Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 1 IB History of the Americas Skills Handbook I) How to read history…………………………………………………………...........................1 II) How to take notes ………………………………………………………….............................4 III) Document analysis/OPVL…………………………………………………………………....7 IV) Writing for IB History……………………………………………………………………....11 V) Internal Assessment-Historical Investigation……………………………………………….19 VI) PowerPoints and Roundtables……………………………………………………………....22 VII) Evaluating Websites……………………………………………………………………..….23 Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………....25 A: PowerPoint Rubric…………………………………………………………………...25 B: PowerPoint Rubric…………………………………………………………………...26 C: Essay Markbands…………………………………………………………………….27 D: IA Historical Investigation Rubric…………………………………………………...29 E: IA Historical Investigation FAQ……………………………………………………..31 F: Glossary of Command Terms I) How to Read History (and learn stuff) You are expected to do much more reading IB, so you might as well learn to read more effectively. Here are five tips to help you improve your reading: 1. Read for a purpose (Styles of reading) There are three styles of reading which we use in different situations: scanning, skimming, and detailed Scanning: for a specific focus. The technique you use when you’re looking up a name in the phone book: you move your eye quickly over the page to find particular words or phrases that are relevant to the task you’re doing. It’s useful to scan parts of texts to see if they’re going to be useful to you: • • • the introduction or preface of a book the first or last paragraphs of chapters the concluding chapter of a book. Skimming: for getting the gist of something The technique you use when you’re going through a newspaper or magazine: you read quickly to get the main points, and skip over the detail. It’s useful to skim: • • • to preview a passage before you read it in detail to refresh your understand of a passage after you’ve read it in detail. to decide if a book in the library is useful for your research. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 2 Detailed reading: for extracting information accurately Where you read every word, and work to learn from the text. • • In this careful reading, you may find it helpful to skim first, to get a general idea, but then go back to read in detail. Use a dictionary to make sure you understand all the words used. 2. Active reading When you’re reading for your course, you need to make sure you’re actively involved with the text. It’s a waste of your time to just passively read, the way you’d read a thriller on holiday. Always take notes (two column notes or outline) to keep up your concentration and understanding. Here are four tips for active reading. Underlining and highlighting >Pick out what you think are the most important parts of what you are reading. >If you are a visual learner, you’ll find it helpful to use different colors to highlight different aspects of what you’re reading. (ex. pink for social, green for economic, …) Note key words, terminology, names, places and dates >Record the main headings and outline as you read. This is really easy in a textbook, because the headings are already printed in bold type. >Use one or two keywords for each point. >When you cannot mark the text, keep a folder of notes you make while reading. >Leave space in your notes to add information discussed in class Questions >Before you start reading something like an article, a chapter or a whole book, prepare for your reading by noting questions you want the material to answer. >In a text book change the headings to a question. (ex. Causes of the Great Depression. = What caused the Great Depression?) >While you’re reading, note questions which the author raises. >In IB it is important to note alternative points of view Summaries Pause after you’ve read a section of text. Then: 1. put what you’ve read into your own words; 2. skim through the text and check how accurate your summary is and 3. fill in any gaps. A tip for speeding up your active reading You should learn a huge amount from reading on your own and not by being spoon fed by a teacher. If you read passively, without learning, you’re wasting your time. So train Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 3 your mind to learn. Try the SQ3R technique. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recall and Review. Survey Gather the information you need to focus on the work and set goals: • • • • • Read the title to help prepare for the subject Read the introduction or summary to see what the author thinks are the key points Notice the boldface headings to see what the structure is Notice any maps, graphs or charts. They are there for a purpose Notice the reading aids, italics, bold face, questions at the end of the chapter. They are all there to help you understand and remember. Question Help your mind to engage and concentrate. Your mind is engaged in learning when it is actively looking for answers to questions. Try turning the boldface headings into questions you think the section should answer. Read Read the first section with your questions in mind. Look for the answers, and make up new questions if necessary. Recall After each section, stop and think back to your questions. See if you can answer them from memory. If not, take a look back at the text. Do this as often as you need to. Review Once you have finished the whole chapter, go back over all the questions from all the headings. See you if can still answer them. If not, look back and refresh your memory. 4. Spotting authors’ navigation aids Learn to recognize sequence signals, for example: “Three advantages of…” or “A number of methods are available…” leads you to expect several points to follow. The first sentence of a paragraph will often indicate a sequence: “One important cause of…” followed by “Another important factor…” and so on, until “The final cause of…” Whatever you are reading, be aware of the author’s background. It is important to recognize the bias given to writing by a writer’s political, religious, social background. Learn which newspapers and journals represent a particular standpoint. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 4 5. Words and vocabulary In your writing for IB, you are expected to use the correct vocabulary in the context of your analytical writing. On quizzes you are expected to define a term like “containment”. In an essay you would be asked to evaluate Truman’s policy of containment. To expand your vocabulary: Choose a large dictionary rather than one which is ‘compact’ or ‘concise’. You want one which is big enough to define words clearly and helpfully (around 1,500 pages is a good size). Avoid dictionaries which send you round in circles by just giving synonyms. A pocket dictionary might suggest: ‘impetuous = rash’. A more comprehensive dictionary will tell you that impetuous means ‘rushing with force and violence’, while another gives ‘liable to act without consideration’, and add to your understanding by giving the derivation ‘14th century, from late Latin impetuous = violent’. It will tell you that rash means ‘acting without due consideration or thought’, and is derived from Old High German rasc = hurried. So underlying these two similar words is the difference between violence and hurrying. There are over 600,000 words in the Oxford English Dictionary; most of them have different meanings, (only a small proportion are synonyms). If you haven’t got your dictionary with you, note down words which you don’t understand and look them up later. It is a waste of time to read an essay on neorealism in foreign policy without first being able to define neorealism. Source: http://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studytips/reading_skills.htm II) How to Take Notes (and learn stuff) To succeed (learn stuff and make good marks) you will have to do a lot of note-taking at, much more than you have ever had to do before. We cover six aspects of making notes: a. Be selective b. Mind maps c. Cornell system d. Using notes e. Taking notes as you listen a. Be selective Note-taking does not mean writing down everything you read or hear. Your notes should be a clear summary of essential points in a text or lecture. Be selective about what you write down. Notes should help you to: Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook • • 5 Fix information in your mind, and Revise. Here are two ways of taking notes. Which do you prefer? b. Mind-mapping If you're a Visual Learner you'll find patterns easier to use than lists of ideas, so you may want to use mind maps (which are also called spider diagrams). Mind maps can help you to connect information in a variety of ways. You can use them for: • • • Making notes, Planning essay answers and Revising. Start in the middle of a page with the subject title or topic, and add major points along a line from the centre, with additional ideas branching out from the main points. Use connecting lines to link up ideas/points from different branches. Like this: Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 6 c. Cornell Method If you are an Auditory Learner, you may prefer to use a system like the Cornell Method, an example of which is given below: e. Using your notes Whatever method you use, it's important that you do something with your notes. You need to go through them while the lecture is still fresh in our mind, within 24 hours, and make sure you tidy them up and summarize them. Use highlighters and coloured pens to highlight key points and to link relevant facts and ideas. Make it a rule after each lecture to: • • Tidy up your notes Make them more legible if you need to Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 7 Summarize your notes Write down the main points to make it easy to revise for exams later. If you use the Cornell system, you can overlay your pages so you only see the left-hand margin, and read the essentials of the lecture from your summary notes.) Fill in your notes Fill in from memory examples and facts which you didn't have time to get down in the lecture Clarify your notes If any parts of the lecture were unclear, ask me, a reliable fellow-student, or check your books Highlight your notes Make the key points stand out: • • • Underline them, Highlight them in a bright color, or Mark them with asterisks. f. Making notes as you listen >Apart from the date and title (if it's given) don't try to write anything at the start of a lecture. >Listen to find out what the content is going to be. >Write down key words / ideas. You don't have to write in complete sentences. >Use abbreviations. III) How to Analyze Documents (and learn stuff) History is all about the documents! Being able to analyze documents following the OPVL guidelines is crucial for success in IB history OPVL Origin, Purpose, Value and Limitation (OPVL) is a technique for analyzing historical documents. It is used extensively in the International Baccalaureate curriculum and testing materials, and is incredibly helpful in teaching students to be critical observers. It is also known as Document Based Questions (DBQ). Origin: In order to analyze a source, you must first know what it is. Sometimes not all of these questions can be answered. The more you do know about where a document is coming from, the easier it is to ascertain purpose, value and limitation. The definition of primary and secondary source materials can be problematic. There is constant debate among academic circles on how to definitively categorize certain documents and there is no clear rule of what makes a document a primary or a secondary source. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook • • 8 Primary – letter, journal, interview, speeches, photos, paintings, etc. Primary sources are created by someone who is the “first person”; these documents can also be called “original source documents. The author or creator is presenting original materials as a result of discovery or to share new information or opinions. Primary documents have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation by others. In order to get a complete picture of an event or era, it is necessary to consult multiple--and often contradictory-sources. Secondary – materials that are written with the benefit of hindsight and materials that filter primary sources through interpretation or evaluation. Books commenting on a historical incident in history are secondary sources. Political cartoons can be tricky because they can be considered either primary or secondary. Note: One is not more reliable than the other. Valuable information can be gleaned from both types of documents. A primary document can tell you about the original author’s perspective; a secondary document can tell you how the primary document was received during a specific time period or by a specific audience. Other questions must be answered beyond whether the source is primary or secondary and will give you much more information about the document that will help you answer questions in the other categories. • Who created it? • Who is the author? • When was it created? • When was it published? • Where was it published? • Who is publishing it? • Is there anything we know about the author that is pertinent to our evaluation? This last question is especially important. The more you know about the author of a document, the easier it is to answer the following questions. Knowing that George was the author of a document might mean a lot more if you know you are talking about George Washington and know that he was the first president, active in the creation of the United States, a General, etc. Purpose: This is the point where you start the real evaluation of the piece and try to figure out the purpose for its creation. You must be able to think as the author of the document. At this point you are still only focusing on the single piece of work you are evaluating. • Why does this document exist? • Why did the author create this piece of work? What is the intent? • Why did the author choose this particular format? • Who is the intended audience? Who was the author thinking would receive this? • What does the document “say”? • Can it tell you more than is on the surface? Avoid saying “I think the document means this…” Obviously, if you are making a statement it is coming from your thoughts. Instead say: “The document means this…because it is supported by x evidence.” Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 9 Value: Now comes the hard part. Putting on your historian hat, you must determine: Based on who wrote it, when/where it came from and why it was created…what value does this document have as a piece of evidence? This is where you show your expertise and put the piece in context. Bring in your outside information here. • What can we tell about the author from the piece? • What can we tell about the time period from the piece? • Under what circumstances was the piece created and how does the piece reflect those circumstances? • What can we tell about any controversies from the piece? • Does the author represent a particular ‘side’ of a controversy or event? • What can we tell about the author’s perspectives from the piece? • What was going on in history at the time the piece was created and how does this piece accurately reflect it? It helps if you know the context of the document and can explain what the document helps you to understand about the context. The following is an example of value analysis: The journal entry was written by President Truman prior to the dropping of the atomic bomb on Japan and demonstrates the moral dilemma he was having in making the decision of whether to drop the bomb or not. It shows that he was highly conflicted about the decision and very aware of the potential consequences both for diplomatic/military relations and for the health and welfare of the Japanese citizens. Limitation: This is probably the hardest part. The task here is not to point out weaknesses of the source, but rather to say: at what point does this source cease to be of value to us as historians? With a primary source document, having an incomplete picture of the whole is a given because the source was created by one person (or a small group of people?), naturally they will not have given every detail of the context. Do not say that the author left out information unless you have concrete proof (from another source) that they chose to leave information out. Also, it is obvious that the author did not have prior knowledge of events that came after the creation of the document. Do not state that the document “does not explain X” (if X happened later). Being biased does not limit the value of a source! If you are going to comment on the bias of a document, you must go into detail. Who is it biased towards? Who is it biased against? What part of a story does it leave out? What part of the story is MISSING because of parts left out? • What part of the story can we NOT tell from this document? • How could we verify the content of the piece? • Does this piece inaccurately reflect anything about the time period? • What does the author leave out and why does he/she leave it out (if you know)? • What is purposely not addressed? This is again an area for you to show your expertise of the context. You need to briefly explain the parts of the story that the document leaves out. Give examples of other documents that might mirror or answer this document. What parts of the story/context can this document not tell? Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 10 An OPVL paragraph would follow the example below: The origin of this source is a journal that was written by _________ in ________ in _______. Its purpose was to __________________ so ___________________. A value of this is that it gives the perspective of __________________________. However, a limitation is that ____________ ______________________, making_____________________ ___________________________. Cartoon Analysis Author of the cartoon: Date of publication: Newspaper or medium: Level 1 Visuals Words (not all cartoons include words) 1. List the objects or people you see in the 1. Identify the cartoon caption and/or title. cartoon. 2. Locate three words or phrases used by the cartoonist to identify objects or people within the cartoon. 3. Record any important dates or numbers that appear in the cartoon. Level 2 Visuals Words 2. Which of the objects on your list are 4. Which words or phrases in the cartoon symbols? appear to be the most significant? Why 3. What do you think each symbol means? do you think so? 5. List adjectives that describe the emotions portrayed in the cartoon. Level 3 A. Describe the action taking place in the cartoon. B. Explain how the words in the cartoon clarify the symbols. C. Explain the message of the cartoon. D. What special interest groups would agree/disagree with the cartoon's message? Why? National Archives and Records Administration Document Analysis Forms < http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/ > Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 11 IV) Writing in Social Studies Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement 1.Determine what kind of paper you are writing: • • • An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience. An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided. If you are writing a text which does not fall under these three categories (ex. a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader. 2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence. 3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper. 4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper. Thesis Statement Examples Example of an analytical thesis statement: An analysis of the college admission process reveals one challenge facing counselors: accepting students with high test scores or students with strong extracurricular backgrounds. The paper that follows should: • • explain the analysis of the college admission process explain the challenge facing admissions counselors Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement: The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying, attending class, and socializing with peers. The paper that follows should: • explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 12 Example of an argumentative thesis statement: High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness. The paper that follows should: • present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college Structure of an Essay 1) Introduction The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions: 1. What is this? 2. Why am I reading it? 3. What do you want me to do? You should answer these questions by doing the following: 1. Set the context – provide general information about the main idea, explaining the situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and support 2. State why the main idea is important – tell the reader why s/he should care and keep reading. Your goal is to create a compelling, clear, and convincing essay people will want to read and act upon 3. State your thesis/claim – compose a sentence or two stating the position you will support with logos (sound reasoning: induction, deduction), pathos (balanced emotional appeal), and ethos (author credibility). For exploratory essays, your primary research question would replace your thesis statement so the audience understands why you began your inquiry. An overview of the types of sources you explored might follow your research question. If your argument paper is long, you may want to forecast how you will support your thesis by outlining the structure of your paper, the sources you will consider, and the opposition to your position. Your forecast could read something like this: First, I will define key terms for my argument, and then I will provide some background of the situation. Next I will outline the important positions of the argument and explain why I support one of these positions. Lastly, I will consider opposing positions and discuss why these positions are outdated. I will conclude with some ideas for taking action and possible directions for future research. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 13 This is a very general example, but by adding some details on your specific topic, this forecast will effectively outline the structure of your paper so your readers can more easily follow your ideas. Thesis Checklist Your thesis is more than a general statement about your main idea. It needs to establish a clear position you will support with balanced proofs (logos, pathos, ethos). Use the checklist below to help you create a thesis. This section is adapted from Writing with a Thesis: A Rhetoric Reader by David Skwire and Sarah Skwire: Make sure you avoid the following when creating your thesis: • • • • • A thesis is not a title: Homes and schools (title) vs. Parents ought to participate more in the education of their children (good thesis). A thesis is not an announcement of the subject: My subject is the incompetence of the Supreme Court vs. The Supreme Court made a mistake when it ruled in favor of George W. Bush in the 2000 election. A thesis is not a statement of absolute fact: Jane Austen is the author of Pride and Prejudice. A thesis is not the whole essay: A thesis is your main idea/claim/refutation/problemsolution expressed in a single sentence or a combination of sentences. Please note that according to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth Edition, "A thesis statement is a single sentence that formulates both your topic and your point of view" (Gibaldi 56). However, if your paper is more complex and requires a thesis statement, your thesis may require a combination of sentences. Make sure you follow these guidelines when creating your thesis: • • • A good thesis is unified: Detective stories are not a high form of literature, but people have always been fascinated by them, and many fine writers have experimented with them (floppy). vs. Detective stories appeal to the basic human desire for thrills (concise). A good thesis is specific: The Great Depression was a major economic crisis in the United States. vs. The Great Depression changed the role of the federal government with regard to economic management in the United States Try to be as specific as possible (without providing too much detail) when creating your thesis Quick Checklist: _____ The thesis/claim follows the guidelines outlined above _____ The thesis/claim matches the requirements and goals of the assignment Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook _____ The thesis/claim is clear and easily recognizable _____ The thesis/claim seems supportable by good reasoning/data, emotional appeal 2-3,4) Body Paragraphs: Moving from General to Specific Information Your paper should be organized in a manner that moves from general to specific information. Every time you begin a new subject, think of an inverted pyramid - the broadest range of information sits at the top, and as the paragraph or paper progresses, the author becomes more and more focused on the argument ending with specific, detailed evidence supporting a claim. Lastly, the author explains how and why the information she has just provided connects to and supports her thesis (a brief wrap up or warrant). Image Caption: Moving from General to Specific Information The four elements of a good paragraph (TTEB) A good paragraph should contain at least the following four elements: Transition, Topic sentence, specific Evidence and analysis, and a Brief wrap-up sentence (also known as a warrant) – TTEB! 1. A Transition sentence leading in from a previous paragraph to assure smooth reading. This acts as a hand off from one idea to the next. (end of previous paragraph) 2. A Topic sentence that tells the reader what you will be discussing in the paragraph. 3. Specific Evidence and analysis that supports one of your claims and that provides a deeper level of detail than your topic sentence. 14 Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 15 4. A Brief wrap-up sentence that tells the reader how and why this information supports the paper’s thesis. The brief wrap-up is also known as the warrant. The warrant is important to your argument because it connects your reasoning and support to your thesis, and it shows that the information in the paragraph is related to your thesis and helps defend it. Supporting evidence (induction and deduction) Induction Induction is the type of reasoning that moves from specific facts to a general conclusion. When you use induction in your paper, you will state your thesis (which is actually the conclusion you have come to after looking at all the facts) and then support your thesis with the facts. The following is an example of induction taken from Dorothy U. Seyler’s Understanding Argument: Facts: There is the dead body of Smith. Smith was shot in his bedroom between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m., according to the coroner. Smith was shot with a .32 caliber pistol. The pistol left in the bedroom contains Jones’s fingerprints. Jones was seen, by a neighbor, entering the Smith home at around 11:00 p.m. the night of Smith’s death. A coworker heard Smith and Jones arguing in Smith’s office the morning of the day Smith died. Conclusion: Jones killed Smith. Here, then, is the example in bullet form: • • • Conclusion: Jones killed Smith Support: Smith was shot by Jones’ gun, Jones was seen entering the scene of the crime, Jones and Smith argued earlier in the day Smith died. Assumption: The facts are representative, not isolated incidents, and thus reveal a trend, justifying the conclusion drawn. Deduction When you use deduction in an argument, you begin with general premises and move to a specific conclusion. There is a precise pattern you must use when you reason deductively. This pattern is called syllogistic reasoning (the syllogism). Syllogistic reasoning (deduction) is organized in three steps: 1. Major premise 2. Minor premise 3. Conclusion Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 16 In order for the syllogism (deduction) to work, you must accept that the relationship of the two premises lead, logically, to the conclusion. Here are two examples of deduction or syllogistic reasoning: Socrates 1. Major premise: All men are mortal. 2. Minor premise: Socrates is a man. 3. Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. Lincoln 1. Major premise: People who perform with courage and clear purpose in a crisis are great leaders. 2. Minor premise: Lincoln was a person who performed with courage and a clear purpose in a crisis. 3. Conclusion: Lincoln was a great leader. So in order for deduction to work in the example involving Socrates, you must agree that 1) all men are mortal (they all die); and 2) Socrates is a man. If you disagree with either of these premises, the conclusion is invalid. The example using Socrates isn’t so difficult to validate. But when you move into more murky water (when you use terms such as courage, clear purpose, and great), the connections get tenuous. For example, some historians might argue that Lincoln didn’t really shine until a few years into the Civil War, after many Union losses to Southern leaders such as Robert E. Lee. The following is a more clear example of deduction gone awry: 1. Major premise: All dogs make good pets. 2. Minor premise: Doogle is a dog. 3. Conclusion: Doogle will make a good pet. If you don’t agree that all dogs make good pets, then the conclusion that Doogle will make a good pet is invalid. Enthymemes When a premise in a syllogism is missing, the syllogism becomes an enthymeme. Enthymemes can be very effective in argument, but they can also be unethical and lead to invalid conclusions. Authors often use enthymemes to persuade audiences. The following is an example of an enthymeme: If you have a plasma TV, you are not poor. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 17 The first part of the enthymeme (If you have a plasma TV) is the stated premise. The second part of the statement (you are not poor) is the conclusion. So the unstated premise is “Only rich people have plasma TVs.” The enthymeme above leads us to an invalid conclusion (people who own plasma TVs are not poor) because there are plenty of people who own plasma TVs who are poor. Let’s look at this enthymeme in a syllogistic structure: • • • Major premise: People who own plasma TVs are rich (unstated above). Minor premise: You own a plasma TV. Conclusion: You are not poor. To help you understand how induction and deduction can work together to form a solid argument, you may want to look at the American Declaration of Independence. The first section of the Declaration contains a series of syllogisms, while the middle section is an inductive list of examples. The final section brings the first and second sections together in a compelling conclusion. 4) Rebuttal Sections In order to present a fair and convincing message, you may need to anticipate, research, and outline some of the common positions (arguments) that dispute your thesis. If the situation (purpose) calls for you to do this, you will present and then refute these other positions in the rebuttal section of your essay. It is important to consider other positions because in most cases, your primary audience will be fence-sitters. Fence-sitters are people who have not decided which side of the argument to support. People who are on your side of the argument will not need a lot of information to align with your position. People who are completely against your argument - perhaps for ethical or religious reasons - will probably never align with your position no matter how much information you provide. Therefore, the audience you should consider most important are those people who haven't decided which side of the argument they will support - the fence-sitters. In many cases, these fence-sitters have not decided which side to align with because they see value in both positions. Therefore, to not consider opposing positions to your own in a fair manner may alienate fence-sitters when they see that you are not addressing their concerns or discussion opposing positions at all. Organizing your rebuttal section Following the TTEB method outlined in the Body Paragraph section, forecast all the information that will follow in the rebuttal section and then move point by point through the other positions addressing each one as you go. The outline below, adapted from Seyler's Understanding Argument, is an example of a rebuttal section from a thesis essay. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 18 When you rebut or refute an opposing position, use the following three-part organization: The opponent’s argument – Usually, you should not assume that your reader has read or remembered the argument you are refuting. Thus at the beginning of your paragraph, you need to state, accurately and fairly, the main points of the argument you will refute. Your position – Next, make clear the nature of your disagreement with the argument or position you are refuting. Your position might assert, for example, that a writer has not proved his assertion because he has provided evidence that is outdated, or that the argument is filled with fallacies. Your refutation – The specifics of your counterargument will depend upon the nature of your disagreement. If you challenge the writer’s evidence, then you must present the more recent evidence. If you challenge assumptions, then you must explain why they do not hold up. If your position is that the piece is filled with fallacies, then you must present and explain each fallacy. 5) Conclusions Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper: In a general way, • • • • restate your topic and why it is important, restate your thesis/claim, address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position, call for action or overview future research possibilities. Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message. The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers: 1. Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction). 2. Tell them (body). 3. Tell them what you told them (conclusion) Source: Purdue Online Writing Lab < http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl > Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 19 V) Internal Assessment-Historical Investigation • • • See Appendix E for Historical Investigation FAQ Historical Investigations must be written following the Chicago Manual of Style, examples of footnotes and bibliography entries can be found at the website below. o < http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html > Footnotes WHY CITATIONS? • To acknowledge your dependence on another person's ideas or words, and to distinguish clearly your own work from that of your sources. • To receive credit for the research you have done on a project, whether or not you directly quote or borrow from your sources. • To establish the credibility and authority of your knowledge and ideas. • To place your own ideas in context, locating your work in the larger intellectual conversation about your topic. • To permit your reader to pursue your topic further by reading more about it. • To permit your reader to check on your use of the source material. WHY FOOTNOTES? There are various styles of citations. Historians usually make use of the Chicago Style (see below for samples). We use this style because of: • • quick access (the information is there at the bottom of the page vs. endnotes where you have to keep flipping to the end) elaboration (allows you to further develop select points that would take you away from the main narrative). The MLA style, for example, does not allow for this tangential discussion. WHAT NOT TO FOOTNOTE. It is not necessary to footnote what is referred to as "common knowledge." Succinctly, if you can find it in the World Book Encyclopedia, then it is common knowledge. WHAT SHOULD YOU FOOTNOTE. There are five basic rules that apply to all disciplines and should guide your own citation practice. Even more fundamental, however, is this general rule: when in doubt whether or not to cite a source, do it. You will certainly never find yourself in trouble if you acknowledge a source when it is not absolutely necessary; it is always preferable to err on the side of caution and completeness. Better still, if you are unsure about whether or not to cite a source, ask your professor or preceptor for guidance before submitting the paper. 1. Direct Quotation. Any verbatim use of the text of a source, no matter how large or small the quotation, must be clearly acknowledged. Direct quotations must be placed in quotation marks or, if longer than three lines, clearly indented beyond the regular margin. The quotation must be accompanied, either within the text or in a footnote, by a precise indication of the source, identifying the author, title, and page numbers. Even if you use only a short phrase, or even one key word, you must use quotation marks in order to set off the borrowed language from your own, and cite the source. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 20 2. Paraphrase. If you restate another person’s thoughts or ideas in your own words, you are paraphrasing. Paraphrasing does not relieve you of the responsibility to cite your source. You should never paraphrase in the effort to disguise someone else’s ideas as your own. If another author’s idea is particularly well put, quote it verbatim and use quotation marks to distinguish his or her words from your own. Paraphrase your source if you can restate the idea more clearly or simply, or if you want to place the idea in the flow of your own thoughts. If you paraphrase your source, you do not need to use quotation marks. However, you still do need to cite the source, either in your text or a footnote. You may even want to acknowledge your source in your own text ("Albert Einstein believed that…"). In such cases, you still need a footnote. 3. Summary. Summarizing is a looser form of paraphrasing. Typically, you may not follow your source as closely, rephrasing the actual sentences, but instead you may condense and rearrange the ideas in your source. Summarizing the ideas, arguments, or conclusions you find in your sources is perfectly acceptable; in fact, summary is an important tool of the scholar. Once again, however, it is vital to acknowledge your source -- perhaps with a footnote at the end of your paragraph. Taking good notes while doing your research will help you keep straight which ideas belong to which author, which is especially important if you are reviewing a series of interpretations or ideas on your subject. 4. Facts, Information, and Data. Often you will want to use facts or information you have found in your sources to support your own argument. Certainly, if the information can be found exclusively in the source you use, you must clearly acknowledge that source. For example, if you use data from a particular scientific experiment conducted and reported by a researcher, you must cite your source, probably a scientific journal or a Web site. Or if you use a piece of information discovered by another scholar in the course of his or her own research, you must acknowledge your source. Or perhaps you may find two conflicting pieces of information in your reading -- for example, two different estimates of the casualties in a natural catastrophe. Again, in such cases, be sure to cite your sources. Information, however, is different from an idea. Whereas you must always acknowledge use of other people’s ideas (their conclusions or interpretations based on available information), you may not always have to acknowledge the source of information itself. You do not have to cite a source for a fact or a piece of information that is generally known and accepted -- for example, that Woodrow Wilson served as president of both Princeton University and the United States, or that Avogadro’s number is 6.02 x 1023. Often, however, deciding which information requires citation and which does not is not so straightforward. Refer to the later section in this booklet, Not-So-Common Knowledge, for more discussion of this question. 5. Supplementary Information. Occasionally, especially in a longer research paper, you may not be able to include all of the information or ideas from your research in the body of your own paper. In such cases, you may want to insert a note offering supplementary information rather than simply providing basic bibliographic information (author, title, date and place of publication, and page numbers). In such footnotes or endnotes, you might provide additional data to bolster your argument, or briefly present a alternative idea that you found in one of your sources, or even list two of three additional articles on some topic that your reader might find of interest. Such notes demonstrate the breadth and depth of your research, and permit you to Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 21 include germane, but not essential, information or concepts without interrupting the flow of your own paper. In all of these cases, proper citation requires that you indicate the source of any material immediately after its use in your paper. For direct quotations, the footnote (which may be a traditional footnote or the author’s name and page number in parenthesis) immediately follows the closing quotation marks; for a specific piece of information, the footnote should be placed as close as possible; for a paraphrase or a summary, the footnote may come at the end of the sentence or paragraph. Simply listing a source in your bibliography is not adequate acknowledgment for specific use of that source in your paper. For international students, it is especially important to review and understand the citation standards and expectations for institutions of higher learning in the United States. AUTOMATIC FOOTNOTE INSERTION. Inserting footnotes is quite easy using current computer software programs. For example, in Microsoft Word you click on the "Insert" link on the top menu bar and then in the pop-up menu you have "footnote" as a selection and you click there. Type footnote in your program's help section for specifics. The number automatically comes up and now you just type in the data following the examples below and the program automatically inserts it at the bottom of your page. QUALITY OF RESEARCH. You will be evaluated on the quality of your selected sources. A batch of websites is not very impressive; traditional books and articles [on the shelves in libraries] are recommended. Again, DO NOT simply rely on Internet sources. Note that the minimum number of footnotes does not mean that you need that many different sources; some of course can be repeated and others used. FOOTNOTE SAMPLES. There are various ways that your work can be documented/cited and you probably learned one or more ways of doing this for another class. Historians prefer the Chicago style and we will utilize that format in this paper assignment. A footnote number should come at the end of the sentence. Sometimes, you might want to combine several footnotes together at the end of a paragraph. Please follow these guidelines as you reference your sources at the bottom of the page: • IF A BOOK: author, title, city and publisher, page number. For example: Ronald T. Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Alfred Knopf Publ., 1979): 2. • IF AN ARTICLE: author, title, journal title, volume and page number. For example: Ronald T. Takaki, “Within the ‘Bowels’ of the Republic,” Journal of History Vol XX, No. 5: 4. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook • IF AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OR DICTIONARY: Title, edition and term. For example: Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “Evolution.” • FOR A WEBSITE: Title of site, website address. For example: “Thomas Jefferson on Slavery” in Afro-American Almanac, http://www.toptags.com/aama/voices/commentary/jeff.htm (25 March 2001). 22 Source: http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/pages/citing.html VI) PowerPoint/Roundtable Throughout the year you will be required to produce and PowerPoint presentation to augment a roundtable discussion in which you teach on a specific topic. PowerPoint Guidelines • PowerPoints must be at least 10-15 slides, including: o Title slide o Topic/thesis slide o Bibliography slide • Presentation must include at least 5 high quality images, graphics, maps, etc. • Presentations must include at least 2 relevant quotes. • Slides must include footnotes (10 point font) • Visually appealing, professional quality o Contrast between background and font o Easy to read fonts. Headings 32-44 pt, Body 20-26 pt o Limited animation o Appropriate sound or music Roundtable Guidelines • You are to direct a class discussion of your topic. You are the teacher o Above all, be knowledgeable on your topic o Lead discussion (don’t just lecture), encourage questions o Provide handouts or note outlines Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 23 VII ) Evaluating Websites as Sources General search engines are not as comprehensive as they may seem. Also, they use mechanical and commercial means to set and apply their priorities and criteria. Rather than a search engine, you can use a directory. Directories are searched in the same way as search engines, and often offer special search features such as classifications and controlled vocabulary. Most importantly, directories are built by human reviewers of the listed sites. Though your searches will give you smaller sets of results, you will find few if any sites in your results that can't meet minimum standards. Directories • • • • INFOMINE. http://infomine.ucr.edu/ Librarians' Internet Index. http://lii.org/ The WWW Virtual Library. Use http://vlib.iue.it/history/index.html to go directly to the WWW-VL History Central Catalogue site which can be searched, or can be browsed by topic, country or eras. A more complete list of directories is available at SUNY Albany Libraries http://www.internettutorials.net/subject.html . This site also includes tutorials and other guides to using the Internet. Four Main Criteria for Evaluating Websites as Sources • • • • Useful or Relevant. Does the site present information about your topic, and can the site tell you something new about your topic? Timely. Does the site include a date of posting or most recent update? Obviously whatever happened in the past will not change, but what we know and think about it does change. Also, recent updates to a site indicate that someone cares about the site, and absence of a date indicates an unprofessional attitude. Appropriate. Who appears to be the target audience for the site? Is it a scholarly or general audience? How does that audience overlap with your own target audience? Authoritative. Who wrote or takes responsibility for the information on the site? How do they know what they claim to know? Is contact information available on the site? o Methodology. Do they cite sources? Do they explain the process for any research they report? Do they present clear and sound logic in their arguments? Do they have a bias, and what difference does that bias make? o Expertise. Do the author or authors present relevant credentials? Do they have education or experience that is relevant to the topic? Have they written other materials on the topic? o Review. Is there a reputable agency supporting the site? University? Association? Museum? Library? Has the site been included in a directory or in links from other sites? Has the site been reviewed? Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 24 On Wikipedia and Other Encyclopedic Sources Wikipedia is a perfectly good source, depending on what you want to use it for. Its main problem is the uneven editing. Its biggest assets are the lists of references and external links that appear at the end of most entries. Wikipedia’s Self-assessment as a source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:About#Using_Wikipedia_as_a_research_tool> Source: Jim Nichols, History Librarian, Penfield Library, SUNY Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 25 Appendix A: Roundtable/PowerPoint Rubric Name _____________________________________________ Date ____________________ Topic ______________________________________________________________________ Deadline Excellent 5 (17+) on time Good Average Below Avg. 4 3 2 (14-16) (11-13) (8-10) not completely ready at deadline Poor 1 (7-) 1 day late Handouts Format Visual Quality Images Sources Beyond class sources textbooks none Cited Content Introduction Purpose/Goals Clearly stated Not stated Analysis Thorough analysis No factual errors No analysis Facts Few factual error Significant errors Roundtable Final Score Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 26 Appendix B: Rubric for PowerPoint Presentations Name__________________________________________Topic _______________________________ CATEGORY Background Font Choice/ Formatting Use of Graphics Spelling and Grammar Citations ContentAccuracy Effectiveness Presentation 4 Background does not detract from text or other graphics. Choice of background is appropriate for project. 3 Background does not detract from text or other graphics. Choice of background could have been better suited for the project. 2 Background does not detract from text or other graphics. Choice of background does not fit project. 1 Background makes it difficult to see text or competes with other graphics on the page. Font formats (e.g., color, bold, italic) have been carefully planned to enhance readability and content. All graphics are attractive (size and colors) and support the theme/content of the presentation. Captions/cited Font formats have been adequately planned to enhance readability. Font formatting have been planned to complement the content. It may be a little hard to read. Font formatting makes it difficult to read the material A few graphics are not attractive but all support the theme/content of the presentation. Captions/cited All graphics are attractive but a few do not seem to support the theme/content of the presentation. Captions or citations Graphics are unattractive & detract from the content of the presentation. No captions or citations Presentation has no misspellings or grammatical errors. Presentation has 1-2 misspellings, but no grammatical errors. Presentation has 12 grammatical errors but no misspellings. Presentation has more than 2 grammatical and/or spelling errors. 8 Correctly applied intext citations or works cited for all relevant material 6 Includes in-text citations or works cited for most of the relevant material 4 Includes in-text citations or works cited 2 Relevant material is not cited All content throughout the presentation is accurate. There are no factual errors Most of the content is accurate but there is one-piece information that might be inaccurate. Content is typically confusing or contains more than several factual errors. Project includes all material needed to gain a comfortable understanding of the topic chosen. Project includes most material needed to gain a comfortable understanding of the topic chosen. The content is generally accurate, but one piece of the information is clearly flawed or inaccurate. Project is missing more than two key elements. Student presented the material with confidence. Student presented material but could have been more confident. Student had many difficulties presenting materials. Student was unable to present material before the class. Project is lacking several key elements and has inaccuracies. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 27 Appendix C: IB History of the Americas: Mark Bands for Essays IB Rating 16 – 20 (7) Point Rating Criteria A: 94-100 Excellent Performance 1. demonstrates critical thinking (conceptual awareness, insight, and knowledge) 2. logically structured and provides appropriate examples 3. precise use of terminology which is specific to the subject. 4. demonstrates a familiarity with the literature of the subject 5. analyzes and evaluates evidence. 6. synthesizes knowledge and concepts 7. demonstrates and awareness of alternate points of view and subjective and ideological biases 13 – 15 (6) B+: 90-93 1. 2. 3. 4. 10 – 12 (5) B: 84-89 1. 2. 3. 4. 8 – 9 (4) C+: 80-83 Satisfactory Performance C: 74-79 1. demonstrates a secure knowledge and understanding of the subject 2. some ability to structure an answer but with insufficient clarity 3. demonstrates and ability to express knowledge and understanding in terminology specific to the subject 4. some understanding of the way facts and ideas may be related 5. demonstrates and ability to develop ideas and substantiate assertions 6. descriptive in nature Very Good Performance demonstrates detailed knowledge and understanding coherent, logically structured, and well developed consistent use of appropriate terminology demonstrates the ability to analyze evaluate and synthesize knowledge and concepts 5. demonstrates knowledge of relevant research, theories and issues 6. awareness of different perspectives Good Performance demonstrates a sound knowledge and understanding of the subject uses subject-specific terminology logically structured and coherent but not fully developed a competent answer with some attempt to integrate knowledge and concepts 5. presents and develops contrasting points of view 6. more descriptive than evaluative Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 28 6 – 7 (3) D+: 70-73 1. 2. 3. 4. Mediocre Performance demonstrates some knowledge and understanding of the subject a basic sense of structure that is not sustained throughout the answer a basic use of terminology appropriate to the subject some ability to establish links between facts and ideas 4 – 5 (2) D: 64-69 1. 2. 3. 4. Poor Performance demonstrates a limited knowledge and understanding of the subject some sense of structure limited use of appropriate terminology limited ability to establish links between facts and ideas 0 – 3 (1) F: 0-63 Very Poor Performance demonstrates very limited knowledge and understanding of the subject almost no organizational structure inappropriate or inadequate use of terminology limited ability to comprehend data or to solve problems 1. 2. 3. 4. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 29 Appendix D: Historical Investigation Rubric Name______________________________________________________________________ Topic_______________________________________________________________________ Format • Cover • Page number • Word counts • Font • Margins Criterion A: Plan of Investigation Marks Comments 0 There is no plan of the investigation or it is inappropriate. 1 The scope and plan of the investigation are generally appropriate but not clearly focused. 2 The scope and plan of the investigation are entirely appropriate and clearly focused. Criterion B: Summary of Evidence Marks Comments 0 There is no evidence. 1-2 The investigation has been poorly researched and insufficient evidence has been produced which is not always referenced. 3-4 The investigation has been adequately researched and some supporting evidence has been produced and referenced. 5 The investigation has been well researched and good supporting evidence has been produced which is correctly referenced. Criterion C: Evaluation of Sources Marks Comments 0 There is no description or evaluation of sources. 1 Sources are described but there is no reference to their origin, purpose, value and limitation. 2-3 The evaluation of sources is generally appropriate and adequate but reference to their origin, purpose, value and limitation, is limited. 4 The evaluation of sources is thorough and there is appropriate reference to their origin, purpose, value, and limitation. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook Criterion D: Analysis Marks Comments 0 There is no analysis. 1-2 There is some attempt at analyzing the evidence and the importance of the investigation in its historical context. 3-4 There is analysis of both the evidence and the importance of the investigation in its historical context. Where appropriate, different interpretations are considered. 5 There is critical analysis of the evidence and the importance of the investigation in its historical context. Where appropriate, different interpretations are analyzed. Criterion E: Conclusion Marks Comments 0 There is no conclusion. 1 The conclusion is not entirely consistent with the evidence presented. 2 The conclusion is clearly stated and consistent with the evidence presented. Criterion F: Sources and Word Limit Comments Marks 0 A list of sources is not included and/or the investigation is not within the word limit. 1 A list of sources is included but it is incomplete, or one standard method of listing sources is not used consistently. The investigation is within the word limit. 2 A comprehensive list of all sources is included, using one standard method of listing sources consistently. The investigation is within the word limit. Total Marks: 30 Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 31 Appendix E: History Internal Assessment FAQ What is an historical investigation? It is a written account of between 1,500 and 2,000 words, divided into six sections: a plan of the investigation, a summary of evidence, an evaluation of sources, an analysis, a conclusion, and a bibliography or list of sources. The investigation must be a written piece and should be the work of the individual student. Group work is not permitted. Who needs to produce an historical investigation? All higher level (HL) and standard level (SL) history students must write an investigation for internal assessment. How many words should there be in each section? This is not prescribed but one suggestion is: A 100–150, B 500–600, C 250–400, D 500–650, E 150–200. The total number of words in the investigation must be between 1,500 and 2,000. How many marks is the investigation worth? It is marked out of 25 for both SL and HL and is worth 25% of the final assessment at SL and 20% at HL. When do students work on the investigation? Timing is up to the teacher, but it is advisable to start the investigation at least three months before the date that samples for the May and November sessions have to be with the moderators. DHS students will work on a draft of their IA in the second semester of their 11th grade year. Final drafts will be turned in around September of their 12th grade year. What can the investigation be about? The investigation can consider any genuine historical topic regardless of whether or not it is part of the IB Diploma Programme history syllabus. Teachers should approve all topics. What should the teacher do? 1. Explain how the internal assessment works. Students should be given a copy of the instructions for the historical investigation from the “Internal assessment” section of the guide. 2. Set a timetable for the different stages, for example, choosing the topic, first draft, and final version. 3. Discuss topics and advise students to change unsuitable topics. 4. Guide students in the selection of appropriate and available sources. 5. Give guidance on how to tackle the exercise, emphasizing in particular the importance of a well-defined research question, gathering evidence, the use and evaluation of sources, analysis, and the use of a standard system for references and the bibliography. 6. Read the students’ first drafts (this can be done in sections) and advise them how their work could be improved, but do not annotate the written draft heavily. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 32 7. Check the authenticity of the student’s draft to confirm that, to the best of your knowledge, it is indeed the work of the student. If malpractice, such as plagiarism or collusion, is identified before the coversheet has been signed by both the teacher and the student, the issue must be resolved within the school. For further details about academic honesty refer to the Handbook of procedures for the Diploma Programme and the IB publication Academic honesty available on the OCC. 8. Mark and comment on all internal assessment work according to the criteria in the guide. 9. Make copies of internal assessment pieces selected for the sample to be sent to the moderator. 10. Ensure that you have signed forms 3CS and 3IA. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 33 Appendix F: Glossary of Command Terms Candidates should be familiar with the following key terms and phrases used in examination questions. Although these terms are used frequently in examination questions, other terms may be used to ask candidates to present an answer in a specific way. account for Asks candidates to explain a particular happening or outcome. Candidates are expected to present a reasoned case for the existence of something. For example: In 1970 the President Nixon authorized the CIA to carry out covert operations aimed at deposing the popularly elected president of Chile. Account for this decision. analyse Asks candidates to respond with a closely argued and detailed examination of a perspective or a development. A clearly written analysis will indicate the relevant interrelationships between key variables, any relevant assumptions involved and also include a critical view of the significance of the account as presented. If this key word is augmented by "the extent to which" then the candidate should be clear that judgment is also sought. For example: Analyse the political and economic changes caused by the Depression in one country of the region. assess Asks candidates to measure and judge the merits and quality of an argument or concept. Candidates must clearly identify and explain the evidence for the assessment they make. For example: “The Great Depression changed government’s views of their role and responsibility.” Assess the validity of this statement with examples taken from two countries in the region. compare/compare and contrast Asks candidates to describe two situations and present the similarities and differences between them. On its own, a description of the two situations does not meet the requirements of this key word. For example: Compare and contrast the Cold War Policies of Truman (‘45-’53) and Eisenhower (‘53-’61). define Asks candidates to give a clear and precise account of a given word or term. Do not use a word to define itself. For example: Define the term "success ethic" with regard to the depression era. describe Asks candidates to give a portrayal of a given situation. It is a neutral request to present a detailed picture of a given situation, event, pattern, process or outcome, although it may be followed by a further opportunity for discussion and analysis. For example: Describe how the events of the Great Depression brought about economic changes in Latin America. Dollison: IB History of the Americas, Skills Handbook 34 discuss/consider Asks candidates to consider a statement or to offer a considered review or balanced discussion of a particular topic. If the question is presented in the form of a quotation, the specific purpose is to stimulate a discussion on each of its parts. The question is asking for the candidate's opinions; these should be presented clearly and supported with as much empirical evidence and sound argument as possible. For example: Discuss how the outcome of Second World War, in part, caused the Cold War. distinguish Asks candidates to demonstrate a clear understanding of similar terms. For example: Distinguish between the goals of the First and Second New Deal. evaluate Asks candidates to make an appraisal of the argument or concept under investigation or discussion. Candidates should weigh the nature of the evidence available, and identify and discuss the convincing aspects of the argument, as well as its limitations and implications. For example: Evaluate President Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima in 1945. examine Asks candidates to investigate an argument or concept and present their own analysis. Candidates should approach the question in a critical and detailed way which uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue. For example: Examine the influence of Kennan’s “long telegram” on the U.S policy of containment. explain Asks candidates to describe clearly, make intelligible and give reasons for a concept, process, relationship or development. For example: Explain why the United States become involved in the Second World War? identify Asks candidates to recognize one or more component parts or processes. For example: Identify significant treaties between the United States and the Soviet Union designed to slow nuclear proliferation . outline Asks candidates to write a brief summary of the major aspects of the issue, principle, approach or argument stated in the question. For example: Outline the causes and course of the Korean War. to what extent? Asks candidates to evaluate the success or otherwise of one argument or concept over another. Candidates should present a conclusion, supported by arguments. For example: “The Vietnam War had a disastrous effect on the presidencies of Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
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