
blueweed
the
the
are
ivhcat-thief,
United
eastern
treated
been
bindzveed,
in
serious
northern
the
not
The
carrot.
most
the
in
chapters
cockle,
which
weeds
the
plantains,
corn
zveed
of
important
most
give
WEEDS.
is
RUSSIAN
THISTLE.
thistle
(Salsoli
the
aggressive
most
come
frequently
kali
to
the
called
var.
weed
prairies
the
of
Rus-
Description of
sian
cactus, but
thistle
a
This
United
South
from
the
has
been
for
at
the
spread
least
to
of
east,
but
it
as
it is still
a
a
farther
now
few
ously
seri-
so
ago,
years
troublesome
very
on
It has
states
is it
was
the
bordering
rivers.
in
nowhere
in
agriculture
states
Missouri
was
considered
soon
was
prairie
rapid
thistle
successful
to
regarded
weed
prairie sections.
in the
The
thistle
Russian
early leaves of the
and
slender, about
each
is
early
leaves
tipped
length
attendant
of
is
inches
two
with
branches
the
branches
conditions
in clusters
of
the
vary
of
Above
and
with
The
growth.
three, and
duce
pro-
number
much
as
the
and
the
which
out
grow
smooth
are
long,
spine.
a
The
annual.
an
plants
young
spines, and
many
grow
So
its appearance
made
though
of
it
that
Mississippi and
the
seed
brought in flaxit
Russia, where
Russian
the
the
of
1873.
year
increasingly formidable
menace
in several
the
centuries.
two
States
serious
been
plains
growing
United
about
have
to
a
State-s in Bonhomme
Dakota,
It is supposed
also
it is neither
cactus.
in the
county,
the
197
plant, it is claimed, first obtained
foothold
a
Thistle.
strictlyspeaking
a
nor
Russian
the
the
spines
plants
Weeds.
198
maturity they become
near
legs
of
have
When
travel
leafless.
almost
be
have
been
than
five
the
when
they
plant
to
appears
of
Specimens
a
weeds.
mature
the
diameter
plant
less
not
feet.
Russian
grow
very
grain
crops
spring
the
with
found
THE
The
the
among
maturity
near
rigid that
require protection
horses
to
so
the
thistle
early
are
THISTLE
RUSSIAN
in
given
thistle
does
not
th^
season,
an
early
which
infests
begin
to
hence
if
start
them
in
the
will
be
far
so
injure the
to
become
frosts
of
and
pulled
or
It is claimed
burned.
to
weed
This
the
injury
vigor under
harvesting
and
binder,
expensive.
is
but
where
have
are
of
by
the
means
sized
20,000
on
cases
the
ordinary
account
of
infests
weed
in
prairie, but
such
to
grows
not
Russian
of
thistle
its
seed
is
crops,
vated.
culti-
are
as
extent
some
much
so
established
well
of
kinds
all
its
and
difficult
harvesting
It
the
prevent
to
be
sufficient
with
grain by
all
in
the
will
greater
conditions
the
in
and
crops
the
in
prairie fires, gophers or
prepared a seed bed for
The
be
from
grows
easily destroyed
native
grasses
It
some
This
the
should
troublesome
the
are
done.
makes
it
bulk
off
average
maturing
later
they
weakly
the
cut
plants
an
specially
is
crops;
more
that
August
seeds.
30,000
grain
of
capable
is
plant
of
time
that
after
up
its
much
mature
all
the
destroy
part
hence
September,
in
tinues
con-
until
to
plants
latter
the
in
seed
the
enough
earlier
vitality. The
ously
seri-
not
seeds
mature
severe
199
frequently
It
crops.
and
grow
it may
that
in check
kept
Thistle.
Russian
the
Description of
on
where
soil,
as
prairie dogs
it.
propagated solely
and
its
marvelous
Weeds.
200
of
power
ease
with
over
the
propagation
seeds
of
number
seed
carried
to
inability
the
period
of
than
that
will
it may
and
of
prevent
accomplish
this
following
have
which
7,
seeds
vears.
may
and
be
in
the
vitality
be
longer
a
good
a
out
with-
eradicated
ing
farm-
of
system
tem
sys-
plants from
ing
matur-
successive
years
of
tion
eradica-
end.
modes
the
found
most
favor
omitted
other
ful
success-
thistle
Russian
rotation.
which
crops
of
lies
Under
the
the
difficult
maintain
two
been
Modifying
the
been
of cereals.
for
the
are
dealing with
other
not
difficulty. Any
for
in
is
to
seeds
The
seed
seeds
farming
will
of
also
has
weakness
years.
their
It
great
two
great
are
conveyance
conditions
normal
under
the
thistle
Its
of
germinate
of Eradication.
Russian
eradication.
the
Railways
in the
and
in flaxseed
Modes
The
seeds
centers.
new
the
produces, and
the
for
it
the
succession,
conditions.
largely responsible
the
in
it
which
favorable
under
tumbhng
which
with
readiness
send
miles
for
prairie
to
winds
the
which
is attributable
Cereal
the
for
crops
:
crops
maturing
two
grown
cessive
suc-
in
V/eeds,
202
spring.
steel
begin
to
a
and
under
adaptation
land
the
the
on
of
growth
will
the
preventing
its further
which
7.
the
plowing
Legislative
lands
have
in
also
cious
It is effica-
early date
the
at
is done.
When
vacant
keep
to
the
weeds
erly
prop-
check.
two
plantain
(Plan
in
helpful
lation
infested, stringent.legis-
become
(2)
The
to
ence
influ-
vation
culti-
thistle, and
enactments.
is necessary
in
ing
harrow-
Autumn
increase.
proportion
special
crop.
very
Russian
destroying
in
the
found
be
has
the
a
method
beneficial
a
cultivation.
Autiunn
6.
also
has
or
fourth
This
where
areas
the
four
is
and
thistles
Russian
dry
to
third
a
given
harrowed
be
conditions.
some
destroying
of
even
be
grain
a
blades
the
produce
to
should
high, it
time,
time
the
When
with
crop
should
sufficient
slant
early
the
as
soon
teeth
The
sought.
second
grain
as
show.
inches
five
of
harrow
backward
result
the
Harrow
Hght
in
grain
small
5. Harrow
are
f ago
THE
most
PLANTAIN.
known
major)
as
the
and
of
varieties
important
common
the
the
plantain
buckhorn
or
Description of Plantain
The
follow
not
IS
^rasshas
troublesome
very
a
dwellings,
about
grows
where
Good
in
cultivation
suffice
buckhorn
The
of great
source
of
been
introduced
ple
perennial.
and
stems
which
sometimes
by each
to
leaves
at
will
much
a
become
the
tions
sec-
many
which
It
it
is
a
a
has
s^im-
are
long, ribbed,
the
base
ihe
seed-spil"es are
its
though
they
height considerab y
a
commonly
spikes are
high,
spikes are
These
inches
two
relatively than
shorter
is
Europe.
plant.
one
rich
is
cases
has
in
foot
a
Several
from
and
into
support
attain
o-reater.
borne
from
about
grass
annoyance
narrowed
hairv,
usually
weed,
Its
e
_
rib
continent
our
was
m
soil
all
the
bay.
or
troublesome
It
where
and
the
nearly
it at
keep
to
weed.
paths
m
trodden,
much
been
places generally
more
20;
plantain {Plantago lanceolata).
to
seems
common
plantain,which
everywhere in the wake of civihza-
EnRlish
tion,
Bnckhorn.
d
an
those
long,
of
the
ally
usu-
mucn
mon
com-
plantain.
The
the
of the
as
with
buckhorn
continues
greater part of
year.
the
If it be
scythe,
to
the
cut
after
grow
growing
off above
the
out
through-
period
ground,
spikes begin
Weeds.
204
to
to
to
other
appear,
in
grow
seed
produce
in the
spikes will
is thus
It
season.
of
maturing
following
The
meadows
buckhorn
and
effort
Its
sustained
under
seeds
until
mence
com-
until
flower
in
late
June,-
BUCKHORN
capable
seems
once
place.
into
comes
THE
and
their
at
certain
during
cold
is
weather
all the
is
months
near.
troublesome
most
pastures,
conditions
more
in
especially in
Eradication
of Plantain
the
latter.
and
waste
It also
have
to
much
weed
but
in the
been
sandy
the
it is also
seeds
of
those
elongated,
red
The
In
have
dealing
and
in
Breaking up
it zvith
cut,
and
a
by
and
have
the
shape each
seed
on
not
uted
distribof
means
are
vers,
clo-
extent
some
is also
about
are
are
been
closely
meadows,
been
of
other
same
size
much
the
is
slightly
side.
one
of Eradication.
with
effective
to
It
furrowed
and
following
that
of
which
distributed
grasses
clover, and
Modes
ing
tivation.
cul-
loams
or
grains which
cleaned.
Its seeds
of
of
distributed
and
in color.
same
I.
seem
those
are
loams,
seeds
manure,
agencies.
also
not
good
commonly
cereal
carefully
in
in
soils
is most
of
means
as
it does
constitution.
This
by
blesome
speciallytrou-
withstand
to
favorite
termed
-be
mild
it is not
power
205
lanes, roadsides
tilled fields, as
Its
may
infests
places, but
in
Buckhorn.
and
the
modes
found
the
killing the
related
cultivate
They
are
tain
plan-
common
plants.
nicadozv-land
them
tion
eradica-
successful
most
buckhorn.
cultivated
plow
of
crop.
and
In
folloivthe
just after they
on
the
surface
case
have
until
Weeds.
2o6
the
late
the
following
followed
this
by
the
next
attention
with
harvest,
soiling
a
sorghum,
rape,
cultivated
growing
3 of
in section
cultivated
and
surface
to
infested,
are
thereafter
and
crop,
give
Next
follow
other
some
crop,
of
that
quick-
described
as
grown
treatment
our
crop.
cultivation.
or
and
soiling crop,
a
tilled fields that
after
grow
crop
cultivation,
autumn
by
season
of
case
season
and
quick-grozving
a
])low just
due
cultivated
a
season.
After-harvest
2.
In
Grow
autumn.
Canada
the
thistle.
Using
J.
the
cultivation
where
use
the
the
plants from
if
practicable, use
plants below
mower
the
two
very
similar
habits
they
heading.
wild
of
will
morning
off
cut
or,
the
ground.
the
species
and
creeping
C
of
As
discvssed
or
as
bindweed
arvensis)
perennials
growth.
Bindweed,
keep
to
BINDWEED.
scpium
be
to
of
surface
common
{Convolvulus
spud
sistently
per-
seeds,
their
maturing
(3)
The
scythe
or
the
places
introduced,
be
cannot
In
scythe.
or
mower,
they
under
grows
lar,
simi-
so
the
it is often
glory, usually
ing
trail-
with
are
are
same
called,
to
the
Description
of
length
two
to
soils it attains
weed
bears
a
of Bindweed,
three
much
a
close
feet, but
to
cordate
are
some
on
This
length.
greater
resemblance
Its leaves
207
the
or
ing-glory.
morn-
heart-
BINDWEED.
shaped,
white,
and
but
its
more
blossoms
commonly
pinkish white,
which
veins
Its roots
of
blue.
are
may
are
they
be
sometimes
are
tinged
larger than
of
a
with
the
Weeds.
2o8
vines.
and
form
They
also
Bindweed
begins
of
month
until
of
time
growth
is most
months
of
in
various
grain
crops
It
the
crops,
it
them
them
down
toward
hinder
greatly
mower
or
various
which
binder.
a
Bindweed
of
means
is
also
agency
is
the
of
explanation
sometimes
large
from
In
water.
of
found
of
the
So
will
of
amount
the
are
times
some-
of
the
grow
in
soils
humus.
distributed
cereal
place
to
this
last
bottom
pletely
com-
in
home
at
extent
in
draws
they
weed
of
after
and,
progress
generally
seeds
carried
the
is most
soils, but
contain
that
This
ing
keep-
stalks
entangled
themselves
within
in
hoed
of
ground.
and
to
in
gradually
it
the
som
blos-
in
the
up
it grows,
them,
early
troublesome
the trouble
to
intertwined
vines
its
grows
it is found
which
around
twining
the
continues
Bindweed
It climbs
clean.
the
to
and
it is most
adds
grain amid
the
in
its greenness
commences
yet when
greatly
it.
during
season,
but
;
soil,
early frost, although
vigorous
crops,
the
usually
grow
long time.
a
into
maintains
summer.
early
for
to
and
May,
the
bloom
deeply
down
go
in
network
a
to
by
grains, but it
place by the
fact
lies
one
which
it
is
lands.
It
is
Weeds.
2IO
careful
crop
of
ing part
It
the
is
be
remarked
usually
it
grower,
watchfulness
in
Calling
J.
When
disinclined
the
in
early
tender.
noses
be
to
dig
They
roots.
and
roots
are
(4)
Wild
field
up
WILD
buckwheat
sometimes
is
and
also
growth.
which
their
will
bind-
turned
or
the
contains
fleshy, succulent
the
freely.
BUCKWHEAT.
vulus),
convol-
{Polygonum
improperly
plant possessed
a
twining
some
it
is
plant
rooting
on
a
In
not
are
eradicating
pastured
them
eat
in
places
had
not
prevent
aid
by
especially
the
yet
have
slit to
and
the
weed,
while
hogs.
or
they
as
this
that
plowed
a
it
checked
to
access
upon
efficient
v/eed, if they
stant
con-
pastures
be
inasmuch
Hogs
very
eradicate
may
have
to
or
to
in
growth
season^
rung
a
on
its
feed
to
and
of sheep
grows
it grows,
where
persistent
labor
order
aid
the
sheep
this
as
season.
one
bindweed
allowing
much
in
in
waste-places,
remam-
that,
singularly
a
requires
completely
the
throughout
season.
here
may
weed
culture
and
of
called
a
chnging
aspects
it
weed,
bind-
creeping,
habit
resembles
of
Buckzvheat.
Description of Wild
previously
bindweed
roots
resemblance
no
the
seeds
The
in
abroad
of
will
then
oftentimes
they
their
of
Wild
a
to
time
of
of
can
crops,
cereals
and
grow
the
frosts.
seeds
be
harvested.
but
is much
sessed
pos-
buckwheat
it grows
vegetable
crops.
will
much
loams
the
before
the
all kinds
in
troublesome
more
pastures
tinues
con-
cereals
spring
It infests
in
it
until
matured
are
little trouble
rich
are
seeds
In
other
in
earth
color, but
They
mature
in
soils, but
and
grains, and
than
Wild
will
cultivated
of
large.
cereal
severe
of
many
grain
the
as
and
degree of vitality.
almost
begins to grow
buckwheat
soon
top
considerable
,
as
very
weight.
shape
so
to
grow.
the
toward
those
in
quite
not
are
grain,
lean
it to
cling
the
to
matured
both
or
spread
weeds
the
up
resemble
seeds
buckwheat
which
of
consequence
is
oftentimes
directions, and
of
cause
but
tendrils
The
clamber
stalks
the
The
singly,
amid
vegetation
there
plants.
grow
different
the
blossoms
the
two
numbers.
in
They
in
the
plants
great
the
between
of
but
described,
differently,and
very
grow
211
and
grow
It
gives
meadows.
in
various
vigorously
more
than
but
in
soil
stiff
Weeds.
212
and
heavy
It has
or
deficient
to
come
be
WILD
rie
grown
soils
on
in
the
a
in
grievous pest
matter.
on
prai-
BUCKWHEAT
localities
same
vegetable
lands
where
from
cereals
are
to
year.
year
Eradication
Wild
of
buckwheat
birds, wind
is distributed
and
seeds
of
The
have
that
given
and
been
greater
a
of
agency
cattle
and
too
the
growth
of
the
for, noxi'ous
in
the
Northwest.
would
ture
pas-
be
may
judgment
is given
in nearly
If
and
will
and
It
crops
grown
tion
rota-
prominence
crops.
cultivated
weeds
the
Vary
little attention
extensively
tion
eradica-
successful
meadow
to
that
the
of
most
greater
here
writer,
modes
rotation.
time
a
the
more
means
buckwheat:
cultivated
to
of
to
the
found
wild
much
for
mentioned
the
are
dealing with
1.
Varying the
so
by
of Eradication.
following
that
213
cereals.
Modes
parts
and
water,
through
droppings of
the
manure,
be
Buckzvheat.
probably
extent
in
Wild
of
these
of
to
all
were
suitably cared
be
soon
rially
mate-
lessened.
2.
Growing
crops
that
of
none
plants
3.
Sowing
only
clean
care
in
cultivated
and
clean
them
the
seeds
of
will
mature.
clean
seed
is
preparing:
so
the
seed.
Make
sown,
and
the
Grow
crops.
seed
of
tivated
cul-
effectively
wild
wheat
buck-
that
sure
use
special
cereals
for
Weeds.
214
sowing,
in
or
purchasing
the
for
same
seed.
Autumn
4.
land
cultivation.
immediately
to
the
when
further
the
prevent
Harrowing
harrow
the
the
cereal
sible,
posof
maturing
wild
cereal
above
When
the
labor
is
of
plants of
in
ously
numer-
the
judiciously
effective
very
teeth
appeared
surface
the
work
found
the
when
have
light
a
short
many
crops
buckwheat
Draw
crops.
of
possessed
over
ground.
done
relation
it will
to
the
expended.
(5)
The
cockle,
fields.
is
cockle
does
winter
weed
commonly
not
it may
district
in
wheat
where,
else-
occur
in
grow
wheat
githago),
pink-flowered
or
annual
common
a
It
COCKLE.
{Agrostennna
purple
though
the
CORN
cockle
corn
called
also
In
harvest
seeds.
5.
be
after
the
Plough
other
it is
a
grain.
winter
annual.
The
plant
high, usually
are
is
long
and
from
grows
with
few
thickly covered
conspicuous purple
branches
and
narrow,
with
or
one
the
three
to
;
the
whole
silky hairs.
pinkish-purple
feet
leaves
plant
The
flow-
Description
CORN
of Corn
COCKLE.
Cockle,
215
2i6
Weeds.
ers
borne
are
the
calyx,
becomes
The
the
on
which
much
swollen
ripens its seed
black
seed
wheat,
large,
where
difficult
to
it is
seed
seed
July, and
grain.
somewhat
flattened
in
This
seed
objectionable in wheat, as
ground with the grain, it gives
dark
color
pod,
thrashed
easily recognizable
remove.
;
develops.
and
commonly
occurs
branches
the
June
the
the
the
as
in
with
rather
of
encloses
plant blooms
The
ends
is
and
larly
particuit is
when
flour
the
a
unpleasant taste, and is said
be unhealthy.
is poisonous
The
seed
to
to
and
chickens, hence
should
be
not
The
white
screenings which
fed
it
contain
poultry.
to
cockle
(Lychnis alba) and the
sticky cockle
or
night-flowering catchfly
white(Silene noctiHora), the former
a
flowered
annual
with
closely
related
hairy
are
biennial
in
occur
of
keep
methods
a
plants which
of
sticky,
a
these
A
frequent
rather
cultivated
in check.
weeds
eradicating
in
sometimes
meadows.
thoroughly
both
latter
yellowish-white flowers,
the
equally effective
and
the
grain fields and
rotation, with
will
and
com
handling
night-flowering catchfly.
cockle
white
short
duction
introcrop,
The
are
cockle
2i8
Weeds.
.
when
again
it is about
will kill cockle
the
cockle
and
many
in
starts
the
of
harrow.
weeds,
small
many
Observations.
eradicate
the
main
While
and
of
account
of
seeds
from
for
necessity
the
in
and
rich
It is
kill
is easy
will
given
be
to
found
is
wheat
the
on
removing the
grain, hence
exercising
in
care
through seed
venting
pre-
grain
WHEAT-THIEF.
known
sometimes
to
soon
does
is
(Lithospennitm
Wheat-thief
eight
as
possible.
(6)
weed,
the
is followed,
seed
the
its introduction
wherever
lished
estab-
by
weed
attention
difficultyof
cockle
grain
firmly
this
rotation
no
the
the
as
however.
if proper
crop
grains,
spring
just outlined, it
quite persistent where
be
to
This
grains
methods
the
weeds.
removed
winter
in
starts
high,
with
too
are
be
to
Harrowing
growth
fall
the
inches
winter
on
plants
spring
by
to
other
many
is less effective
method
as
and
three
as
redroot.
sixteen
soils
more
or
growth.
Its
It
inches
pigeon
gromwell,
from
usually grows
high,
but
sometimes
considerably taller.
it becomes
less branched
leaves
is
arvense)
are
in
narrow
its habits
and
of
about
of Wheat-Thief.
Description
long,
inch
an
fact that
than
they
those
flowers
of
and
small, and
are
WHEAT
stems,
are
and
endowed
much
with
Wheat-thief
flax, it usually
is
the
green
Its
grasses.
or
cluster
of
pale
a
along
its
THIEF.
produced
are
and
white
seeds
Its
from
lighter tinge of
a
cereals
the
color.
cream
of
are
noticeable
are
219
an
comes
abundantly.
vitality.
annual,
up
but
in the
They
like
fall of
false
the
Weeds.
220
previous
year
its seeds.
Its
latter
of
its
seeds
of
for
cereals
plant that
a
usually
be
be
somewhat
in
grow
are
crops
hardy
so
destroy
hence
of
it.
the
kind
just w^hen
it
lighter
also
is
but
water,
soil
of
most
crop
may
free
it to
will
It
from
partial
is
shade
enables
easily distinguished.
any
It
its presence
The
possess
hence
our
It is
not
detected
leaves
its
June,
the
meadows
cut.
blossom.
into
which
in
before
or
do
it is found,
coming
during
little in advance
a
readily
it matures
appear
be
can
frosts
grows
in which
most
blossoms
harvesting,
winter
which
May or early
our
ripen before
part
ready
in
that
to
nant
stag-
sandy
to
loams.
Wheat-thief
which
early,
mature
previous
the
rye,
but
to
any
plants
considerable
survive
may
for
for
these
extent,
the
early
preparation
the
sown
wheat,
found
in pastures,
spring
although
crops
some
cultivation
of
essary
nec-
ground
the
crops.
Wheat-thief
through
winter
infests
been
winter
as
It is also
seldom
it
have
and
such
season,
meadows.
and
in crops
troublesome
is most
cereals
is
the
and
of
agency
of
uted
distrib-
commonly
most
the
the
seeds
seeds
of
of
the
timothy,
Eradication
mammoth
clover, and
carried
not
of Wheat-Thief,
seed
in the
cattle, by the
of
of
clover.
manure
follov^^ingare
that
have
dealing
in
meadow
winter
need
of
not
three
section.
crops
continue
for
if due
In
p.
with
them
to
the autumn
most
after harvest
as
may
weed
be
have
Drop
from
be
given
described
to
be
of
that
are
sufficient
hand
desired.
fallen
If
first
shallow
the
numerously
seeds
to
pulling.
careful
it is in
of this weed
either
to
next
Give
The
or
in the
pastures
seeds
be
rotation
attention
freely.
may
The
two
cultivation, for
the
tures,
pas-
than
means
autumn
and
rye,
the
of
out
bare.
eaten
cultivation.
that
successful
winter
generally
by
Autumn
attention
by birds.
more
as
respect
infested, it will
deal
yard,
farm-
necessarily
kept
are
cultivation,
autumn
the
:
not
these
seasons
of
most
wheat,
but
these
omission
pings
drop-
tion
of eradica-
rotation.
the
crops,
if
found
wheat-thief
with
rotation
the
the
modes
the
been
Modifying
I.
ver.
clo-
of Eradication.
Modes
The
is
by
and
by thrashing machines,
It
red
common
distributed
is further
It
alsike
221
minate
ger-
plowing
deep,
or
of
during
this
the
Weeds,
2'12
of
harvesting
the
immediately
preferable
Modes
land
is
else
grow
suitable,
cultivated
follow
it
cultivated
Where
crop.
attention
cultivation
precedes
4.
the
pulling
Hand
weeds
pulling
and
to
of
false
such
flax,
crops
hand
to
work,
be
to
the
end
while
it may
then,
it should
only
spring
as
Where
resort
grass,
to
sowing.
the
bloom.
Whenever
sow
autumn
their
undertaken
be
Observation.
the
fully accomplish
to
still in
are
grown
are
This
or
cultivated
a
to
numerous,
should
intended,
by
spudding.
spudding.
or
easily done,
plants
not
are
and
the
crops,
crops
alone, give careful
which
be
Where
crops.
grow
and
rye
will
Eradication.
of
cultivated
Grozving
soil
it.
plowing
to
Specific
5.
surface
the
cultivating
crop,
preceding
be
in
as
be
essary
nec-
the
case
done
with
barley,
wheat,
and
oats.
(7)
Blue
weed
(Echium
It is sometimes
loss,
but
blueweed.
the
BLUEWEED.
more
In
vidgare)
known
common
the
Southern
as
name
is
a
nial.
bien-
viper's bugfor
States
it is
it
is
Description of Bluezveed.
that
weed.
New
York
It is most
Blueweed
feet, according
soil
the
rather
which
large,
the
leaves
and
surface
of
growth
blueweed
why
hairs
These
touch
Its
flowers
blue
blueweed
tries
large,
thus
and
giving
a
grows
the
far
one
are
very
of
season
of
leaves
are
est
near-
grow
that
they
Both
with
with
ous
numer-
the
which
lie
ing
advanc-
explains
by live stock.
from
agreeable to
to
pull the plant.
relished
also
are
one
ground.
plant,
is not
color,
at
the
when
the
the
stiffen
hairs, which
so
covered
are
from
Its
out
single
a
character
which
of
stems
the
to
those
spread
and
spreading
plant having
each
infests.
it
crown
the
near
southward.
and
upright
to
Ontario,
springing from
to the
height of
It grows
three
the
to
growth,
branches
stock.
to
of
thistle,
in
common
states
is both
its habits
several
the
and
Canada
little resemblance
but
it bears
although
in
the
called
sometimes
22\
the
of
the
deep,
a
fields
where
beautiful
year
rich
ance
appearit is in
when
bloom.
Blueweed
season
root
of
down
this several
is
its
a
biennial.
growth,
deep
into
smaller
During
it sends
the
roots
a
ground,
branch
first
the
strong
and
off.
tap
from
Blue-
Weeds,
224
does
weed
in the
to
second
period
bloom
weaker
the
months.
its first year,
in
the
of
month
later
blooming
June,
that
so
on,
visuallyextends
The
but
plants begin
stronger
ones
bloom
of
in
the
year
into
come
and
blossom
not
over
the
eral
sev-
is also
season
BLUEWEED.
extended
for
weed,
of
efforts
by
the
when
crown
and
seed.
Some
as
at
soon
of
begin
these
above
the
with
once
eradicate
to
off
it is cut
earth,
branches
made
start
to
newlv
the
the
face
sur-
zontal
scythe, horiout
bloom
from
and
formed
the
bear
hori-
226
Weeds.
As
it
regards
probable
is
the
that
from
place
v/eed
cling long
the
wind
winter
of
appearance
for
blueweed
in
Blueweed
to
is
seed,
where
allow
it to
sudden
centers,
new
known
of
to
uted
distrib-
of
means
clover
farming
while
its seeds
mature
doubt
the
methods
careless
over
no
probably
by
extent
some
their
miles
been
not
also
of
fact
This
it had
which
spring,
out
for
account
previously
exist.
them
blue-
in
toward
them
snows.
spread
of
seeds
or
of
chief
its
receptacles
drives
generally
where
The
many
and
encrusted
will
in
blueweed,
is the
effecting
the
to
shakes
receptacles
in
of
wind
place.
to
but
grow,
the
the
employed
agency
they
distribution
growing
in meadows.
of Eradication.
Modes
The
following
that
in
dealing
I.
will
of
much
of
the
broken
keep
in
up
a
successful
in the
from
getting
cultivated
portions
stray plants put
same
tivation
cul-
Really good
field that
that
tion
eradica-
:
blueweed
When
of
most
fields.
footing
a
farm.
appearance
be
blueweed
with
ctdtivated
In
found
been
have
modes
the
are
is not
season,
in
desired
the
spud
an
to
is
Eradication
the*
effective
most
to
plant
is
cut
stage
of
its
go
for
removing
the
for
crown,
the
below
oif
cases
be
when
the
at
crown
it will
growth,
all
in
any
surely die,
bur.
otherwise.
not
In
2.
etc.
waste
places generally,
its
will
seed
used
scythe be
of
number
in either
with
again
spud
to
be
these
on.
used
seeds
in
once
in
overlooked
The
for
have
will
in
scythe
or
several
lying
in
the
blossom
the
the
seasons,
or
the
by
the
be
for
done
be
to
but
done
also
at
the
When
are
ones
first
spring
once
blossom.
to
in
becatise, when
weaker
some
to
and
season
a
begin
is used,
also
have
scythe, the plants
and
spud
season,
will
It
once
a
a
ing
matur-
destroyed,
be
will
work
seasons.
than
cut
up
the
case
to
got
found
be
determined
be
in
effective
the
plants
has
it from
prove
must
the
than
more
soon
plant
it will
them,
Whether
it.
destroying
several
if the
plan that will keep
any
more
in
and
pastures,
permanent
foothold
strong
that
In
places,
zvaste
pastures,
permanent
lanes,
a
227
should
below
made
Bhieweed.
means
spud
The
them.
of
certain
cutting,
and
bear
spud
will
inasmuch
but
later
seed
have
to
as
soil, being possessed
be
the
of
228
Weeds.
considerable
for
blueweed
very
alone
much
hindered.
be
sufficient
for
wild
The
the
cultivated
the
portions
which
wild
The
which
more
It
thus
and
otherwise
continues
in
produces
when
it sends
to
put
cut
up
forth
late in the
seeds
until
acrid
juices, live
upon
it.
stock
flower
umbel
an
other
the
tap
in
the
stems,
the
by
scythe
stems,
effort
to
and
care
or
this
produce
Owing
not
ter.
clus-
ously,
numer-
very
season.
do
in
a
flower
or
seeds
ofif
has
early
up
long
up
to
especially
It
a
branched.
comes
sends
terminate
resemblance
more
less
or
is
carota)
ground.
carrot
It
season.
variety,
is
employed.
close
a
above
sure
other
some
(Daucus
bears
be
CARROT.
WILD
carrot
It
biennial.
root,
be
be
weed,
the
unless
seeds
the
will not
plants will
of the
THE
in
will
method
eradicate
to
eradication
(8)
containing
seeds
the
of
This
some
their
of
method
inate
germ-
closely early
pastured
production
the
ripen
fields
When
are
however,
to
to
years.
Observations.
season,
continue
vitality,will
to
to
its
feed
Description of the
wild
The
to
railroads,
and
to
a.
blueweed,
Like
found
in
in
and
flourishes
The
some
in mild
wild
through
in
the
extent
carrot
more
in meadows.
monly
com-
It grows
CARROT.
WILD
vegetable soils,but
it also
loams.
is
brought
agency
by
cultivation
along roads and
places generally,
waste
less extent
readily
it is
pastures,
THE
most
usual
the
229
some
trouble-
greatly
not
where
crops
good.
is
is
carrot
Carrot.
Wild
birds.
of
to
new
railways,
Wind
and
centers
and
to
water.
Weeds.
230
however,
the
are
and
its
scattering
Modes
that
in
In
cultivated
of
portions
be
this
to
the
year
of
their
5.
with
the
crown
too
will
arable
If
cease
soon
the
If
this
of
end
off
with
to
attempt
be
two
second
the
them
they
as
places
oughly,
thor-
done
all
years
the
destroyed.
be
the
spud
any
Where
spud.
they
numerous,
at
during
often
zvaste
waste
cutting
seeds.
the
lanes,
and
down
cut
as
Using
not
the
cultivation.
carrot
growth,
at
will
Give
pastures
plants
their
plants
:
pastures,
In
scythe
mature
carrot
them.
etc.
keep
tion
eradica-
successful
most
good
wild
permanent
places,
the
wild
farm
the
in
In
found
fields.
the
done,
appear
2.
are
the
with
of
modes
the
been
dealing
/.
seeds.
are
have
ing
carry-
Eradication.
of
following
The
for
agencies
great
by
may
cutting
stage
of
plants
the
them
their
be
ed
destroyoff
growth.
below
INDEX
Agencies
of
wholly
under
Animals,
farm,
Annuals,
62;
in
fallow,
Bare
weed
of,
description
distribution
Birds,
eradication,
107;
tions
objec-
64.
weeds,
Bindweed,
90.
109.
to,
Biennial
51.
wild,
43;
by,
62.
in
use
56;
control,
80.
distribution
winter,
under
not
56.
eradication,
cultivation,
Autumn
under
control,
aid
as
40;
partially
55;
control,
Alfalfa
distribution,
weed
eradication
206;
of,
209.
50.
by,
Blueweed,
description
o",
222;
eradication
of,
226.
Buckhorn,
description
of,
203;
eradication
of,
205.
Buckwheat,
wild,
tion
descript-ion
Canada
thistle,
of,
eradication
133;
description
of,
of,
115;
136.
eradication
118.
of,
Carrot,
wild,
Catchfly,
228.
night-flowering,
eradication
Cheat,
dica-
222.
viper's,
Burdock,
210;
213.
of,
Bugloss,
of,
description
Classes
187.
of,
weeds,
of
216.
62;
62;
annuals,
biennials,.
64;
66.
perennials,
farm
Cleaning
seed
of
Cleaning
of,
98.
16.
grain,
Cleanliness,
method
weeds,
of,
maintenance
96;
of
cost
tenance,
main-
33.
Clean
Clover,
seed,
aid
factor
Cockle,
use
in
74.
eradication
distribution,
in
214;
of,
of,
217;
corn,
of
seed
41.
of,
description
sticky,
80;
weeds,
216;
white,
214;
216.
tion
eradica-
as
Index.
232
Constant
of
use
Control
weeds,
of
31.
sulphate,
Copper
Corn
87.
land,
in
use
spraying,
description
cockle,
of,
158.
214;
eradication
of,
217.
Cost
of
Cost
of
crop
Cost
of
maintaining-
Couch
eradication,
weed
autumn,
eradication
Distribution
agencies
farm
of,
51;
43;
by
by
railways,
45;
by
by
Eradication
aid
80;
by
of,
29,
122;
77;
by
prevention
by
tillage,
48;
wild
animals,
by
by
seed,
constant
use
of
rotation,
work
of
in,
of
use
by
of
seeding,
of
tumn
au-
of
use
87:
land,
cost
crops,
and
feeds,
chaff,
85;
by
for
necessity
possibility
by
80;
fallow,
by
screenings
91;
by
culHvated
71;
95;
93;
.74;
duction
pro-
in,
bare
of
use
production
home
in,
crops
by
crop
alfalfa
of
use
clean
destruction
modifying
thorough
88;
90;
of
use
clover,
by
54;
abundant
pasture
cultivation,
78;
51;
58;
in,
annual
26,
by
46;
52.
weeds,
an
by
material^,
179.
of
107;
49;
by
stock,
root-stocks,
water,
winds,
grass,
of
by
by
ings,
screen-
live
by
41;
of
44;
grain
packing
by
50;
47;
vehicles,
Dropseed
seed,
machines,
thrashing
by
by
43;
feed-stuffs,
41;
grass
manure,
animals,
by
51;
control
41;
farm
by
43,
animals,
seed,
grain,
by
127.
by
48;
by
77;
use
55;
implements,
floods,
51;
40;
clover
by
78.
187.
weeds,
50;
90.
eradication,
eradication,
of,
of,
of
of
of
means
eradication
ox-ey^,
birds,
method
as
as
crops
Darnel,
101.
66.
perennials,
Cultivated
33,
fields,
37.
weeds,
by
176.
Cultivation,
Daisy,
clean
123.
pastures,
increased
production,,
grass,
Creeping
in
28;
of,
pasturing
21;
by
with
Index.
234
harbored
Insects,
Iron
sulphate,
Kinghead,
Live
factor
for
Machines,
thrashing,
Manure,
distribution
Method,
of
to
general,
58.
eradication
tion,
eradica-
14,
171;
tumbling,
151;
o%
161.
wild,
Mustard
family,
Number
of
Ox-eye
216.
catchfly,
9.
species,
weed
description
wild,
149.
of,
weeds
Night-flowering
Oat,
of
72;
105.
spud,
11.
weeds,
of
using
111.
206.
wild,
Multiplication
of.
71.
weeds,
by
of
conditions,
rotation,
glory,
Mustard,
98;
farm,
of,
76;
use,
fermentation
45;
by,
adapted
use
before
49.
cleaning
of
Morning
cleaning
by,,
Modification
159.
spraying,
distribution
Moisture,
146.
43.
distribution,
in
Machinery
Methods,
of,
137.
wild,
stock,
eradication
of, 141;
description
Lettuce,
156.
spraying-,
in
use
16.
weeds,
by
of,
description
daisy,
eradication
183;
of,
of,
eradication
127;
187.
ot,
130.
distribution
material,
Packing
Pastures,
in
eradication
of
cost
93.
description
of,
eradication
Peppergrass,
Perennials,
66;
grass,
191.
Pigeon
weed,
218.
description
Plantain,
Plant
diseases,
Plant
food,
use
of,
Prevalence
of
weeds,
Prevention
of
seeding,
Production,
increase
91.
use
of
nual
an-
151.
eradication
202;
for,
by
123;
66.
harbor
of
46.
168.
of,
creeping,
Pigeon
seed,
in,
eradication,
Pennycress,
by,
weeds,
of, 205.
16.
14.
7.
91.
of
cost
of,
37;
prevention
of
Index.
increase
Profits,
Purple
cockle,
Quack
grass,
235
freedom
by
from
36.
weeds,
214.
description
of,
eradication
o",
176;
of,
eradication
179.
wild,
Radish,
Rag-weed,
distribution
Railways,
effect
Rotation,
Russian
54.
by,
71.
modifying,
18;
on,
thistle,
description
196;
of,
eradication
200.
of.
in
of,
use
Scutch
Seed,
clean,
Seed
grain,
distribution
Shepherd's
to
of
annual
crops,
84;
off
grazing
93.
in
use
IFl.
of,
eradication,
with,
crops
91.
15.
by,
crops
weed
in
thistle,
of,
eradication
purse,
use
41.
by,.
pre-vention
injury
Soiling
74.
of,
use
production,
Sheep,,
77.
by,
176.
grass,
Shading,
156.
spraying,
distribution
Screenings,
Sow
50.
by,
distribution
Root-stocks,
Seed
146.
218.
Redroot,
Salt,
of,
eradication
141;
of,
description
151.
weed
124;
of,
description
82.
eradication,
of,
eradicaton
126.
Spraying,
160;
as
159;
machinery,
description
Spud,
use
Spudding,
Sticky
cost
cockle,
of,
method
of
105;
using,
of,
101.
216.
191.
Canada,
118;
description
Russian,
of,
eradication
Thistle
158.
materials,
168.
grass,
Thistle,
104;
of,
cost
99.
of,
Stinkweed,
Summer
of,
156;
eradication,
of
means
family,
description
200;
of,
weeds
of,
sow,
of,
description
126.
of,
115;
113.
eradication
196;
cation
eradi-
of,
124;
Index.
236
Thrashing
machines,,
distribution
to
157.
description
mustard,
distribution
Viper's
distribution
of,
from,
injuries
40;
of,
eradication
multiplication
13;
species
of
51.
by,
distribution
Weeds,
47.
by",
222.
bugloss,
Water,
tion
eradica-
179.
grass,
Vehicles,
171;
of,
151.
of,
Vanilla
76;
use,
48.
by,
spray,
Tumbling
before
49.
by,
distribution
Tillage,
Time
cleaning
of,
11;
58;
ber
num-
9.
of,,
.
Wheat
grass,
Wheat
thief,
179.
description
of,
218;
eradication
of,
221.
White
Wild
Wild
animals,
distribution
buckwheat,
of.
Wild
216.
cockle,
51.
by,
description
of,
tion
eradica-
210;
213.
description
carrot,
of,
228;
eradication
of,
230.
Wild
flax,
description
of,
165;
eradication
of,
151.
Wild
lettuce,
description
of,
137;
eradication
ot,
140.
Wild
morning
of,
Wild
description
glory,
of,
206;
cation
eradi-
209.
mustard,
description
of,
161;
eradication
of,
151.
Wild
Wild
oat,
description
radish,
of,
eradication
Winds,
distribution
Winter
annuals,
of,
by,
62.
183;
52,
eradication
151.
of,
187.
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