Title How to support elementary teachers in implementing ICT Author(s) Lee, Wingyan, Maggie.;

How to support elementary teachers in implementing ICT
Lee, Wingyan, Maggie.; 李詠恩.
Issue Date
The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent
rights) and the right to use in future works.
Title: How to support elementary teachers in implementing ICT
Name: M2ggie Wingyan Lee
Student number: 2001977858
Date: August 21, 2003
Dissertation presented a part fulfillment ofthe requirements ofthe degree ofMaster of
Education, the University ofHong Kong
I hereby declare this dissertation represents my own work and that it has not been
previously submitted to this University or any other institution in application for
admission to a degree, diploma or other qualifications.
/C- August 2003
This dissertation is dedicated to two very special people. One is to my loving
husband Garfield, who supported me in every way possible throughout this entire
venture. Second, is to my supervisor Dr. Sue Trinidad, who was attentive and supportive
of me and provided invaluable help well beyond her expected role. Without these two
people this research wou'd not have been as successful.
As technology is continuously advancing, schools need to sustain an environment
where change is the norm, and teachers are prepared to use ICT. It is important to find an
answer to this problem: as many students are entering the work force with knowledge that
is not ftilly preparing them for the technological world. We must quickly prepare our
teachers to prepare our student for the dynamic world, in which ICT plays a major role.
This will help the students' future and society by producing technological competent
Given that this is an investigation performed in a specific context, a Hong Kong
International school, the researcher provides the readers with insights on how to support
reluctant teachers. The research is a case study that used a questionnaire to investigate I 3
teacher's usage of ICT. Through this data the teachers were classified into five stages of
ICT implementation.
Once categorized into stages, seven teachers were interviewed.
The five stage used to classify teachers were inaction, investigation, application.
integration, and transformation (Newhouse, Trinidad & Clarkson, 2002). The main focus
areas were teacher's attitudes and beliefs, collaboration issues, problems of ICT
implementation, and support teachers require. It was found that 12 out ofthe 13 teachers
had a basic ICI competency but were not all using ICT for teaching. Finding the stages
teacher s are in was significant to this research, as the findings have helped identify why
teachers are in these stages and what they need to work on to help move them onto the
next stage. From the interviews it was found that the seven teachers interviewed agreed
that the school must took at the current situation and plan as to how to develop a better
ICT program To achieve this, some suggestions were given such as technical support.
proper computer lab environment, sufficient equipment, software that meets the learner's
needs, professional development and a clear curriculum plan for the school is needed to
successfully help teachers to move to the next level of ICI implementation and use
within this school.
A bstract
Statement ofFroblem
Background of Hong Kong
The Significance ofthe Research
I .4
The Research Question
I .5
Overview ofthe Dissertation
Literature Review
2. 1
History ofTechnology in Education
Positive Impact of ICI in Education
How Leaders are Supporting Teachers in using ICT
The Need for ICT Coordinators
SchoolCulture ................................................................................................... 14
The School's History ................................................................................. 15
Norms ........................................................................................................ 15
Values ........................................................................................................ 16
Assumptions .............................................................................................. 16
Impact of ICT on Teachers ................................................................................ 17
Factors that Affects Teacher's Readiness for Change ............................... 18
Lack ofResources ..................................................................................... 19
Impacts ofICT on Teacher's Pedagogy .................................................... 21
Impact From Students........................................................................................ 23
Teacher's Role ................................................................................................... 27
The Human's Learning Process ......................................................................... 28
2.10 The Changing Roles .......................................................................................... 30
2. 1 1
Why are teachers reluctant users ....................................................................... 35
Definingreluctant ...................................................................................... 35
2.1 1.2
Why Teachers are Reluctant in using ICT? ............................................... 35
2.1 1.3
Teacher's Emotional Aspect Towards ICT ............................................... 36
2.12 Preservice Programs and Professional Development ........................................ 37
2. 1 3
Who Can Help Support Reluctant Teachers...................................................... 38
2.14 How to Support Reluctant Teachers .................................................................. 40
AdoptingiCT ............................................................................................. 41
Providing Constructive Professional Development ................................... 42
Where Teachers ICT knowledge stands .................................................... 43
Verifying Teachers ICT Implementation Stages ....................................... 45
2.15 Building Learning Communities ....................................................................... 48
Collaboration and its Characteristics ......................................................... 48
2. 1 5. 1
2. 1 5.2
Framework for Learning About Collaboration .......................................... 49
The Need for Assessment .......................................................................... 51
2. 1 5.3
2.16 Literature Review Summary.............................................................................. 53
1'Iethodo1ogy ............................................................................................................. 55
Overview ........................................................................................................... 55
Methodology ...................................................................................................... 55
Research Framework
Research Questions
3 .6
Ethical Issues and Concerns
Instruments and Data Collection
Questionnaire ............................................................................................. 62
Interview .................................................................................................... 64
DataAnalysis ..................................................................................................... 65
Reliabi!ityandValidity ..................................................................................... 66
3.10 Procedure ........................................................................................................... 57
Summary ............................................................................................................ 68
Research Findings .................................................................................................... 69
School Background ............................................................................................ 69
4. 1 I
Computer Laboratory/Schedule................................................................. 70
Resources ................................................................................................... 71
School culture in regards to ICT ........................................................................ 72
Teachers background - I 3 teachers ................................................................... 74
Teachers stage in ICT usage - 7 teachers .......................................................... 78
4.4. 1
Investigation: Teacbers ICT usage ........................................................... 80
Application: Teacher's ICT usage ............................................................. 82
Integration: Teacher's ICT usage .............................................................. 83
Transformation: teacher' s ICT usage ........................................................ 83
SummaryofJCTusage .............................................................................. 85
Integrating ICT into other subjects.................................................................... 85
4.5. 1
Investigation: Integrating ICT ................................................................... 85
Application:IntegratinglCT ..................................................................... 86
Integralion: Integrating ICT....................................................................... 86
Transformation: Integrating ICT ............................................................... 87
Summary ofICT integration into other subjects ....................................... 88
Collaboration ofICT ......................................................................................... 88
Investigation: Collaboration ...................................................................... 89
Application: Collaboration ........................................................................ 89
Integration: Collaboration .......................................................................... 90
Transformation: Collaboration .................................................................. 91
Summary ofcollaboration ofICT ............................................................. 91
Support provided in ICT implementation and integration ................................. 92
4.7. 1
Investigation: Support provided ................................................................ 92
Application: Support provided .................................................................. 92
Integration: Supportprovided .................................................................... 93
Transformation: Support provided ............................................................ 93
Summary of support provided ................................................................... 93
Support required in ICT implementation and integration ................................. 94
Investigation: Support required .................................................................94
Application: Support required ...................................................................96
Integration: Support required ..................................................................... 98
Transformation: Support required ........................................................... 102
Summary of support required
Change in teaching methods
Investigation: Change in teaching methods
Application: Change in teaching methods
Integration: Change in teaching methods
Transfonnation: Cbange in teaching methods
Summary ofehange in teaching methods
4.10 SummaryofResearch.Findings
I 08
Requested Support
i I5
5.2. 1
Professional Development
I 15
Recommendations and Implications
i 16
Limitations ....................................................................................................... 119
5 .5
Future research ................................................................................................ i 19
Reflection ......................................................................................................... 121
References....................................................................................................................... 126
Appendix A - Teacher Questionnaire ......................................................................... 131
Appendix B - Teacher stage of ICT implementation ................................................. 137
Appendix C - Teacher Interviews ................................................................................ 144
1.1 Statement of Problem
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is changing the way
education is being delivered. Teachers are now forced to use ICT in their classrooms.
Teachers find it difficult to incorporate ICT into their lessons, as many of them have not
been educated in ICT usage. As teachers have not been taught how to implement ICT
into their lessons, this leads to having reluctant users of ICT. According to Merriam
Webster dictionary (2002) 'reluctant' is defined as feeling or showing aversion,
hesitation, or unwillingness. Reluctant teachers will have the characteristics of not
wanting or avoiding the use of ICT.
This research investigates how to support elementary teachers in implementing
ICT. Everyone is talking about the importance of ICT and how we all need to know the
basics of ICT to survive in the 21 century. School, a place where knowledge is being
built and Ieamed has been given the added pressure to educate students using ICT. Right
now, ICT is being thrown onto teachers regardless of their educational background.
Teachers are struggling in implementing ICT as it was imposed onto them. Teachers are
not prepared nor asked about their competency in using ICT. Hence, this leads to
reluctant users of ICT. Schools need to provide ICT support to their teachers to ensure
smoother and effective ICT implementation. This leads to the research question of this
study on how to
support elementary teachers in implementing ICT.
What can schools and support staff do to help make this adjustment easier on the
teachers? What do teachers need to help them make this transformation smooth? Before
we can focus on what students need to learn and how to prepare them for the 21 century
we need to look at the teachers. Teachers need support. We need to understand the
reason behind their reluctance they have in ICT implementation and the support they are
seeking. Can it be time, knowledge, resource, or attitude? Understanding why they are
reluctant in using JCT and supporting them will enable a smoother transition in using ICT
in schools. This way the school, teachers, and students will benefit. These questions and
assumptions guide this research.
12 Background of Hong Kong
Hong Kong is in the final year of a 5-year strategy that was implemented by the
education and manpower bureau of Hong Kong to discover and evaluate the use of ICT
in education (Education and Manpower Bureau, i 998). Hopefully their findings will help
discover best practices and new ideas in ICT integration. At the end of this study, the
ICT coordinator role will be eliminated, as the education department feels their roles are
no longer necessary, as teachers have become more ICT competent, and ICT is no longer
a new area (So, 2003). Problems with the loss ofthe ICT coordinator will arise. Their
roles and responsibilities will fall onto other people, principals and teachers. Are teacher
prepared to take on this burden? The school will lose a precious resource, and most
importantly, teachers lose a valuable source of information and support.
In light of this situation, this research hopes to identify ways in which to support
teachers, before the ICT coordinator role comes to an end. Perhaps the ICT coordinator
is not necessary, and perhaps they are a crucial element in the integration of ICT.
1.3 The Significance of the Research
The significance ofthis research is that t is applicable to other schools. As this is
au International school, it consists ofteachers with various backgrounds. Similar to other
schools, all teacher backgrounds are not identical. Teachers were trained differently.
Teachers seek help in different ways.
education is also different.
differences and others will be discovered during this research, and the strategies applied
can be used for other schools and teachers.
Another area that this school is similar to other schools is that the education is in
the transition stage of integrating ICT into schools and classrooms. Steps need to be
taken in order to make this transition a smooth one. There is much emphasis on teachers
to learn and integrate technology into their lessons.
Some teachers are excited and
prepared to undertake this daunting task, others are reluctant.
to avoid technology.
In either case, it
is difficult
We are all immersed in technology in our daily lives. The
television and radio has changed our lives. It opened an area of mass communication.
Now the computer has found its place, increasing that communication and has brought
along with it an information explosion. Information and communication technologies
(ICT) has quickly changed everyon&s daily routines. Whether a person is reluctant to
use or learn ICT, they will be affected by it in some way. Therefore teachers must
prepare students to adapt to this technological change we are all living in. n order to
prepare students though, the teachers must be prepared first.
This research hopes to identifj ways in preparing and supporting teachers in using
ICT. Ifteachers are reluctant in using ICT. students will not be educated in using ICT in
an educational context. We must quickly prepare our teachers in using and implementing
ICT. This will enable us to prepare our student for the dynamic world, in which ICT
plays a major role. This will also help prepare students' future roles by producing
technological competent users who can adapt to the changes of technology.
Hopefully, the benefits of this study will help educators understand the
importance of supporting teachers in becoming competent technological users.
forefront of education is the teachers.
They are the ones who have the first-hand
experience of what teaching and learning is all about. Administrators may have once
been teachers, but they no longer have the classroom experience of teaching with
technology. Administrators can give support, but to a limited degree. What this study
will hope to find is where support for teachers be sought from.
Teachers are expected to teach computer skills and knowledge. They are given a
'new' curriculum to teach. Some may have been prepared in their teacher program while
others may have not learned how to teach with computers. Teachers are the ones who
need to incorporate this new curriculum. When there is a strong foundation of ICT in a
school, acceptance of future technology will exist.
1.4 The Research Question
This research hopes to identify ways for teachers to implement ICI in an effective
way, where teachers are comfortable and capable of performing their educator's role
proficiently. During this research the teacher's own beliefs, attitude, perceptions of ICT
will be investigated, as these may be factors leading to their own usage of ICT. The
support of the leaders in the schools (principals and computer head) also play a role in
teachers using ICT. Throughout this research other questions will also be answered
flow does ICT affect the teacher's
teaching, knowledge, attitude, and beliefs?
2. What stage of ICI implementation are teachers in and why?
3. What kind of collaboration is there amongst teachers?
4. What problems are teachers experiencing in ICT implementation?
5. What kind of support do teachers need to enable them to implement ICT
6. What kind of support is provided to the teachers?
1.5 Overview of the Dissertation
This research investigates a group ofteachers using ICI in an international school
in Hong Kong. The methodology and data analysis provide a description ofthe processes
used by the researcher in this study.
The final chapter provides insights into what
teachers need to do to be more enthusiastic and competent in implementing ICT into their
What are some solutions and strategies to help support reluctant teachers in
implementing ICT? Recommendations are given for other schools in supporting teachers
in implementing ICT.
2 Literature Review
Teachers need support in implementing ICT, as this Is a new approach for them.
What studies have found such as teacher's current acceptance of the technology and
obstacles they have encountered are information that we can use to help with this study.
Past studies on teachers and ICT in education wIll be used to focus this study, how to
support elementary teachers with ICT implementation.
To have a clear
understanding of
technology we need to first look at the history of technology and the initiai impact it has
had on education.
2. 1 History of Technology ¡n Education
Information Communication arid Technology (ICT) was originally not looked
upon as an educational revolution.
However, society's increased use of ICT has
increased the importance of ICT in education and has impacted on our daily lives.
Reforms initiated by non-educators have demonstrated a lack of understanding of the
teacher's classroom and the pedagogical perspective. As non-educators do not have a
clear understanding ofthe educator's role and responsibilities, it is not surprising to know
that technology pressure brought into educations can lead to negative impacts on
teachers. Forcing technology into the schools leads to a negative view on teachers this is
referred to as the "teaching-bashing cycle" (Cooley & Johnston, 2000; Cuban, I 986).
This cycle begins with reformers who come up with exciting new innovations.
The innovations gain a lot of attention from society. Academies will produce studies
describing its effectiveness and leading it into the educational arena. As technology fails
to gain acceptance in the schools due to many different factors such as the pedagogical
aspect, the resource and knowledge factor. researchers will conduct research to show the
infrequent use of technology. In the final cycle teachers will be criticized for resisting
change and subverting the improvements made possible by the new technologies. An
example of this cycle was the introduction of fi!m radio, and television. These new
innovations were assured to open classrooms to the outside wor'd. The audio and visual
images that can be brought into classrooms
were effective
and good
educators were excited about bringing in television programming into their classroom.
However, slowly afterwards the desire was gone and there was little evidence that
teachers used these innovations in their classrooms. Many problems aroused monetary
matters, teacher training, teachers' attitudes, school curriculum, students' learning, and
interactivity in the classroom. At the end, all three technoLogies were used passively and
teachers were criticized for resisting change (Cuban, I 986).
Early technologies required teachers to give up control of the lesson while
presentation of the technology was running e.g. television (Kent & McNergney, I 999).
There was no interaction with the students as students were not able to ask questions and
information could not be repeated. Teachers found it difficult as the room had to be
darken for viewing purposes with sorne technology and this made behavioral control
As creators of these technologies were non-educators they did not put
technology integration into the curriculum in perspective. As well, at the beginning of
the technology development stage, the quality ofthe resource was not always good. Poor
quality of resources
led to frustrated teachers. Also, teachers found the early technology
resources (also available commercially) electronic workbooks, programmed learning
tutorials, or lecture notes recycled into PowerPoint presentations not supportive to their
pedagogy and philosophy of teaching. This type of resource was used to deliver the
content to students and teaching and learning was reduced. Teachers did not accept this
way of transmitting content from an electronic repository lo the minds of their students,
teaching and learning had to be had to put into perspective (Cuban & Woodward, 2001;
Kent & McNergney, 1999). Teachers have their own ways and mind of how teaching
and learning should be done. Since most of them had not been taught with this type of
strategy it makes it difficult for them to accept it.
This is a clear example of how ineffective it was for non-educators to bring in
leaching devices to teachers where the pedagogical aspect has not been developed. Non-
educators are providing teachers
with new resources, but
teacher's teaching practices
remain the same. Teachers did not incorporate the new resources into their lessons. As
teachers are neither prepared nor knowledgeable in using new approaches and resources
in their own lessons the old traditional teaching method was continued. However, as
society advances in the creation of technology a lot of the issues mentioned earlier can be
further investigated and bring a more positive impact into education.
22 Positive Impact of ICT ¡n Education
Since the development ofICT, many researchers have conducted studies to prove
the positive impact ICT has in education. Cooley & Johnston (2000) states that ICT
ethances teaching and learning, and offers exciting curricula based on practical problems
of students' learning.
ICT can provide scaffolds and tools to enhance learning; give
students and teachers more opportunities for feedback, reflection, and revision; build
local and global communities; and expand opportunities for teacher learning. Knowing
all these positive impacts JCT has in education, educators should be welcoming ICT into
their classrooms.
Bates (2000, p. 8) states three reasons of why there needs to be a change in
education with ICT:
The need to do more with less: Increase in class sizes but funding remains the
The changing learning needs ofsociely: To prepare students for the workforce
there will be a need to teach students the ICT skills that will be required.
The impact ofnew technologies on teaching and learning: A learner's context
needs to enable people to work alone, collaboratively, and in different areas.
Teachers need to use technology to replace the traditional methods and thus
making it more relevant for teaching and learning.
It is no longer a question of whether technology should be integrated into the education
system. Non-educators entice society with technology and society pressures educators in
using ICT. Society tells us that students need to be technologically educated for the real
world. "Parents want schools to equip their children with the knowledge and skills that
will give them an edge to climb up the socioeconomic ladder to financial and social
success" (Cuban & Woodward, 2001, p. 128). Society is pressuring schools to provide
JCT in the curricula, as they know it will be essential for their children to survive in the
century. Teachers are compelled to use technology due to the pressures from society
and the educational factors.
Are teachers ready for this?
Before we look into the
teachers as the prime educators for the students we have to look at the school and the
leaders who bring changes to education. I-low are the leaders supporting their teachers
with the change of implementing technology into schools?
22 How Leaders are Supporting Teachers in using ICT?
As society places pressure on
schools the school leaders have to react to this
pressure. The word leaders used in this context are referred to as the principal and ICT
coordinators in the school. Educational
leaders are
the foundation of the school. They
need to be aware of the society, school, teachers and students needs. They seek areas
that need improvement and aim for higher student learning outcomes. They
guide, and lead teachers through the school vision, mission and ob] ectives. Educational
leaders should always be ensuring the curriculum is updated accordingly; teachers are
being supported in ways where they can carry out their roles positively and efficiently.
Most of all, providing the best ways for students to learn where students can achieve the
most in their learning outcomes.
The 21
Century has created a need for educational leaders to focus on
technological changes. "Evidence shows that traditional models of learning, traditional
definitions oftechnology effectiveness, and traditional models
ofthe cost
effectiveness of
technology don't work" (Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, & Rasmussen, 1995, n.p.). The
focus of the way students learn should be real and meaningful, students should be
engaged and challenged. Technology should be looked upon as a tool for learning.
communicating, and collaboration. Before we address the school and educators in this
technological change, we need to first focus on the leaders. Are they ready for the
Leaders guide and give directions to teachers.
They are there to provide
educational support and knowledge for teachers to follow.
Most importantly they
overlook what students are learning and ensuring that learning outcomes are being met.
Many principals have no training in ICT and were not educated with technology.
Some even believe that technological change is not vital. Where do principals seek
guidance in this field that they are not familiar with? School leaders need to understand
the change process in order to lead and manage the change, so
are made. In an educational administration program survey, only 30 percent of the
faculty addresses technology in their instructions (Thomas, 2000). I-low can we
teachers to address technology in the classroom if the administration programs are not
addressing them? More than 60 percent of the respondents said that the most frequently
over looked areas in technology included; legal issues, emerging technologies, and
teaching and learning issues (Thomas, 2000). Administrators need to be taught about
as they need to manage technological changes
Administration programs
need to
in their school.
provide our future administrators technological
knowledge to enable them to see and make effective changes.
Thomas (2000. p.7) provides some guidance that leaders may take in integrating
technology effectively into the school:
Understand the elements and characteristics of long-range planning for the use
of current and emerging technology - infrastructure; budgethig; staff
development; technical support; personnel; upgrades
Demonstrate the ability to analyze and react to technology issues, concepts
and proposals - community and corporate pressures
Possesses a "big-picture" visions of technology in education and schools educational reform movement; academic standards; time allocation
Use technology directly to collect and analyze data and other information that
can improve decision-making and other management functions - student
academic achievement tests; gathering of data on variables not previously
gathered; access to information
Understand how current and available technologies can be integrated
effectively into all aspects ofthe teaching and learning process - application
of software in each instructional area access to research information;
multimedia presentations
Understand the legal and ethical issues related to technology licensing and
usage - purchasing agreements; safety and security issues
Use technology appropriately in leading and communicating about the school
programs and activities - efficient management of the school enterprise;
effective presentation of information to staff, parents and the community;
improved decision-making
When leaders have the knowledge to lead their teachers, teachers will feel more
supportive and less stressed with the tools and resources. Having some effective
integration methods to follow, will prepare leaders and give them a sense of
understanding on how to support their teachers in teaching and learning with technology
and manage technological changes.
Although some principals may not have the
knowledge to support their teachers they need to provide help to their teachers. Apart
from their own experience and knowledge they may seek expertise in this field to assist.
This expertise will be the ICT Coordinators. ICT Coordinators are new positions in the
school where they provide assistance to teachers and staff members in ICT.
2.4 The Need for ICT Coordinators
Due to the increase demands on ICT integration in education and the
advancement of technology, expertise in this field is needed to help bring ICT into the
education system Education and Manpower Bureau (1998).
This person will offer
assistance to the principals on how to implement an ICT plan in the school. This person
should also have the background of teacher training to offer teachers assistant with their
lessons and ICT implementation. This person known as the ICI Coordinator is a person
who supports staff and teachers. ICT Coordinators "should be well equipped with IT
knowledge, experienced in hardware infrastructure and software application, network
maintenance as well as purchasing. On top of that he should have teacher training so as to
understand what his colleagues need" (So, 2002, p.
Having the technical
knowledge gives them an advantage of purchasing appropriate resources for the school.
Not only can they offer the technical aspect of ICT but also keeping pedagogy in place.
As ICT Coordinators should have the teacher training background they have a deeper
understanding of how computer technology should be used in schools and classrooms.
The advantage of having this position in a school provides principals with assistance in
equipping the school with updated resources and teachers with appropriate training, along
with understanding and taking the schooPs learning outcome into account. How ICT
Coordinators promote ICT in the school and bring in supportive resources to
teachers will be relevant and practical, as they recognize and understand their needs.
This is ari important role as ICT integration is new to the teachers and principals, having
an expert in this field will give teachers and principals support.
Apart from understanding the importance ofthe leader's roles (principals and ICT
coordinators) who help make changes in a school, the schools own cultural beliefs play a
role in the ICT implementation. This is another important issue in the school. When
changes need to be made in schools what is affected instantly and directly is the culture
ofthe school.
2.5 School Culture
Educators must understand how technology integration affects the school's
culture. The definition of a school culture is A representation of what its members
collectively believe themselves to be. It is their self-concept. It reflects what they value
and what they express to others as being 'important around here.' ... an organization's
perception of itself shape what it ultimately becomes, or what it represents to others."
(Hughes, 1999, p.65). If the school's culture is not unified we can easily see many
problems as to whether ICT should enter teachers practice and how it should be done.
'Teachers own beliefs and skills are crucial to the implementation of ICT in the
classroom" (Mooij & Smeets, 2OOO p.3). Their own beliefs can greatly affect their peers
and the learning community. If the teachers don't have the confidence in using ICT and
don't see a need to be using it this will ultimately have a big impact on the schools'
culture. Therefore, the school' s culture is an important area of focus when changes are
being made and new resources and tools are brought into the school.
Principals and ICT Coordinators need to look at the school's culture, what the
community beliefs are before
implementing changes. The school's past and
present perception needs to also be looked upon. What are the schooPs beliefs about the
nature of knowledge? How should teaching occur? How does the community of staff
accept changes?
What are their philosophy in teaching and learning?
Solving the
answers to these questions will give the policy makers, principals and ICT Coordinators a
better understanding of what ought to happen in schools between teachers and students
(Cuban & Woodland 2001). Culture has a major impact on ICT implementation. If the
staff community is reluctant to change, it makes ICT implementation difficult. If they are
acceptant to changes, share the same beliefs, and agree in the need of ICT integration.
then implementing ICT will be much
and more effective.
Below is a clearer focus for the leaders whilst managing technological change the
four levels of the school culture: the schooPs history, norms, values, and assumptions
(Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2002).
2.5.1 The School's History
The school history looks at the past action and the traditions of the school. The
leaders need to focus on the past role of technology. By analyzing the traditions of the
school in dealing with technological matters it can help leaders decide on how to bring in
technological changes.
2.5.2 Norms
The second level is norms that look at the perspectives of the people in the school
and their shared mies and norms. This can also relate to how the school is structured, the
roles of the teachers and students and the schools relationship with the parents. At this
level the leaders can focus on the schools beliefs on technology. Flow do teachers view
technology and what roles can they play in technological changes?
2.5.3 Values
The third level is values. How people evaluate daily situations, the worth of
actions, activities, their priorities, and the behaviors of the people with whom they work
with. This is an important level as leaders can view and understand how technology is
2.5.4 Assumptions
The fourth level will be the focus of assumptions. Assumptions are more abstract
because they are typically implicit. It is the unconscious causes of the first three levels.
This means the tacit beliefs that the teachers have based on themselves, and their
relationships with others according to the school' s traditions, norms, and values.
Applying these four levels will provide a smoother way of using ICT effectively
in the school. There should always be room for a culture of collegiality where teachers
can share information, learning's, problem solving, decision-making and common goals
(Rodriguez, 2002). Especially in the technological era. teachers have different levels of
technological expertise.
Being able to share that with the others will provide a richer
learning environment.
After focusing on the impact ofICT on schools, leaders and the school's culture the
next and major focus of this literature review is the teachers. As teachers are the most
important assets in a school, the impact of ICT has on them can be very damaging to the
school, since they are the main resource for the school and the students.
If ICT has a
positive impact on teachers, then ICT implementation should run efficiently. However, if
ICT has a negative impact on teachers then that
may generate a lot
of problems and
2.6 Impact ofICT on Teachers
"With the increased emphasis on the use of computers in education, it is reasonable for
society to expect that teachers will have the knowledge and confidence to use computer
effectively in
the classroom. Teachers are expected to know not only how to
use computers, but how to use them effectively with students" (Russell & Bradley, I 997,
p. 1 8). When society increases their use of computers and continues to advance in it, it is
comprehensible to see that there will be demands of expectations for the next generation
to continue and advance in it.
Who will provide the next generation with all this
knowledge? Obviously it will fall onto the educators to provide the necessary
skills for the next generation to survive.
Teachers have not been very positive about ICT and neither has society's
view on
teachers using ICT. The slow adoption of ICT supports the 'teacher bashing cycles". As
Cuban ajid Woodward (2001, p. 123) pointed out 'two decades after the introduction of
desktop computers, the pace of adoption and use of information technologies by teaches
have been episodic, uneven, and slow." This clearly shows a negative impact on the
teachers. Why are teachers showing resistance in using ICT? Are the teachers the only
ones to be blamed? Cuban and Woodward (2001, p.124) give us an explanation:
"teachers resist innovation that will change their daily routines or threaten their jobs."
Teachers found that the addition of technology changes their daily routines. Their
teaching philosophy and pedagogy does not fit in with ICT integration.
Why are
teachers slow in adopting ICT? What is affecting teacher's ICT usage?
2.6.1 Factors that Affects Teacher's Readiness for Change
Apart from teacher's resistance in change there are often other factors that affects
readiness of technology. There are several reasons as to why teachers show
slow adoption with innovations. According to Becker's (2001) study, teacher's use of
computer varies according to the way they perceive they roles as teachers. Some teachers
view their work as solely in the their classroom and its' an individual practice, whereas
others may view their classroom teaching responsibilities expanding outside of their
classrooms. Their roles would expand to the larger community of educators where they
help other educators in being more successful. The study "created an index of teacher's
professional engagement based upon three aspects of teachers' roie orientation: (a) the
extent to which they had informa! contacts with other teachers at their own school,
through mutual observations of classroom teaching and through informal discussions on
various teaching-related topics; (b) their contacts with teachers at other schools, through
working on committees, attending workshops, and electronic mail communications; and
(c) leadership activities such as mentoring young teachers, presenting at workshops and
conferences, teaching continuing education courses, and publishing for teacher" (Becker
2001, p. 4). "Professionally engaged teachers" used the computers twice as much as the
"private practice teachers" with their students.
The findings can be easily understood. 'Private practice teachers" are isolating
themselves in their classroom and do not expose themselves to the outside world. It
makes learning, sharing and collaborating difficult. They will use the same routines that
they are comfortable with over and over and not feel or see a need to change. As
technology is a dynamic resource and what it can offer people who uses is vast.
"Professionally engaged teachers" that expose themselves to the outside world and is
engaged with other educators regularly use technology. These teachers will learn about
updated resources and have other teachers to collaborate and work with. This makes
learning more enjoyable as
they are
not doing it alone and being able to share and
overcome all the tactics technology may have.
Educators should be integrating and researching to provide the students with fun
and meaningful lessons. This also makes teaching and learning fun for the teacher and
students. Students will learn that learning does not only take place within a classroom as
teachers are constantly bringing in practical and useful knowledge, knowledge beyond
the textbook. Teachers own characteristics are often reflected onto their students. If they
want their students to learn from each other, share and collaborate together they have to
be a good role model themselves. Apart from the teacher's own characteristic resources
can also hinders teacher' s ICT usage.
2.6.2 Lack of Resources
There are many factors affecting teacher's usage; their resistance to change and
the way they view their roles as mentioned above. However, it is important to note that
not having the knowledge to make those changes makes it difficult to ask them to change.
Ifteachers do&t have the knowledge to bring in ICT implementing ICT would clearly be
very challenging. "The amount of professional development a teacher has, a school's
wealth, and the grade level being taught all have an impact on how teachers use
computers and the Internet in the classroom" (Branigan, 2000, online). Branigan points
out three factors affecting teachers ICT usage.
The amount of professionaL
development; providing teacher knowledge, school's wealth; being able to afford the
equipment and resources for the teachers, and the grade level teachers are teaching as all
Levels will require different standards of ICT usage. Therefore, expectation will be
Mooij and Smeets (2000, p. 6 & 7) and Becker (2001, p. 3) give us some insights
as to what hinders teacher's ICT usage which are shorter class periods shows fewer use
of computer; computers put in a different room; secondary education has restriction of
subject based classes; preparation needed ahead of time; teachers feel insecure with ICT;
lack of hardware; lack of suitable software; lack of space in the curriculum; limited
availability of time for professional development; and insufficient quality of pre-service
training. Most of these reasons stated are related to insufficient amount of resources.
Teachers cannot do their job without the resource whether it is knowledge resource or
hardware resource. Providing professional development will give teachers the expertise
and knowledge in using ICT and release
stress and hopefully change their attitude and
beliefs. Providing hardware will enable teachers to use ICT as they have the equipment
accessible to them. Things may not seem as simple asjust providing the resources.
The amount
of technology use depends a lot on the teacher's own philosophy of
education and some factors mentioned their own technical expertise and professional
experience in using computer applications, the number of computers in a classroom, the
support they receive from the school, their beliefs, and knowledge also affects their
computer usage. Most importantly though it is not about the machines and technology it
is about teaching and learning, it is what teachers and students do with technology. How
would teachers implement technology into their lessons? How would their pedagogy
change? Apart from providing resources we need to focus on the transformation in their
pedagogy. We need to look at how ICT is being used and not whether it needs to be
2.6.3 Impacts of ICT on Teacher's Pedagogy
A simple lesson involves many steps; seeking planning, implementing
evaluating, and reflecting to see whether the lesson went well or not, and making
appropriate changes to improve the next lesson. The time needed to do these steps is
great. With the
help of technology these steps can be easily attained and lessons being
prepared can be enhanced. Technology can offer teachers a vast amount of resource,
broaden their horizon and enable teachers to easily communicate with peers for ideas and
Not only does technology benefits teacher's pedagogy but also the students
receiving such dynamic lessons. Bransford, Brown and Cocking (1999) cited a study by
Cooley and Johnston (2000) that
"interactive technologies make it easier to create pedagogically-
sound environments in which students can learn by doing, receive
feedback, and continually refine their understanding and build new
knowledge. They explore how the technologies bring exciting curricula
based on real-world problems into the classroom; provide scaffolds and
tools to enhance learning; give students and teachers more opportunities
for feedback, reflection, and revision; build local and global communities;
and expand opportunities for teacher learning. Because this new vision
addresses the practical, philosophical, and pedagogical issues of concern
to teachers and teacher educators, educational technology is at last finding
a welcome mat at the door to the classroom."
The dynamic technology and advance changes it has can surely produce highclass 21st century students. Students have a huge amount ofresources to use. They learn
how to deal with rea! world problems which enables them to handle matters on their own.
Educators may have their doors open up beyond their own learning community.
Technology brings in massive amount of learning opportunities and experiences beyond
classrooms and schools. Realistically though are educators opening up their doors and
welcoming technology?
ICT has greatly impacted the teachers as their roles and pedagogy has been
transformed. Watson (1 993) cites a study by Mooij and Smeets (2000) found that ICT is
used to complement teacher's pedagogical practice rather than change their existing
pedagogical practice and philosophy in teaching. This means that the applications of ICT
are incorporated into existing teaching routines. The impact ICT should have on teachers
should be constructive as it is just another way teachers can advance in their delivery of
the content and knowledge.
ICT should be looked upon as another teacher tool.
Consequently, if the teacher does not desire to have ICT complemented into their lesson
then students will not obtain the ICT.
At the present, some teachers feel they can achieve the same Outcome teaching the
traditional way without the use of ICT. The CEO Forum (cited in Cooley & Johnston,
2000) declares, "children of the Digital Age are too often taught by teachers prepared
with techniques more appropriate to the Industrial Age" . Teachers are not exposing
themselves to the new tools and resources and continue to use their old teaching methods.
Which leads to students facing survival problems, as they will not be able to endure in the
technological era.
"Teachers need to change the way they teach, and the way they think about
teaching. . . to reflect the new higher-order skills students are learning" (Lai, 200 1 , p.24).
Teachers need to understand what is expected of the students in the future. Understand
how students are able to learn continuously without an educator but a computer. This
should enlighten teachers that there is a need to bring technology into the classroom.
There is a need for guidance and assessment from teachers as students are becoming
more self-directed and responsible for their own learning.
2. 7 Impact From Students
Apart from school where knowledge is build and learning takes place. children
are constantly learning. From books, media, society and their own social interactions are
opportunities for children to learn. Parents very often want to provide their children the
best to their ability. Whether it is related to food, clothing or education. In Hong Kong,
as an example. many parents often provide their children plenty of supplementary work
for the children to help assist them with their schooling.
Parents always want their
children to be well educated and have a bright future. Many parents would go out of their
way in providing their children with up dated knowledge such as technology. As a result
children are often exposed to powerful technology equipment at home. Due to the
dynamics of the Internet it attracts many children attention whether it is educational or
Somekh et al. (2001, p. 4) conducted a project to identify Pupils' and Teachers'
Perceptions ofICT in the Home, School and Community. They found:
Pupils spend more time on ICT at home than at school. They perceive greater
autonomy to explore ICT at home and the opportunity to use it for longer
periods of time.
Pupils have more advance ICT equipment and
resources at home that allows
them to have a variety of leisure pursuit.
Increase in home ownership of computers access to the Internet
Pupils have an extensive awareness ofthe role ofcomputers in today's world.
Many are knowledgeable about a wide range of equipment and how it is used,
as well as the varied purposes of its use by all kinds of people in many
different locations. This has implications for the speed and ease with which
they are likely to
become skilled in using networked ICT: they may develop
in using networked ICT more quickly and easily than is often
anticipated by schools and teachers.
Teachers cannot expect to be the initial leader of this innovation, it is everywhere and
accessible to everyone. Students are developing and mastering their ICT knowledge.
They would expect their teachers to take interest of their learning and be able to guide
and assess them as they would for any other subject. Cuthell (2003) found that many
students who had access to computers at home show the process of continual learning
where they feel more in control for their work. Many of them were able to produce
documents as they referred ta as real'. When students learned how to use the computer
programs and combined other programs to produce schoolwork it was very satisfying for
them. Students found that they could learn how to use something that most adults in their
lives could not.
This adds pressure to their teachers to use and teach technology.
Teachers need to be actively keeping students updated with appropriate pedagogy. They
need to change their pedagogy as to accommodate societal change.
Teachers are in
pressure from students to increase their use in technology and becoming their guide and
doing assessments.
CEO Forum on Education & Technology (2001) notes that schools need to
expand on their students' achievement as the 2 1
rcT literacy skills.
century will require students to have
"We must also ensure that our children have the ability to move
beyond basic skills to apply higher order problem-solving skills that will be needed to
compete in the new and ever changing information economy. Students must be able to
use technology's tools to enhance learning; increase productivity; promote creativity;
research topics online; proficiently use web-based tools
evaluate sources; develop
problem solving strategies; and incorporate technology into their coursework" (CEO
Forum ori Education & Technology, 2001, online). Although students are becoming selflearners they still require teachers guide them with the appropriate knowledge. Teachers
cannot rely on students to achieve this on their own.
Somekh et al. (200 1 ,
5) came up with some recommendations for teachers to
handle the impact of ICT from students.
Since pupils are likely to acquire ICI skills quickly and easily thrnugh using
them for self-directed tasks, more time should be spent on exploratory
learning in curriculum subjects and less time on teaching skills in discrete ICT
lessons. Check-lists and self-test programs could be used as a back-up to
allow pupils to demonstrate their self-taught skills perhaps with certification.
Schools need to develop strategies for abridging the gap' for those pupils who
do not have access to ICI resources, including the Internet, at home. This
might be through loans, government grants, or 'thIn client' access from home
to the school computer servers.
Teachers and governors need to consider how to build on their pupils'
experience, developing skills and enthusiasm in relation to networked
They could make much better use of this potential resource through a more
creative approach to homework and self-directed projects.
Schools and teachers need continuing support, including more funding for
equipment which can be used flexibly, access to at least one technician on the
premises, and more trauung for teachers in how to integrate
ICT with
learning. This will ensure that they are able to achieve the necessary changes
school culture and teaching practices to reap the benefits of the
Government' s investment.
Clearly we can see the impact teachers face. Society, parents and administrators are
challenging them with ICT. Within their own classrooms they continue to be challenge
by their students. Students are becoming independent learners. They want to be part of
this ICT evolution in education. They are aware of what ICT can do and know how it is
changing the society and their own lives. As their ICT knowledge continues to excel
teachers need to keep up with them to direct them in constructive ways. What needs to
be done now is not all up to
the school.
the teachers; it
will involve the administrator and leaders in
However, the teacher is the educator providing the students with the
knowledge that they need to survive in the 21
This is a great task and a lot of
responsibility. Teachers face a new challenge in their roles.
2.8 Teacher's Role
The roles of teachers have been shifting from a teacher-centered approach where
teachers transmit knowledge to students to a student-centered approach where teacher
acts as facilitator of learning, and the students take more responsibility of their own
learning (Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, Rasmussen., 1995; Mooij & Smeets 2000;
Teacher' s roles have always been looked upon, as a lecturer transmitting their
knowledge to students and the roles ofthe students are passive receiver which stores all
the information given to them and repeats the transmitted information as shown in Figure
There have been many views on traditional learning take from UNESCO Report (n.d.)
ICT and Teacher Education: Global Context and Framework:
Learning has been hard it's a difficult and tedious process
Learning is based on a deficit model of the student where school systems finds
students weaknesses and remediated
Learning is a process of information transfer and reception where students are
reproducing knowledge rather than producing their own knowledge
Learning is an individual/solitary process where students spend long hours
working alone
Learning is an individual/solitary process where the educational system is often
geared more to categorizing and analyzing patches of knowledge than in sewing
them together
Learning is a linear process where the textbook or teacher provides only one
linear path through a narrowly bounded content area
- $
Source UNESCO Report(n d) ICT and TeatherEthicarzon Global Contextand Framework
Figure 1: Teacher centered model
2.9 The Human 's Learning Process
Understanding how humans learn can affect the way teachers' teach.
With the
perceptions of how humans learn we will understand why ICT can improve the teaching
process and shift the traditional teacher role to a learner role. Some conceptions of the
way humans learn are as follows taken from UNESCO Report (n. d.) Table i below.
How humans learn
How ICT helps people learn
With ICT students are easily engaged
learns differently, some students can be in a motivating activity.
Learning is a natural process: everyone
easily engaged in a task where others
may have difficulty.
Vygotsky studies find that students learn
best in collaboration with peers,
teachers, and others when actively
engaged in a meaningfiul and interesting
teachers and students to collaborate
with others across the world. It also
provides new tools to support this
collaborative learning both in the
classroom and online.
ICT enhances learning by providing
learners should be actively engaged in real world problems and situations.
the activities and the activities should be
problems dealing with the real world.
4 Learning
and rcT offers this kind of new
contextualized: the learner themselves discoveries
it contains
need to discover, connect and integrate immense amount of resources.
the new knowledge learned; teachers are
there to facilitate this learning.
Learning is
active and not passive:
Learning is based on a strength model of
student abilities,
interest, and culture:
ICT allows students to explore on
what their interests are rather than
learners learn according to their interest focusing on standardized concepts.
and that is what should be brought into
the classroom.
completion, products, and real problem themselves through their process of
solving of both individual and group learning and the completed task
efforts: assessments should be made with itself. Not just focusing on pencil
portfolios of their performances where it and paper evaluations.
shows their process of learning also
of their
collaborative and individual learning
Table 1. UNESCO Report (n. d.)
Having the perception of the way humans learn we can appreciate how ICT helps
enhance their learning. ICT allows humans to learn according to their own abilities and
their own interest. It provides the learners with real learning situations and collaborations
with others in which prepares them for the real world.
Analyzing how humans learn informs educators that learning should not only take
place in traditional teacher-centered process but also look into student-centered
processes. Learners need to collaborate and be given real life problems where they can
learn to solve problems and handle situations. With the advantage of implementing ICT
students may learn according to their interest, think creatively and critically, be actively
engaged in an activity and learn to work collaboratively.
themselves and go further beyond the textbooks.
Students can
In student-centered process. the
teacher's roles will shift to a facilitator role facilitating and guide their student's learning.
The teachers will lead students to the appropriate path and learning environment.
Teachers will also assess student's learning
Technology should be a tool for learning, communication, and collaboration. It is
about moving away from teaching in the traditional methods and integrating technology
into the entire education system in a positive and meaningful way. With the impact of
ICT in the teache?s life their roles they have to gradually shift and change.
2. 10 The Changing Roles
With ICT implemented into today's education, students' learning is also shifting.
Students need to be preparing to take on their roles in a 2l century society. "Students
will have to learn to navigate through large amounts of information, to analyze and make
decisions based on the information available, and to master new knowledge domains in
an increasingly technological society.
They will need to be life-long learners,
collaborating with others in accomplishing complex tasks, and effectively using different
systems for representing and communicating knowledge to others". (Jones, Valdez,
Nowakowski. & Rasmussen, 1995; UNESCO Report, n. d.) In table 2 below we can see
the differences in a traditional learning environment where the learning is teachercentered and the new learning environment where learning is student-centered.
Table 2. Teacher-Centered and Learner-Centered Learning Environments
1earnin environments
learning environments
Classroom activity
Teacher-centered, Didactic
Learner-centered, Interactive
Teacher role
Fact teller
Always expert
Sometimes learner
Instructional emphasis
Inquiry and invention
Concepts of knowledge
Accumulation of facts
Transformation of facts
Demonstration of success
Norm referenced
Quality of understanding
Multiple choice items
Criterion referenced
Portfolios and performances
Technology use
Drill and practice
Communication, access
col laboration, expression
SOURCE: UNESCO Report (n. d) ICTanci Teacher Education: Global Context and Framework
In this new environment teachers will have more opportunities implementing
more engaging activities for the students. Students on the other hand will learn to think
critically, collaborate with one another and be engaged with interesting fun learning task.
Students will also shift their roles as they take more onuses in their work. Teachers will
need to apply new knowledge and strategies in their lessons and make learning more
enriched. Teacher's roles will shift according to Table 3 below:
Table 3. Changes in Student and Teacher Roles in Learner-Centered Environment
Changes in Teacher's Role
Knowledge transmitter, primary source Learning facilitator, cot1aborator coach,
of information, content expert, and mentor knowledge navigator and cosource ofall answers.
Teacher controls and directs all aspects Teacher gives students more options and
of learning.
responsibilities for their own learning.
SOURCE UNESCO Report (n d) ICTand Teacher F4ucalzon Global Contx and Framework
ICT has brought in different responsibilities to the teachers. From a transmitter to a
facilitator. From controlling and directing all aspects of learning to giving students
options and responsibilities of their own learning.
There will be an increase in
individualized learning. Specific skills from teachers are needed to individual student
management making many different decisions and fulfilling many different tasks related
to the daily use of ICT. Decisions like when students should use the computers,
integrating to their instructional activity, and choices of software (Mooij & Smeets
With this added responsibility and additional knowledge some teachers feel
negatively towards ICT and treat it as a burden more so than advancement in their role
and knowledge.
Students' role is also shifting as we are adopting ICT. As students are accepting
more responsibilities in their learning and already becoming self-learners with technology
their traditional student role will shift as follows.
Table 4. Changes in Student Role
Chaigcs in Student Role
A shift from:
A shift to:
Passive recipient of information
Active participant in the learning process
Reproducing knowledge
participating at times as expert
Learning collaboratively with others
Learning as a solitary activity
(Table adaptedfrom on deieioped by Newby et al , 2000)
SOURCE (JNESCO Report (n d) iCTand Teacher Edzecation Global Context and Framework
Students will be actively engaged in their own learning.
information and drilling themselves with
Rather than storing
they will produce information and
knowledge. Students will learn life long skills where they will have the knowledge to
deal with real life situations. Learning will no longer be a lonely activity but rather an
enriching experience where they collaboratively work and help one another. Helow is a
diagmm, which shows a student-centered environment. "These individuals must learn in
a rapidly changing environment, and build knowledge taken from numerous sources and
different perspectives. They must understand systems in diverse contexts, and collaborate
locally and around the globe" (Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, & Rasmussen, 1995).
SOURCE: UNESCO Report (n. d ) ICI and Teacher Education: Global Context and Framework
Figure 2: Student centered learning environment
Learners as students are actively learning, seeking and constructing knowledge.
Here you can see that the learner is not only interacting with the teacher but is
collaborating with their peers. The learner has a lot of access to resources and technology
to develop and share their knowledge with peers. With the various kinds of resources to
assist the learner will enable them to tackle real life problems, activities and here is also
the time where they can assess their work of their successfulness. This shows how
learning is made practical for the learner. Subsequently they will have time to reflect,
collaborate, receive coaching and perceive where learners will obtain different
perspectives. At the end everything falls back to the learner the learner takes more
responsibility and is accountable to their own learning. The rich environment given to
the learner will enable them to he self-sufficient learner. The learner will use their past
knowledge to help develop new knowledge and apply and assess what works and what
doesnt (Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski. & Rasmussen. I 995).
2.11 Why are teachers reluctant users
Defining reluctant
As defined in the Merriam Webster online dictionary 're1uctant is feeling or
showing aversion, hesitation, or unwillingness."
WhyTeachers are Reluctantin using CT?
Teachers are facing a lot of pressure from society, administrators, and students.
Teachers develop anxiety for technology, as there are unsolved issues that hinder their
ICT usage. Their own knowledge, attitude, tack of appropriate resources and support
from administrators are some factors as to why they are reluctant. According to Seaver
(n.d.) teachers are reluctant to adopt ICT into their classrooms due to a few technological
issues: appropriateness of software, teachers own technical skills, technical and
administrative problems of computer resource availability and reliability. These issues
are important but intertwined with these issues is the big issue of a shift in pedagogic
style within the classroom. Removal of all technical problems relating to ICT usage in
schools does not guarantee that schools will become more ICT enriched and collaborative
learning environments will exist for teachers or students.
Society is forcing teachers to use ICT in classrooms. According to Lai (2001)
cited a report from Pratt and Trewern that teachers do not understand nor are aware of the
benefits of ICT use in their teaching. Teachers received pressure from educational
authorities: parents and the community to use ICT in the classroom.
Teachers are
reluctant to invest their time and energy to facilitate the shift of teacher's role. Some
teachers found it irrelevant to their subject that they taught. Some teachers gave excuses
of not to attend IT Support and Development Group meetings. "They would cite
curriculum pressures that prevented them from taking classes to use the facilities, the
unreliability of the machines or the difliculties of managing students in an unfamiliar
environment" (Cuthell, 2002, p.5). The unfamiliarity and need to change to use ICT is
turning teachers away. As mentioned above, the resources that teacher' s are lacking is
another issue of why teachers are reluctant to use technology. Also, as many teachers
were not
educated with the use of ICT in their preservice program again explains this
reluctance. Another important factor is the teacher's own feelings and attitude towards
2.1 1 .3
Teacher's Emotional Aspect Towards ICT
"If teachers feel negative or apprehensive about computers and are therefore
reluctant to use them. Their attitudes and apprehensions will be passed on to students,
and students may have to give up academic goals or modif' them as a result" Rosen and
Weil (cited in Russell & Bradley, 1997). How they feel and respond to technology leaves
a big impact on their students and student's academics.
Cuban & Woodward (2001) cites Gudmundsdotter (1991) "Knowledge, beliefs,
and attitudes shape what teaches let enter, what they adopt, and what they keep out of
their classrooms." Their feelings, attitude and belief greatly affect whether they will use
ICT and how it will be used in their classroom. There is often a lot of auxiety leading to
those negative feelings (Williams Wilson, Richardson,
Tuson, Coles, i 998). Teachers
often feel reluctant to use technology with their students because of fears they will not be
able to make it work, and embarrass themselves (Hodas, 1993; McKenzie, 1998 cited in
Lai, 2001).
Again this shows
that teacher's emotional factor is an issue of using
As this is a new tool there is a lot of confusion and learning requirements.
Teachers need to overcome this and feel competent in applying this new tool into their
If teachers have the knowledge, understand the benefits of using ICT. their
attitude and beliefs in using it will increase.
However, teachers need to accept this
technological change and be able to carry their role as a teacher. Teachers need to have
the knowledge and appropriate support to fight their fear and negative feelings. Teachers
need models of good practice and support to use ICT. It is important to have positive
attitude and belief for teachers to have confidence and feel comfortable with technology.
2. 12 Preservice Programs and Professional Development
One big factor of reluctance is teacher were not educated with ICT nor taught to
use it. Teachers lack the knowledge of using ICI. 'Teacher education and professional
development programs are not addressing the realities found in today's classrooms," said
Education Secretary Richard W. Riley (cited in eSchool News Staff and Wire Service
Reports. 1999). "Lack ofknowledge ofthe equipment, understanding of the value of its
use, as well as knowledge of integrating the technology into teaching were considered
barriers to using technology in schools" (Lai, 200 1 , p.8). Teachers preservice programs
did not take ICT into account and there was insufficient quality training. (Mooij &
Smeets, 2000). Many findings state that a lot of Professional Development often focuses
on skills and technical issues rather than pedagogical issues (Cuthell, 2002; Lai, 2001).
"The main focus of these professional development programmes is skill-based,
emphasizing technical skills (the how's) rather than the pedagogical knowledge and
understanding (the whys)" (Lai, 2001, p.8). Teachers were not prepared with using ICI,
as the pre-service programs did not educate them and prepare them for using ICT. Not
only is the teachers s own experience important to learning ICT, but more importantly this
knowledge should come from their teacher training program.
The professional
development offers to teacher is often not practical where what is being taught is not
what teachers can use in their lessons.
We must understand though not all teachers are reluctant ICT users. Teachers
who are using ICT to enhance teaching and learning must have the ICT knowledge,
support and resources. Which teachers are reluctant in using ICT and how can we
support them? These teachers will be identified in the following sections.
2. 13 Who Can Help Support Reluctant Teachers
A number ofteachers are in a very difficult stage with ICT implementation. Their
own teaching program did not prepare them for this. They have a lot of pressure from
society, parents, administrators and students. Along with the external pressure they
struggle within themselves with their own incapability, frustration and anxiety. Failing to
do their job to educate their students to become self-learners, critical thinkers and
Who shutd be the ones assisting and h&ping the teachers? Nan-
educators brought in new innovations. Will they understand how to support teachers?
It can be asked, "Why don't teachers use the new technology more?"
common answer is because teachers lack access and help. The solution is self-evident to
promoters: Wire schools, buy more computers
teachers to use available software.
and provide technical support.
Implement access, and teacher use will both
accelerate and become creative" (Cuban & Woodward, 2001 p.126). These are common
problems to reluctant users
readily fixed by ICT promoters.
Often people solve the
problem by providing the hardware bringing in more high teeh computers. Are teachers
using the computer more often with more equipment? Evidently the solution is not
effective and teachers are still showing reluctance in using technologies. Teachers often
have little voice in ICT implementation.
Very often people who don't have the
pedagogical experience of teachers try to solve the teacher's problems (Cuban &
Woodward, 2001; Kent &McNergney, 1999).
To solve this problem we need to have
people with
educational background to
help solve it, as there will be empathy and more understanding of teacher's needs.
Educators and teachers who were trained lo do their job would have a better
understanding of what they need to help support their ICT usage. Having a non-educator
to solve an educator's job is not appropriate. According to Cuban and Woodward (2001,
p.134) if policy makers and administrators want teachers to be using more technology
to respect the teachers expertise and authority that they have accrued over the
Listen more carefully to the questions that teachers ask about an innovation
that differs greatly from those of the policy makers or administrators ask
Pay attention to teacher hopes and fears about craft of teaching, learning,
and their students
Policy makers and administrators need to share power with teachers in
designing and implementing plans for classroom use of technologies
Respect teachers' skills of adapting innovations to the topography of the
The bottom Line is to have policy makers and administrators acknowledge and act
responsively to teachers concerns and expertise. As administrators are forcing ICT
into the curriculum they need to be confident in using it and capable of supporting
teachers who needs help. They should also provide ICT Coordinators who have the
ICT knowledge in a school environnent. These leaders need to provide a positive
environment and a good role model. (Williams, Wilson, Richardson, Tuson, & Coles,
I 998). 'Professional Development, technical support, and resources are not the only
answer you need to look into structural and cultural factors that shape the practice of
teaching." (Cuban & Woodward, 2001, p. 134).
2. 14 How to Support Reluctant Teachers
Some obvious problems arid issues that have been raised by researchers and
teachers about teachers' slow usage of technology is due to the lack of knowledge, lack
of resource and the resistant to change. An initial start to supporting the teachers would
be to provide them with the knowledge; teachers have more control of their own
knowledge more so than the monetary issue. which is equipping them with the resources.
With knowledge, time and support teachers will be able to tackle problems they face in
using ICT. Not having to worry about their own incapability they will feel less stress and
anxiety, in retrospect maintains a good role model for their students.
Keeping in mind though "Like students, teachers learn at different rates and have
specific needs when it comes to acquiring new information and mastering new skills.
That means teacher technology training should be flexible, yet cover a comprehensive set
of skills" (Tenbusch, I 998, online). Teachers afl learn differently and also have different
needs and skills for 1CL Their computer basic skills and knowledge varies from one
another. We need to assess teachers' needs before we can support them.
Adopting ICT
As many teachers are still amateurs when it comes to using ICT, the school needs
to adopt a model in Implementing ICI' in a constructive way. According to Lai (2001)
who cited from Hadley and Sheingold that the three conditions for successful technology
adoptions are 1) Accessibility of computers for teachers and students; 2) Support for
teachers in learning and planning to use technology; 3) A school structure to encourage
its use.
The school should have appropriate equipment for teachers and students. One
teachers to excel and use computers when it is not available. Apart from
having the equipment, a school needs to support their teachers in learning and planning
for the
use of technology. The school needs to provide professional development for
teachers, not to only provide basic technical skills but looking into the pedagogical
aspect. Teachers must be provided with models ofbest practice that provide teachers with
practical ICT needs that they can use in their classroom (Newhouse, Trinidad, &
Clarkson 2002). Having the ICT knowledge is one thing, but being able to apply their
ICT knowledge into their lessons is the challenge.
Most importantly is the school
encouraging the usage of ICT? Mooij and Smeets (2000) believe that teachers should be
stimulated in implementing ICT. Stimulating communication about ICT in the school,
stimulating teachers to use ICI, and stimulating the school staff's professional
development. Motivating teachers to discuss and use ICT throughout the school will be a
good way ofencouraging teachers to implement 1CL The school culture needs to show a
belief in using ICT.
If there is a belief in ICT usage there would be more ICT
coflaboration between staff and teachers, and hence, the building of a stronger learning
Community. The structure of the school needs to be encouraging and stimulating ICT
usage, as this will give teachers more acceptance in it.
Providing Constructive Professional Development
What kind of investments should a school make to support and promote good
teaching practice with ICT? Professional Development will be the main start. It is the
essential way of heiping teachers and it shod be hands on for it to
be effective
(Branigan, 2000; Rodriguez, 2002; Tenbusch, 1998; Williams, Wilson, Richardson,
Tuson, & Coles, 1 998). As many teachers have graduated from their teaching program
we need to focus how we can educate them while continuing their teaching profession
and ensuring that we are including the pedagogical aspect. Lai (2OO1 p. 16) suggests
ways ofenhancing professional development for teachers:
SituatedLearning Opportuniües: Within the teacher's work environment allow
opportunities for teacher to collaborate and work on real task, in a continuous
on-site learning community
Collaborative Learning: Using the Internet to open many doors for teachers to
collaborate with people having the same interest outside oftheir environment.
Building an Online Learning Cotnmunüy: Using the
Internet to support on'ine
c-learning communities.
Technology is not an individual subject matter. There are so many things to learn and
investigate that one person cannot do it all. It requires researching and collaborating to
maximIze ICT usage and at the end ta make our lives more efficient and enjoyable.
Applying Laies suggestions far enhancing professional development will allow teachers
to collaborate. Give them a time to share and investigate their ICT knowledge and with
that build learning communities. Time is vital. One shot or inconsistent workshops are
not constructive ICI implementation will be irrelevant for them (eSchool News staff and
wire service reports, 1999; Jones, Valdez, Nowakowskî, & Rasmussen, 1995; Rodriguez,
2002; Tenbusch, i 998). Teachers need constructive professional development and given
time to assimilate and apply their learning. When
there is proper
ongoing support and
opportunities given to teachers to apply and collaborate their new knowledge,
collaboration will Continue beyond professional development time and it will become a
common practice ta keep those learning communities.
As mentioned earlier with ICT implementation a teachers role is changing. they
are no longer transmitting knowledge to the students. They are facilitating their students'
This should be looked upon when providing professional development to
Knowledge of ICI should not be delivered in such a way where you are
transmitting knowledge but instead allowing collaboration where teachers learn from
sharing, talking and assisting each other. In other words, model the best practice for the
teachers so they can share and support each other collaboratively in a community
Where Teachers ICT knowledge stands
Before we can address the professional development needed we need to
understand where teacher's ICT knowledge stands. This will help a group teacher in a
more effective manner when collaborating in professional development. Pratt, Kwok and
Munro (2001) cites the CEO Forum that identifies five stages of that teachers undergo
when using technology in their lessons developed from the Apple Classrooms of
Tomorrow research (see Figure 3). These stages help us understand where the teachers'
stand in technology usage and what stages they need to move onto.
Stage I : Entry - students learning to use technology
Stage 2: Adoption -teachers use technology to support traditional instructions
Stage 3 : Adaptation - technology used to enrich curriculum
Stage 4: Appropriation - techn&ogy s zntegrated, used for ts unique capabilities
Stage 5 : Invention - discover new uses for technology
Figure 3: Stages oftechnology adoption (CEO Forum, 1999, p.14-15)
During the first stage the classroom teacher is not using the technology but
directing it where the students or the specialist teachers are using it themselves. In the
second stage, teachers use technology for their own purpose such as administration work.
At the same time they are also encouraging students to use it. The third stage is where
the teachers are starting to use it to enhance the curriculum. However, their teaching
method remains the same and it is still very often teacher-centered. In the fourth stage
the teachers begin to use the technology to its capabilities. In this stage students begin to
direct their own learning, and its used to achieve
higher order
thinking skills. In the last
stage, technology is used to its maximum capabilities where the classroom environment
changes to accommodate the usage of technology. The fourth and fifth stage where
technology is used to enhance student's learning and improve student achievement is our
goals for teachers.
Verifying Teachers ICT Implementation Stages
To support the findings of teachers ICT implementation stages as mentioned
above Newhouse, Trinidad and C!arkson's (2002) framework was adopted. Teachers
own knowledge, experience, and beliefs, put them in different stages of ICT
implementation. Some teachers feel thai teaching computer classes with a textbook is
ICT implementation. Some teachers may go beyond the computer classes to integrating
other subjects with ICI and bringing it into the classrooms. The teacher's visions and
contributions) integration and use, capabilities and feelings towards ICT within the
context of the school are factors as to where they stand with ICT usage (Newhouse,
Trinidad, & Ciarkson, 2002). Teachers implementation stages need to be identified so
that better support can be given to them. Teachers themselves can also have a better
understanding of what position they stand with regards to ICT implementation and find
what they need to do to go onto the next stage. To have a better understanding of
where teachers stand in ICT the researcher has used Newhouse, Trinidad and Ciarkson's
(2002) framework for implementation of ICT in Schools.
This framework consists of five stages of teacher's JCT implementation
(Newhouse, Trinidad, & Clarkson, 2002, p. 7).
Inaction : Generai lack of action and/or interest.
Investigation: The teacher has developed an interest in using ICT with students
and is beginning to act on this interest.
Application: The teacher is regularly using ICT with students and knows how to
do so competently and confidently.
Integration: The use of ICT becomes critical to the support of the learning
environment and the opportunity for students to achieve learning outcomes
through the learning experiences provided.
Transformation: The teacher is able to take on leadership roles (formal or
informal) in the use of ICT and be knowledgably reflective on its integration by
themselves and others.
Teachers very often have been utilizing technology for their own personal use.
Whether it is communicating with others via emailing or to creating personal documents
and storing them in a fileldisk. Teachers may teach a very young group of students and
need not to teach them computer skills, however they are still taking interest in
technology for themselves.
Therefore, 'inaction' a lack of interest or no action in
technology and it will not be used in this research study. Inaction is rarely the case for
most teachers as the majority of teachers are not inactive. Most teachers use ICT for
personal use. Branigan (2000) study found a third of teachers use computers or the
Internet "a lot" for creating instructional materials and keeping administrative records.
But less than 1 0 percent of teachers said they use the Internet to access model lesson
plans or best practices, suggesting that better dissemination of these resources is
We know teachers are not in the ' inactive' stage as they are using ICT
although not for enhancing teaching and learning. Now we need to identify what stages
these teachers are in to help the school investigate what they are doing and where they
stand with ICT implementation.
From there, leaders can look into grouping the teachers according to the stages
they are in. Within their own groups teachers can work and collaborate together to
achieve the same goal.
They will have more support for one another as well as
understanding. There are many factors affecting teachers ICT implementation stage as
mentioned above. The teacher's attributes are the key factor of the affect. Newhouse,
Trinidad and Clarkson, (2002, p.9) help elaborate the attributes.
Vision and Contribution:
Purpose, focus, rationale, views of ICT, contribution to communities
How teachers are regarding ICT and how are they contributing to the schools'
ICT planning.
Jntegration and Use
Frequency of use, implementatior strategies, type of activities and pedagogy,
task for applications, assessing stt.ident learning outcomes, relevance of ICT to
content, connections with curriculum framework outcomes
How much ICT integration and use is there in their lessons, thinking, and in
their own work.
Capabilities and Feelings
Understanding of potential uses, Roles of teacher and students, Source
ofdirection for use, ICT skills, Affective response, Concerns
What are their ICT capabilities? Are they in control?
Before we can support teachers in ICT implementation we need to know what their
ICT attributes are which leads us to their ICT implementation stages. Knowing what
stages they are in is the first step in supporting them. We cannot guide nor support
them when we don't know where they are.
2.15 Building Learning Communities
Collaboration and its Characteristics
Much ICT research in improving the teachers' usage oftechnology has mentioned
collaboration. "Interpersona1 collaboration is a style for direct interaction between at
least two coequal parties voluntari'y engaged in shared decision making as they work
toward a common goal" (Friend & Cook, 2003, p.5). What are the characteristics of
collaboration? Before we ask teachers to collaborate we need ensure that they understand
what that means and what it looks like. Friend and Cook (2003, p. 6) defines the
characteristics of collaboration:
Collaboration is voluntary
Collaboration requires parity among participants
Collaboration is based on mutual goals
Collaboration depends on shared responsibility for participation and
decision making
Individuals who collaborate share resources
Share accountability for outcomes
Administrators and policy makers may enforce collaboration, but unless the teachers
choose to collaborate this
not happen. Teachers must volunteer to collaborate to
make it effective and successful. When Participants get together to collaborate they must
share the same goal that they want to achieve, maintained the shared commitment.
Participants should be prepared to contribute and share resources with others. They must
have equal powers in decision-making. Everyone's contribution is equally valued and
there is no superior or inferior input.
The responsibility of the participants should be
equal regardless of the outcome all participants are accountable. Collaboration fails if
participants are riot showing all six characteristics (Friend & Cook 2003).
When teachers have a full understanding of what collaboration is, how it looks
and what it feels like then we can build a positive and effective learning community
(Albon & Trinidad 2001; Friend & Cook, 2003; Seaver, n.d.). To have collaboration
there needs to be a proper environment for it. This is where the school cultures come into
place. The school culture needs to allow teachers to collaborate freely. The community
of the school needs to evolve collaboration; it caimot just happen over time. Establishing
a community where the culture of the school supports collaboration will help build a
stronger learning community and ultimately improve the usage of ICT and teaching and
Framework for Learning About Collaboration
The school needs to construct a framework for successful
collaboration. Apart from learning the characteristics of collaboration, Friend &t Cook
(2003, p. 22) shows there are five major components to the collaboration framework as
shown with Figure 4 below.
) Cmmurucain
Figure 4. Five components ofcollaboration (Friend & Cook 2003, p22)
The first component of the figure is personal commitment. The teacher needs to
feel committed to the responsibilities of their job and have belief in working and
collaborating with others. The second component comprises of communication skills.
This is important as when you are collaborating you are communicating with one another.
Most teachers are gifted in communicating because an educator's role would require a lot
of communication. However, communicating and interacting with others (peers. parents.
administrators etc.) requires good social skills. The third component includes the
interaction processes. This component focuses on strong communicating skills that take
an interaction from beginning to the end. The fourth component is the set ofprograms or
services in which collaborative activities occur.
These are key areas of where
collaboration can occur for teachers in reaching students related services. The last
component is the context. This refers to the overall environment where collaboration
It is clear that the only way to have successful collaboration is it must begin with
our self. When people believe in collaboration and it will then lead to building and using
our most important social skills for it: communicating and interacting. Then we will look
into the areas with where collaboration occurs and the context.
As people learn to
collaborate with one another they are building their own characteristics and their own
learning communities.
The Need for Assessment
2.1 5.3
When teachers come together to collaborate effectively they need to ensure that
they are constantly assessing, especially when dealing with a new subject matter like
ICT. They are often collaborating on the best ways to solve and identify ways to better
educate their students. Ways to improve their job arid receive support from one another.
What worked and what didn't worked? Making assessment with colleagues will allow
teachers to critically examine student's performance. It is a way to develop classroom
and school plans to improve performances from teachers and students.
Teachers are
proactive in school performance. Findings show that professional learning communities
improve teaching and learning (Fullan, 2001; Rodriguez, 2002).
In the professional
learning community where collaboration takes place the teacher swill examine their
students progress and their pedagogy, and from there will be more collaboration to make
Fullan (200 1 , p. 127) shows this progression with the Verni diagram
below in Figure 5.
/ Professional
\ Communit>
Source Louis & Kruse, I 995, Newrnarm & Wehiage, i 995 (cited in Fullan, 2001)
Figure 5 : The nature ofprofessional learning communities.
An established learning community where collaboration is exercised successftully
and assessment is constantly made, and then learning will be enhanced amongst teachers,
which leads to desirable student learning outcome. Professional development is the key
to helping teachers who are reluctant in using 1CT at the present time in Hong Kong. We
need to help existing teachers to overcome their frustration with CT and take immediate
action. The stress and reluctance is affectthg their role as an educator. Teaching for most
teachers is a very rewarding profession however, when teachers are incapable of
performing their profession to the best of their ability this will impact on their students in
a negative way.
CEO Forum on Education and Technology (2000, online) states, "In our
technology-oiiented society, new teachers are being placed in classrooms without an
understanding of how technology can support their teaching-or their students' learning.
As a result, school systems are forced to provide remedial instruction for what should be
the most technologically-ready generation of teachers". The research conducted in this
study in Hong Kong hopes to help start the remediation for these reluctant teachers.
2.16 Literature Review Summary
Tn the past technology was not successfully implemented into education. Many
factors such as teacher's knowledge, school curriculum, money. teachers' attitude and
beliefs play an important role of implementing technology (e.g television, radio, and
film). Later technology such as computers and the Internet has been introduced and
brought into education. It can offer exciting and meaningful learning opportunities for
the students. However, learning from the past in order to have successful implementation
in education relies on teacher's acceptance in imp'ementing it and understanding the
changes they will have in their roles. This is best summed up as "The future role of
computer technologies will be determined primarily by two factors: whether teachers find
value in the instructional possibilities offered by the new technologies, and whether the
pattern of implementation of the new technologies avoids the mistakes made with past
technologies" (Kent & McNergney, I 999). We need to learn from the past and improve
our future.
Provide proper equipment and support for teachers to play their roles
successfully. This way student can be educated the 21 century; as a self-learner and a
critical thinker.
As technology is consistently growing the impact on teachers will also continue to
grow. We need
to reflect on the needs of the teachers and provide them with support.
"Teachers are key to enhancing learning in schools" (Bransford, &own & Cocking
I 999, online) and this literature review has offered some insights and solutions into how
to support elementary teachers who are reluctant and struggling in implementing ICT.
The main factors that affect teacher's readiness for change are lack of resources,
and change in pedagogy. In order to support teachers in the use and implementation of
ICT, there are some guidelines and frameworks that may be implemented to help
Understanding the teachers changing role from teacher centred to student
centred, and the human learning process is the first step.
changing roles of the students is also necessary.
Secondly, understanding the
Once these two steps have been
estabIished we can then discover what makes teachers reluctant, and how we can support
them. Some ways to support teachers are to adopt ICT, provide constructive professional
development, and discover teachers ICI competency. This last support will help classify
teachers into ICT implementation stages. From basic to advanced knowledge, the stages
are inaction, investigation, application, integration, and transformation. The fmal support
that can aid teachers in using and implementing CT is to build learning communities.
Learning communities will help teachers to share and support each other and make a
common goal so everyone will feel they are not alone in this new dynamic world.
3 Methodology
31 Overview
The focus of this research was to fiad solutions in supporting elementary teachers
with ICT implementation. A group of elementary teachers in an international school in
Hong Kong were used for this research. We need to provide teachers with models of best
practice and support. Such support needs to come from the administrative team and ICT
leader, where solutions can be presented in helping teachers implement ICT positively
and effectively.
The focus of any school should be to support teachers with ICT
to assist them in carrying out
their roles in a
positive manner. In the
literature findings teachers who dont have the ICT skills and knowledge along with a
negative attitude, emotions, and fear of ICI, these are ali contributing factors causing
teachers to be reluctant ICT users.
The research focuses on how to support these
elementary teachers to becoming more eager, enthusiastic, and knowledgeable teachers in
implementing ICT. This chapter documents the methodology used in this study.
3.2 Methodology
This research uses a case
to ensure an in-depth analysis of a small focus
group of elementary teachers. Colorado State University (2003, online) defines a case
study as "The collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular
participant or small group, frequently including the accounts of subjects themselves."
The group of elementary teachers in an international school in Hong Kong was the small
group ofteachers investigated in this study. Recommendations and ICT support were the
conclusions drawn upon this group of teachers in their specific school context (an
international school in Hong Kong).
This case study used was a combination of the "Illustrative and Exploratory Case
Study" (Colorado State University, 2003). The advantage of using
these two types of
case studies is it helps the researcher illustrate the problem and explore it in depth. Using
a case study gives flexibility to the researcher. It allows the researcher to explore and
discover issues before identifying a case worth researching on. The strengths of these
types of case studies are they help solve real existing problems and helps people
understand the situation comprehensively. It also helps gives people insights to simi!ar
cases dealing with reluctant teachers. Since this study looks at variables and the contexts
ofthe problem it gives a thorough understanding ofthe situation at hand. Furthermore, it
gives the researcher more reassurance with the solution as the case was looked at closely
and all aspects ofpossibilities have been covered to discover successful solutions.
The researcher was able to gain an understanding of what kind of support these
elementary teachers need to implement ICI effectively. Using this case study approach
allowed the researcher to carefully examine all the variables in the problem, allowing the
researcher to have a comprehensive understanding of the situation is known as 'thick
description' .
"It involves an in-depth description of the entity being evaluated, the
circumstances under which it is used, the characteristics of the people involved in it, and
the nature of the community in which it is located. Thick description also involves
interpreting the meaning of demographic and descriptive data such as cultural norms and
moreS community values, ingrained attitudes, and motives" (Colorado State University,
2003, online). The case study not only focuses on the teachers but the context; the
school, people involved with the teachers, culture of the school and teacher's own beliefs.
Investigating all possible variables involving the teachers gives the researcher a more
thorough understanding of the situation. The study has been able to offer new variables
and questions for further researchers to investigate. Furthermore, given that this is an
investigation performed in a specific context, the researcher provides the readers the
opportunity to gain their own conclusions regarding their own situations. As there may
be many teachers struggling presently with ICT this study can help assist them and give
insights to them and their leaders.
33 Research Framework
The school in this study is an international school in Hong Kong. Most of the
teachers are expatriates from many different countries round the world, but the majority
is from North America. These teachers were educated differently from Hong Korg
teachers and come from different backgrounds; therefore their teaching styles, beliefs,
and strategies differ. The school environment is a multicultural one. There is a wide
range of ideas and approaches being used. Therefore, when collecting
data all these
considerations were taken into account. Teachers' own beliefs opinions, attitudes will
also vary. Teache?s teather training will be a big factor to their understanding and
knowledge of ICT implementation.
All thirteen Elementary teachers were used in this
As all teachers' ICT attributes were different, their implementation stages
differed. Not all teachers were found to be reluctant ICT users.
Once teachers' stages were verified, two teachers from each stage were
Teachers teach three years old
to ten years old
children. A stratified
sampling method was used to conduct the interviews to receive a more diverse collection
of information since the age group being taught is a wide range. This contributed to a
more comprehensive study. Teachers were grouped into one ofthe five stages according
to the questionnaire. Two teachers from each stage were interviewed together. There
were five interviews as there were five stages. The interviews were used to offer some
reasons as to how teachers get to that stage. What attributes do they carry? What do the
other teachers lack from being not at the transformation stage (top stage). The interviews
identified the different supports teachers needed pending on the stages they were in. This
study touches on quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Verifying teachers ICT
attributes was quantitative. Interviews were qualitative. Since the group of subjects was
small the study was mostly qualitative data collection.
The method chosen was due to the number of the group was small and it helped
alleviate bias.
Being grouped with other teachers in the same stage of their ICT
attributes gave them opportunities to work with people who are in the same level as they
are. This took care of any intimidation or embarrassment. The interviews allowed for
the researcher to draw some conclusions regarding why teachers are in those stages, to
confirm their stage rating and to examine what hinders them from moving onto the next
Apart from the questionnaire and interviews the researcher has also been
observing the teachers in the school.
This is another
advantage of doing a case study as it
allows the researcher to be actively seeking data and information. Although there may be
limitations to doing observations such as "observer bias, contamination, and halo effect"
McMiIlan (2000, p. 164) the researcher only used low inferences observations where
little interpretation orjudgment was made.
3.4 Research Questions
The problem statement focused on reluctant teachers implementing ICT.
However, when conducting the research other questions were raised and
examined to
help illustrate the problem and issues.
Research questions
i . How does ICT affect the teachers teaching, knowledge, attitude, and beliefs?
2. What stage of ICT implementation are teachers in and why?
3. What kind of collaboration is there amongst teachers?
4. What problems are teachers experiencing in ICT implementation?
5. What kind ofsupport is provided to the teachers?
6. What kinds of support do teachers need to enable them to implement ICT
These were some of the questions that were raised and answered throughout the
study. A teache?s own ICT competencies are important, as this informed the researcher
whether support was needed and how much is needed. If their competency level were
high would that indicate support is not necessary? What hinders teachers' ICT usage, is
perhaps the key to answering the research problem. We must find out what problems
teachers face in ICT implementation. A solution that can be considered is buIlding
coflaborative groups ofteachers to support eacb other. On the contrary, how often should
they be collaborating? Is collaboration sufficient support for the teachers?
questions were investigated throughout the study, in an attempt to resolve teachers
existing ICT implementation problems and issues.
After the completion of the questionnaire teachers were classified into the ICT
attribute stages. Together with the research questions, interview questions were compiled
for gathering further data to help answer the research questions and the problem. With
this data the researcher was able to investigate whether teachers are reluctant ICT users
and if so, why? Does this match what has been mentioned in the literature review (e.g.
lack of knowledge and hardware etc.). How will teachers feel about receiving support
from each other in collaborative groups? This may be an ideal recommendation as found
in the literature review, but realistically would teachers support and practice that
strategy? Many solutions can be offered, but the only way to solve the problem is by
having the teachers accepting the solution and employing it.
3..5 Subjects
The subjects of this research were 13 Elementary teachers in an international
school in Hong Kong This group of Elementary teachers teach three to ten years old
studeits. They consist of I 2 female teachers and one male teacher. Due to the age group
that they teach, the curriculum and expectations are different. All I 3 teachers were
purposively sampled.
1 teacher
2 teachers
3 teachers
2 teachers
2 teachers
i teacher
2 teachers
three and four years old students
five years old
six years old
seven years old
eight years old
nine years old
10 years old
L teacflers
Most grades have more than one teacher, which allows teachers to team up and work
together. Teachers are requested to meet week'y during their own time to discuss their
weekly and monthly plans.
They are not required to teach the exact same lessons.
However, they are encouraged to assist aid share ideas amongst each other. Teachers
often share their lessons with each other arid ensure that they are in similar pace. The
subjects used for the study gave the researcher some understanding of what is happening
with ICT implementation in the elementary area. Are teachers implementing ICI into
their lessons? Is it a regular topic being discussed in those meetings? Teacher may have
existing ICT collaboration groups. Before we attempt to address and investigate the
study with these elementary teachers we needed to ensure that they are willing to take
part in this study.
Ethical Issues and Concerns
This research was conducted in the researcher's school. This gave the researcher
more flexibility with the time; the subjects were conveniently located and this also had
the advantage of the acquaintance with the subjects where a good rapport has been
developed. This makes the study easier to conduct The researcher bad readily access to
the schooFs resources e.g. venue. The research gained the principal's permission to carry
out the study. Teachers were informed of the study and that their conthbution will be
vital, but also confidential.
A teacher's role in a classroom room
is very authoritative.
They have the
knowledge and control with their class. They are the leaders. However, when carrying
out this research the teacher may not be the leader. They may be in an earlier ICI
implementation stage
where they exert weakness
and disability. In sich cases, teachers
may not be very wilting to participate nor be very truthful in their involvement. Time can
always be a constraint as teacher's responsibility is not only when students are in the
classroom, but also before and after school's preparation and meetings.
3. 7 Instruments and Data Collection
Data collection for this study was done in stages, as each piece of information was
important for the preceding step. The priority list for data collection is listed below:
i . Consent ofthe principals received for the study.
2. Ongoing observations
Deliver a questionnaire using the Likert scale to determine teacher's ICT
4. Deliver a questionnaire using the Likert scale to determine teacher's ICT attitude
to verify their ICT implementation stage.
Interview two teachers from each stage to gather insights to this case study
6. From these data, recommendations were made to help these teachers.
.7 .1 Question naiTe
To begin the research it was important to identify the teacher's knowledge in ICT,
therefore a teacher ICT background questionnaire was given out. This allowed the
researcher to gain a more thorough understanding of the entire elementary teaching staff.
The questionnaire was formulated using ideas gained from the literature review and based
from the Preliminary Study on Reviewing the Progress and Evaluating the Information
Technology in Education (ITEd) Projects (December 2000 - August 2001) FInal Report
Version 3.0 presented by the Center for Information Technology in School and Teacher
Education (CITE). The questionnaire was in the Likert scale technique in order to gain a
more detailed overall understanding.
Once the background research was compLeted, the individual teacher's ICT
attributes questionnaire was prepared and delivered to verify their ICT stages using the
framework created by Newhouse, Trinidad, and Ciarkson (2002, p.7).
The teacher's
visions, contributions, integration, use, capabilities, and feelings towards ICT were
measured to verifj their ICT implementation stages.
The five stages are
Inaction: General Lack of action and/or interest.
Investigation: The teacher Fas developed an interest in using ICT with students
and is beginning to act on this interest.
Application: The teacher is regularly using ICT with students and knows how to
do so competently and confidently.
Integration: The use of ICT becomes critical to the support of the learning
environment and the opportunity for students to achieve learning outcomes
through the learning experiences provided.
Transformation: The teacher is able to take on leadership roles (formal or
informal) in the use of ICT and be knowledgably reflective on its integration by
themselves and
Teachers were given the questionnaire to compete. They were asked to include
their names on the questionnaire as it was iniportaiit for the researcher to do further
investigations with them, the interview. Teachers were then
different stages. Afterwards, seven of them
categorized into the five
asked to do an interview.
3.7.2 Interview
The individua! interviews were performed at convenient times for both the
interviewer and interviewee. Suggestions and recommendations were made and given to
the teachers as part of the study feedback. The five interviews were conducted as focus
groups where the teacher' s needs and support in ICT implementation was the focus.
When performing the interviews with the teachers some issues that need to be addressed
are shown in Figure 6 below.
Incorporating these issues helped sustain organized
interviews (Lee, i 999, p.69).
L Ethical issues
2. Budget constraints
3. Selection of participants
4. Group structure
5. Group size and discussion quality
6. Nwnber offocus groups
Planning focus groups
7. Criteria for evaluation
Introducing the focus group
2. Beginning discussion
Conducting focus groups
3. Substantive_discussion
Data coding and analysis
Frequency counts and categoricaT data analysis
2. Feedback
figure 6. Issues involved n fo:ns group techniques.
(Lee, 1999, p.69)
The interview questions consisted of "unstructured questions" (McMilIan, 2000), which
were broad and open ended. This allows the interviewee to respond in complete answers
with feelings and maimer. This was necessary for this study as the researcher needed to
know and understand what these teachers needs are and have them voice these.
Following the focus groups the researcher analyzed the data with the help of past
research in the literature to formulate recommendations to the teachers and school.
3.8 Data Analysis
The data
obtained from the teachers was quantitative and qualitative. The data is
represented in tables and graphs. Descriptive statistics techniques were used with the
data. The data was analyzed using the measures of central tendency (mean, median, and
mode) to show where the majority of the sample lay.
The dispersion of data was
analyzed by determining the range of data, standard deviation (also used with central
tendency), and grouping the data into percentiles. This helped with the validity of the
argument and usage of the data. Through this data, questions were formulated for the
interviews with teachers. The data obtained from the stratified sample of teachers in the
interview was qualitative. The data was analyzed according to the literature review done.
Inferences, arguments, and conclusions were formulated.
The data analyzing techniques used to measure the teacher's ICT attribute was the
framework from Newhouse, Trinidad and Clarkson (2002). Teacher's questionnaires
were tallied up and stages were established. Following the interviews, teache?s response
were documented and analyzed.
Through their responses to the questionnaire and
interviews allowed the researcher to search for factors of their ICT usage along with
support that they felt necessary to help support their ICT usage. When analyzing the data
the researcher needed to ensure that the data received was reliable and valid.
3.9 Reliability and Validity
To ensure that the data received was reliable and credible the triangulation
method has been used (MeMilIan. 2000).
The different methods of data collection
allowed the researcher to compare the findings In different ways. Apart from filling in a
questionnaire done by the teachers in their own time, interviews were also conducted.
The interviews allowed the teacher to gather more accurate responses as the interview
and interviewee may c1arit' questions and responses. The interviews allowed both
parties to establish greater depth and understanding of the issues and discussion. The
interviewer was also allowed to further question the interviewee for information. Lastly,
the ongoing observations from the researcher can help validate the questionnaire and
interviews. Observing the teachers manage and
converse with ICT
during day-to-day
operations helps confirm the problems teachers face.
Since the researcher has been working at this school for four years, the time spent
observing the teachers in handling JCT helps validate the findings. The researcher, who
is a member of this school, is greatly involved with the teachers and adminisirators. The
conversations and observations done with the researcher were always in a natural setting
where teachers voice their concerns and issues in a very open manner. The observations
done were always unobtrusive. This added to make the findings reliable and valid
3. lOProcedure
In order to ensure that quality data was collected, the activities followed are
detailed in Table 5 below:
Week i
Permission from management. The objective, treatment of data, etc.
will be clearly stated to gain support of the schools' management and
teachers involved
Gather documentation and analyze
Week 2-3
Direct observation of both teachers and students to seek insights and
questions in how technology is used,
and how learning
Week 4-5
Teacher background questionnaire formulated and given out
Week 6
Receive teacher's background questionnaires
Teacher ICT stage questionnaires formulated and given out.
Week 7-8
Receive teacher's ICT stage questionnaires
Begin to analyze data, and formulate interview questions for teachers
Week 9
Aiialyze research findings
Week 10-14
Report findings and make recommendations
Table 5. Weekly milestones
3.11 Summary
The researchers school was used for this case study. The focts was on the
elementary teachers as they contribute to a child's early ethcation. In ari attempt to
provide existing elementary teachers with the support that they need to make ICT
implementation smooth and effective. The researcher identified their ICT attribute stages
and analyzed this data to enable support and valid recommendations to be made.
The research involved having the subjects fill in a teacher questionnaire to gain
knowledge in the ICT background and to verify their ICT attribute stages.
complete, the researcher grouped the teachers into their ICT attribute stages. Following
that focus groups were made up for the interview. Planning focus group interviews gave
the researcher further knowledge and understanding of support teachers need. Teachers
were purposively sampled for the focus groups allowing the researcher to purposively
chose teachers in different teaching grades to gather a wider range of data. Teachers
teaching in different grades may have very different expectations and concerns.
Researching the teacher's reluctance in ICT usage and if support needed to be
improved for ICT usage in this case study will help verif' what researchers have found in
past studies. The researcher has ensured that the findings are reliable and valid. After the
interview some recommendations were made to support the teachers to integrate ICT in a
more effective and stress free manner and ultimately improve student-learning outcomes.
It is understood that well thought out methodology helps complement good research
4 Research Findings
This chapter follows the procedures set out in the methodology chapter. Data was
obtained through triangulation; therefore the data analysis will be examined from a
collection of sources to make the data more reliable arid valid. The research questions
will be discussed and analyzed through various parts of the sections in this chapter. The
research questions being answered will be placed under the relevant section heading, as
to understand the purpose of that discussion and to simplify the findings.
beginning this analysis, a thorough background will be given of the school. so as to
enable us to understand the findings more clearly.
4. 1 School Background
The school used for this case study is a private non-profited International School
in Hong Kong. The school has been founded in I 986.
There are
three sections of the
school: High School, Middle School, and Elementary School. There are four principals;
one for high school, one for middle school, and two for elementary. The two elementary
principals focus on different grade Ievels
One principal's focus is on the Upper
Elementary grades overlooking grades two to grades five students and teachers. The
other principal's focus is on the Lower Elementary grades overlooking the Preprimer to
grades one senior students and teachers.
The elementary teachers consist of 13
international teachers from different countries. Their ages range from 24 to early 50s.
They have been raised and educated differently and hence, their ICT competency varies.
The focus for this study was the Elementary section. In the Elementary School
there are 2 i 3 students. Seventy percent of the students are local hong Kong families.
Thirty percent of the students are from international countries such as Korea, Japan,
India, and other countries. The school foUows and uses the American curriculum. Al!
the textbooks are purchased from American publishers.
4.1.1 Computer Laboratory/Schedule
Students from three years old to eight years old (Grades PrePrimer to Grade 3
respectively) use the Elementary Computer Laboratory that consists of 20 computers and
two printers. The nine years old to ten years old (Grades 4 and 5 respectively) share the
Middle School Computer Laboratory with the middle school students. in the Middle
School' s laboratory there are 25 computers, one printer. and one scanner. Both computer
laboratories consist of Pentium One computers. Apart from the computers in the
laboratory, teachers teaching five years old and up each have one Pentium One computer
in their classrooms.
The preprimer and primer teachers do
not use
the computer lab with the students
and do not have a computer in the classroom. The grade one junior to grade five teachers
each has a computer in the classroom. The grade one junior teachers to grade three
teachers use the elementary computer lab that consists of2O computers and two printers.
The grade fours and five teachers use the middle school lab that consists of 25 computers
and a printer. Both computer labs are networked within its own computers.
The administrators schedule each class's computer period. Each class is allocated
two 45-minute laboratory periods a week. Both laboratories are ftilly booked, so there is
io additional time period available for teachers to take their class to the computer lab.
f Li:
4.1.2 Resources
There is one technician in the school. He has the responsibilities of maintaining
all the computers in the school including all three-computer laboratories (high school,
middle school, and elementary school). which is a total of 95 computers. He is also
responsible for the school's server and the administration work related to it such as
maintaining the network and developing student' s report cards. The technician is often
quite busy arid works accordingly to the work orders put in by teachers aid
The techniciarfs first language is Chinese, and his second language
spoken is English.
ICT Head
The Middle SchooPs Mathematic and Computer Teacher is the ICT Head. His
teaching schedule is equivalent to a tÙll-tinie teacher. He teaches 30 periods a week with
five preparation periods. He is responsible for the ICT curriculum ordering textbooks
foi: the students, arid purchasing CT resources. The CT Head is given a budget to make
the necessary purchases for ICT for the Elementary and Middle schooL The amount he
receives is less than the amount than the Math, English, Science, and Social Studies
departments. This is surprising as ICT requires a substantial amount of funding to
maintain and update the technological resources. He also provides some professional
development workshops related to the yearbook and the web page, for example, how to
use the digital camera, how to produce yearbook layout pages with Photoshop, and how
to load work onto the website.
Softwar&s and Books
The books and the software are located in the library and can be checked out with
the librarian.
Teachers have access to computer books purchased by the ICT Head.
These books are additional resources apart from the textbooks that students' use. These
books teach teachers ICT skills, and give them ideas for their lessons.
Software are also available to the teachers. They cover many different teaching
grade levels and subjects. These are all individual software' s and an entire class cannot
use one program at one time.
Teachers are able to use multiple copies of different
programs, however, there are only a few copies for each grade level.
The students from grade one senior to grade five students purchase a compulsory
computer textbook in which the teachers use for their computer classes.
4.2 School culture in regards to ICT
Research question: How does iCTaffect the teacher's teaclitng, knowledge, attitude. and
The importance of discussing the school culture is to get an overall understanding
of the vaJues beliefs, and traditions of the entire elementary school in regards to ICT.
School culture as stated in the literature review is defined as "A school culture is a
representation of what its members collectively believe themselves to be. It is their self-
concept. It reflects what they value and what they express to others as being 'important
around here.'... an organization's perception of itself shape what it ultimately becomes,
or what it represents to others" (Hughes, I 999, p.65). The members in the school do not
regard ICT very high on the agenda,, this can be seen through daily observations and how
administrators and teachers handle and discuss ICT.
During the school's weekly
meetings, occasional ICT issues and problems arise with ittle or no resolution. Teachers
all agree to various problems, but the principals take minor action. The principals value
other subject areas more importantly than computers. As computer lessons are specialist
subjects it is not looked upon as a significant core subject and its impact is not as strong.
If the leaders of the schools do not take much initiatIve in computers, it makes it more
difficult for the teachers to try and implement technology into their lessons.
administrators who are the ones who work towajds the school's goals influence teachers.
The school' s value in return is low towards technology and reflects a traditional school,
where technology does not impact on the school very much.
Thus, many teachers teaching style follows the teacher-centered model, where
learning is a linear, individual process (UNESCO Report, n.d.). Teachers feel they need
to control and direct all aspects of learning. As technology is shifting from teachercentered approach to student-centered approach. teachers need to be able to give students
more options and responsibilities for their own learning. This student-centered approach
will allow students to actively learn, seek, and construct knowledge. Teachers within this
school are not familiar with this approach as
they were
not taught this in their teacher
education program, nor was it used when they were students. Tethnology has brought a
shift in teaching approaches where in the past infonnation was transmitted to the students
and now in the 2l century it is a student-centered approach where teachers are
facilitators, facilitating students' own learning at their own pace. However, this school's
culture still holds the traditional methods, their ICT value and beliefs are not strong
enough to take action and move onto the student-centered approach.
From the interviews, teachers also collectively agreed that the computers are
outdated and difficuh to manage. This pro&lem has grown into such a great problem that
many teachers are reluctant to use the computers. Some claim that they have anxiety
going to the computer Jab because of the uncertainty and unreliability of the equipment.
Others have claimed that it is a waste of time to go to the computer lab because more
time is spent on managing the hardware and software, that little time is used for actual
teaching and learning. Because ofihese reasons, six out ofthe seven teachers do not put
much attention into the planning of computer lessons, nor trying to integrate computer
into other subjects. This causes teachers ICT knowledge to become stagnant. The one
teacher that does put attention into the computer lessons does so because she has the
experience ofteaching with computers before.
The two respective principals are not taking enough initiative in implementing
and integrating ICT into the school. This may be causing the teachers to be unwilling to
put effort into ICT. With both parties not having strong interest in ICT, teachers won't
need to put too much emphasis on ICT and hence, students will have less learning in that
Teachers and administrators attitude, value and belieftowards makes a weak ICT
program. What needs to be focused upon now is the teacher's background in order to
discover why this type of culture is happening where principals and teachers are not
adapting to the change brought upon by ICT.
4_3 Teachers background- 13 teachers
Looking at the teacher's background will help us discover what the school is
strong in ana what does the school tack in forming a strong ICT program. Although there
is not much support from the two principals in regards to ICT implementation and
integration, the school culture is a 'representation of the collective'. Teachers can help
shape the school tremendously.
From question 3 of the teacher questionnair; t I teachers have been teaching for
2-10 years, and the other 2 have taught for 10-20 years. The implementation ofICT into
schools had only begun during this time. As it was a new area, accepting change was
difficult. The age of the teachers is mainly between 25-49. This may be a factor in the
low use ofICT, as technology was riot used as much in their educational and
earlier years
for learning and pleasure.
From question four of the questionnaire (Appendix A). I I ofthe I 3 teachers were
not educated with the use of ICT in their teaching program. The two that had training in
JCT from their teacher training have responded that it was very minimal and not age
appropriate. The training was focused on higher grades, which makes it not applicable to
their current age group. They have also not used their training, so no new knowledge was
formed. Teachers who have not received computer training in
their teacher program have
responded in their interviews that they only used computers to process word documents.
The library was used as their main source of information and the Internet was rarely used
for searching for information.
Looking at table 6 below, this clearly shows that the teacher's ICT competency is
at a basic level, with the exceptions of Word processing and Internet skills. This
competency was taken from the question 8 from the teach&s questionnaire. Without
formal training in computers, their ICT competency level is low.
Please specifr your level of knowledge of the
_followiugjCT techniques
Word processing
Presentation software
iniet usage skills
Multimedia design
Basic operations of a computer
File management
Usage of educational software
Integration of ICT into teaching and
I able 6. Question
trom the teacher questionnaire (AppendIx A: n=i 3)
Comparing the aboye question in Table 6 with question seven from the
questionnaire 'Please speefty the importance of the following ICT knowledge", almost
all responses Were neutral to very important. Teachers find these skills necessary, yet
they do
not possess
these skills. Also, from question ten of the questionnaire, 'Do you
require any more training?", many of the teachers responded 'training not needed
these teachers find ICT important, yet they feel they do not need any training.
From question i i of the teacher questionnaire "Do you encounter any difficulties
in integrating information technology into teaching?", all I 3 teachers replied yes. When
asked where they would seek help from question 12 ofthe questionnaire, the 13 teachers
responded in the Table 7 below.
12. When you encounter difficulties in using
wouldyou seek help?
ICT coordinator
Media (e.g. TV, magazine, etcL
Table 7. Question 12 from the teacher questionnaire (Appendix A: n=13)
Table 7 above shows that teachers have difficulties, yet not all seek help.
teachers responded to 'never' seeking help from the ICT coordinator. This may be an
example that the ICT coordinator role is no longer needed, which
reinforces the I-long
Kong education departments decision for eliminating this position.
i 1 of the i 3 teachers have not attended any ICT professional development in the
past year. The 2 that did responded the
were useful in the integration of ICI for
educational purposes. This may show that professional development is effective and
useful. When asked "Where do you usually acquire ICT knowledge?" from question 14
questionnaire, the teachers responded in Table 8 below.
14. Where do you usually acquire ICT knowledge?
Via colleagues or friends
Professional development
Computer magazines
On-line e-zines
Table 8. Question 14 tiom the teacher questionnaire (Appenctix A: n=13)
Table 8 shows that many teachers do not acquire ICT knowledge from various
sources. Although professional development is useful, teachers do not seek new ICT
Now that we know the teachers background, it will help us to understand more
about their ICT competency arid the stage of ICT usage they possess. This will be
discussed in the next section.
4.4 Teachers stage ¡n ICr usage -7 teachers
Research question: What stage ofICT implementation are they in and why?
Teacher background has supported the fact that there are many teachers not using
technology in their lessons. To help categorize these teachers into different stages of ICI
usage. the framework of Newhouse, Trinidad, & Ciarkson (2002) was used. They have
created a framework that consists of five stages: Inaction Investigation, Application,
Integration and Transformation. On classification of the data there were no teachers in
Within the Investigation stage, there were three teachers.
Application stage had six teachers. The Integration stage had four teachers.
the Inaction stage.
Transformation stage had one teacher. Table 9 is a sunimary of the I 3 teachers ICT
competencies and the stage they are in.
Age 1eÏ
years old
7 years old
8 years old
6 years old
Table 9. Summary ofteachers ICT competency
years old
6 years old
From these I 3 teachers, seven were selected to be interviewed The teachers that were
interviewed were described in the following table:
Investigation (1)
ge Level Teach
No teacher
3-4 years old
Reference Name
No teacher
7 years old
8 years old
years old
Integration (3)
Qyears old
Transformation (4) 6 years old
Table i O. Teacher's stage oÏICT usage.
Application (2)
Each teacher interviewed will be referenced using the reference names in the
Table 10 above. This is to simp1it the teachers into their respective stages so we may
make the link easier.
Throughout the rest of this chapter, each stage will be discussed individually in
order to discover specific reasons and results of teachers being in that stage. Since there
were no
teachers in the Inaction stage, this stage will not be discussed. This stage is
where there is no integration of ICT in the classroom. As teachers are required to teach
computer lessons twice a week, all teachers' used the computers with their students in
some form and therefore are not categorized as being in the Inaction stage.
The findings during the interview Were very informative in establishing some
basic support teachers wanted to help them implement ICT.
Before we discuss their
current practices and uses of ICT, their teacher training program will be discussed first.
Table 1 1 below are some responses from teachers to their teacher training program.
Teacher responses
For me, we bad two computer courses, but the focus was on older children.
And we didn't have any.
perhaps teacher training would be good. Both
skills and ideas in the class. If I knew more, and I had ideas on how to teach,
then I would make my own lessons, and use it in the lessons I am doing.
r have been teaching for 1 6 years, how many computers were around i 6
years ago? In my first school the classroom, there wasn't a computer. Only
in the last few years have I seen computer labs, and we were required to take
children there.
Previously it was a computer in the classroom with a few
things to do on it. And it was very limited used. In England, there were no
computers. None.
Was not asked
My program didn't offer any cornputer courses.
Was not asked
suppose J was quite IT literate, it was part ofour teaching degree. So in our
first year of our degree, there was a computing course, and also in the second
year. There wasn't one in the third year.
Table i 1 Teacher training responses
4.4.1 Investigation: Teacher's ICT usage
The Teachers IA and IB were teaching the youngest group level and were
classified in the investigation stage. From the interview both teachers stated that they
don't find it necessary to be teaching computers to students so young. A lot of learning
should take place through interactions in the classroom where students can develop social
skills. Through observations, the principal of these two teachers discourages computer
lessons, as she felt it is not appropriate for such young children to be exposed to
computers in a laboratory nor be graded on their report cards. Both teachers did not use
the laboratory consistently.
Teacher IA did not teach with computers so this question was not applicable.
Apparently, lA does not use the scheduled computer periods with her class because the
Elementary laboratory does not have any speakers or headsets.
She does not find it
appropriate for her students at that age to be using the computers, as her students are too
young to read. She recalled how her teacher-training program did not bring in ICT. She
got most of her ICI knowledge through self-exposure. She feels insecure about teaching
it, as she was not trained using computers. I-1er response to some questions was not
Teacher IB used the laboratory inconsistently.
She would skip the computer
period pending on the lessons and the activities her students were doing that day. Both
teachers stated that their knowledge was limited in teaching computers and would rather
have a computer teacher specifically teaching the class instead. They would teach
computers with the help and assistance of the ICT Head and colleagues who provide
ideas and software. They did not seek their own software, as they were not fämiliar with
Their knowledge, attitude, beliefs and the age group of students they are teaching
is fully affecting their ICT usage. They don't have the knowledge nor feel adequate in
using ICT. However, both teachers seem content with their ICT perfomiance. They feel
that ICT has no impact on their lives. These factors are reason as to their placing in the
investigation stage.
44.2 Application: Teacher's ICT usage
In the observations ofteachers 2A and 213 classified in the application stage used
ICT more than the investigation stage. However, it appeared that their own knowledge of
computers hindered them from furthering ICT usage. From the survey) it was found that
these two teachers did not have computers in their teacher-training program.
their first year in teaching computers.
It also is
They do have concerns about their own
competency and often seek help.
Teacher 2B mentions the bad experiences she had in the past which affected her
ICT usage. She made the assumption that since most students are returning students their
ICT skills would in the same level.
However, students ICT skills are very different
which makes teaching very difficult.
She also stressed how she felt very upset about
teaching ICT and the administrators where not enough support is given. Teachers are the
ones who are actively discovering problems and having the job of following up on it
ensuring the problem is solved. She feels that it is the technician'sjob and not hers.
Both teachers have been looking into further developing their own computer
Teacher 2A has started computer workshops outside of school to help her bui'd
her own computer knowledge. Teacher 2B has looked into programs being offered and
considered taking courses.
She has also signed up for the web page team at school
hoping to learn more about computers. Through observations these two teachers do try to
use the computers and incorporate it into other subjects. Both teathers often feel very
frustrated in using ICT.
They want to use it, but lack the knowledge.
But they are
actively seeking help and wanting to contribute to the school in ways to improve
technology at the school.
4.4.3 integration: Teacher's ICT usage
Both teachers (3A and 38) in this stage discussed their computer usage in the
interview. They both showed confidence in teaching and using the computer. They were
both also able to list
areas where they integrated ICT into other subjects. They had
lots of ideas to share as to how the school could improve on using ICI more and in what
way. There were also some ideas on how to help inspire teachers in using ICT. Apart
from using the textbooks both teachers incorporates different computer lessons. Both
teachers know what is available and what their responsibilities are. They will fulfill them
and do what is needed to get the job done. Teacher 3A did admit that she was still
lacking a lot ofICT knowledge, which hindered ber own ICT usage. Her unfamiliarity in
ICT stopped her from going into new areas. She stated she was comfortable teaching
ICT, but would like to further investigate on more ideas and lessons.
observations they seem to understand how ICT is impacting our lives and both are trying
to provide their students with necessary kiowIedge. Their own knowledge and beliefs
were found to be factors as to why they are in the integration stage.
4.4.4 Transformation: teacher's ICT usage
Teacher 4A was classified in the transformation stage and had been an ICT
coordinator for three years at her past school. She had lots of ideas and suggestions as to
how the school could improve technology. In the interview she referred a lot back to her
previous school in ways of using ICT.
However, in this school she is not using
technology to her fullest capabilities, as this school does not provide her with the proper
She stated many different ways of implementing ICT and what proper
equipment will be needed. Some ideas were given from her interview were:
> I have looked at my own curriculum from the UK, and what kind of things they
should be doing at this age.
> We were concentrating on the communicating in terms of word processing and
the painting package.
There are also things; it is really hard to do emailing with them when they don't
have an email. lt would be good to have a school-based email, so it is protected
in the school, have an SP or something that provides the school this kind of
> I think that the technician should be checking the
computers every
morning. Just
to check the network and printers are all working.
> I think every computer needs to have speakers. And we need space in between
the computers. Perhaps sixteen, but the room should be bigger. They also need
some way to secure the boxes, so students are not kicking them or hitting them.
They also can't get their chairs or feet because the boxes are on the floor.
She demonstrated her understanding of how ICT needs to be revolving around the
school's plan and budgeting and not something looked at on its own. She offered
school and her colleagues the ideas she has to help improve the school's technology
organization. Fier background and knowledge is a big factor in being classified in the
transformation stage.
Understanding teacher's ICT usage and what is affecting their usage is the
beginning of this case study. Apart from their own knowledge what the school provides
and what age level they teach are factors that can affect
usage. The next step was to
investigate ICT integration. Do teachers integrate ICT into their teaching, if so how, and
if not why not?
4.4.5 Summary of ICT usage
Teachers lA and IB in the application and investigation stage admitted to the lack
of knowledge and confidence in using ICT. They dont want to teach computer
to their students. They suggests that a teacher should be hired to teach computers or
computer teaching assistant for their computer lessons. These teachers had difficulty, as
they were not experience in teaching with computers.
Teachers 3A, 38, and 4A
classified in the integration and transformation stage teach their computer classes with
less anxiety and fulfill their teaching roles. However, teachers in these two stages would
like to be able to do more than what they are doing now, they know what the school can
provide to better help improve their lessons.
4.5 Integrating ICT into other subjects
In the present moment in society ICI should be looked upon as another way of
teaching and learning. It is not a separate subject on its
but an important tool to
have and use integrated into the teaching and the learning environment. ICT should be
taught and used outside of computer lessons. To better support the teachers we need to
have a better understanding ofhow much ICT is being used and what may be some of the
problems that they have.
4.5.1 Investigation: Integrating ICT
In the investigation stage there is not a lot of integration of ICT happening.
Teacher IA, as mentioned earlier, does not teach computers she does not seek ways of
how computers can be integrated into other subjects. Teacher lB rarely integrates 1CT
with her class. She seldom uses the computer for mathematics and speLling lessons.
They both strongly felt that computer lessons in the laboratory were neither necessary nor
appropriate for students at that young age. They don't feel computers should be used at
this age and more focus should be put into student-to-student interaction and build more
on their social skills.
Therefore in the
investigation stage integration of ICT does not
4.5.2 Application: Integrating ICT
From the interview it was discovered that both teachers in the application stage
tried to integrate ICT into other subjects, but not very often. Teacher 2A integrated the
computer textbook lessons into other subjects. She would look at the computer textbook
topics and decide on what subjects she can also integrate it into. Teacher 2B does the
opposite. She would use what is being taught in other subjects and incorporate it into her
computer lessons. The reason of low ICT integration is the frustrations they both have
with the resources and software's. They don't have the knowledge to troubleshoot or
handle minor technical difficulties. The computers available are unpredictable which is a
cause of low ICT integration.
4.5.3 Integration: Integrating ICT
When this question was first raised both teachers were prepared and ready to give
me examples. Teacher 3A said, "Whenever we have the chance we would integrate, like
sports day, we use the paint program and Word." Teacher 3B said "There are certain
subjects that are easier to integrate with ICT. Math is good when you use it with
But science is a little more difficult for me. I find that it is very
experimental that we do with the elementary school, so I don't tend to have a lot of topics
that include science." Whereas the teachers in the investigation and application stages
stated 'no' right away or a pause and they seem to struggle in coming up with the answer.
Teacher 3A integrates the English, Art, and P.E. Teacher 38 mentions that some
subjects are easier to integrate than others and he integrates Math and Science. Not all
subjects can be integrated as he mentioned because ofthe software availability. However
the two of them do try and integrate as many subjects as they can with the available
4.5.4 Transformation: Integrating ICT
Teacher 4A does integrate ICT into other subjects. For mathematics she would
have students do repeating patterns as an example. In English she would have students
do sentence work with their grammar skills and they would also use Word Art for their
portfolios. She has a lot of ideas and has integrated ICT into other subjects in the past,
but admits to doing less now because of the
school's resources. One
quote from her
interview was "I know we have a technician, the technician isn't there checking them
every day. I had to be a technician, and that is very time consuming. It has been very
hard work this year." This shows that more time is spent on being a technician, rather
than the teacher. Another lack of ICT she found was the ICT curriculum. She replied,
"This school doesift have a clear ICT curriculum that students need to achieve at certain
levels. There also needs to be some kind of training for teachers. It should include
certain elements of ICT. The elements need to be identified for what students should be
learning at each age level." Therefore, she is not able to accomplish much teaching of
ICT to her students, as there is no clear curriculum for each grade level.
4.5.5 Summary of ICT integration into other subjects
Teachers IA and lB in the application stage do not integrate ICT. Their beliefs in
1CT for their students reflect their
usage of 1CT.
in the investigation and integration
stage Teachers 2A and 2B showed there is more ICT integration happening. Teachers 3A
and 3E, in the investigation stage, tried integrating ICT when they could. They were
putting in effort to integrate as they see the value and the importance of ICI. In the
transformation stage, teacher 4A had good ideas of how to integrate ICI and is cunently
doing so. However like the integration stage she also finds integration difficult without
the software and proper equipment.
4. 6 Collaboration of ICT
Research question: What kind ofcollaboration is there amongst teachers?
It is important to know how often ICI has been brought up and discussed within
the grade level meetings. This is a good opportunity where teachers can share ideas and
plan on ways to better teach ICT. Who they are discussing and collaborating with can be
a factor. If the teachers are not keen in using ICT nor have the knowledge there may
likely be less ICT collaboration and vice versa.
Collaboration is an important way of getting ideas on how to use and implement
Finding out how much collaboration exists in ICT amongst the teachers can
indicate how ICT is being learned, valued and discussed. This can also be an indication
as to whether there needs to be more opportunities for ICT collaboration.
4.6.1 Investigation: Collaboration
Teacher lA does not discuss nor collaborate ICT in her grade level meetings
because both teachers do not teach ICT.
Teacher 113 however, stated that not much
emphasis is put into 1CL Only what is taught in those computer classes twice a week
would be mentioned and discussed. Computers are looked upon as a side subject not a
core subject. They would also both use the laboratory inconsistently depending on their
schedule. Both teachers and their grade level teachers have very similar attitude towards
JCT. Therefore it is not a surprise that ICT is not discussed too much in their meetings.
4.6.2 Application: Collaboration
J_n the application stage discussion and collaboration is not a focus in their
Both teachers would discuss what they plan to teach with computers the
following week. They may also share resources and ideas if they bad any to use for the
These teachers had no desire or niotivation to use ICT, they take turns in
bringing in ideas for the lesson like a 'patch work quilt'.
Again the meetings of the
teachers classified in the application stage are similar to the investigation stage.
teachers they are meeting with are also not very keen in using ICT. Teacher 2A works
with another teacher who, like her, has been teaching for over 5 years. The two of them
don't have much knowledge in regards to ICT. Teacher 2B works with a teacher who has
been in this school for four years. She is accustomed to the lack of facilities and has
developed her own styles and lessons. Teacher 2B can just feed off her and not be active
in developing ideas.
4.6.3 Integration: Collaboration
Both teachers do discuss JCT in their grade level meeting. but at various leveis.
Teacher 3A does every meeting and together with the other teachers they would come up
with ideas for computer classes and how to also integrate it with other subjects. Teacher
3A stated, "Maybe on professional development days, we can be put into groups and
discuss ideas for how to use ICT and how to use it with other subjects and how to use it
alone. Sometimes it is difficult if you are a1one and we have three teachers. But it can
be better if we have more teachers thinking about one thing."
Within the group of
teachers one ofthern consist ofteacher 4A who has been the ICT Coordinator in her past
school. This can also explain the higher level ofICT discussion.
Teacher 3B who has been at this school for five years now does not find himself
focusing too much on ICT in their grade level meeting. The teacher he collaborates with
has also been in the school for five years. They both have developed their own teaching
styles and not been actively discussing ICT plans. Fie also states in his interview that it is
difficult to plan with the teacher because the students' ICT levels are so different which
puts their classes at different learning paces. Teacher 38 replied "We are not specific
partly because it is difficult to know what we are going to do in computers because
sometimes the kids take longer than usual. We try to keep it general."
4.6.4 Transformation: Collaboration
As Teacher 4A and Teacher 3A are both in teaching in the same grade they both
admitted to collaborating and discussing of what to teach for computers and how to
integrate. They would also brainstorm ideas on how to integrate ICT into other subjects.
They would share their ideas and lessons with each other, as their lessons and styles are
very similar. Teacher 4A stated, "Yes, we integrate all our subjects into IT, and discuss
this with each other when we can." Teacher 3A stated, "For example when we plan
English, we try to think ofwhere we can fit computers in.' This demonstrates that they
collaborate ways in integrating ÏCT into other subjects. Also, how 1CT is not just viewed
as a separate
but involve other subjects.
Teachers not only need time given for collaboration, but the people whom they
collaborate with are important. If the teachers value ICT and have the knowledge to use
ICT there would be more ICT collaboration in these grade level meetings.
teachers are pessimistic or unenthusiastic about ICT there will be less effort put into ICT
related lessons and it will get neglected.
4.6.5 Summary of collaboration of ICT
As mentioned earlier ICT collaboration depends a lot on who is in the
collaborating party. In the application stage the teachers all have the same belief of not
wanting their students being exposed with computers too much. In such situation ICT
collaboration is not very active. In the investigation stage, although the teachers seem to
value ICT, their lack of knowledge and the teachers they work with binders them from
ICT collaboration.
4.7 Support provided ¡n ICT implementation and integration
Research question: What kind ofsuppor! isprovided to the teachers?
4.7.1 Investigation : Support provided
Teacher IA found no positive support from the school. Teacher lB likes the fact
that the school has an ICT Head at the school and is willing to give up his prep time to
assist teachers with their lesson. However, she is unable to utilize the Ficad as their
period's conflict. She also finds minimal support from the school.
4.7.2 Application: Support provided
Teacher 2A has had the ICT Head assist her in one computer period and found it
very helpful as he has the knowledge of troubleshooting. She also has the help of a
secondary student who has some technical skills. The student will assist her with her
computer lessons. Also she has utilized the secretaries to help her with some of her
lessons when a problem occurs. The secretary was usually also able to help solve her
computer related problems on the spot. However, the secretary in the Elementary side
has been changed and the new secretary is not able to help her due to the lack of
computer knowledge. Apart from human support there has not been a great deal of
positive support in other areas.
Teacher 28 finds the computer
books in the ibtary and the ICT Head to be
support. However, she does not have time to read those books. She is reluctant to seek
the ICT Head's help as she does not want to take away his planning time. Both teachers
do not have enough support to help them with their ICT lessons.
4.7.3 Integration: Support provided
During the interview there was controversy as to whether the support is helpful or
not. Teacher 38 found that the web pages that have been developed recently on the
school website to be very useful for the teachers, students, and parents. It gives students
another resource to seek information. This was the only support he was able to think of.
He is actively looking and learning more about ICI in his own time. He is a self-learner
and does not rely on one source such as the school. Teacher 3A does not find the
school's support helpful. She is aware ofthe books available in the library; however, she
has not had time to read up on it, as her schedule is very busy. She also does not use the
software's available in the library with the students because there is only one copy of
each. In the integration stage one teacher found a positive support recently and the other
teacher did not.
4.7.4 Transformation: Support provided
As a past ICT Coordinator, teacher 4A sees no support for ICT. She is very
disappointed with the school's facilities. In her past school she provided
with many workshops, software, and assistant. She also had a technician to support her
along the way. What she is given from this school is nothing compare to her previous
school. She is unable to utilize her knowledge to the fullest due to many limitations.
4.7.5 Summary ofsupport provided
Teachers in the application, investigation, and teacher 3A in the integration stage
stated they were negative towards the support provided in the schooL V%at they felt
positive about was having an ICT Head who was good support but he was not always
available to them, so they did not utilize him. Teacher 3B in the integration stage seemed
to be positive. He has been in this school for five years and is accustomed to the support
given to him, also having high interest and good ICT knowledge allows him to fulfill his
task without too much support from the schooL Teacher 4A also having a strong ICT
knowledge felt that support was not positive. Given that she was an ICT Coordinator in
the past she has high expectations of support from the school. She knew what should be
provided and what teachers do need to use ICT.
48 Support required ¡n ICT implementation and integration
Research question: What kinds ofsupport do teachers need to enable them to implement
ICT successfiuly?
4.8.1 Investigation: Support required
No computer 'subject' nor grades given to young students
Both lA and lB strongly felt that Computer class should not be a subject on its
own. It should only be used when applicable. Both teachers felt that students also should
not be graded in computer. They found it 'unfair', as some students are more literate than
others. Students at this age should not be assessed in computers because emphasis should
be on their social development instead. They should be given more opportunities to build
their basic knowledge foundation and social skills.
Hire a computer teacher to teach computer
If computers have to be taught to this young age group they felt that there should
be a computer teacher there teaching it and not themselves. Both teachers felt that their
teacher training program did not prepare them to teach computer classes. Teacher lA did
not have any computer classes during her teacher training program. Teacher lB had
some computer classes, but the focus was more on older students, what she learned was
not applicable to her age level students.
Professional Development
Teacher IA wanted professional development spent on building teacher's
personal computer skills and bringing in practical information for their computer lessons.
She strongly felt that building her ICT knowledge would enable her to teach JCT and felt
more confident in using it. This is suggested to be a monthly workshop.
Teacher I B wants professional development related to pedagogy. Giving teachers
ideas and pedagogical information to assist them in their teaching and ideas on how she
can integrate ICI into other subjects. She would like this at the beginning ofthe year for
about two to three sessions.
Lack of hardware affects their teaching.
Both teachers complained about the
computers in the Elementary Laboratory. Teacher lA refuses to go into the laboratory
because ofthe lack ofheadset and speakers. Students in her age group cannot read. A'so
she does not have a computer in her classroom, which does not enable her or her students
to be exposed to a computer.
Teacher lB is frustrated with the computers and finds
herself spending too much time fixing the computers rather teaching and using them.
Teacher lB wants a laptop in the classroom as oppose to a computer. Also adding a
printer and a projector in the classroom to better assist her lessons. Both of them would
like to have working computers, speakers, headsets, and also a projector in the lab to
assist them with their lessons.
As the age of the students are very young both teachers felt that software subject
related would help them with ICT integration and their computer lessons. They are both
not familiar with the available ed'ucational software at school. Presentty the school bas
only one copy of each software so it cannot be used in the laboratory. Both teachers want
software available on all the computers in the laboratory.
4.81 Appicaton Support reqtdred
Teachers in the application stage suggested a few supports similar to the teachers
in the investigation group.
Full Time Tecbnicìan/JCT Human Resource
Both teachers stressed the need of a technician focusing oniy on the Elementary
Laboratory. This person needs to be able to actively target the problem that arises. This
person will be there to actively monitor the laboratory and their second role can be to
assist teachers with their lessons.
Teacher 2B commented on riot having the budget to
hire such person, therefore the school should seek out available human resources within
the school. For example have teachers teach each other some basic technical skills.
Professional Development
Teachers 2A and 28 wanted workshops. Teacher 2A has no computer training
nor is competent in using Computers.
Teacher 2B has no experience in teaching
computers she has no experience and is very stress with the improper hardware. The
focus of the workshop would be to provide teacher' s basic computer skills first. Then
bring in other technical skills where teachers can operate the hardware and learn to
troubleshoot. Both teachers will like to have this available at the beginning of the year
with follow up workshops. Teacher 2A also suggested to have attendance certificates for
the teachers as an incentive and a fee1irg of accomplishmeiìt. She also would like to
have the focus of the workshops ori inspiring teachers to teach students from all
Elementary grade levels.
Both teachers raised the issue of seeking computer courses outside of school.
Teacher 2A signed up for two computer workshops, but was asked to pay for the supply
teacher covering her classes on those two days. Teacher 2B also considered taking
additional qualification courses to upgrade her own computer knowledge and skills.
However, there would be time consumption. Both teachers would like the school to
support them with this by providing workshops in the school where there is no penalty
involved such as money issues and extra time used outside of school hours. Both
teachers felt that the school was not supportive enough and stressed that they want to feel
confident when teaching their lessons.
Resources/Hardware, Software
Both teachers expressed the need for proper hardware. Teacher 2B stated that the
quality of the hardware is poor. The computer doesn't run properly, there are neither
speakers nor headsets. Teacher 2A wants good working hardware. A projection was also
requested from both teachers to enable them to give out a lesson to the class clearly and
visibly at the beginning of their lessons. It would also allow students to follow through
with them. Both teachers expressed interest in having more software available. Teacher
2B wants a good typing program. Teacher 2A wants
subject related software
and also
encyclopedias. The software should be networked onto the computers in the laboratory
and notjust one copy ofeach available in the library.
Teacher 2A wanted the Internet in the classroom, also safe guarding the Internet
in the computer lab. She runs Internet searches with the students that lead to obscenity
and unsuitable websites.
Teacher 2A pointed out that the curriculum for computers was not clear. She only
has the student's textbooks to go by and wbafs written in the student's report cards. A
policy document for ICT is needed where a broad framework with clear attainment
targets and including how technology can be integrated. The teachers have not seen the
Computer curriculum, but were told that there was one.
Integration: Support required
In the integration stage, Teachers 3A and 3B has mentioned similar supports from
the teachers in the investigation and application stages. However, their focuses were a
little different.
Teacher 3A would like to have three computers as opposed to one in her
classroom and hooked to a printer. She suggested that students at that young age (six
years old) wanted and needed to have a hard copy given to them rather than soft copies
only. This would enable her to do learning centers in the classroom with computers
being one center where students can further explore and more exposure in during
independent time. Teacher 3B would also like to have a projector in the classroom. This
would enable him to do notes and lessons on PowerPoint. He would be able to keep the
notes for the future and incorporate more visuals into his lessons.
Teacher 3A also wants all the computers in the laboratory to be hooked to the
printer. So students may print off from the computer they
are in
and not having to save it
onto a disk or network and printing it offthe main computer.
Teacher 3B also would like the school to provide pocket PCs for every teacher.
This will help with their planning and communication. It would enable them to pass
messages and agendas in a quicker manner. Teachers could also use it to do grading
which is handy and efficient as oppose to using paper and making copies, this is 'ess
cumbersome. Along with that teachers can record videos, voices, and do anecdote notes
this makes teaching more efficient and more tool to use.
Teacher 3A wanted all the computers in the laboratory to have software relating
to Mathematics and English installed in them. Or possibly have five English, five
Mathematics software, and the rest can be gaines. She wanted to have more variety in
her lessons. Teacher 3B wanted to have a more simplified version for MS WORD that is
more user friendly for the students. He finds MS WORD too sophisticated for his group
of students (ten years old).
Both teachers wanted the Internet on the classroom computers. This would allow
students to have access to it apart from laboratory sessions. This wouki also give
students independent computer time in the classroom. Teacher 3B wanted the school to
continue with the Jnternet support focusing more on improving the school's web page.
Giving teachers more ideas in making their web pages more attractive and to empower
the teachers
to use it more.
Laboratory Support/Technician
Teacher 3A
wanted to have working computers. She was frustrated with the
computers not working and constantly having to discover problems during her lessons.
Computers not running properly, keys not working. computers not networked are very
frustrating. She does not appreciate the fact that the problems are not resolved before her
computer lesson, but during. The procedure in solving the problem is time consuming.
For example, when she discovered the printer had no ink she had to fill in a work order to
request for more ink. Afterwards, she was told to
refill in
the work order with the
printer's model number before ink can be issued. Then she was given the ink to put into
the printer. A simple task of replacing the ink in the printer took many steps and at the
end she had to figure out how to place it in. This was too time consuming. There needs
to be a technician monitoring the computers and printer.
I 00
Have the computer
laboratory schedule available for teachers to sign up for extra
periods. She does not know if there are extra slots available, but would like the option of
being able to sign up for extra periods when necessary.
Professional Development
Both teachers wanted professional development, howe'er, not for the same
purpose. Teacher 3A wanted to have available courses for teachers to build on their own
basic computer skills. This would involve teaching programs such as MS WORD, the
Internet, and PowerPoint.
She suggested having this at least four times a
consecutively and after that it can be offered monthly. These courses should also be
followed up after the Christmas break, so teachers will not forget and can review what
theyve learned.
Apart from offering courses she would like the professional
development to be used on brainstorming ideas of how to use ICT. Software should also
be discussed in these sessions. Teachers can learn from each in small groups to discuss
idees ou how t use and iniegrate ICT. lt would be more appropriate to put teachers in
similar teaching grades so ideas can be applicable.
Teacher 3B would like to see professional development used in inspiring teachers
to use ICT. This will be a time for teachers to be exposed and capturing their interest in a
more infonnal way. This should not be a mandatory session, but providing teachers with
different sessions and different focuses and topics. Hopefully this can be an initial start
for teachers to expand their ICT knowledge and develop enthusiasm for using ICI.
These sessions can be used to introduce and update teachers with new gadgets applicable
for them.
Teacher 313 wanted a clear ICT curriculum where ¡t states objective of student's
For example,
typing is in the cuniculum, however, it's very vague. Does not
specify skills or typing speed students need for that age group. This makes teaching arid
assessing difficult, as it would be very subjective and not unifiect
4.8.4 Transformation: Support required
As a past ICT CoordInator Teacher 4A would like to see many things that were
available in her past school to be brought into this school for a stronger ICT curriculum.
As teacher 4A noticed the equipment provided by the school currently is worst than what
she was using five years ago and had many suggestion for improvements as she has a
strong ICT background.
The school needs to hire a technician to test computers and printers everyday
earlier in the morning. Rather than having teachers detect problems, filling in work order
forms and bringing it to the technician's attention, the technician should be actively
monitoring the computers. The technician for example can bring up MS WORD to test
and ensure that it is connected and running before the school day starts. Teacher 4A was
getting very annoyed and frustrated having to fulfill the technician's role as she has the
skills. This is taking up her time as her teacher's role during computer classes. It is very
difficult to incorporate and time consuming.
i 02
Computer Laboratory Environment and Equipment
The laboratory is too small for the amount of computers in there. The room needs
to be bigger to allow students to use the computers in a comfortable and respectable way.
The CPU needs to be secured. Very often students are kicking it and the cords are
everywhere. The seat and the computers are very constricted. Student's feet are too
squished and not able to mobilize.
The computer laboratory environment needs to
improve. Replace it with a bigger room provide secure boxes for the CPUs, have
adjustable chairs for the children, and tie up the cords nicely to avoid tripping or tangles.
Provide teachers with ink. Rather than having the teachers fill in work order have
it available for them in the laboratory. Students love to have and see their work on hard
copy. When the computers are not running properly and riot able to print out their work
they will
Auditory Equipment
Students should have headsets or speakers to use with the computers. At the
present moment there will not be enough room in the laboratory to add headsets and
speakers to each computer. When a bigger room is used for the laboratory the technician
should install headsets or speakers onto each computer.
There is lack of software to support the textbooks such as Mathematics, Science,
and Social Studies related. The software's offered by the school are too sophisticated.
E.g. MS WORD level s too high; graphics are not as child friendly as it should be. More
software's relating to other teaching subject should be provided to enable teachers to
integrate ICT into all subjects. This will also make ICT learning more enjoyable for the
Additional Rardware
Provide teachers with laptops.
student' s can also upgrade their skills.
Teachers can use it to improve themselves;
These laptops will take up less space than the
computers in the classroom. Teachers who need extra support or computer exposure can
take t home to better improve their 1CT skifls. Teachers cn alsc prepare their 1essns
with the laptops. With laptops in the school allows more flexibility in ICT usage.
The school lacks an ICT curriculum. There are missing benchmarks on the report
card, as it does not fully match what the teachers are teaching. Presently the benchmarks
are made up accordingly to the textbooks and that should not be the case.
benchmark should focus on attainment targets where students build their computer
literacy skills.
Teacher 4A is currently using the UK's cuthcuhnn, which she is familiar 'with.
However, the work achieved is higher than the benchmark written in the report cards.
ICT Plan
The school needs to have a strong ICT Plan.
reviews and evaluations of the school' s JCT program.
This is where ther& s dialogue,
This is where software' s are
brought in and discussed with the teachers specifically to their grade level.
Coordinator and the teachers are also working together. The budget for the ICT Plan
should not be looked upon as its' own. The whole school's budget should revolve around
the ICT Plan. This is a big investment for the school, budgeting should be invo'ving ori
how to bring in ICT. She said in regards to the schooFs ICT Plan, "The elements need to
be identified for what students should be learning at each age
training to meet that.
Then providing
I know the ICT budget needs to be huge, larger than Math,
English, and Science. It needs to be massive. It also needs to be part ofthe whole school
plan. Whole school spending should always include technology, arid it shouldn't be an
isolated budget. It should be part of the whole school budget. There needs to be an JOT
plan that
includes a budget and training." Since Teacher 4A has the experience of being
the lOT Coordinator in her past school she understands what the school needs to shift the
school's focus to a more ICT oriented progratn. At this school the ICT plan is not very
clear in terms of budgeting and learning outcomes. Teacher 4A responded, "This school
doesn't have a clear ICT curriculum that students need to achieve at certain levels. There
also needs to be some kind of training for teachers. It should include certain elements of
ICT. The elements need to be identified for what students should be learning at each age
level." Without a clear curriculum, teachers will be at a even greater loss of direction of
how to implement ICT.
Professional Development
Teachers need training from expertise. At the beginning of the year teachers
should be provided with practical, informative PD relating to ICT and the school's ICI
Plan. Some of the trainers can be teachers in the school who have the knowledge or
professional people in this field should be brought in to educate the teachers. Pedagogy
i 05
should be touched on so teachers know how to teach and implement ICT. Also what is
taught needs to be fallen back to the schooPs ICT Plan.
4.8.5 Summary of support required
Most teachers wanted working hardware. They shared their frustrations and stress
in regards to the computer laboratory. Teachers will not be able to teach their lessons
without working computers.
Many good suggestions were made such as to hire a
technician to help solve this problem. The school currently does have a technician
however he does not focus on the Elementary Laboratory. In the high and middle school
there is a computer teacher using that class most of the day. The computer teachers for
those laboratories have the teacher to monitor the computers ongoing. The Elementary
Laboratory does not have a fix computer teacher, therefore, daily monitoring is needed to
avoid computer breaking down during the lessons. Also this would avoid having time
wasted on writing out work orders and ensuring ifs followed up a few days later. The
problems can be fixed instantaneously. Along with proper hardware, software where also
Teachers in the application stage want software, however, they don't know nor
have any ideas what software they can use. Whereas in the investigation stage, which is
trying to use ICT with low ICT knowledge were able to name software that they know
can help support their computer lessons.
Teachers also indicated the need for practical Professional Development
workshops. Many of them in the application, investigation, and integration want basic
computer knowledge. Teacher 3B who has an ICT background would rather see that
being used for introducing the latest technology as that is his interest. Teachers in the
integration and transformation want those workshops also to be used for pedagogy.
These are a few important suggestions that teachers need to have to teach and implement
4.9 Change ¡n teaching methods.
When the proper support is provided such as techiñcal support, proper computer
lab and equipment, software that meets the learner' s needs, and a clear curricu1um what
hopes to find is teachers teaching styles changing and improving. Their lessons will
become less teacher centered, and more student centered. Also, teachers will incorporate
more ICT into their lessons.
4.9.1 Investigation: Change in teaching methods
Both teachers lA and 1
agreed that with the support they need given to them
they will use and integrate ICT into their lessons. At the present moment the hardware is
hindering their ICT usage along with their lack of knowledge.
Providing proper
hardware and knowledge will enable them to teach ICT. It would also change their
methods has they would be using more ICI into their lessons.
4.9.2 Application: Change in teaching methods
Given the support that they requested for both teachers 2A and 2B in this stage
also agreed on putting more emphasis in the computer curriculum. Perhaps they would
want to book the computer lab more for additional ICT lessons. They would be more
adventurous and feel confident when teaching. Teacher 2A does not feel that her style
would change as she would only be using ICI more effectively. Teacher 2B however,
I 07
felt that her teaching methods would change. She would plan 1CT more and integrate it
4.9.3 Integration: Change in teaching methods
With the given support both teachers 3A and 3B stated they would use more ICT
in their lessons. Teacher 38 would find himself using more visuals and sound. This
would change his teaching styles incorporating more technology into his lessons. He will
also be more tempted to create PowerPoint presentation
and save it for future lessons.
Teacher 3A will also use more computers in her lesson but will not find her styles
changing as much unless there are computers in the classroom. Her style would only
change if she has the availability of 3 computers in the classroom with a printer to allow
her to do more leaniirig centers and independent learning.
4.9.4 Transformation: Change in teaching methods
Teacher 4A would definitely change her present styles. She would bring ICT
more into her lessons as she did in the past. When the facilities are at teacher's disposal
it would be more enjoyable to use for teachers and they can be more adventurous.
Teachers can be more creative and with
the proper ICT support
everything will be
different. There will be more ICT integration and the school can work towards building
a more advance technological environment Her styles would also changed, as she would
be using ICT a lot more in her lessons.
4.9.5 Summary of change in teaching methods
The seven teachers admitted to changing their teaching methodology when the
support was
givCn 10
them. They then would feel more confident and happier teaching
with computers. They would aTso find themselves using more ICI, which s the ultimate
goal for these teachers. Teachers need to feel comfortable carrying out their roles. This
will make teaching effective and updated and ultimately students will gain from teachers
good teaching.
4. 10 Summary of Research Findings
The seven teachers stated their suggestions in ways to better use and teach ICT.
next step from this would be to finalize the suggestions and solve the current
problems that the teachers are facing to help them improve their ICT lessons.
These are
suggestions in helping and assisting the teachers in the long run and wou'd help improve
and build a stronger ICI program for the school. The interviews showed that there are
existing problems that concern teachers. The interviewees suggest that the school should
look at the current situation and plan how to develop a better ICT program. This is a big
project. The school needs to acknowledge the problems teachers are having which is
affecting their roles.
The seven teachers expressed frustration in not being able to
produce effective ICT lessons.
A full time technician working at the elementary computer laboratory was
required by the majority of the teachers. They would like the technician to be physically
and actively working on the problems that arise. The technician needs to be proactive
with problems and solve computer related problems rather than teachers doing that and
having their computer lessons disrupted.
All seven teachers expressed more support is required in order to improve the ICT
usage within the school.
Some of the suggestions
technical support, proper
computer lab environment, sufficient equipment, software that meets the learner's needs,
i 09
and a clear curriculum. The teachers expressed that if these needs were met, their
methods of teaching would change. More ICI implementation would be employed both
in the classroom and during computer lessons.
5 Conclusion
5.1 Summary of findings
The 13 teachers were all at a basic level of ICT competency with the exception of
one teacher.
This research has found that these I 3 teachers find ICT important and
necessary in student learning, yet
teachers did not initiate or undertake any
professional development in CT as i I teachers out of the i 3 were not educated with the
use of ICI in their teaching program.
Out ofthe seven interviewees, one of the teachers was content with the school's
JcT program.
Teacher 3b was comfortable teaching and implementing ICT at this
It is important to take into account this teacher's background. Teacher 3b has
been teaching at this school the longest out of the seven teachers. 1-te was familiar with
the school's resources and expectancy.
It was also important to note that he is also the
one teacher out of the seven teachers who does not use the Elementary lab. Since he is
teaching grade five students he uses the Middle school lab, where there are 25 computers
as oppose to the 20 in the elementary lab. When a problem arises he is able to send his
student to another computer. Teacher 3B also showed high interest in technology. He
enjoyed exploring the new gadgets and is very updated with the latest technology.
How does ICT affect the teacher 's
knowledge, attitude, and beliefs?
Teacher lA had not taught computer classes for the entire school year and
Teacher 1)3 occasionally did not take ber class to the computer lab.
With this taking
place, teachers were avoiding teaching and implementing ICT. As these two teachers
were teaching the youngest age group in the school, the use of ICT was not greatly
emphasized. The principal also does not encourage ICT to be taught to this age level.
These two teachers admitted they had a lack of knowledge and confidence in teaching
There were three teachers classified in the investigation stage. Only four teachers
out of I 3 were in the integration and transformation stage. This shows that there is a
need of support to help the teachers move from the investigation and application stages to
the integration stage. From there as teachers become more comfortable integrating ICT
their attitude, competency will allow them to move onto the transformation stage.
Teachers in the investigation stages admit to not having the competency in teaching ICT.
They also lack the basic resources for them to integrate ICT. Teachers in different stages
brought up
support they need to help carry out their roles in ICT
implementation. However in the interviews, regardless of the stages teachers were in
there were three common support requested: professional development, a technician, and
hardware. Teachers 3A, 3B, and 4A complained that this lack of support has limited their
potential and possible potential in teaching with ICI.
What stage ofICT implementation are teachers in and why?
The first part of this study was to find out the stages of ICT implementation
teachers were currently in at a case study school. Finding the stages teacher's are in was
significant to the research, as the findings have helped identify why teachers are in that
stage and what they need to work on to help move them onto the next stage. Five stages
were used to classify teachers that were inaction investigation, application, integration,
and transformation. Teachers in the transformation stage clearly show that their level of
i 12
integration has become a norm for them arid they a'so carry out leadership roles in
managing ICT.
The goal of implementing ICT is to have all the teachers in the
transformation stage, where they can implement and integrate ICT into their daily
routines with ease.
Teachers working in the same school environment with the same resources given
to them were in different ICT implementation stages, due to their ICT background.
Although there were ICT literacy differences amongst the teachers, there were three
common needs requested from the teachers: professional development, a ful time
elementary technician, and working hardware. Since teachers are not in the same stages
and their ICT skills and beliefs were not the same either these requested resources may or
may not be used the same way. There were suggestions ofhow to utilize these requested
supports. However, these three requests were what the teachers found lacking from this
What kindofco1/aboraton is there amongst teachers?
Teachers within the application stage have very minimal collaboration in the use
of ICT. They all share the same belief of not wanting their students being exposed with
computers too much. Their principal also believes that ICT should not be taught to this
young age. With both parties agreeing that ICT should not be taught, collaboration does
not exist for JCT.
In the higher ICT implementation stages, collaboration was also lacking, as the
teachers complained of lack of knowledge and lack of necessary equipment. Although
these teachers value ICT in student learning, they do not put great emphasis on ICT.
i 13
What problems are teachers experiencing in ICT implementation?
Whether young or old, the case sti.idy teachers have stressed the fact that they
were not supported enough to carry out their
ICT roles effectively and positively.
teachers voice their difficulties of teaching with ICT. As a result these elementary
teachers are not implementing ICT into their lessons, which means students are not being
exposed to ICT apart from computer classes. One important support for these teachers is
to provide the knowledge they need to do their job that will give them confidence in
teaching with ICI.
What kind ofsupport is provided to the teachers?
Support from the principals was very minimal. The lower elementary principal
did not support the use of ICT because of her beliefs it should not be taught at this young
age level. The upper elementary principal did not initiate any knowledge sharing or
resources to the teachers.
Resources were found in the library, from books to software. Teachers were
aware of these resources but did not use it to a large extent. The books were
occasionally referenced for specific lesson plans. The software was rarely used as the
teachers complained that one copy was insufficient to teach the entire class.
The technician was very difficult obtain. Work orders were placed when there
were technical problems. The length oftime it took to have the problems fixed was quite
long. Teachers complained that the problems were consistent.
The computer head used his available preparation periods to assist some teachers.
Teachers did not request his help, as they did not want to use his valuable preparation
5.2 Requested Support
What kinds' of support do teachers need to enable them to implement ICT
5.2.1 Professional Development
The school has five professional development days scattered throughout the
school year. Most ofthe professional developments were not ICT related. The only ICT
related professional development given was to show teachers how to work on their
yearbook and web pages. This workshop Jated for one hour. The school only provided
teachers skills when there was a need for teachers to fulfiLl a task. Extra additional ICT
related skills and knowledge was not given to
the teachers. The need that the seven
interviewees wanted was professional development focusing on providing teachers with
basic computer skills and exploring ICT pedagogy. These teachers stated they lacked
basic skills and JCT pedagogy.
Also, most of them indicated that professional
development should be used at the beginning of the year where teachers can establish
their ICT skills and pedagogy to assist the schooF s curriculum. Teachers will have what
they need to carry out their roles smoothly and effectively in their lessons throughout the
They wanted to use professional development time in building stronger ICT
5.2.2 Technician
As mentioned earlier, the school technician overlooks the entire schooFs
technology. Most of the interviewees stressed the importance of having a Mt time
technician focusing on the Elementary lab only. Since the teachers are in the lab twice a
week and there is limited number of computers they need to ensure that teachers are
receiving maximum use of it. A technician is needed to help monitor the computers and
support the teachers.
Teachers admit to lacking the ICT knowledge and when the
equipment and support does not operate it makes teaching arid implementing ICT
During the interview, teachers stressed anxiety of using the com
school. Teachers complained ofeither lack ofhardware or hardware not working. Many
of the teachers constantly found hardware problems during their lessons. The school
needs to consider either updating the computers or monitoring them more frequeniiy to
avoid this additional stress to teacher's ICT integration.
£3 Recommendations and Implications
If the education system wants teachers to integrate ICT into their lessons, the
education system needs to begin emphasizing a greater importance of ICT in teacher
training. As Lai stated, "Teachers should begin their training in ICT when they are
student teachers" (Lai 2OOO p. 1 1). Although teacher 4A was trained, she was stili
frustrated teaching ICT due to hardware problems- Therefore, the school must address
the issues as a collective, rather than individual issue. Apart from gaining knowledge
I 16
during their personal computer exposure and from their courses, teachers need to be
trained how to use and implement ICT during their teaching training program. As some
teachers mentioned in the interview that they are missing the pedagogica! side of ICT.
They know and use the computer for their own personal usage, but lack the pedagogy
side. Teachers already in the workforce must receive other support.
One such support would be to form a community of learners. This is where
teachers collaborate and share ideas, issues, and concerns relating to ICI. But before
teachers ai-e put into groups to collaborate and build their learning communities, they will
need to be taught how to collaborate. If the school wants effective results and successful
findings. the school will do everything in a better, clearer manner. This helps to ensure
they all learn from the beginning and understand clearly what their roles and tasks are.
Within their groups
will need to discuss issues and problems they face with ICT,
share some thoughts and feelings where empathy will exist, and share models of best
practice. Teachers will be more supportive and understanding when they are working on
the same level. Together they can brainstorm ideas that will offer support they feel
needed to assist them in that level to better implement ICT. Ifthis shows positive results
the school can consider mixing the groups where teachers can collaborate and support
each other with their expertise and ideas. When the support is identified and teachers are
provided with recommendations they should make necessary assessments to better
improve the solutkns. Hopefti))y,
with this
initial start of buiJding a collaborathie
learning community teachers will have a stronger relationship build and a positive and
supportive working environment, moreover enhance student's learning.
Teachers may perhaps build coUaboration groups within the same ICT
implementation stage, so they will have support and empathy from each other as their
needs and support may be similar. With collaboration teachers will maximized the
strengths and minimize their weaknesses. They wiU have a sense of community and
belonging and opportunity to coach one another and learn from one another (Frieiid &
Cook, 2003).
This will make the teachers feel more relaxed and open during the
interview. Friend and Cook (2003, p. 126) demonstrate a collaboration group's cycle
called Teams Progress through a Life Cycl& as shown below.
Forming - Members examine their task, learn more about each other, and
clarify their reason for existing as a learn
Storming - Members resolve issues ofpower leadership, procedures, and
Norming -Teams establish role relationships and define leadership roles
and procedures for accomplishing their work.
Performing - The members align themselvøs and work tQward achieving
the tean s goaL
Adjourning - Having completed its task the team disbands.
The beginning stage of the cycle is where they learn about each other and their
purpose for becoming a team.
The storming stage is where they gain and share
understanding of their task and how to approach it. The norming stage is where they
establish their pattern of operation. This is where a team's culture and unique identity is
i 18
Performing is where the development starts off and makes efforts to
accomplish the goal. Adjourning stage will be the completion ofthe task.
5.4 Limitations
As this was a case study of an individual school, the findings can only be
generalized to other situations that are similar. in order for others to use this data, the
methodology employed within this research must be reproduced within their own school.
Perhaps the next study can use this methodology but increase the sample size.
The rese&cher found interviewing two teachers at a time has its pros and cons.
The positive note is that teachers can bring up issues that they may not of thought of.
They feel more comfortable having another teacher there with them. The negative side is
interviewing two teachers at a time allows them to feed off each other. Some of their
responses may not have been their own actual answer, but rather just agreeing with the
other teacher.
As some interviews were held during school time, the teachers focus and
Concentration may
have been a hundred percent on the interview, The interviews
occurred during teacher preparation periods. These teachers may have quickly answered
the questions in order to do other tasks. Likewise, interviews held after school hours may
have had some teachers rushing their answers in order to leave the school premises and
do personal tasks.
5. 5 Future research
During this research it was noted that teachers who taught a younger age group
had different computer standards and integrations from teachers with an older age group.
i 19
For further research in this area, teachers teaching higher grades and lower grades can
compare their beliefs attitude and stanthirds in ICT implementation.
What can also be
done in this age difference is to further investigate the middle and high school teachers to
find out similarities and differences in support in ICT. Teaching a higher-grade level and
being in a different part of the school may require different needs. including the two
other schools would provide the school with a more comprehensive view of the teachers
needs in technology. This further research may be able to solve their existing problems
in technology with elementary solutions from this case study.
Even though this study was an in-depth analysis on 13 teachers, what they gave
and suggested may not support what they ra1ly need. The requirements and support they
have requested may not be appropriate. Future research is needed to discover if their
requirements and support is necessary or what they have is sufficient to deliver the
learning of ICT.
What is the correlation between teacher's interest and what they teach? Does
their interest motivate them to teach? For example, Teacher 3B has high interest of
technology and showed enthusiasm towards it. His suggestions and feedback wanted to
get other teachers excited about techno1oy . Other teachers howed less intecest, and less
enthusiastic and motivation in teaching ICT. Does teaching ICT require interest to
motivate teachers in teaching and using ICT? Does this also apply to other subjects? A
ftiture study may investigate other subjects such as math or science and finding a
correlation. Teachers are expected to have the knowledge to educate students in different
areas. When teachers are unfamiliar with certain topics do they just teach to the best of
their knowledge or would they research and team the topic prior before teaching the
i 20
lessons? 1oes being interested in the topic play apart in their preparation for the lessons?
Most of the teachers showed anxiety and a small amount of interest in technology and
was reluctant to teach. What about other subjects, if there is less or no interest would
these teachers also be reluctant to teach it and teaching is only done to the
best of their
ability. If they were interested would they be less reluctant and provide their students
with more than their present knowledge and learn?
Research has indicated that children at a young age are knowledgeable and
capable of using computers (Clements 1999, cited in Cantor 200 1). However, teachers in
the application stage have the opposite feeling and rather not encourage their students to
use ICT. These two teachers did not understand nor value the need ofICT. Also, along
the saine note. teachers who mentioned about teaching CT is difficult as students
computer skills were varied also showing no understanding of ICT or the student learning
environment. Students should be learning at their own pace while teachers are there to
facilitate their knowledge building.
5.6 Reflection
Technology has changed a lot of the way we learn and the way we do things.
Teachers are becoming facilitators of knowledge. The teachers role is not disappearing
because of technology and the teacher's role as a facilitator. Rathe; it is the opposite.
teachers are more important then ever. Facilitating cannot be done by anyone. It is a
skill that builds on itself. Over time, the teacher' s role wilt strengthen. Sharp (2002)
states that ". . .teachers will always be essential, and their understanding ofhow to use this
technology in the classroom is indispensable". Simply facilitating students to use
technology may be one skill, but modeling the facilitation is another. Students will see
teachers as a role model, as they have in the past they will still in the future. The
teacher's role is important in any strategy that is employed (Cuthell 2002). Technology
is calling for a strategy the leans towards facilitation, and the best place to begin this
transformation is in the elementary Section of the school.
Elementary education is the initial start of a childs educational foundation apart
from home. This is the stage where kiiowledge is being built and social skills are being
developed. This is an important time of a child's life academically and socia!ly. The
groups of subjects chosen for this study were elementary teachers as they play an
important role
a child 's educational life. They provide the ear'y know'edge and assist
in building the child's educational foundation. Teachers who provide their students with
ICI skills will help
them build a solid ICT knowledge for their future. As
technology is slowly entering the education system teachers are being forced to
implement ICT into their lessons. Teachers need to quickly gain knowledge of ICT to
provide their students necessary knowledge. This study is currently in this situation.
Teachers need to teach their own computer classes regardless of their ICT competency.
As teachers have different skills and needs to be teaching and implementing ICT, schools
need to be prepared in providing necessary support to help these teachers. Only 2 out of
the i i teachers received computer training in their teacher program, the other teachers
will require support to help them implement ICT into their lessons.
When teachers struggle or are incompetent in implementing ICT this causes
problems in the child's education, where the child will not receive exposure of ICT or
lack the necessary skills to further their ICT knowledge. Students rely ori teachers as a
resource for providing knowledge.
Teachers are expected to be proficient in their
I 22
teaching as they are educators, educating students. They shoutd help build a strong
foundation of ICT knowledge, to help them understand the impact it will have in their
future. The teachers in this study agree that certain ICT skills are important. If teachers
are struggling with the ICI content immediate, action needs to be taken in helping these
struggling teachers and ultimately help the students.
When a good educational
foundation is built with the use of successful implementation of ICI, it will help create
prosperous students who will be the next generation in the technological era. Enabling
students to have the knowledge and skills to manage society's needs. To ensure students
are building a good educational foundation we need to ensure teachers are providing
them the knowledge and skills they need. Therefore, a good start will be to focus on the
elementary teachers who are already in
The history of technology in education has
been very positive, non-educators
bring in new innovations and slowly gain acceptance from the society. Gradually it
enters the educational system and forces teachers to use and implement into their lessons.
The early problems of technology in education has not been fixed, there do still exist
problems with technology and teachers.
technological teachers need to
be actively
As society is becoming more and more
providing their students with
skills and knowledge to prepare them for their future. This has been a continual pressure
for teachers and at the same time students are being affected, not receiving the knowledge
they require. Without providing effective support to the teachez lead to ineffective ICT
When teachers were asked what kind of kind of ICT support they needed to assist
them in teaching ICT, a few of them questioned as to whether the researcher was
I 23
referring to wants as in 'dream wants' or 'realistic wants'. This had to be clarified that
the requested support would be things they would actually use and assist them in their
lessons. There will always be wants' and having better equipment and resources is
always a want; however, teachers really need to utilize current resources and support
from the school and then consider requesting realistic computer related support to
enhance and improve their computer lessons. At the present moment, most teachers do
have what they need.
utilized. There is
There is a
software that is
technician. There is hardware that should be better
available. Although the current resources are minimal,
the research found that the teachers must learn how to utilize what they have to meet their
needs, their needs being to teach with computers and integrate ICT in many ways
The goal of this study was to discover ways to help all teachers reach the
transformation stage where using and teaching ICT becomes a norm. This study offers
other people insights to similar cases dealing with reluctant teachers and how to support
teachers in reaching the transformation stage. The school needs to offer and support the
teachers need to move from their current stage to reach the transformation stage. When
the teachers feel comfortable and content with their lessons their teaching would
ultimately improve and in the end students learning outcomes will also improve.
Students will be able engaged with ICT in a positive and effective way. They will use
what they learn to the fullest, which prepares them in for their future.
An outcome of using and teaching ICT to students is producing a socialconstruetivist learner environment and producing social-constructivist learners (Vuen &
Chow, 2000). These students will have the ability to make better decisions and produce
i 24
work that was self-learned and critically thought out, rather than regurgitation of the
teachers s work.
Social-constructivist learners learn through discussion, sharing, arid
critically reviewing their own and others work. It seems difficult for this environment to
be achieved because if the teachers are not receiving their required support, they cannot
hope to produce construetivist learners. Another problem is that teachers need to learn
new pedagogies on how to create a constructivist-learning environment. This is just
another area that teachers may not be
aware of in the
I 25
support they requested
A]bon R., & Trinidad, S. (2002). Building a community oflearners with tec1inoZoì. In
K. Appleton, C. Macpherson, & D. Oi-r (Ms.), Building learning communities through
education: Refereed papers from the 2 International Lifelong Learning Conference (pp.
50-56), Yeppoon, Queensland, Australia, lóth-l9th June. Rockhamptori: Central
Queensland University.
Bates, T. (2000).
Managing Technological Change -Strategies for College
University Leaders.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Becker, H. (2001). How are Teachers Using Computers in Instruction?
Learning, and Computing. [verified 27 Dcc, 2002]
r://.o.iicLedu!tIciF E N
Bransford, J., Brown A., & Cocking, R. (Eds.).
(1999). Technology to support learning.
Howpeople learn: Brain, mind, experience. andschool.
Washington, D.C.: National
Academy Press. [verified I I Apr 2003]
Branigan, C. (Ed.) (2000). Study: Two-thirds ofteachers use technology in their lessons,
but only a third feel we!! prepared. ESchoolNews Online. [verified 1 Nov 2002]
ttp:ffesehoolne s.com/newsfhowStory.cûn?ArtdeIDI43&refwt
Burton, M., Hughes, D., & Luebbert, L. (2001) Moving Forward: comparisons of
traditional methods oftechnology staffdevelopment and new innovations. Reaching the
Reluctant Teachers: comparisons with traditional methods oftechnoogy staff
development. [verified 20 Oct 2002]
http:/ftiger.coe. missou ri.ed uI-411ee911 u ebhert_researeh prop.html
Reprinted from Focus on Infants &
Toddlers ,
Cantor, P. (2001). Computers and the Very Young.
http://ww.udel.edu/bateman/acei/inf. oi.13.4.htrn
Carey, D. (1 993).
Teachers' Roles and Technology integration: Moving From Teacher as
2Learn: 2Learn Together Computers in the Schools,
9, n. 2-3, p. 105-1 18. [verified 25 Oct 2002]
w .2learn.ea/proj ects/togetherIKWORDS/traditia.btml
h ttp:/I
Director to Teacher as Facilitator.
CEO Forum on Education & Technology (2000). Teacher Preparation STaR Chart:
A Self-Assessment Toolfor Colleges ofEducation.
h«f//v1WW .eeofru
[verified 1 5 Apr 2003]
CEO Forum on Education & Technology (2001). Education Technology Must
Included in Comprehensive Education Legislation. A Policy Paper by the
CEO Forum on Education and Technology. [verified 15 Apr 2003]
Cohen, L
Manion, L., arid Morrison, K. (2000).
Research methods in education.
London; New York : Routledge/Falmer.
Colorado State University (2003). Writing at the Colorado State Universily: Case Stuffy.Introduction and Definition. Colorado State University. [verified 16 Apr 2003]
& Johnston M. (2000). Beyond Teacher Bashing: Practical, Philosophical,
and Pedagogical Influences on Educators' Use ofEducational Technologies. The
Technology Source. [verified 27 Dec 2002]
tp://wíerrLs.etht/HTM LS/Nev.-Jfvt/j
Cooley, N.,
Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines: the classroom use of technology since 1920.
New York; London: Teachers College Press.
Cuban, L., & Woodward, J.
(2001). Technology, curriculum, and professional
development: adapting schools to meet the needs ofstudents with disabilities.
Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
Cuthell, J. P. (2002). VirtualLearning: the impact
and learn. Aldershot, Hants, England : Ashgate.
Education and Manpower sureau (1998).
oflCTon the wayyoungpeople work
Consultation Document on the
Information Technologyfor Quality Education Five-Fear Strategy 1998/99 to
2002/03, Hong Kong SAR Government.
Education and Manpower Bureau (n.d.) Overall Study on Reviewing
the Progress and
Evaluating the Information Technology in Education (JTE4) Projects
¡998/2003. Hong
Kong SAR Government. Retrieved March 16, 2003 from the WWW:
eSchool News Staff and Wire Service Reports. (1999).
Technology still scares teachers.
eSchoolNews. [verified 10Apr2003]
http: /fescboolnews.com/showstory.cfm?ArticIeID6O7
Friend, M., & Cook, L. (2003). Interactions: collaboration skillsfor school professionals.
ed.). Boston : Allyn and Bacon.
Fullan, M. (2001). The New Meaning
London : Teachers College Press.
ofEducational Change.
i 27
ed.). New York;
Great Cities' universities consortuzn: Uban educator corps (no daEe). Gcuuee.org/LINESCOreport-chapl.rtf. ICT in Teacher Education. [verified 29 Feb 2003]
.cti-ie.crg L'
Hodas S.C. (1993). Technology refusal and the organizationalculture of schools.
Education Policy Analysis. [verified 2 Nov 2002]
'E :
Hughes, L. (1999). The Principalas Leader. By Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Jones, BY., Valdez, G., Nowakowski, J., Rasmussen C., (1995). Pluggtg In Choosing
and Using Educational Technology. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
[verified 4 Mar 2003]
Kent, T.W., & McNergney, R.F. (1999). Will Technology Really Change Education?
From Blackboard to Web. Corwin Press, Inc. Thousand Oaks, California.
Krathwohl, D R. (1998). Methods ofeducational and social science research. (2
New York: Longmari.
Lai, K.W. (2001). Professional Development: Too Little Too Generic? In K.W. Lai ELearning. teachfrg andpTofessional development with the Internet (pp. 7-17). Dunedin,
N.Z. : University of Otago Press.
Law, N., Yuen, H.K., Ki, W.W, Li, S.C., Lee, Y., & Chow, Y. (2000). Changing
Classrooms: A Study of Good Practices in Using ICT in Hong Kong Schools. Hong
Kong, Centre for Information Technology in School and Teacher Education, The
University ofRong Kong. <bttp:1'/sites.cite.hku.!k/>
Lee, T.W. (1999). Using qualitati-ve methods in organizationalresearch. Thousand Oaks,
California: Sage Publications.
McKenzie, J. (1994) From Technolow Refisal to Technology Acceptance:
A Reprise. From Now On The Educational Technology Journal Vol. 4 No. 9. [verified 20
Oct 20021 http://www'.fno.org/may94fn o.html
MeMiflan, J. H. (2000) Educational Research Fundamentaisfor the Consumer.
USA: Longman.
Merriam-Webster. (2002). Merriam Webster
[verified I Jan 2003] http://m-w.coml
Online. Merriam-Webster
Mooij, T., &: Smeets, E. (2000). The Impact of ICT on the Teacher. Paper for the
European Conference on Educational Research, University of Nijmegen, Institute for
Applied Social Sciences, Edinburgh.
I 28
Newhouse, P., Trinidad, S., & Ciarkson, B. (2002). A Teacher Professional
ICTAttributes Framework: Outcomes, guidelines, equipment and processes.
Unpublished: Department of Education Western Australia.
Pratt, K.) Lai, K. W. & Munro, P. (2001). Professional Deveiopmentfor ICT- using
Teachers. In K. W. Lai E-Learning: teaching andprofessional development with the
internet (pp. 21-29). Dunedin, Nl.: University ofOtago Press.
Rodriguez. G. (2002) Critical Issue: Providing Professional Developmentfor Effective
Technology Use. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [verified 3 1 Oct 2003]
Russell, G., & &adley, G. (1 997). Teachers ' Computer Anxiety: Implications for
Professional Development. Education and Information Technofogies 2 17-30.
Seaver, P. (n.d.). Don 't Blame It All on the Technology: Impediments to Teachers using
ICT in their Teaching. [verified 27 Dec 2002]
er!prtfoio1 GLd.itm
Sergiovanni, T. & Starratt R. (2002) Supervision: A Redefinition. McGraw-Hill Higher
Sharp, V. (2002). Computer Educationfor Teachers: integrating technology into
classroom teaching. (4th ed.). McGraw-HilL
So, T. (2001). The role ofinformation technology coordinator in the implementation of
information and communication technology in schools oflfong Kong. Hong Kong:
University ofHong Kong.
Somekh, B., Lewin, C., Mavers, D., Fisher, T., Harrison, C., Haw, K., Luazer, E.,
MeFarlane, A, & Scrimshaw, P. (2001) ). JmpaCT2:Pupils and teachersperceptions of
ÏCT in the homey school and community. Department for Education and Skills (DIES) and
BectaICT Research. [verified I O Jan 2003]
.becta.org. uklresea rch!reportdocs'ImpaCT2_strand_2_report. pdf
Tenbusch, J.P. (1998). Teaching the Teachers: Technology &qffDevelopment That
Works. Online Electronic School. National School Boards Association. [verified I 2 Apr
2003] http://www.clectronic-school.coniIQ39SfI.html
Thomas, W.R. (2000). Educational Technology: Are SchoolAdministralors Ready For
It? Southern Regional Education Board. [verified 4 Mar 2003]
http;// v ' .sreb.org/prugra ms/EdTech/p ubs/ReadylJorlt/E dTeeh-ReadyForlt. pdf
Williams, D., Wilson, K., Richardson, A., Tuson, J. and Cotes, L. (1998). TeachersICT
skills and knowledge needs Final Report to SOEID. The School of Information and
Media,, Faculty ofManagement: The Robert Gordon University. [verified 12 Apr 2003]
http:l/ v ' .scotla nd.gov.uk/libra ry!ict/2 ppend-title.htm
i 29
Zepecla, S. (1999). Staff Development: Practices that Promote Leadership in Learning
Communites. Eye on Education.
Appendix A - Teacher Questionnaire
Below25 f25-29
Education degree
(BEd, POCEd, etc.)
Masters degree
3. Years of
Less than
2 years
2-5 years
L yçur teacher program?
Do you own a computer at home?
5-10 years
Yes 2
6. What do you use your computer for?
Preparing teaching materials
Read news, sports. or entertainment
Watch movies
Search information
Download songs I software's
On-line chat
Communicate with students
Communicate with friends or coworkers
Play on-line games
Join discussion forum
Correct students homework
Listen to music
Personal I professional contirnñng education
20 years or more
i i
i i
T' Were you educated in computers in
30-39 J40-49
i.Flease speci1' the importance of the following
Presentation software
:rnet usage skills
Web page design
Multimedia design
Basic operations ofa
computer network
Usage of educational
teaching and learning
Please specify your level of knowledge of the
following ICT techniques
Word processing
Presentation software
Internet usage skills
Web page design
Multimedia design
Basic operations of a computer
Usage of educational software
Integration of ICT into teaching and
Vhat is the impact ofICT on you
ICT can increase working efficiency on
the whole
There is too much infonnation, and I
suffer from an information overload
Too much time is spent on ICT; time for
preparing teaching notes and materials
Too much time is spent on ICT the time
for communication with students
It makes me more concerned about issues
related to other parts ofthe world
Increases my social circle
Increases opportunities for collaboration
with in-house teachers
Increases opportunities to work with
teachers from other schools
Increase the opportunities to work with
external organizations
Enhances communications with parents
Enhances communications with students
It makes me more aware about world
lo. Have you utiltied ICT for the following educaüoual
activities? Do you reciuire any more training?
Preparing teaching notes
¡course materials
Searching information and
new teaching materials
Discussing with other
teachers on teaching and
learning matters
Managing, delivering and
collecting tests from
Designing classroom
Never use
Using email to discuss and
communicate with students
Using the Internet to cany
out a collaborative project
with other schools
jii;you encounter any difficulties in integrating
information technology into teaching?
13 ye
no (pçase skip to next question)
(printers, scanners, video
Frequent failure of
Not enough copies of
Software is not suitable for
evahiate and select
thsufticient computers
with simultaneous access
to the Jntemet/WWW
Access to the computer
must be scheduled within
Lack oftechnical support
Insufficient number of
gu1ar lessons
knowledge ofseif
knowledge of students
Insufikient professional
knowledge to integrate
ICT into teaching
12. When you encounter difficulties in using ICT, where
would you seek help?
Computer Studies teachers
ICT coordinator
- -,-
Media (e.g. TV, magazine, etc)
i 34
13. Have you participated in any ICT exhibitions, confereiis, and/or
staff development activities within the last academic year?
no (please skip to next question)
Were the courses useful in the integration of ICT
for educational purposes?
2 yes
14.Where do you usually acquire ICTjge?
Professional development
Computer magazines
Newspaper features
On-line e-zines
News forums
__:L 3
i i
15.Which of the following learning modes do you like
learning from most?
Experience sharing
16. llave you shared your experience with other teacher
grdingt1he use of ICT for educational purposes?
17. Teachers role in the school:
I- disagree
Teachers have opportunities for dialogue and
acrosgades and subjects.
Teachers trust each other
Îhers and parents have common expectations
for student performance
Teachers spend considerable time planning
Teachers he'p out whenever there is a problem
Teachers' ideas are valued by other teachers
Teachers work cooperatively in groups
Teachers are encouraged to share ideas
Teachers are aware of what other teachers are
Appendix B - Teacher stage of ICT implementation
Total teachers interviewed = 13
Stage O - Inaction
Stage I - Investigation
Stage 2 - Application
Stage 3 - Integration
Stage 4 - Transformation
No teachers in this stage
3 teachers
6 teachers
3 teachers
1 teachers
Stage ofICT implementation (Newhouse, Trinidad, & Ciarkson, 2002)
Visions and Contributions
Purpose: What are the main purposesyou want to use ICTfor with your
- Ii ii ii
L. -_
A. Uses ICT for limited pupses in terms of learning and teaching.
B. Uses ICT to increase studentsproductivity and engagement.
C. Uses ICT to provide opportunities for demonstration of learning
i__ D. Uses JCT to transform the learning opportunities for all students.
Focus: What areyoufocusing on at the moment in the use of ICT?
A. Focus is on using computer.
B. Focus on the tool and the students use ofthe tool.
C. Focus is on learning outcomes that is driving the use ofICT. ICT
becomes invisibly woven into learning and teaching
D. Focus on learning, the individual needs of students and the roles
of students and teachers.
Rationale: J1iat is the value in havingyour students use a computer?
Sta es
A. Aim is for students use computers to develçp ICI skills.
B. Aim is for students to use computers to develop skills and
improve the quality oftheir output.
C. Aim is for students to use computers extensively to support their
learning, and construct their own knowledge.
D Aim is for students to use computers extensively to support their
learning styles and pace and construct their own knowledge.
'ïew of ICT: How does ICT fit into your teaching overall?
- i_ - - -i
IL---- -_-_-
A. ICT viewed as an objct to be learned about.
B. ICT viewed as an in5trument or tool to complete specific tasks.
C. ICT viewed as one set oftechnologies that may support learning
D. ICT viewed as a catalyst for rethinking the educational goals of
the classroom.
Contribution io Planning: How do you contribute to school ¡CTplanning?
A. Little contribution to school planning for ICT or to ICT
B. Some contributions to school ICT planning. Attempts to
connect with relevant communities.
C. Consistently contributes to school planning for ICT and
involved with communities.
D. Leading contributor to schooT planning for ICT and relevant
learning communities.
What wouldyou like to contribute (f any)?
Stage 2 -webpae, resources
Frequency of use: Is there any pattern to your ICT usage ? How often do your
students use ICT? Do they work?
---- -. - - .- - .- 4
Used rarely (once a week at most mainly in laboratory) and
mainly for individual student use.
Regular use for some kind of activity (at least once a week) with
sorne group work support.
Routine use, infused and natural, at teachable moments for both
individual and group work. Often classroom based.
Routine use, infused and natural, at teachable moments for
up work.
independent, interdcpendent individual and
I 38
Implementation strategies: What teaching strategies have you used, and do you
use consistently where ICT is involved? How do you decide on the strategy you
- - - - B. Employs 2 or 3 ICT implementation strategies effectively either
----- - - D. Eniploys an appropriate ICT implementation strategy effectively
A. Tends to employ only one ICT implementation strategy, typically
teacher directed and in a 1aboratory
in 1abomtoy or classroom.
C. Employs a range of ICT implementation strategies effectively in
laboratory and classroom. Selects appropriate strategies.
with each use ofeomputers. Assists others in the implementation
ofappropriate ICT strategies.
Type ofactivities andpedagogy: What activities haveyou used compu!ersfor in
Ehe last term?
Sta es
A. Activities are inconsequential, not specifically connected to
learning outcomes, and tend to focus on skills and product
B. Range ofactivities using a limited set ofteaching strategies with
which the teacher is familiar. The software used tends to
determine the activities or the teacher follows ari example
provided by another teacher.
C. Range of activities connected with a range of appropriate
teaching strategies a'igned with CF pedagogic practices.
Activities are determined by the needs of students to demonstrate
learning outcomes based on a range of leamiijg skills.
Activities will often be interdisciplinary and involve collaboration
with other teachers and professionals using strategies always
aligned with CF pedagogic practices. Activities designed to
develop learning outcomes through a range of learning skills
often project-based.
i 39
Tasksfor app/ku/ions: To with! tasks haveyou appliedeomputers during the
last term? How haveyou determined those tasks?
Sta es
A. Students will be given some 'one off' tasks to complete on the
8. Students will be given a range oftasks to complete on the
C. Students' complete tasks using ICT, which are practical,
motivating, accommodate differences, and where the computer
use is critical io success.
D. Student's complete tasks that will both build on the current
experience and challenge all students.
Assessing student learning outcomes: Ilaveyou assessed work that students
have done with ICT? How has this been included with your overall assessment
Does not incorporate student use ofICT within assessment
framework but may assess 'one-off' tasks.
Assesses sorne tasks completed using ICT and links these with
Incoiomtes student use ofICT within authentic and ongoing
learning outcomes.
assessment framework.
Facilitates the use ofICT to support authentic assessment and
contribute to ongoing assessment within a framework.
Relevance ofICTIo content: In what ways doyou connect what the students do
with ICTandthe way ICTis usedin our society?
Sta es
--- 4
Use ofICT does not tend to match or model real world
Attempts to facilitate the use of some ICT real world
Facilitates appropriate use ofICT to match or model real world
Facilitates appropriate use of ICT to enable students to observe
and practice
the actual processes, products, skills and values
expected of them.
i 40
Achievement ofCF (Curriculum Framework) overarching outcomes: In with!
ways does the use ofICT by yozr students support the demonstration ofthe CF
overarching ouícomes?
.- -
A. is aware that the CF outcomes encourage the use of CT.
B. Main concern is with students selecting and using ICT. May
connect this with achievement in some CF outcomes.
C. When facilitating the use ofICT considers and is able to explain
how such use contributes to achievement of relevant CF
D. Always considers the relationship ofstudent use ofICT to
achievement ofCF outcomes when facilitating the use ofICT and
supporting other teachers.
Understanding ofpoten!ial uses: Whaipotential do you seefor ICT to support
learning and teaching processes with your class?
Sta es
- -_4_____
Is aware ofsome ofthe potential of ICT.
Developing an understanding for the range of potential.
Sound knowledge ofthe potential ofICT to contribute to
learning and teacg.
Understands potential ofICT in terms ofits two-way
re'ationship with learning and teaching.
Roles ofteacher andstudents: What doyou see asyour main roles when using
ICT with your classes? What roles do the students have?
Sta es
A. Teacher is dependent on other teachers or support personnel and
feels it necessary to be the focus of control. Students are
expected to rely on the teacher or support personnel.
B. Teacher is increasingly self-reliant but calls on "able others"
when required. Students are expected to become increasingly
---selfreliant* but still to mainlyy on the teacher.
- - - - C. Teacher
is able to facilitate the use of ICT independently but
become independents in using ICT.
- - - - D. Teacher
is inter-dependent and encourages, and expects to
calls on "able others" when required. Students are encouraged to
collabomte with students, and cooperate with "able others"
(students and stafÌ)*.
Source of direction for use: In what ways are students permitted to contribute to
decisions about the use of ICT?
___ A. Teacher is directed by an example provided by another teacher.
Teacher directs use ofICT and permits students to contribute
Teacher encourages student negotiation for use of ICT with
teacher providing scaffolding.
D. Teacher promotes arid expects student negotiation for use of ICI
with teacher providing scaffolding.
ICr skills: J3'lzat shills do you have in using ICI" and what steps do you take to
develop the skillsyou need?
Sta es
A. Basic skills: At best teacher possesses only basic operation, basic
word processing, email, and web-searching skills.
B. Range of skills: Teacher possesses skills in general operation,
word processing and other generic tools, email, and websearching.
C. Advanced skills: Teacher possesses transferable skills that permit
use ofany software with access to help and tutorial functions.
D. Teacher possesses a comprehensive Set of ICT skills and
contributes to the deve!oønnt of advanced skills for others.
Afftctive response: How doyouftel whenyou use a computer and when you
supportyour students ¡n using computers?
A. Feels lack of control over self and situation. Perceives novelty of
ICT, or threat.
Begins to feel in control, comfortable with 1CT. May be negative
about what other teachers do and ofthe support system, leading
to conflict.
Feels confident and in control of situation using ICT. Accepting
ofdifferences in use ofICT with others.
D. Willing to give, share and develop ICT ideas and practices with
i 42
øliat concerns do you curreutly Izavefor the way in which ICT is
used to support learning and teaching?
are with ow ICT mastery and learning.
Concerns are with student mastery and the management of ICT._
Coricernsarewiththe outcomes forstudents oftheuse of ICT.
D. Concerns are with the outcomes for students and school
community in the use of ICT.
Fleasefteifree Ío add additional comments be1o'.
Stage 2 - Management of ICT by admin. Team in terms of resources and appropriate
training for teachers that are lacking these skills. No info. Given about courses available
and little or no follow-up for teacher that have expressed doubts about their won ability to
teach ICI.
i 43
Appendix C - Teacher Interviews
iirview la and lb
Interviewer is in bold
Do you find yourselves integrating ICT into other subjects?
la: Very rarely, we try but it is difficult.
lb: And we dont have a computer in our room. The computers in the lab dont have
speakers and my children can't read.
When you i:lo it rarely, in what subjects do you do it in?
I a: We have done math. We go on some web pages. There are sorne additional work
they can do on it. For language we turn on some Word, and they type in the spelling
words. They find the letter on the keyboard.
When you have meetings with your grade level teachers, do you discuss issues relating to
I a: No. We discuss the fact that we need to do it, because it is on the report card.
From what I understand, you do different report cards right?
la: Yes, but we still have computers on it.
What are the benchmarks on it?
lb: Being able to use the mouse, being able to understand the basics. Not the programs,
but know the parts of the computer.
i a: We discuss how we can tie in weeks work with the computers because we have
computers twice a week. Ifwe can tie it in, then we tie it in.
Do you feel ICT is not very relevant for your age group?
la: Yes. In general, we don't bave speakers and programs, and all that stutTthat we
lb: And even ifwe had that stuff, it's still at this age a fun thing to do. You still can't
really do any work on them. They can't do research stuffand present things.
Does the computer play a big part in their education?
la: It is finethattheyknowthereare computers and the veryverybasics. But Idon't
think there should be a very big emphasis on it right now, because there are all these
other things to learn. Especially at this schoo', you have seen the books we are given for
the kindergarten kids that they shouIdnt have anyways, that is whole other topic. There is
enough stress on them in the regular academics and we don't want to put anymore streSs
on them with computers and the rest.
Would you want to integrate ICT in other subjects?
la: Some ofthe kids had no idea any ofthe computer parts.
lb: I think when we get kids a little older to start doing the math program where it is fun
for them to push on the buttons, then it is fine. But it is a really difficult concept for four
and five year olds.
Are you scheth1et1 to use the 1abs'
lb: Twice a week. We don't go very often because we don't have speakers, and there is
nothing for my kids to do.
So what happens to the benchmarks?
I a:
It is forgotten. Overlooked. The principal is very against, but it is on there.
lb: There was a big thing about it. The other teacher was told to fill it in anyways, even
though she never did computers with her kids. And the principal signed for it, because
the teacher said she refused to sign something that she didn't do. How can you give a
grade for something you didn't do? Saine for us, we do go to the computer room, but we
can't give a grade for it. Not at this age. It is a fun thing, something on the side that
shouldn't be given a grade. We didn't get a grade for computers until high school.
But you do go to
the computer room?
lb: We try to go twice a week. Sometimes it is too much for us. Sometimes the
computers aren't even working. But we do try to go. My kids after a while, they started
getting used to the computers, and theey don't mind the kids. And with fifteen kids in
there not knowing what they are doing, after we are halfway through the year, it is very
diticult being in there. I think we need two adults.
I know you don't bave books so what do you use?
lb: Paint, books, Word, Internet.
la: We need to have a computer teacher
Given a choice, would you choose to teach JCT, or even have Computers taught for this
age group?
la: It should not exist for my kids.
What age would be more appropriate?
lb: Towards the end offive, six years, grade 1 grade 2
I don't mind doing it, as long as I had someone in there helping me. Students are not
patient enough to Sit there, you need the support that way. At one point I was arghlth.
You need someone in there. And I don't agree it being a graded subject. Some of the
kids bave an advantage of having parents who are computer literate at home, and who
have computers at home and know exactly what to do. But there are some kids who
don't have that luxury and it is not fair to grade them on something like that.
Do you find it fair to grade other subjects?
la: Not at our age.
So it is just not computers?
lb: The idea ofgrades in general for our age is very unfair, I think.
What kind ofsupport do you feel necessary to teach ICT?
la: Someone in the lab full time.
So a technician, or a coordinator?
la: A coordinator, so at that point ifyou don't know how to explain something, or teach
something, there are certain computer jargon we don't know. Just bec.use we know how
to get on the computer, doesift necessarily mean we know how to teach computers. Last
year the old school there was a full time computer teacher. When there was computer
class, we were required to be in there. but we played the assistant role. So we were
lb: I know the very basics. I was never brought up using computers, not until high
school. and even then we didn't have to take computer class.
Did teacher training prepare you for ICT?
la: For me, we had two computer courses, but the focus was on older children.
I 46
lb: And we didn't have any. Perhaps teacher training would be good. Both skills and
ideas in the class. If! knew more, and i had ideas on how to teach, then I would make
my own lessons, and use it in the lessons I am doing.
So it is the lack of knowledge?
la: Yes.
Isthereanyotbersupportyouwouldliketo have?
la: At the last school I was at, the computer was connected to a w screen, so all the kids
can see what is happening on the computer. I know the high school lab has a projector,
but that is very expensive right? Then we can really integrate things. Also can't we
network it, ifl put something on the main computer, it would come on all the computers.
I b: Maybe have printers, with ink, in our class. It is more convenient. Also keyboards.
I was doing email, and the space bar didn't work. We also had the accessibility of a
laptop at my last school. and have a portable projector so we can show stuffin our class.
What about professional development?
la: I would like to learn how to, open things up to being able to do projects. Some of the
programs like PowerPoint.
f b: Have someone show me more programs, and how to integrate stuff into the
classroom. Especially with our age group. What do you do with a kid who has no idea,
then there are other kids who are computer genius. How do you go about that?
So all this would help you bring ICT into your class and make you want to teach ICT?
laand lb: Yes.
Would your teaching style change ifyou received everything you just asked for?
la: I think so. There are loads ofthings we want to do, not injust computers, the whole
curriculum. But we don't have these things available to us. So even ifwe wanted to, we
couldn't. But ifwe had working computers and the support we needed, I am sure a lot of
teachers would do a lot more things with the kids.
lb: lfthey could hear what they are supposed to be doing, then at least they would know
what they are doing and use the mouse and stuff like that. We could do more projects
that link to other subjects ifwe bad proper software.
So you would also like speakers,
i a: And software,
then it would be easier, and more sense. Because our kids cant read.
Is the principal pushing you to go to the computer lab?
lb: No, she doesn't want us to go. The fact it is on the report card, makes us have to do
I a: She is pushing to get computers offthe report, but apparentty it would cost a Jot to
take that one subject offthe report.
Interview 2a
Interviewer is in bold
J want to ask you, when you are doing your planfling and lessons do you find
yourself integrating ICT into those lessons?
I try to, but sometimes we are led by the Microsoft PowerPoint and Word books. So it
has been a bit of a drag. I do try to make it more relative to what we are doing in the
classroom. i am not terri&ty happy with the computer room and the stuff we do in there.
It's just so limited. I dont think it complements what we do in the classroom because of
its limits. The limits ofthe hardware. The limits ofthe software. The limits of my
knowledge. So it is not as brilliant as I would like it to be.
You said when you do integrate you look at what you bave to do for the computer
That depends which way it goes. Sometimes I look at that first, sometimes I work with
the (grade level teacher) to see what she is doing and she shows me what she is doing.
So sometimes it is led by a topic. or led by grade level teacher.
When you and grade
level leacher get
together do you discuss ICT?
It is not discussed as much as the other areas. For simple reasons as frustration, a lot of
the computers are not working anyway. And because we are only going twice a week,
we are not doing extra sessions. We probably could but then I would find it a fnistation
too. So we doift spend a lot oftime planning it. But we do meet weekly to plan, and we
agree what we are going to do.
You mentioned you only go twice a week, were you given a schedule of the available
We were given a schedule, yes. We were given a computer schedule at one point. when I
asked for help. The IT head did come in for two sessions to help me and it was brilliant
He setup a file on the desktop to make it easier for my class to save and store their work.
I can't do it now. I do have that timetable, but I don't pursue, because I find it terribly
frustrating going up there, because it is more than likely to have several computers not
So there are available time slots available?
There are other time slots available, I am sure. But I don't know any teacher who goes
up there more than twice. I have one session J am stuck with because I have a secondary
student come up and help me. It is excellent. But he has stopped recently, I don't know
i 49
0k, do you find any support that works well for you?
Having the secondary student come up is the best thing that was given to me in this
school. and that one time the ICT head came up was brilliant, but I havent pursued it. I
don't know whether it was a one-time offer only, or whether I could actually ask him to
come in other times. So I haven't pursued. At the time I had so many computers not
working. Otherwise J don't have a great deal ofsupport. Including hardware, ink in the
printer. I don't understand why we have to put the work order in to get ink in the printer.
And it still doesn't get done. That is why I am not encouraged to do any more than what
I do.
What exactly does that secondary student help you with?
Everything. He can sit with a student and work with them. And ifthe computers are not
on, he is capable of getting them going. Sometimes I used to, five weeks ago I had five
computers at a time not working, then I would send a child to the office to demand the
secretary to come over. She would then be able to get them going. But then she stopped
coming and if I asked for someone. there would be none. So the secondary student was
able to work out some problems.
So he has some technical skills?
Why Jid the secretary stop coming?
I think she moved to the high school side. The other secretary came up a few times, but
she couldn't do it. She wasn't as adept as the other secretary. The other problem is that
the computers having the problems are the saine ones over and over again since the
beginning ofthe year. The principal said she scheduled for the technician to come up so I
can show him the problems, but he never showed up.
So, secondary students any other support that has worked for you. Now T woud like to
know what kind of ICT support do you need to help you with your lessons, planning,
I did some courses earlier in the year that you probably know, that I had absolutely no
skills. It was for 3 days one-on-one training and it cost me an absolute fortune. It helped
me to feel more confident. But what I think I need is to have input every now and then
about something. For example we where shown how to upload work onto the Internet. It
was fine being shown that. But the first two weeks as I was sitting there trying to do that
and it is a bit lost to me now. You need to do it, you need to use it. At the moment I do
what I feel confident to do up there and I don't go outside those parameters. So if I did
have inset and I was show s lots of interesting things to do with children and how to do it,
then that would flow down to the child level, I would do things for the class
I 50
So are you referring to workshops?
Yes. We coujdn't have them that frequently, but perhaps
four times
a year or something.
And what would the focus ofthe workshops be on?
Well it could be, I think there should be two different levels. It should be the level of our
own development using, for example the website and those other things we could be
doing. Or should be doing. And also the level oftrying to inspire us to teach children,
and what we should be teaching children, and how it flows from the earliest age of
computer experience up to grade 6. so I think it needs to be on both levels. It has to be
stuiffor us, and stufffor what we teach.
So roughly four times a year?
Well if it were more it would be better. It depends on who is able to give it and how
good it was
Would we offer these during PD days?
That would be good. It would also be good ifthe people presenting it had the
qualifications so people would be given a certificate or given something to acknowledge
the fact that we done that, and it would be put into our file saying that I achieved that on
this day so it useful for their own professional development as well. And I think that
motivates people just as much as being inspired to teach something.
How often would you expect these workstiops to be per session?
Well, people have limited. . . don't they? So we need it on every professional day if there
was a computer session. That wouldn't be too much.
I strongly support that.
Every now and then a staff meeting could be given to computers.
There also needs to be policy development too. I find, you say do we develop when we
plan it's nothing very definite what is expected these children need to achieve in regards
to computers. We are given these books probably because the school wants to sell them
and they don't get used very much. And it is not very clear what is expected from the
children and where it fits in what we are expected to teach in our grade. So a policy
document would be good too, or development ofpolicy within the school so we will
know what we need to do through out the year.
So providing attainment targets for the students?
Even a blurred framework would be usefW. And that needs to be created by someone
and also a shared agreement amongst professionals about what we think is appropriate
and how integrated can we make it. Integration is obviously the way to go.
So provkle a clear curriculum for teachers to go by, and workshops for teachers.
Yes. There are books available in the school right? I mean, I go to the school library for
ideas on Art, and Socia! Studies, but I don't do it for eomputers and I dont know why
that is. I guess it's because it is new, and it is not part ofwhat I see as equal towards the
other areas. Maybe it should be.
So would you like more resources in terms of books?
I would say we need more resources in ternis of software. Linked with the internet and
with whatever we can scrounge.
So what kind of software are you thinking of?
Things like Encarta. I don't know enough to say, but I am sure there are things out there
that would make our teaching very interesting and would make it a lot easier for us.
So software's that cover other subjects apart from computers?
Across the board. We should also have some safeguarding oftbe Internet so we don't
have sex sites coming up. There needs to some filters put on. That is something that I
am not able to do, but it is a serious issue.
Earlieryou mentioned about the hardware.
Throw out the bloody hardware and buy some decent stuff. Some of it is unbelievable. It
needs to be good working hardware.
0k, you also mentioned about technical help.
The technical support shouldnt be "I" seek it out it; it should be there for us, so the
computer room is up and runnbig all the time. It shouldn't be that I check that it is. That
is someone else's job, the technical person's job. Another really good thing is to have
Internet in the classroom. Ifwe can use the computer in the classroom for the students, it
would be great. We could use it to demonstrate what we will do in the computer lab,
before going to the computer lab, so they are all together looking. I don't have the
Internet, so J can't show them where and how to go the internet sites. It would be nice if
I could.
So is there any other support. You have mentioned workshop, clear curriculum,
software, safeguarding Internet, hardware, technical support, internet in the
classroom, projector in the laboratory.
:i 52
I dfd a workshop, but I had to pay for the substitute. So ifthey want teachers to IT
literate, then you have to support them and xot make the teachers for their absence.
Il. you received all the support you just mentioned, how would that change you
teaching, your methods, your style, maybe your lesson plans
We11 it would be a different focus if i was given that sort of support, I would be able to
put computers as a more important part ofthe curriculum, and I would integrate it into
my lessons, and give the children more computer time. I think that would be the result
What do you mean more computer time.
Well there are other time slots available, I am just reluctant to make that effort if the
computers are not working and things are not successful. Most other curriculum areas
receive more attention a week, and I would probably give it one more lesson if I thought
it would be more valuable for the children.
Would you find your teaching methods change apart from valuing computers more.
I would hope I would be a bit more adventurous. I would feel confident with using the
computers and confident they are working and able to do thejob. I really wou!dn't know
until I am given ideas about things to do. I have not ever seen teachers teach computers.
So it is a rare thing. I have not seen 'how' people go about teaching computers. and what
the focus ofthe lesson is they do. We all see each other do other things. lt is a gap in my
teaching to some degree because we don't get to see each other teach. And we don't talk
much about computers. And the lower the grade level, the less focus there is on
So in your teaching training program, were you exposed to a lot of computers?
I have been teaching for 16 years, how many computers were around 16 years ago? In
my first school the classroom, there wasn't a computer. Only in the last few years have I
seen computer labs, and we were required to take children there. 1reviously it was a
computer in the classroom with a few things to do on it. And it was very limited used. In
England, there were no computers. None.
I agree with giving teachers the knowledge of bow to use the
and feel
But it needs to be frequent. On all those days were we were taught something, my head
came out aching. It was fantastic but because I haven't used it, some of it I have lost. I
need to be shown again. That is what kids are like, it is an ongoing lesson. Unless you
are using it all the time, you tend to forget.
i 53
Interview 2b
Interviewer is in bold
I want to ask you, do you usually find yourself integrating ICT into other subject
Not often, when E do, I has probably been when students are doing a presentation. If they
Need to create a title or poster, we would use it, or studying, for example they made a
chart for studying spe)ling words to use as a study guide. Usiay, i don't. It's mostly
because I don't put a lot ofplanning into IT. The reason is because of the quality of the
equipment and software we have. It is not very encouraging or motivating to spend a lot
oftime doing it. When you arrive at the lab, all the kids can't work on the computers
because it is very unpredictable because sorne computers may not be working, or some
can not hook up to the internet. It isjust very unpredictable, so I am not encouraged in
planning IT
So the main reason is the hardware, the equipment?
When you monthly plan with your colleague, do you discuss and plan ICT in your
No. we do go over what we are doing. If she found a good activity in a book then she
will let me know what it is, and the same goes for me. But other than that not really
What about the computer classes though?
We usually make sure we do the same thing. But neither ofus bas a real desire or
motivation to get a lot out ofIT. We are just finding random activities. It is sort of like a
The reason being would be...
Same as the first part. Both ofus have experienced problems when we have gone to the
computer lab. Students are all at different levels. Ifthere was a computer technician in
the lab, then I can ask him to fix the problems. Problems usually take up five minutes of
my time for different problems. It is really frustrating.
So there isn't any functional equipment for you?
And there isn't any support. I have to be the technician and the teacher who is leading
the lesson at the same time, which is impossible when you have a class like that, where
things are not working and kids are at different levels.
You brought up about students that are at different levels that made it difficult for
you to do your lessons. Will having a group of students at the same level make it
easier for you to teach? Is that a big factor over the equipment?
No it isn't. It is each ofthose things all combined into one which makes for a very
disturbing lesson in the lab. It is very frustrating. There were a very few times w!1ere I
actually finished a lesson and felt fine. Usually I feel very upset and frustrated at the
admin team for not having anything to be proud ofin ternis oftheir IT. And also to place
all the responsibility to mark the computers, to follow up on the problems with the
technician you carft even communicate with. Sort oflike even though it is brought up to
the admin, it is bounced back to the teachers. I don't have a free period after the
computer lesson to go to the office and tell them the problems. And even ifl did I don't
want to be spending my prep time running around doing things like that because it is
supposed to be p'anning time.
Do you receh'e any positive support in ICT from the school?
The library stuff is quite a good variety of ideas and support materials. In terms of
different 1essons to do with Word and other stuff there are good books. Those are really
helpftú, the different books they have. That would be considered support. i find that
people are resources. I find that to have someone available all the time, would be a good
resource. To be there and target these little problems that happens. When minor
problems happen, I don't know what to do. I don't know how to fix those little problems.
I could take a course on my own, and since the school has these complaints from
teachers, I think that is a clue that they know they won't be able to afford a technician.
They should say here take this course. Or we could offer you a computer workshop, not
just how to do things in time ofneed. They know they can't hire a technician because of
the money, so they should use the resources and target the problems that are consistently
happening. Instead of learning for example how to integrate math into IT, the should
deal with the problems, the mechanics first. If you can't get past that, then you can never
start the lesson anyways.
Apart from the books and the library, do you find any other positive support the
school has given you for teaching computers, integrating?
I know the ICT coordinator is available some ofthe time, and I actually haven't used that.
Do you find that positive supports that he is available, or does it not matter?
It is a positive support, but J know be is using his own time when he is supposed to be
planning, so I don't feel encouraged to ask him. I feel I am taking away his time when he
should be planning. Also, rather than teaching teachers how to teathi how to integrate
ICT into subjects or how to use the Internet., we should teach the teachers the basic
mechanics would that be another support.
What kind of professional development would help you integrate ICT?
I 55
I would want to learn how to trouble shoot computers. How to use the scanner and the
How often would you like to have PD's?
The first PD should be during orientation week, and perhaps 2 other times during the
year. Every PD could be used for computers. but I don't think it would be 'very popular.
Not everyone needs to be learning the same thing. At least, ifon PD day, they could
have different workshops available and they could sign up for one they like.
I3ow ¡ong would the PD workshop be?
About 2 hours.
Jstbereanyotherteacherti-ainingorsnpportapartfrom this?
This is the first year I ever had to teach computers. The schools I have been in before had
its own computer teacher. So ifl was in a situation where I would be teaching computers
on an ongoing basis, then I would defmitely take additional professional qualification
courses to learn about computers in the classroom.
You would do this on your own time?
Do you find any other PI) necessary?
Other things are more exploratory. I wouldn't have to do it during PD.
How would this PD help you?
Being able to solve minor problems more quickly would make me feel less anxious going
to the computer room. It would actually give me more confidence going there and
teaching a lesson. Then i would make more of an effort to try and integrate ICT into
different areas.
Would you find your lessons and teaching styles change?
I think they would change because it would involve more students. I would be able to
have a functioning computer in the classroom for sttidents. i would then want to invest
classroom budget into getting certain computer programs. I would look into how to
integrate IT that is suggested in different textbooks because it would be more ofuseful in
the classroom. My style would have more centers. I would be more comfortable to make
suggestions to other teachers ifl had better knowledge. I would possibly even offer an
after school activity in computers. I have seen it done in other schools, and it was very
I 56
popular. Not for games, but for learning skills. It is a great opportunity for kids who
don't get enough time in the computer lab and who don't have a computer at home.
There are a few in my class that don't.
I1you had all this support bow would you do things differently?
Iii ali these ways it would change my method and style I would spend more time
planning for IT. J would look into different ways of how to integrate IT.
i 57
Interview 3a
Interviewer is in bold
When you are planning your lessons, do you find yourselfintegrating a lot of ICT
into other subjects, other than just computer class?
I think when we do English, we do. Whenever we have the chance we would integrate,
like sports day, we use the paint program and Word. ft is mostly those programs. We did
some art by hand and on the computer. In math I haven't really used it. They have
written part oftheirjournals using IT
When you and the other teachers get together to do your monthly planning, do you
find yourself planning ICT?
I think it is mostly coming up with ideas ofwhat to do.
This is for the purpose ofyour computer lesson?
And when you can integrate. For example when we plan English, we try to think of
where we can fit computers in.
Do you find any ICT support that you are getting now belpful?
Not really. I think there are some books that I can read. But in daily life, I don't go
looking. I think there needs to some programs installed onto the computers.
So presently you don't find yourself receiving appropriate help to integrate ICT?
When the coordinator comes in to ask about things, than that is help. Teachers are not
doing enough. But during the day, we have a lot ofthings to do and things to prepare,
you don't go over somewhere to find a book for a computer lesson
How does the ICT coordinator help?
I-le asks us to help decide what things we want to be put onto the computers. We have a
say. Once the things get onto the computer, things will be better.
So you don't find the school providing support for yourself in ICT?
What support would you like to have?
I can always go ask the coordinator, but once the day starts, like I said, we are
busy. But if I was forced to go in a few days in a row to do courses, I would.
just too
What would you like to learn iu those courses?
I would like to learn about the basic things about Excel. Basic things about inserting
pictures. Maybe my kids are to small, but inserting pictures from the Internet.
Did you learn any ofthat in your teacher training?
My program didnt offer any computer courses.
When would you like these workshops offered?
Maybe one month after the beginning ofthe ye'r.
Would that be sufficient, or should it be carried on and learn other things?
Yes. After Christmas again we can have a workshop. After the first month we learn new
things and ifwe don't use it, then we will forget it. So after Christmas might be another
good time to learn again.
I dont go and look for CD-ROMS in the library. Ifthere is only one, I don't know how
to download it onto the computer. So then I don't use it. So I think all the computers
should have the software installed on the computers already.
Would you like a variety of software on different subjects?
I would like English and Math. I think it would be really nice ifthere were grammar
games that all the kids can do at once. Or maybe 5 computers for one game, and another
5 for another game.
Anything other support you would like to have?
Maybe on professional development days, we can be put into groups and discuss ideas
for how to use IT and how to use it with other subjects and how to use it alone.
Sometimes it is difficult ifyou are alone, and we have three teachers. But it can be better
if we have more teachers thinking about one thing. I once had a course back home, I
learned how to use PowerPoint in one whole day. Lot's ofideas were given. So if we
had something like that, it would be great.
I wou'd also like to have the computers working. }erhaps every Friday, somebody can
check the computers to make sure they are working. I don't want to be spending my time
fixing the computers.
To be more specific, what kind of diffIculties are you having in the lab?
Some ofthe computers cannot go onto the Internet. Some ofthe keyboards do not work
properly. Some ofthc mice don't work. Sometimes things dont save properly.
i 59
AnytMng else?
A!! the computers are not linked to the printer.
So presently, the ICT support you are receiving is not working?
Might as well be, because I am not using it. J am not using the books, CD-RUMS, or the
ICT coordinator. I feel I know a lot about computers, and I don't feel insecure about
teaching it. But I don't go into new areas that I don't really know much about.
if you
receive the support you mentioned, how would that change your teaching?
I would use it more in math and English. I think there will be more possibilities if
know how to use programs and software.
Would you find your teaching sty'e change?
T dont think it will change. But I would need more computers in the classroom for the
students to use. I think one computer is not enough. I gave it away because it was too
difficult for the entire class to use.
Ifthere were a printer and large monitor, then it
would be better. It may change ifthere were more computers in the classroom. Then I
could maybe do more workshop-based lessons. Something like learning centers. I do&t
think hardware can change my teaching style.
Since we only have two periods a week, we need computers in the classroom to continue
learning computers. So no matter how good the lab is, we need more computers in the
class. So unless we get more time available in the lab, we can't use the computers.
I 60
Interview 3b
Interviewer is in bo'd
Do you fInd yourself integrating ICT?
There are certain subjects that are easier to integrate with IT. Math is good when you use
it with spreadsheet. But science is a little more difficult for me. I find that it isvery
experimental that we do with the elementary school, so I don't tend to have a lot of topics
that include science.
So mostly in math?
Yes, it could be looked at as science investigation. I think it also depends on the
software. Something like excel is something I commonly use with the kids.
When you meet with the other grade 5 teacher, do you discuss about ICT?
Not to a large extent. When we plan the week and we bring up computers, that would be
one area that we leave to ourselves in what we want to do.
So you won't be teaching the same computer programs
No, it depends where her class is and my class is. Maybe we may be doing an activity
from a book. I may integrate it into Social Studies and she may not. I don't think we
ever plan a specific lesson on a computer skill or objective.
How would you full in the computer lesson box in your monthly plan
I wouJd put down word processing for instance, the objective may be to write a report, J
may do it on Native Americans and she may do it on Health. We are very general and it
is not as specific as I would like to.
So you are using the computer class in different ways?
We are not specific partly because it is difficult to know what we are going to do in
computers because sometimes the kids take longer than usual. We try to keep it general.
Maybe the overall month will be word processing and the next would be Internet
What kind of ICT support would you like to have in order to teach ICT in a more
effective way?
Maybe we could look at connecting Internet into ail the classrooms. I find the lab is ok to
teach a skill, but I have more control ofwhat a teacher can do in the classroom. Maybe
expectations ofICT in this school.
Are you referring to student attainment or teachers ICT level?
Maybe curricular attainments. What exactly does this school want the students to
achieve. I have my own ideas of what J can do with IT. J know what is available, so I
can carry on what I want to do. The students may be beneficial, but I am not so sure of
what they need and want. For example a lot ofteacher say they want typing, but even the
word typing is vague. Are we looking at a certain speed they should be accomplishing at
a certain grade ievel7 I think afl these ideas and goa's and cunictúar things need to be
sorted out before we can address what support we need in the program.
So we need clear objectives for teachers to achieve their goal. But in this current
situation, is there any support that you would like to have to teach ICT?
I think the greatest support J can think of at the moment because it lends a lot of
possibilities is having Internet in the classroom. The computer lab is great, but once they
have some practice with it, there needs to be some independent time where students can
go to the computer and try Out the skills they've learned. I dont think twice a week is
But there is only one computer in your classroom.
It means teachers will have to be flexible in how they go about scheduling the computer.
I feel it is a step towards integrating computer usage using Word for English or other
English programs to improve their English. It might not necessarily want to install on all
the computers in the lab, but it might be more pertinent to install it in the classroom for
that particular teacher and that class learning that topic. The other IT I think ofbut I
don't necessarily think it is realistic, but the idea ofhaving those projectors. That would
be the second on the card.
In the lab, or in the classroom, because the lab has one already?
Jfthere is a possibility in the classroom. That would be the most ideal for every
classroom to have one
And what would that help you with?
Having a projector can help several ways. Other than teaching computers, I think a lot of
times now teachers now make their notes and do things on the computer. Having the
children look at one small computer screen is difficult. I think that a lot oftimes, I might
come across some pictures on the Internet that I want to show them. I think that would
be a great way to teach them something. Haviiig a projector in the classroom will enable
me to do that.
:Is there any support that you are receiving DOW that helps you?
I can see one ofthe software that is helpful is the teacher monitoring. I think other
teachers using the MS lab need to be aware ofthat, because it is very helpful. I think the
web pages that are done are pretty good. The workshops that we are given to put stuff on
the web are useful. That stuffis useful because it will enable to put my homework up. It
is another way for me to contact parents. I think it is positive in what we are doing right
now. I can see our school becoming more on the WWW next semester or next year.
Is there anything that will also support you using it
In terms of software, I am not familiar with what is good software. It seems like
nowadays there are so many software out there. It seems difficult for a classroom teacher
to pick out a particular software that would be helpful in class. Maybe a simpler version
of a word processor might be helpful. Because when I teach word at this level, the kids
get frustrated with the technical aspects of it. Where they could be focusing more on
writing and connect with the English curriculum. Instead, they worry about how to
center, underline and so forth. Jfthere is a simpler version that is also compatible with
Word too because we want the kids to be able to create documents and have it shared
with everyone.
I_n terms of workshop, more on the internet and continuous support for teachers to make
their web page more interesting, and other ideas on the web for their own page. It would
really help not only the parents and students so they can know what is going on in the
classroom, but also empower the teacher so they can do things more, that they may not
have realized before.
What would be ideal for you, in terms of implementing this support for the
How often do you think is necessary? And wbeu should we providing these training
That is a good question. I think the approach for workshops shouldn't be mandatory.
That is one ofthe things about running workshops. When the teachers have to do
something for the yearbook or doing it for the web page. I think to nm a good
professional development program; it should be done on a day when other things are
offered. And this could be one ofthe choices the other teachers can do. I think that
would be good. So during the professional days during the year, I think there are three or
four, teachers can choose between three or four workshops.
And would three or four PL days be sufficient?
I think that at the moment, this is how J perceive the school and where they are at it is
sufficient for our staff because there are many teachers that are not ready to take on the
computer and the Internet. They need the exposure. We need to capture their interest.
Workshops should be run, instead of step one, step two, step three, again this is my
opinion because other people really like the step method, it should be done in such a way,
let'sjust create something that is heipflul to you. It could be done in step-by-step, but we
I 63
do it as a thing where there is more freedom. Let teachers try discovering things and
support them. Much like what we do with our own students.
I notice you are focusing on what we could do for other teachers, but for you
though, I know the expertise you have, would you suggest any professional training
that would support you?
This school realistically, there is nothing at this school that would really catch my mind.
I think I am the type ofperson who is a self-learner. Not because ofthe school, but I tend
to like going to look elsewhere. I don't choose to rely on one source to get my
professional growth. I think that is one ofthe considerations, I know other teachers like
the idea ofknowing there are workshops in place. But for me I like to pick and choose. I
can get something from any workshop I go to. Sometimes I get more sometimes I get
less from something. There is nothing in this school that I would particular quest for.
I understand why you are saying this because there are a limited number of
workshops available,
I think I feel in some ways my request might be too high and not in common with
someone else.
0k, let's say we are catering to your needs now, you particular, for professional
If I decided I wanted to do programming for example,
Yes, you can mention that because I am just looking at what the school can provide,
Ijust don't think anyone wants to learn programming thai is what I mean by that.
What can the school provide you to better teach your class, and if it's offering
programming where you can start using this and that, than that would be a support
you can mention
But if it is for my personal interest, than I should not include that?
Right, relating to your teaching lessons.
Offhand I can't think of anything.
0k. So before you mentioned you wanted a projector to use as a visual.
Yes, and multimedia sound. And I would be more tempted to create more PowerPoint
presentations that could be stored for future use. ff1 know this school has this, in other
words there is enough in every class, not injust one room.
Apart from the projector, is there anything that would change your lesson
There are some programs out there that are specifically for teachers, grade books for
example. Oh,Ijustthought ofsomething, you could getiCT. Somethingl am a strong
advocate for, you can get pocket PC's. Personally, that would be, which is not
realistically, but personally I think it is the way ofthe future. Even if all the teacher shad
that, it could benefit our planning. and how we can communicate with each other.
I am not familiar with that, are you talking about palm's.
So that would replace
phone calls and email
You can infrared each other too. So we can send files to each other easily. For instance,
we have lots and lots ofpaper. We can use email and attach the file. Another way, for
everyone carrying a palm, we can pass messages to each other, for example in a meeting
if everyone had a palm, we were all working on the same thing, meetings can be
conducted in a high tech way, whereby we would literally pass by minutes and meetings
to each other. The mobility is very good because the more multimedia ones with cameras
is great. Sometimes carrying a laptop is too heavy and cumbersome. So having a palm
to record anecdotes, it saves paper. Ifyou have a camera you can take a snapshot, it's
great for portfolios. Files can be saved onto the computer. Or it can be used to be
reprinted on paper. The other things with more memory, you can record video clips and
audio recordings. lt is beneficial for teachers. Especially in primary school we are
taking notes, we are taking anecdotal notes. Ifwe canjust take a five-minute clip during
a presentation or something, than late on we can burn it onto a CD, that is very valuable.
It saves you from looking for a camera or tape recorder at that moment. I think it would
be very useful for a teacher.
You should be salesperson for palm.
Are you convinced
Yes, I didn't know it could do all that.
My grade book is electronic. I just put my grades into a database. do it all on my palm,
and then load it onto the computer to print. During parent interview, I just had my palm,
nothing else. I had a student' s grade. marks, anecdotes, everything right there.
Great. Anything else?
I think wejust have to be aware ofwhat is happening in the computer world. I think Ifa
workshop, anytime we get an interesting gadget or device, it is useful for teachers.
i 65
Do you believe that?
J think ifwe need to get people interested in ICT, just bring up a gadget and show how it
is applicable and how it can help the school, it can help promote technical change. Even
if it was a workshop or just getting a message through. Let's say we got a diita1 camera
and show all the neat things we can do with it, it may interest more people. I don't think
this is the best way,
I am running out of ideas.
So this is updating teachers with technology.
Yes, that is what I am trying to get at.
And ifwe did that, how would that help you?
It just gets you excited. The reason why I am ok in technology is because I am interested
and excited about it. I think that is a very important step in motivating staff. I know I am
talking about myselfagain. I think technology is neat. Ifycu had a workshop or
gathering where the school invested in something. And showed teachers, here is a
scanner, I am using old technology now, but, ok, well use the palm, ifyou want to use it
to take recordings or pictures, then here it is. Even if a salesman came in and showed us,
I would want to buy it myself. That would be like a support.
I think the media has been promoting and does expose enough. I think it is a matter
of interest. J understand what you are saying, and you mentioned this earlier, you
know what is available, and you are able to carry out this goal. That is exactly how
I feel. We just have to motivate and change teacher's attitude.
Yes, I think that would be the best support, because to me if I was working in this school
and everyone was at the same level of IT and same enthusiasm as J am, then that would
be better support than anything. Ifteachers say this is too hard and I know nothing about
computers. We can motivate ourselves a lot. I think the reason why they feel they don't
get any support because they don't realize who amongst themselves know anything about
computers. And they themselves are not motivated to want to search or do any of that.
So I thiitk it is the school's responsibility to improve that.
0k, anything else?
That's it.
Great, thank you for you input.
i 66
Interview 4a
Interviewer is in bold
What can the school do to support the teachers in using ICT?
Jt is difficult for me to say what this school can offer, because I feel I was battling with
computers all year with the lack ofhardware and software. The hardware is not up to
date. In fact it is worst that what I used five years ago. Five years ago in England we
chucked out the stuff we have here. The ones that run at this kind of speed.
also got
very annoyed that they dont' work all the time. I know we have a technician, the
technician iSn't there checking them every day. I had to be a technician, and that is very
time consuming. It has been very hard work this year. We have concentrated heavily on
word processing skills, typing skills. I think we went to word processing to very high
levels with the age group. But that may be because the kids are very computer literate. It
is nice that you could build things up. We also did a lot ofthings with graphic. But
again. I never got to know the paint package as well as I did this year. It is very versatile.
There are other programs out there that are more child friendly and have things in them as
well. So, I have looked at some ofthe benchmarks, what they need to achieve by the end
ofthe year. i have looked at my own curriculum from the UK, and what kind of things
they shourd be doing at this age. I have been able to work at a very high level with the
software I have been given. And they have been achieving benchmarks higher than what
is expected from this age group. But they are missing out on the other areas of IT. We
were concentrating on the communicating in terms ofword processing and the painting
package. There are also things; it is really hard to do emailing with them when they dont
have an email. lt would be good to have a school-based email, so it is protected in the
school, have an ISP or something that provides the school this kind ofthing. We haven't
done much emailing. There are also things like modeling, which we haven't
example mixing colors, there is red, yel!ow and blue. Ifthey want to make purple, they
can mix and match those colors to make purple. It is testing things to see ifthey can get
the right color.
So in the UK curriculum, does it say they bave to be familiar with these particular
No, you have to choose the program to fulfill those benchmarks.
And the programs you have chosen are integrated into other subjects?
Yes they are. Some people who are not familiar with IT, they might take that modeling
program and try to satisfy the benchmarks. But when you become more familiar with it,
you can start to integrate it into other subjects. It is harder for teachers who are not as
competent. That is where I tried to help teachers. lt is hard having Yr as an isolated
You were the ICT coordinator right.
I 67
Yes, the first year I just made sure the hardware was ok. The second year I looked into
software and helping teachers. By the third year, the government put a lot of money into
if and they provided more resources for us. There was 6 sessions over a period of three
to four months where we received training. it covered all the different elements of IT.
I want to ask you, for these 6 sessions, what did the instructor provide the teachers?
She provided booklets with activities for our age group. So we had activities from
inception to year six. And a different activity for each level satisfying one attainment
level. She also provided personal development so she gave us another package on Word,
Excel, Access, and the other programs. The third strain was the Internet training. If we
didnt have an email address, she would set us up with one ofthose. There was a Lot of
searching and how to find things on what we want. She did forums and chat forums.
And simple things like attaching files. There was also a disk provided that had activities
on it that you could just load onto all the computers and use it with your class straight
away. There was also ed-roms that she provided for certain activities. If you liked them,
you could buy them after that.
Was it just six sessions over the year?
Yes, but we did it quicker. We felt it would be more successful. It made the curriculum
more disjointed. Mine had to take a backseat at one time. There were too many
attainment targets to meet. Some ofthe teachers found it difficult because they didn't
have computers at home. Even though there were different levels of learners, she gave us
material to cater to our needs.
So the trainer provided curriculum related materia's for teachers to use in the
What granted you this ICT coordinator position?
i suppose I was quite IT literate, it was part ofour teaching degree. So in our tirst year of
our degree, there was a computing course, and also in the second year. There wasn't one
in the third year. I had my computer since the second year onwards. So I was able to
spend more time on it. Well, you just have to spend time on it when you want to develop
your IT skills. When I started teaching, I didn't have extensive training in IT. We got
more training on the core skills, Math, English, Science. We had that every week. The
other courses we only bad a little on each. When I had to teach it, it was very difficult to
transfer my skills to what the children can do. I did some little courses that helped give
me more know'edge on how to use IT in the classroom. I started myjob because the IT
coordinator went on maternity leave because there wasn't anyone else interested. Ijust
offered a little advice. I set the whole room up anyways. And I didn't get paid for that at
the time. I did that for a year. The job was coming up for the next year. I was only a
I 68
teacher for a year and a half. They employed someone else but was terrible. Then my
head asked me f I wanted the job foi the following year, and i said yes.
Was that guy a teacher?
Yes, he had good personal skills, but he just didn't put in the hours as the IT coordinator,
it i$
ery time consuming. A'so, when I was the IT cooidinator, I just did all the courses
being offered by the local education authority. Just so I can go and train teachers in that
where I would send some teachers to learn on their own.
Do you find when you get together with the other grade one senior teachers to do
your monthly planning, you three try to integrate IT
to other subjects, or is it just
within the computer class?
Yes, we integrate all our subjects into IT, and discuss this with each other when we can.
You lind lot's of problems using computers in this scho1, do you have any ICT
support ideas ofwhat the school can offer you to teach your lessons and integrate
ICT more smoothly?
I think that the technician should be checking the computers every morning. Just to
check the network and priMers are all wocking. When studetits can't print, they feel so
bad. Check the Internet is working every morning. It isjust daily checks, rather than us
asking to fix problems. It should be part ofhis daily routine. I don't think we should as
the technician should check the level of ink. I also think the number of
computers in the room is too many, it is squashed together.
What would be ideal?
It is nice for all the students to have one each. I didn't have that at my last schooI some
had to share. I think every computer needs to have speakers. And we need space in
between the computers. Perhaps sixteen, but the room should be bigger. They also need
sorne way to secure the boxes, so students are not kicking them or hitting them. They
also cant get their chairs or feet because the boxes are on the floor.
So improve the environment?
Apart from the room, what other support would you want?
This school doesi't have a clear IT curriculum that students need to achieve at certain
levels. There also needs to be some kind oftraining for teachers. It should include
certain elements ouT. The elements need to be identified for what students should be
learning at each age level. Then providing training to meet that I know the IT budget
needs to be huge. Bigger than Math. English, and Science. It needs to be massive. It
I 69
also needs to be part ofthe whole school plan. Whole school spending should always
include technology, and it shouldn't be an isolated budget. It should be part ofthe whole
school budget. There needs to be an IT plan that includes a budget and training.
Ifthe school provided the support would you find your teaching methods, lesson
plans, or do anything different
Ultimately yes. lfyou do have everything in place, you can have the maximum facilities
at your disposal. Things you can do will be more enjoyable for your students and for
you. You can become more adventurous with the things available. I would be more
creative. I am not currently because the software is limited. But I had to be creative with
the software available. Other teachers also have ideas when I rau out. I also feel when
the students are paying for school, the best should be provided. That is a selling point for
parents too. The rewards the school can reapjust in IT, they can get back in enrollment.
One thing that could work in the next step, ifyou were doing the IT training I spoke
about earlier, you could get money offbuyirig a computer from the government. That
was one ofthe initiatives for teachers to take the training.
i 70