Document 192420

WINTER
OUR
HOW
BIRDS
TO
KNOW
AND
HOW
TO
ATTRACT
THEM
BY
FRANK
CURATOR
OF
BIRDS
IN
CHAPMAN
M.
THE
EDITOR
AMERICAN
OF
MUSEUM
"bird
OF
NATURAL
LORE"
ILLUSTRATIONS
BY
EDMUND
.^.D.APPLETON
NEW
J.
SAWYER
AND
YORK
COMPANY
LONDON
1918
HISTORY;
Copyright,
D.
Printed
APPLETON
in
191
8,
AND
the
United
by
COMPANY
States
of
America
Plates
I
of
some
and
the
as
idea
collection
of
placed
birds
Natural
details
form
of
though
and
the
birds
of
these
advantage
to
the
than
than
a
better
is
example,
plan
with
gives
idea
made
permits
of
another,
one
bird-life.
a
Crow
of
equal
size.
the
while
direct
a
comprehensive
most
bird
trations
illus-
case
same
One
II
and
drawings
Kinglet,
Furthermore,
at
conception
being
therefore
can
these
from
drawn
are
Plate
in
of
comparison
glance
effectively
great
I.)
size
minute
The
over
the
when
possible
are
actual
of
so
larger.
scale
Plate
in
that
as
of
but
small,
shown
the
(The
scale.
same
slightly larger
gain
figures
author
Museum
them
much
in
the
ago
are
are
were
those
all
is that
color
In
seasonal
a
American
drawn
Sawyer
Mr.
has
shelves
on
from
figures
eastern
north-
case.
years
the
The
the
museum
grew
many
in
History.
accurately
as
which
of
arranged
a
illustrations
for
exhibition
on
in
(and
commoner
birds
are
displayed
were
fact, the
land
They
States.
the
all
winter
rarer)
they
if
contain
II
United
PLATES.
OF
EXPLANATION
the
of
for
this
one
species
two
plates
our
winter
CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction
3
Home
Birds
Field
Birds
23
94
"
Forest
Birds
132
LIST
A
Lunch
Window
ILLUSTRATIONS
OF
Frontispiece
Counter
....
PAGE
Shelter
Feeding-stand and
A
Rustic
A
Woodpecker's
Spear
3^
Climber
and
Chisel
Downy's
19
41
Cardinal
59
Goldfinch
The
The
Lapland
The
Bill
Pointed
and
74
Songs
77
Longspur
Meadowlark
no
Bill of the
Hawk-like
Sparrow
70
Tail-feathers
of White-throat's
Two
Loop
Creeper's Probe-like
Brown
Stiffened
The
the
Loops
Shrike
113
Bob-white
(upper figure) and
.
.
1
Hawk
Powerful
127
(A) An
of
Feet
Groping
(B) A
Owl,
Hawk
135
Red-shouldered
Sharp-shinned
Hawk
138
Pursuing
Hawk
a
Redpoll
.
The
Slender
(Left)
Grouse
18
.
and
Foot
of
(Right)
in Winter,
a
The
When
Ruffed
Grouse
Fringed Foot
the
Bird
Dons
in
of
.
.
142
Summer
a
Ruffed
Snowshoes
155
Evening
Grosbeak
163
Carolina
Wren
I74
Mockingbird
I77
"
IX
INTRODUCTION
WINTER
OUR
BIRDS
I
INTRODUCTION
BIRDS
THE
HEN
winter
night
into
He
be
crackles
from
it then
fares
How
What
the window?
out
there
no
cosy
warm
chairs
supper
limb,
can
in the
or
nestle
to
a
even
and
is
fire
a
protection
other
the
on
have
They
in,
An
no
one
have
they
3
no
to
side
of
is all the
not
fireside,
prepare
bough,
evergreen
snow-drift
if
Inside,
friends, the birds, doing
our
blackness?
for them.
hope for;
those
with
are
It may
comfort.
food, and
storm,
other,
howls, the
hearth; there
the
the
on
wind
the
Its fierce blasts.
cheerfully on
the
;
the
side
one
light. Outside,
snowing;
rattle before
windows
darkness
and
warmth
On
parts.
a
on
divide
to
seem
we
two
and
cold
the shades
down
draw
we
world
YOU
AND
had
shelter
good
a
a
low
hol-
they
luck
OUR
4
outside
slumber
singinghis
in
In.
as
The
gry.
hun-
there
summer
Soon
song.
bed
to
go
leaves
is
to
seem
Robin
A
Is
Whip-poor-will
a
begin his chant.
All's well
from
the stars, the
their freedom
dawn;
them
envy
awakening in
will and
wander
at
stores.
Who
to
bountiful
Nature's
We
with the birds.
now
sleepbeneath
their
a
shades
well
as
theymust
contentedlyIn the nightbreeze.
rustle
will
the
draw
we
warmth
BIRDS
the afternoon
foragingin
When
WINTER
the
choose
would
be;
not
bird In summer?
But
We
dreary.
the birds
way
pitythe
to
seem
dependent
a
homeless
firesides like
give them
much
need
upon
own.
our
care
Our
summer.
wish
and
this
our
could
we
in the winter
So
For
us.
chill and
seems
and
our
placeIn
warmer
the birds of
the open
night in
winter
a
to
reason
In
be
some
cupy
they oc-
affections than do
relations with them
seem
Intimate.
more
The
twittering
Juncos
and
onlyour
It Is
give us,
winter.
welcome
not
should
I look
at
from
we
make
my
suet-baskets,the
our
from
guests but
only what
that
food
hatches
doorstep,the Nut-
our
Woodpeckers
that take
Chickadees
at
our
not
are
personalfriends.
our
give them,
us
hands,
but what
thankful
window
over
they
for birds in
the white
ex-
INTRODUCTION
of
panse
onlyby
is marked
world
glory of
The
the wind.
in
fretfully
The
sky is gray; the shutters
The
snow.
5
stalk
a
dead, when
seems
through the air,perches on
a
summer
a
above
two
or
snow.
mite
nearby limb
a
den
gar-
the
feathered
a
creak
flits
and
calls
"Chick-a-dee-dee-dee."
merry
What
What
difference in the
a
good
cheer
and
his
scene
!
coming makes
bringswith
he
contentment
him!
When
birds
the
are
seeing. Tree
the fields and
Sparrows
insects' eggs
the
on
sense
a
capture
home
We
than
their
happilyover
stops his search
and
for
greet
of
us
grub, hammers
a
He
"peek" to
is
as
busy
too
we
pause
companionshipwe
with Nature.
them
of
They
friends of ours!
feathered
of
sure
us
"yank-yank."A Downy Woodpecker,
tap-tap-tap.
calls his clear
winter,
are
we
look down
long enough to
with his queer
What
chatter
in
woods
only livingcreatures
of seeds; a Nuthatch
breakfast
intent
to
go
we
How
lonelywe
to
to
have
make
triously,
indus-
stop, but
watch
him.
with these
us
feel
at
should be without
!
are
their
THE
BIRDS
indebted
to
OUR
these
for
friendship;
the otherwise
more
silent fields and
ALLIES
winter birds for
than
woods.
more
givinglife to
They
are
our
6
WINTER
OUR
BIRDS
active allies in the warfare
forests from
to
save
our
of insects that
the army
and
crops
tack
atceaselessly
them.
The
Tree
Sparrows breakfastingon
hunting insects^
Nuthatch
all
digging out
grubs,were
Chickadees
that accept
us
repay
and
nuts
that birds
great value
not
have
many
never
can
of it.
the
harvests
seeds
It?
of the
crop
Why,
the
seeds
of
and
to
suet
tation
vege-
also of
are
the
over
constantly
you
from
Hoe
and
the
of weed-seeds
one
have
planted.
purslane,crab-grassand
garden,in
cause
so
Birds
hundred
rake
as
Just as
to
you
soon
take
session
pos-
in
potato-field,
never
friends the
in winter.
is
ing
over-grow-
have
you
field,
they seem
our
for it
care
get rid of them.
plantsthat
their chief food
how
others.
In the
stubble,the
garden to
a
that
vegetables
or
retire from
you
harmful
are
prevent them
to
ragweed
are
pigweed, and
as
for the
birds
seed-eating
tell you
to
the flowers
will,you
luncheon
to
their chief enemies; but
are
had
ever
weeds
fightthe
There
of times
The
us.
us?
to
necessary
to
the
that
knows
If you
invitation
our
that Insects
knows
one
and
who
for
offer them.
we
Every
Woodpeckers
working
countless number
a
the
eggs,
seeds, the
fails. Who
Sparrows. The
much
are
trouble
known
to
different kinds
are
eat
of
INTRODUCTION
7
is almost
weeds, and the quantity
they devour
What
The
Tree
the Tree
their breakfast
over
their
walk
our
in
nearlyevery
find
all
are
think
may
but
as
of Tree
company
fightthe
to
their
tinue
con-
we
Sparrows
gatheringand
ing
crush-
littlebills.
sharplypointed,stout
them
watched
we
a
field and
seed with their
If
we
unimportantone;
we
cially
so-
time doing
same
had
have
Perhaps
small and
a
the
at
were
should
help,we
followingsummer.
share
chatteringso
were
the destruction of seeds that,
their share toward
without
Does
Sparrow
that
Sparrows
believable.
un-
should
throughoutthe day we
find that they passed most
of their time in the
same
useful
might
estimate the
ber
num-
occupation;and
of seeds
with
the
studies of Tree
until
This
His
he
some
of
others, we
in
how
continue
might
Sparrov/sover
about
day. Then,
one
a
much
there
many
our
largerarea
were
in each
mile.
square
one
knew
we
bird devours
each
help
we
the method
was
pursuedby
of the greatest authorities
studies
were
in the
made
estimated that from
two
hundred
ten
the food
to
of
state
October
days, the
averaged about
on
Professor
Tree
to
Beal,
of birds.
Iowa, where
April, or
Sparrow
each square
mile.
for
lation
popu-
Each
Sparrow
believed
was
of weed-seeds
ounce
consumption
I have
Now
well
Tree
Sparrow
invaluable
streaked
But if
be branded
be
as
an
believable
un-
of
one
were
in the state, do
permittedto
to
of every
you
Would
do it?
Iowa,
by
the
little,
brown,
that he intended
of Iowa
enemy
reality."
realize what
In this
some
of
inhabited
states
helperthey have
of weed-seed
that he would
almost
state
winter, few farmers
in
Sparrow.
tons
1,750,000
an
short
that In the
doubt
no
in the papers
875
an
Professor Beal tells us that
Still,
in all the other
as
be
Indeed
fall
figures^'unquestionably
these
an
would
season
of
this rate, the total
At
! Is this not
tons
one-fourth
about
eat
dally.
amount?
as
to
the
for
pounds,or 875
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
8
tise
adverto
sow
believe
he
citizen of the
not
monwealth,
com-
who, if he persistedin his evil intent,
should be
does
No
Sparrow actually
prevents
kind of
Justone
from
sowing these
it receive?
of seeds, and
tons
Do
we
the State has
! Often
it
arrest?
placedunder
so
give It
not
well deserves.
a
what
vote
Nature
reward
of thanks?
given it the legalprotection
The
Government
at
Washington has therefore taken the Tree Sparrow,
Its care
as
and all other migratory birds, under
travel
wards of the nation, and hereafter they may
throughoutour
under
the
land
as
Citizens of the United
of
guardianship
Federal
law.
States
record givesus
surprising
This
doing for
is
Chickadee
"the
that
entire
His
bore
trees
neighbor'sorchard
next
the birds but
"elsewhere
of the
apple trees
"most
few
produced
in such
secured
we
have
that it
kept
without
a
seemed
winter
jury,
serious insect in-
littleeffort and
expenditureto
safe homes."
furnish them
excellent
is the
BIRDS
THE
KNOW
friends with
all make
why
reasons
only season
they
doors
as
we
storms
are
at
our
the
from
cold
feathered
comfortable
firesides. It is when
prevent them
birds
when
suits
probably justas
we
in winter.
the birds
from
are
has
after year
Year
actuallyneed our bounty. It is not
which they suffer. In their warm,
may
markable,
re-
the
protecting
three
are
sult
re-
otherwise
SHOULD
WE
First,because
very
the
While
so.
free from
sprayingor
Here, then,
should
not
was
the birds and
WHY
writes,
defoliated and
were
trees
our
merely by
foliage,
attract
in the town," he
experienceof succeedingyears
the
demonstrated
protectedby
exceptional
year
an
of fruit.'^
crop
also
was
fruit that year.
any
tells
He
foliageduring the
luxuriant
produced a good
and
summer
mer,
followingsum-
for him.
his orchard
actuallysaved
dees,
Chicka-
Forbush's
Mr.
us.
idea of what
some
attracted the
the birds he
and
us
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
10
of
out
longed
pro-
venturingforth
to
INTRODUCTION
feed, or
the
encases
and
heavy
snows
cover
limbs,that
we
them
save
from
ii^
the weed
starvation.
Second, because in
the silence and solitude of winter the
of birds
is
welcome
more
of the year.
powerful allies of
To
these three
We
or
of
During
we
add
may
then be
not
time
birds
fourth
a
are
that
:
begin the study
to
discouragedby
of bird-life of
the
migration
summer.
only the
the winter
birds which
which
and
year,
Residents, and
and
other
any
the winter
in which
abundance
throughout the
north
at
companionship
gardener and farmer.
season
will
overwhelming
time
the
reasons
winter is the best
of birds.
than
Third, because
their relief
to
come
may
ice
stalks,or
Winter
from
come
Visitants,
are
are
known
see
fifteen different kinds
as
termed
are
that
those
remain
manent
Perthe
with
us.
If you
morning'swalk
be many
give
an
you
bird
excellent
book
them, and,
with you,
each
you
have
species.If
should
the strange birds you
on
returning,
you
in selecting
from
difficulty
birds you
There
found
observe
opportunityto
markings of
of
descriptions
see
done well.
a
may
individuals of each kind, and this fact will
colors and
no
you will have
of birds in
the
have
write careful
see, while
should
colored
and described.
you
the
have
you
little
platesthe
the birds
When
as
as
many
have
been
time
will
by
to
of these
filledwith
room
let
So
birds, that
seem
in them.
Then
to
that
than
we
it is
to
to
their
a
know.
we
birds
the winter
their homes
from
first to
in
interested
know
the birds
ever
come
much
go
us
we
as
of them
many
more
friendshipeven
that of the commoner,
do
with
enter
about
our
than
way
half-
reason
highly
more
more
ready.
al-
in search
them, and perhaps justfor that
meet
are,
orchard; the everyday
rarely if
shall have
We
shall value
we
much
Probably you
of the birds
homes.
tree
shall go to the fieldsand woods
we
tiently
impa-
friends
of whom
springarrive
as
The
travelers.
every
make
confusingas
threshold,lawn, and
our
are
begin to
I shall introduce you
in the south.
forward
feathered
acquaintedwith
the birds of
before
as
kinds
in
enjoyableand exciting
peoplenone
get
us
to
south,
the
singleday.
a
throng
to
most
But
May, is
the birds in
in
will look
you
the bird-lover,the
from
us
thirtydifferent
and
they seem
year.
to
person
return
days when
the whole
of
one
when
come
for the
The
back
come
hundred
one
seen
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
12
trustful
birds.
Birds' eyes
we
are
so
birds
are
much
can
see
so
much
sharper than
larger than
all
they want
the
to
ours
and
birds, that probably
of
us
long before
INTRODUCTION
we
we
see
are
near
should
have
have
size,
clearly,
seen.
enough
shape,
and
a
to
an
all
see
or
opera
colors
note-book
13
and
in
we
of
want
field-glass
markings
which
to
them.
in
of
enter
So
order
the
what
to
birds
we
INVITING
THE
UR
love
them
setter's
instinct
by
overcome
bird
trained
be
host
A
them
death
is
in
are
to
the
them
But
well
birds
their
rather
cats
as
lawn
than
are
and
to
exhibit
they
another.
Our
be
never
may
fireside,
the
are
exposes
less
that
born
was
which
cats
can
should
Nor
everywhere;
garden.
them
in
his
guests
host
than
be
near
it is far
ask
a
can
we
safe
as
haunts,
own
cat
our
therefore,
your
surely
be
of
so.
therefore,
will
on
another.
one
game-laws.
knowingly
Unless,
that
do
to
who
of
danger
the
have
not
are
fond
one
indeed
observe
to
expect
we
few
with
Remember,
cosily by
killer, and
beneath
chickens
capture
so
brings
which
equally
toward
training.
purring
pussy,
a
to
to
terrier, while
our
neutrality
desire
often
terms
be
may
and
armed
of
best
We
us
animals
roof
the
and
pets
about
our
only
of
BIRDS
a
derer.
mur-
reasonably
our
homes
better
to
the
to
for
us
to
us.
come
field
they
to
go
forest,
and
If, therefore,
as
sure
we
can
con-
as
INTRODUCTION
trol the
cat-problemimmediatelyabout
need
we
not
hesitate
birds,providedwe
the reach of
might climb
there be
to
If it be
so
on
that when
the
cat
a
cannot
the enemy
bush, let
or
branches,
or
it.
enters
at
both ends
at
open
cat
a
one, the birds may
LODGING
be
to
than passing
more
with
lodgingas
with food.
theycan
the best birds' bed-rooms, and
be used the year
bor-vitae and
cedar
as
well
ar-
protectionthan
give more
as
Close-limbed
around.
open-branchedspruce
offer food
on
of roof
provide them
we
Evergreens make
more
tree
a
springingon
expect the birds
callers unless
as
situated that
so
ground,let it be
THE
We
from
beyond
the other.
at
escape
well
if it be
it,for example in
which will prevent
these is placing
(There will always
either
protection,
some
the
when
precautions
"lunch counters"
cat.
neighbor's
our
cat.) Or
neighbor's
a
certain
and
homes,
our
to
hospitality
our
importantof
Most
"diningtables"
our
offer
to
observe
them.
entertaining
be
15
and
pine.
shelter and
are
These
therefore
the
trees
first
the bird host's list.
Densely planted bushes
southern
quarters
exposures
even
when
make
tanglesof
and
safe
the leaves
are
and
snug
vines
on
sleeping
off. Brush
heaps
OUR
i6
WINTER
serviceable
make
In
needed
of
summer
in
some
BIRDS
and
roosts
be
may
winter, to be removed
turns
tree
every
placed where
when
into
the
foliage
dormitory. Left
a
inconspicuous
positionand
with
over-run
for Catbirds
vines,they offer capitalnesting-places
I have
Thrashers.
and
vines stillattached,in the form
assured
Having
comfortable
which
will
There
for
birches for the
Flickers
of
tepee.
and
while
a
prepare
a
a
the
and
bill-of-fare
tastes.
bills,
for the Cross-
Siskins,box
and
safe
guests
trees
cone-bearing
Grosbeaks
ash
mountain
poles,with
appeal to their varied
should be
Pine
must
we
lodging
bean
feathered
our
quarters,
attractive
an
by stackinglima
for birds
house
made
elder
and
possibleEvening Grosbeak,
for the
Redpolls,Virginiacreeper
Waxwings, sunflowers
thorn
dogwood,
finches,
Gold-
for the
crab-apple{Grata-
bayberry,staghornsumach, viburnum,
gus) privet,
ing
barberryand black alder all bear fruit which, ripen^
in the
But
nor
can
fall,will
nature's larder
It always be
substitute for It
learned
not
or
fail to
attract
kept filled. We
add
birds like;this
to
we
It food
may
must
ways,
the
setting
table for birds and
offer
not
In
to
for
the birds
pleasureIn attracting
a
day;
therefore
which
always remembering
varietyof
Our
stocked
be
cannot
winter birds.
have
we
them
that
in
we
are
cats.
to
our
homes
a
A
Dutcher
to
nearer
is made
This
Is
projectsabout
three-sided
a
distance
glassbox which
it did
as
tightly
as
Meals
be
may
will
cat
in the
served
sightlythan
will prove
garden
of
in mind.
offers birds
each
which
natural
no
In
placeof
food
the
perch on
feel,far
more
limb
may
at
does
be
placed.
the birds
home
than
placedon the same
feeding capacityof
of these limbs
the
on
Bird
Guests"
stand
a
it were,
This
I prefer
trough
in
provides a
less
doubt-
look, and
flatfloor. Two
than
uprightmore
this "branch
lishment"
estab-
since it permitsuncongenial
guests
^See E. H. Baynes, 'Wild
be
may
cate
clearlyindi-
not
a
An
tray, which
bark-covered
a
more
use.
such
the broad
or
which
rustic
A
concealment.
shows
the table,as
guest's
placeat
forgetthat
in
now
protectionand
foothold, and
hollowed
not
rustic roof
or
accompanying diagram
I have
a
devices
of the
many
for purposes
The
the
feeding
on
serviceable and
more
bough, thatched
evergreen
added
the
is inserted
invitation.
without any
come
feedingstand
double
while
sill. Food
the
beyond
stands,or in the trees, but againlet us
as
the sill.
on
foot into the room,
a
on
lid in the top.
through a
the
even
floor,or food tray, extends also outward
wooden
same
bring the birds
will
^
and
window-opening closely
fit the
to
the sash closes
which
It
box
window
us.
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
i8
(E. P.
Dutton
"
to
take
Co.).
INTRODUCTION
seats
at
different tables.
placedwell
be
of the
act
a
as
use
barbed
wire wound
about
far
the lower
uprightas
A
a
third smaller limb may
the roof for
under
up
while
ing-perch,
A
19
Rustic
as
Feeding-Stand
cat-guard.This
and
food
to
In
we
must
the base
trough will
it will be
a
tray.
BILL-OF-FARE
a blU-of-fare
preparing
guests,
roost-
stand should be situated in
the window
THE
a
Shelter
sheltered spot, and, if possible,
where
half-wayhouse
as
remember
for
our
that
bird
prospective
among
them
are
should
have
the side of the
window
also be taken
For
Jays
offer
hemp,
and
other
and
nuts
it will
and
Grosbeaks
and
chick-feed;
peanuts
birds
by
we
seed, Japanese
mixed
eagerly eaten
are
Brown
and
dog-biscuit.Unroasted
broken
at
hatches,
Chickadee, Nut-
sun-flower
and
corn
frame
Starlings.
and
canary
millet, cracked
crumbs
and
seed-eatingSparrows
the
should
the
by
stand
of this food
especiallyfond
are
garden
the
to
The
tray.
This
Hairy Woodpeckers
and
Downy
Creeper
attached
troughs, and
the
between
we
suet.
of
of the
upright post
the
to
former
the
never-failingsupply
a
tied
be
may
For
seed-eaters.
insect- and
both
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
20
of both
classes.
^
Wherever
spread
we
English Sparrows
the last
and
Sparrows
surelydo
birds
been
on
to
not
want
the
Sparrows
ground
leave
near
the
enjoy their
them
for
be
the
the
birds, the
first to
pugnacious,noisy little
no
when
wish
birds
all, but
at
they crowd
them
to
our
we
native
fill.
if
the
we
sprinkle a supply of grain
feeding stand, they will visit
Chickadees, Nuthatches, and
meals
come
mainly ground feeders, it has
are
that
the
than
placeswe
suggested
the
it and
better
table
probably
Even
go.
are
from
Since
to
will
a
unmolested.
Downy
HOME
BIRDS
n
BIRDS
HOME
HE
kind
which
of birds
depend
the
upon
woods?
do
that
they
from
and
home.
Do
visited
York
are
other
little
that
hope
are
insist
here
offers
birds
houses
a
the
It Is
City.
I know
not
has
given
they
shall
much
but
the
a
and
planting
cover
bountiful
never-failingsupply
23
towns
that
have.
and
love.
have
large place
a
birds
to
suburban
large
by,
near
unknown
only
Starlings.
In this section
of
winter
calls
receive
to
house;
situated
rarest
our
of
in winter?
favorably
so
may
and
the
near
you
border
for birds
entertain
one
trimming
natures
Cats
counter
in
bushes
are
the
at
or
to
placed
home
a
New
there
their
people
others
the birds
fields
roundings
sur-
In the
country;
or
shelter
and
expect
may
town
and
trees
English Sparrows
All
and
of
fortunate
visitors,while
near
midst
food
provide
Some
in
there
Are
you
dwell
course,
location
of your
pect
ex-
may
will, of
visit you
to
you
of
the
lunch-
things
CHICKADEES
A
BIRD
FEAR
WITHOUT
{Fig, 32)
F
should
we
guest-book
and
of
all
our
visitors, "Chickadee,"
I
in
write
bird
so
black
near
would
every
page.
his
calling
understand
do
do?
you
refuse
bird
as
can
a
we
and
can
bright
little
himself
by
introduces
no
the
of
hand
Often
he
one
can
he
said
I
:
us
is
to
to
"How
one
friendship
suppose,
fail
No
will honor
is
he
Fearlessly
his
see
he
birds
our
ani
nearly
on
Chickadee-dee-dee."
am
can
lightful
de-
so
by accepting
near
as
as
a
shaking hands.
to
handshake
little claws
he
all
just as though
perch, which,
no
Of
ever
arouses
cordial, kindly feelings than
Chickadee's
big
It is
come
Certainly
more
him.
caller.
a
it
so
extend
to
entered
clearly that
name
/
be
then
shine, and
eyes
names
friendly.
most
that
us
a
it the
sure,
the
comes
keep
is such
a
on
our
finger.
little fellow
24
does
that
within
the
We
when
grip
are
he
us
of
so
ac-
26
WINTER
OUR
BIRDS
world, and the untried wings bear them
limb.
Then
you
miles
return
to
to
their winter
us
the
Best of
all,your
ears
Woods
will
ring with
meaning
too
you
The
homes
will be
in the
opened
calls and
tropicsand
the voices
to
utter
them
understand
them.
notes
with which
Chickadee
to
seem
us
like
a
and
silent
have
Many
songs.
may
known
thousands
and fieldsthat before seemed
the birds that
to
travel
followingspring.
of birds.
now
boring
neigh-
a
will learn how, with these
wings, the migratory speciesmay
of
to
a
day
some
firstmakes
self
him-
greeting. To
them
not
gurglesand chuckles,which we canthough they sound very much like the
interpret,
thingswe should expect Chickadee to say. But we
acter
form
must
not
our
opinion of Chickadee's charIn addition
from his everyday conversation.
he utters
to the calls which have givenhim his name,
three notes.
also a clear,high whistle of two
or
It is so musical,so sad and plaintive,
filledwith
so
he
adds
some
sentiment
tender
matter-of-fact
that it is difficultto believe such
fellow
as
Chickedee
to
seems
be
a
can
be its author.
As
a
boy,I
that it was
the call long before I
Chickadee's.
I heard
to
knew
it
When,
on
through
floating
fancy that perhaps it
was
a
aware
was
winter's
ing,
morn-
the woods, I used
Jack
Frost
with
an
BIRDS
HOME
iciclefor
a
imagine my
along from
27
FinallyI answered, and you may
flitting
surprisewhen Chickadee came
tree
to tree
and, perchingalmost within
flute.
reach, whistled the call which
had
aroused
so
my
curiosity.
It
some
could
the
boy
friend whom
not
only talk
boys,but
These
uttered
and
know
had
also
the female
by
that with
as
in March
birds,is lookingfor
other
a
in
a
a
hunt for
than
the
Chickadee
makes
is
limb, and
not
littlebill for
urge
on
until
the
a
less
a
tool and
his work, he
hammers
bigenough hole
has been
plant-down,often
fur,and feathers.
with soft
always
more
Sometimes
is chosen;
nest
or
more
ground.
at
stout
With
a
others,
decayed and
the hole himself.
stout
moss,
stump
is
in
first week
a
Woodpecker's
the wood
when
If his search
is
or
quently
fre-
more
nestingplace.This
fifteen feet above
deserted
the male,
a
hole, usuallyin
for
song,
Chickadee, with
mate.
it is followed, about
successful,
May, by
them
hears
April when
and
as
singer.
nearly all birds only the
sings.Nevertheless,one
male
well
of
rest
remarkable
a
Chickadee's
not
are
for years,
known
like all the
shout
was
notes
they are
we
and
that he
sweet
you
that
discover
should
just as though you
was
soft.
only his
littleheart
to
persistently
away
made.
from
a
This is lined
fern, and with
For
Gmit]!
so
found
once
but six
nine eggs;
a
a
surprisingly
Chickadee^s
nest
is the usual number.
seven
or
with
They
speckled with brownish,
white, spotted and
are
has
bird Chickadee
a
1
largefamily.
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
28.
chieflyat the largerend.
There
Meals
hatch.
the eggs
when
have
he hunts
when
insects
he
then, of the number
food
for
all hours
at
care,
nine!
in
learn
is with
Chickadee
a
quarters
begin to
a
dees
Chicka-
few
to
May, when
when
summer,
him
see
and, under
their
he visits our
he
returns
parents'
of their kind.
throughout the
more
worn
days they leave
year
therefore,belongs in the class of Permanent
We
leaving
suit like that
more
the ways
us
after
week
feathered
a
their elders and
their crowded
he provides
their parents, the young
they have
egg
Think,
destroy when
must
rapidly. Within
grow
himself.
only for
familyof
a
Fortunatelyfor
by
served
are
family
In the opening chapter I
daylightto dusk.
dee
Chickatold you something of the debt we owe
from
the
Chickadee
in the
times
busy
are
and,
dents.
Resi-
frequentlyfrom October
homes, than during the
to
the woods
to
raise his
family.
In
of
eastern
North
Chickadees.
best known.
Our
He
America
there
friend
is found
from
the
are
three kinds
Black-capis
central New
the
Jersey
HOME
Canada,
to
District
central
States
the
New
have
we
higher
Is
not
so
south
the
as
and
four
of
and
Instead
of
a
on
is described
whistle
its
that
as
Is
margins
note
notes
clear
and
strong
"Chickadee"
hurried,
more
This
whitish
less
Gulf
the
to
Chickadee.
with
Its
composed
usually
far
as
southward
Carolina
bird
wing-feathers.
as
winter,
Jersey
the
smaller
slightly
the
29
Columbia.
of
From
In
and,
BIRDS
of
the
is
call
and
two,
ern
north-
more
bird.
In
third
Chickadee
Chickadee.
of
notes
by
south
winter
as
has
northern
known
that
voice
goes
been
New
far
seen
cap
is
from
as
his
small
Jersey.
its
and
so
Is
Hudsonlan
nasal
unlike
the
know
the
should
well
in
the
as
you
as
there
Canada
chee-day-day"
his
rarely
and
brownish
a
Black-cap
our
He
in
has
"tchick,
Hudsonlan
crownc
England
generally
It
drawling
but
New
northern
his
summer
numbers
brownish
home,
as
far
a
NUTHATCHES
TOPSY-TURVY
BIRDS
White-Breasted
Nuthatch
THE
{Figs. sS, 39)
UDGED
by
they
the
frequency
together,
seen
are
Chickadee's
they
are
Its
see
find him
hear
also
a
owner
strange
this
can
long-billed,gray,
down
runs
climb
up.
At
the
are
they
cares,
In the
the
same
be
and
Chickadee's
hear
in
cupied
oc-
have
winter
moment
of
lower
himself.
limb,
to
tone
find
bird
a
tree
as
he
sees
us,
as
look
We
quickly
30
greeting
we
saying *'yank,yank"
a
black-capped
trunk
limb
from
voice
words
talking to
was
who
we
swinging
chattering some
and
ing
Dur-
both
society,but
other's
therefore,
soon
often
family
the
inseparable companions.
When,
and
each
for
when
summer,
of
is
Nuthatch.
with
little time
which
one
friends
best
White-breasted
the
with
a
though
about
to
short-tailed,
who,
observe,
we
easily as
stops
he
can
his search
HOME
for insects and
two,
or
their eggs,
is
we
sometimes
the
nut
But
we
invitation
seem
have
all seen
seen
a
on
then
our
ought to
be
he
us,
lunch
we
may
him.
attracts
counter.
the
to
nut,
a
successes
of the few birds
dogs bury bones, and
hide
squirrel
storingfood
is
lives in
spend their
Independent. If
their
wings
It
abundance.
about
We
morrow.
of
some
have
or
have
us
found
To
can
is
fails in
not
are
to
for them
They
have
no
that
more
try,
coun-
land
a
to
of
think
closets or
hoarding food.
this rule
he
them
necessary
dinner.
birds
part of the
one
take
soon
White-breast,or
called.White-vest, is
when
place. But
one
the
habit
with animals
uncommon
food
to-morrow's
cellars for
not
not
hesitates to
never
chipmunk'swinter supplyof provisions.This
of
us
hand, but it is
of the great
one
give thought
to
White-breast
nuts
our
of birds,for he Is one
gray
ond
sec-
Nuthatch, and if he does
to
in the world
that
perch
for
especially
Nuthatch
a
about
curiosity
that
good-fellowship
not
care
an
His
patienceand
to
alwayswelcome
accept
pleasingto
Chickadee.
induce him
and
to
for
over
"yank-yank" and
as
satisfied. With
soon
seem
not
are
to
are
us
hunting.
Evidentlywe
as
31
looks
another
grunts
continues his
BIRDS
comes
to
your
an
as
he has also been
exception.
food-shelf.
Watch
See how
him
freely
OUR
32
helps himself
he
for the
he creeps
rightkind
of
It Is found
when
by
secure
a
the
Is
suet
bark
placed in
for
performance many
might
one
Sometimes
be
White-breast
We
he
spends
and
in
crack
much
and
than
when
time
eats
has
or
acorn,
away
the kernel
given him
the
might think
that
diet by the food
this table Is
of the
trees
his
and
ready for him,
and
Insects and
him
for
set
we
down
he
the trunks
looking for
neighboiingtrees
destroyingthem.
our
can
be better.
one-half his food.
for
he
one
running up
larvse of
the enemies
may
of which
then hammers
and
which
the table
limbs of the
eggs
are
Even
that
If he
nut
a
judge White-breast's
selects from
friends.
more
would
not
must
and
more
memory
a
takes
Nuthatch, though
"Nutcracker"
White-breast
times, and
shell is broken, when
of
name
a
It Is this habit
within.
made
proud.
In
wedges it tightly
until the
it and
cupboard. Perhaps he
find each littlestorehouse,he has
any
a
crevice in the bark;
or
the lunch counter
to
he hides In another
this
crack
a
to
about looking
actively
few taps of the bill. Then
hurries back
repeat
See, also, that he does
flies off with it in his bill
Here
nearby tree.
suel!
to
it but
swallow
not
BIRDS
WINTER
spiderswhich
the
form
insects
Many
of the
which
they live and,
on
White-breast
repays
us
contributions to his larder.
a
sand-fold
thou-
sleep
in the
Late
a
WINTER
OUR
34
afternoon
pine
tree
look
at
to
in
the
in
Nuthatch
I
Soon
third, fourth
fifth; the
Nuthatches
with
another
and,
downward
come
far
above
I
As
into
the
In
looked
by
less than
a
a
last
Long
see
and
minute
there
before
seemed
the
in
unlimited.
shared
How
this
though
they
this
many
to
not
two
were
were
nected.
con-
He
quickly
was
by
turn
a
third.
of Nuthatches
and
when
counted
twenty-eight
reached
I
of
limb
one
limb
entrance,
same
to
began
procession
a
was
ing
swarm-
slipped
in
one
a
Nuthatches
trunk.
out
the
of
there
was
crowded
all
limb
I had
this number
capacity
I wonder,
the
at
disappeared
one
Nuthatches
but
the
nearest
be
to
of
then
horizontal
of the
one
second
passing
the
as
watched,
opening
followed
this
In
cousin
chattering
were
large,
a
Colorado
and
light failed, they
head.
which
of
seemed
tree
beneath
stopped
another
saw
born.
were
(a small
They
toward
my
openings
I
the
as
I
Mountains
White-breast).
and
they
August,
Rocky
Pygmy
a
in which
quarters
snug
one
BIRDS
the
second
hold
to
Nuthatch
dormitory?
expected
!
to
opening,
Nuthatches
famihes,
BIRDS
HOME
35
Nuthatch
Red-Breasted
{Figs,60, 61)
is with
White-breast
belongsin
he has
if you
September first,
About
blowing a
not
we
cannot
us
or
come
is rather
is fond
of the
he is not
kind
nearbypine or
a
breast
Red-
the north.
when
He
he does appear
journey further south.
in his choice of food.
particular
seeds of pine or
spruce cones
his
to stay
likely
with
us
if he
be
had
cannot
breast
RedHe
and
find this
of fare.
it
Probably when
in Canada
home
does
the
some
he will pass the winter with
tell whether
continue
is therefore
that it is
arrival from
year, and
every
a
probably find
will
tree, you
in the
us
think you hear
from
trumpet
penny
announcinghis
does
to
comes
But
Visitants.
the Winter
classed among
spruce
who
only until spring,and
remains
and
year
Residents.
of Permanent
the group
cousin in the north
a
fall and
one
throughoutthe
us
not
reason
years
and
northern
and
New
why
is
not
Red-breast
seen
call is
is it
at
In his
summer
England,
Doubtless
travel far southward.
Red-breast's
breast, nor
to
is
visitsus in numbers
he
this is
some
in others.
all,or but rarely,
not
given in
so
loud
such
a
as
that of White-
business-like way.
OUR
1,6
He
yna,"
drawl,
to
seems
from
the
nose,
high
a
vigorous
''yna-
''yank-yank"
White-breast.
of
He
be
may
has
his
from
less
or
female,
eye
his
to
the
-breast,
to
nesting
but
housekeeping
with
his
are
ways
before
and
farther
the
well
as
black
a
underparts
stripe
more
are
brown.
In
the
grayish.
are
much
like
north
first
as
of
back
gray
wears
reddish
eye-stripe
living
color
cap
and
and
ear,
aiid
crown
Red-breast's
White
smaller
tinged
strongly
and
black
the
is
but
White-breast,
size
by
known
He
voice.
by
go
his
through
dilierent
quite
BIRDS
WINTER
week
he
those
does
in
May.
of
not
THE
AND
DOWNY
TWO
WOODPECKERS
HAIRY
CARPENTER
COUSINS
Woodpecker
Downy
{Figs, 26, 27)
EITHER
is
aroused
when
hammer;
*'peek"
as
"
itself.
To
mind
may
clear
and
it is
I'm
"good-morning,
don't
He
me
to
a
right
of
to
with
on
my
work.
a
as
code
see
of
to
with
me
man
sound
at
business-like
kind
a
comes
him
see
greet
reallyglad
I'll go
the
tap-tap-tap
I want
ears
interest
hear
I
when
but
Downy's
word,
curiositynor
my
single
the
ping
tap-
signal
you,
what
but
I'm
for
if you
doing
here."
What
he
mankind
the
at
might
It
seems
He
as
have
to
taps
well.
bored
He
here
is
ridding
a
interestingto
be
is of
doing
time
same
is
is
importance
getting
the
channel
a
its heart.
Downy
hunting.
his
there, picking
up
way
out
an
and
and
grub which
through
watch
37
him
breakfast
of
tree
merely hitching
and
his
to
the
He
tree.
insect's egg
OUR
38
the way,
by
in
within.
the
is
This
Downy
three inches
nothing less
out
of his bill. Its
the end
A
'(Tip of Pileated
than
Woodpecker's tongue,
which
draw
The
sharp call,as
with
a
short
or
deep.
At
uses
yond
be-
more
and
enlarged)
a
with
weapon
from
them
their
sounds
grub captured. Downy
if in
he
his tongue,
much
kind of
retreats.
time
Spear
Woodpecker's
impale grubs
his
tip is horny,sharply
pointed,and barbed; justthe
to
from
Downy
inch
an
to
picks away
the strokes
grub. Now
thrust
can
he
pause
a
or
of it lies the
his spear.
listening
short
surprisingly
a
opening two
an
bottom
which
In
he Is
he hears it he goes
chipsflybefore
littlechisel.
has made
the time
When
Without
earnest.
busily. The
stout
BIRDS
probably all
but
for the borer
work
WINTER
his
triumph,and perhaps follows
rollingrattle.
he
Then
it
continues his
hunting.
Downy
not
uses
only to
his bill as
to
dead
limb
and
Then
to
pickand
the
he hollows
chisel
provide a home
family. Early in May
makes
twenty feet from
enter.
combined
food, but also
secure
for himself and his
a
a
he selects
usuallyabout fifteen
ground, justlargeenough to
a
hole
out
a
largercavitywithin.
BIRDS
HOME
this
constructing
While
of
It Is often
and
sight,
of the muffled blows.
chipsscattered
the hidden
His
Like
Is
home
those
birds that
six eggs
to
all
of
white
from
his
a
is
home
true
most
their young
in
his
for
use
seen
nests
open
are
spotted egg
a
gleaming
believed
of the
one
well
The
few
make
that
the
birds' eggs
of
concealing
birds that makes
a
for the
nursery
abandon
nest-builders,
can
Its
rearingof
Robin, Jay, Song Sparrow and
as
fly;but Downy
their
he makes
only as sleepingquarters duringthe
bill Is employed for three
after
nests
return
may
nightafter night. Sometimes
Downy's
an
will find
we
than
the useful purpose
In
easilybe
blue, speckledor
discover
nearly all
white.
So
lay in
floor.
nest-robbers.
as
family.
of
and
Jay.
markings which
beautiful,serve
nest
or
hair,
the bare
on
pure
it is therefore
shades, tints and
Downy
laid
shells could
snowy
A
and
one,
are
Woodpeckers,
difficultto
more
the eggs
to
birds line their nests,
many
of birds which
usuallycolored.
Is much
clue
give a
with the straws,
in holes,they are
nest
that the eggs
so
so
egg-huntingCrow
an
source
doorway, and
freshlymade
furnished
not
exposed placethe
by
locate the
puzzlingto
the leaves below,
on
quiteout
away
whereabouts.
carpenter's
the four
and
he hammers
A
feathers with which
or
39
sleep
to
a
hole
winter.
quitedifferent
purposes.
We
and
make
food
have
to
roll
on
better tattoo
littledrummer
though
He
he
No
and
small
does !
of
so
produce a
well with only
his drum.
beats
noise.
The
of
one
then that,
that would
one
result
duce
pro-
in truth
cannot
mirthless
pleasingand
the
The
the echo
to
enjoylistening
lookingfor
is due
tail.
a
tree
Even
Downy's
to
Imagine
and
in Helen
asked
its toes.
a
tryingto
if it had
the
welcome
to
to
tell me
as
a
to
clinging
its bill
use
carpenter
he receives from
Robin
as
the
Downy
kind of bill it could
same
deliver effective blows.
specimen of
Keller's hands
her
skill
the support
perchfirmlyenough
I once
placed a museum
about
do
A
song.
not
firstthis limb and
tests
part of
drummer
trunk
the
spring.
his feet and
not
is
"
resounding
a
musical,but like White-breast's
laughter,it
voices of
to
were
the loudest
be called
could
can
rapidlyhe
seems
of his music.
That
limb.
Downy
that
;
indicates how
as
instrument
beats
pair of drumsticks
a
being a
to
is Downy's
"br-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-up"
with
one
musical
a
Downy
resonant
some
This
man
which
with
drumstick
secure,
musical instrument I
a
part of
a
to
home, but in addition
a
it is
say,
it is used
how
seen
it is also
pickand chisel,
is
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
40
and
what
a
pecker
Wood-
throughher
panion
com-
she could discover
Quickly her sensitive fingersfound
after the firstrailroad crossed the continent,
Soon
a
the
West
and
terrible
interest
chief
Indian
famous
to
see
happened
pole,he
exclaimed
with
have
downward
while
Downy
wants
to
Downy,
does
not
part of
so
to
we
trunks
Black
from
us
and
we
tell him
is smaller
limbs
upward
jerkily
or
and
ward,
up-
and
down.
smaller
and
White
so
him
Warbler
the south until the latter
that time
can
upward,
could mistake
never
they
head
as
backs
much
so
wings,
and
ones,
head
downward,
and
back
often
quite as
the
ready
al-
have
we
Creeper and the
plaingray
is
White-
Warbler.
that you
April. By
Warbler, which
around
Nuthatches,
always goes
while
come
well that
could
only four
have
we
black and white
go
colored
differently
for
a
Creeper
Brown
The
with
man
a
of these, the
Two
White
and
head
he
that
third is the Brown
The
quiteunlike Downy's
when
to
nearby telegraph
a
wonder
Red-breasted
and
Nuthatches
climb
neither
linesman
a
Woodpeckers
the
fourth the Black
The
ascend
to
climbing birds.
met.
the strange
Woodpecker!
a
from
breasted
station in
a
When
when
excite him; but
on
Aside
to
appeared,it seemed
monster
nor
climb like
brought
was
locomotive.
a
his spurs
other
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
42
and
should know
at
a
glance from
which
instead of
forward.
Downy
goes
the
creeping
what
hitchingsome-
BIRDS
HOME
back
Downy
male
The
of his head.
In the female
is with
throughoutthe
Downy
us
band
red
a
wears
43
is white.
this band
and therefore
year
Residents.
the class of Permanent
belongsin
the
across
Hairy Woodpecker
{Figs.28, 2g)
The
flock
together,"but
of
be almost
that "birds of
proverb tells us
old
society.The
feather
shall learn that birds may
we
seek each
stillnot
feather and
a
a
only feathers
worn
which
are
by
the
other's
and
Downy
are
those
has
these
feathers white with small black bars,but in the
Hairy
Hairy Woodpeckers
side of the
each
on
white
they are
differences
These
difficultto
the
not
much
spiteof
In
much
often
more
he
Hairy.
why
His
Downy
bars.
it would
bird from
largerof
the other
the
be
were
two.
resemblance, Downy
is
with his distant relative,the
seen
Nuthatch, than he is with his cousin,
The
prefersthe
the
alike
slightthat
so
are
their close
White-breasted
the
black
one
distinguish
Hairy
The
tail.
without
not
latter is
woods
to
not
gardens ;
our
he Is less often
only less
seen
than
voice is like that of the
but
common,
two
the
Downy,
good
sons
rea-
Downy.
but
is
no-
louder,
ticeably
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
44
and
he
does
his
beat
not
drum
so
rapidly.
The
Hairy,
birds
two
like
who,
goes
to
build
the
housekeeping
the
kind
same
is
Downy,
in
the
a
of
but
nest,
dent,
Resi-
Permanent
latter
part
the
of
April.
SPARROW
ENGLISH
GUEST
UNWELCOME
AN
(Fi^s. 30, 31)
unfortunate
OW
the
attractive
we
any
all.
But
in the
Chickadee, White-breast, and
and
drives
from
the
most
tender-hearted
a
houses
from
Downy
for
erected
bird-lover
than
the
ing-statio
feed-
the
even
regard
must
none
Martin
and
them,
cause
be-
crowds
Sparrow
Bluebird, Wren
have
we
him,
is better
where
country,
in
only
is the
welcome
bird
our
Possibly
Sparrow
may
most
our
also be
one.
city,where
bird,
at
should
bird
numerous
least
it is that
him
as
pest.
It is
than
Blue
that
true
Jay
he
Blue
Jay
has
good
him, while
admire
His
voice
in
a
can
can
no
help being
more
help being
looks
and
Blue
a
it is difficult
to
find
row
SparBut
Jay.
traits
some
a
to
mend
com-
anything
to
Sparrow.
plumage
is harsh
rarely looks
and
bright
discordant, and
45
and
he
clean; his
seems
to
be
is pugnacious,
has
alwaysusingIt;he
If he
were
is not
do
we
not
bird.
His
But
ancestors
rid
Sparrow
brought
were
in 1851 and
Europe
well-intentioned but
believed he would
plan the importance
yet understand.
as
this country from
some
believe that,
might
we
part in Nature's
American
an
his home.
mosquitoes and other noxious insects,
playedsome
of which
regard for
no
untidyabout
native bird
a
like flies and
to
is
rightsof others,and
the
he
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
46
1852 by
misguidedgentleman who
of
trees
our
which
caterpillars
then infested them.
Sometimes, It Is true. Sparrow does
insects,
eat
on
but, like other Sparrows, he lives chiefly
If he Inhabited
the
he would
be
weeds
livingas
on
near
us
houses.
our
fields and
of value
he
as
fed
to
But
without
can
the seeds
on
us.
he
of
insists
entering
actually
he
feeding-stands,
Our
seeds.
to
seems
think,are
benefit. He
kept suppliedfor his especial
claims
large a
as
though his
He
services
builds his
of the Chickadees'
share
nest
valuable
as
were
on
can
find
a
placefor
feathers which
the
rubbish
make
out, he
the
refuses
theirs.
everywhere that
of straw, rags,
mass
his home
as
window-sills,behind
our
shutters,in gutters, anywhere and
he
as
food
;
to
and
when
take
the
we
and
throw
hint and
promptly replacesIt.
Persistence is Indeed
one
of
Sparrow'smost
prom-
HOME
BIRDS
inent characteristics.
life. Treatment
him
as
him.
His
and
men
he is
of feathered
this
At
if all should
as
as
many
gather
every
to
eggs
to
nightto
the
other vines.
to
say
chorus
as
is
that
pair of Sparrows
laid.
are
In color
olive brown, but
they
usually
are
with olive.
birds all
they retire,and
which
estimated
leave
the
other
flocks,return
nest
they
Sometimes
roosting-place.
same
The
season.
275,716,983,698!
denselyfoliagedtree,
or
one
been
to
Sparrows
young
in
has
one
in flocks which, with
a
loved
of
amount
seven
plainwhite
the
this is in
friends
most
April, and
and evenlymarked
white, finely
After
the
were
courage
dis-
birds; but
among
six broods
live,the progeny
four
from
in
nest
in ten years would
vary
few
won
of increase it has been
rate
From
he
regarded by
creatures.
raise
to
in
success
Nothing
stay.
habits have
Sparrow begins to
known
to
though
as
be
to
seems
apparentlynone
cheerful
as
season
his
owes
drive native birds from
cordial invitation
a
among
it he
To
that would
for the
homes
our
47
to
seem
chatter
hushed
fortunately
others
at
have
in
ivy
much
together in
by
the
a
approach
of darkness.
The
Sparrow'sworst
is persistent,
brave, and
excellent traits and
we
enemy
cheerful.
might
deny that he
These are surely
cannot
well admire
them
in
Sparrow
wanting
Bluebird
Better
the
price
he
were
in
so
a
those
not
so
tender,
lovable
humble
Sparrow
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
48
selfish
gentler
has
in
paid
life
for
quarrelsome;
which
qualities
Chickadee
and
role
and
so
than
it.
to
so
make
winning.
win
success
at
WINTER
OUR
so
plainsof
BIRDS
interior,for Starlingis
our
tree-loving
a
bird.
Starlingwill
Whether
do
not
harmless
nestingin
in which
the homes
the year
useful citizen
extent
some
holes induces him
Flicker and
is
and
He
a
Bluebird
had
is with
out
through-
us
When
merly
for-
Flicker
they had
and
used the year
find it in
strange black bird who
that
observed
the
refuses
traits of character which prompt
quicklyto
his
take
those finer
he has
bird would
the
thrived where
have
failed.
most
ardent
greenishblack
the
for this
of the
summer
His
us.
costume
In the winter the dots
he
largerand
many
plumage is
his habits
a
wears
dotted
lightly
are
rightsof
Starlinghas
voice cheerful,and
brightand glossy,his
interesting.In
to
guest
timid, retiring
more
a
that
him
commend
Doubtless
champion
native birds will admit
which
qualities
unwelcome
an
departure.
the
Hke
Starling,
EnglishSparrow, is evidently
lackingin
our
occupy
out.
It will be
Even
upon
to
imagine their surpriseto
may
possessionof
reason
we
of the first of the smaller
one
the hole
to
return
before, we
move
to
begin housekeeping.
to
Bluebird
to
feeds
their families.
reared
the
a
but he is also fond of fruit,while
insects,
his habit of
birds
He
yet know.
as
prove
slilning,
with creamlsh.
more
numer-
BIRDS
HOME
which
In the summer,
ous.
51
also late
means
winter it is brownish.
his bill is yellow;in the fall and
Like
Purple Crackle
our
ling
Blackbird,Star-
Crow
or
is a walker, and he seeks his food
tail is
But the Crackle's
the
on
noticeably
long while
beyond his sharplypointedwings. When
reminds
of
me
in
dull gray
a
ling's
Star-
little
flyinghe
largespear-head.
a
leave the
Starlings
the young
When
similar
that
to
they are
nest
lose this
color,but they soon
acquireone
and
ground.
short, reachingonly
conspicuously
is
spring,
plumage
by their parents
worn
in winter.
characteristic
most
Starling's
It is
long-drawn whistle.
sometimes
when
use
attention that when
be
cannot
a
bird
This
a
or
sure
a
son's
per-
call we
Starling's
are
we
to
listening
part of
Starling's
song,
which
choking,gasping,gutturalsoliloquy,
onlywhen
one
Occasionally
exactlylike
have
we
man.
be heard
years
firstwhether
one
another
attract
hear
we
whistle also forms
kind of
can
at
to
high,clear,
like the
much
so
wish
we
is a
note
you
hears
him
are
utter
that of the W^ood
I believed
he
since concluded
four
Starling's
to
was
the
singer.
call so
plaintive
a
Pewee
that for
some
Imitatingthat bird; but
that the
six
quitenear
notes
pale blue
are
eggs
his
are
I
own.
laid in
April, and
of the
by May
on
begin
to
gather
this
fall
believe
which
would
away
In
birds
like
a
the
fall I
the
late
sign of
the
or
were
the
like
or
dark
shape
as
always
aerial
One
the air
with
of
a
for
ing
chang-
precision
a
dier.
sol-
trained
cloud, then
round
huge balloon,
and
bird
one
stream
air.
the
of
But
a
early March
of
they might
before
flock
the
of
an
was
might
but
of the great
army
South.
up
from
they
be
only Starlings!
But
now,
birds
in
unmistakable
Crackles;
be
these
Starlings
black
spring. They
guard
the
sight of
the
welcome
marching
may
tain
con-
of smoke.
coming
advance
a
they whirl
appearance
February
now
together
of the best
into the
banner
drilling in
came,
look
out
birds
famous.
another
envy
they
parents
wonderful
called
been
excite the
second
a
had
to
they lengthen
in
The
the
see
formation
one
Now
then
their
They swing through
maneuvers.
from
follow
grating call
the
Starlings are
they
that
they
may
which
for
hear
individuals.
one
season
may
which, by August, may
in flocks
thousand
evolutions
might
we
beg for food.
and
lawn
the
several
At
15
Starlings as
young
about
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
52
be
wings,
Red-
they surely
which
who
was
knows,
BLUE
A
BIRD
JAY
OF
CHARACTER
{Fig. 20)
MAN
who
character
from
If
"jay-jay,"we
the
language
their
of
eggs,
conduct
While,
he
knows
therefore,
of
adopting
them.
with
Jays,
Chickadee,
acquaintance with
I think
I
met
is
him
If his
Jays.
we
should
friends
him
I
and
he
was
a
is
that
he
of
53
Is
smaller
the
other
not
blame
with
Blue
look
his
back
ing
speakbearing
over-
birds
rules
Blue
Jays.
Blue
Jay
woods
of
only
of
Jay
for
we
do
as
over
my
kind, I discover
of the
bird
loud,
a
seems
in his habits.
improvement
an
we
altogether approve
not
may
as
standards
manner
robs
those
we
but
not
must
we
call
forget that
are
make
cannot
Jay's
remember
not
must
far
be
men.
sometimes
we
the ways
We
of
But
by the
Blue
must
if he
and
to
Jay's
would
voice
birds
apply
harsh
and
popular.
judge
Blue
possessed
When
and
long
what
first
distant
OUR
54
hedgerows ;
his home
ours.
up his abode
he has taken
is fond
he
safer there
from
of
having learned
attack
to
trust
No
Blue
will
one
is
Jay
callers.
a
His
not
villages
because
is
he
his natural enemies.
by
we
us
credit him
may
if he does
even
day he
his cousin,the Florida
as
and
but
society,
be,
Perhaps some
us.
in towns
our
this may
However
for
gardens and builds
our
is a shrewd, wise bird,and I believe that
Jay
because
BIRDS
he lives in
now
near
Blue
WINTEJR
become
may
with
not
as
care
friendly
Jay.
deny that,so far
as
strikingaddition
to
size, beautiful
goes.
appearance
list of bird
our
of blue
costume
and
white, jauntycrest, and gay, dashingactions always
command
our
rifle a
more
nest
as
at
a
or
two,
he
visit
our
wild
may
awaken
us
cries,but he is such
life,that, knowing he
only the trainingof Jays,we
has had
He
feeding-stand
guest, he may
a
his loud
by
attractive bit of
an
may
than
robber
earlyhour
an
admiration.
attention and
overlook
his
faults.
As
we
habits,we
become
more
familiar
shall find that he has much
him beside his fine feathers.
means
him
some
restricted
his
with
He
name.
of which
to
are
His
a
to
Jay's
commend
vocabularyis by no
the loud calls which
has also
Blue
have
given
varietyof whistles,
pleasing.When
really
he is with
HOME
Jays he
other
utters
BIRDS
number
a
in character that
the birds
to
of low
Blue Jay
gifts,
these vocal
mimic.
He
imagine not
But
own.
that he is the author
Blue
nestingseason.
fortunate
enough
it is
Thrush.
Wood
The
nearer
and
his
you
by
Only
It is
more
do
retreat
we
as
justas though they
we
follow
discover the
Jay givesyou
nest
not
a
will
not
see
or
approach itthe
or
the clue
secret
they
conceal.
very
word
him
hint
no
During
rarelyheard.
chance
Robin, Catbird,
a
we
soon
of his home.
near
one
''cold,"and if
give,we
the Blue
voice is
of
nest
called "hot"
to
who
ing
dur-
how
less excited.
reallywish
shown
live in the country knows
they become
their voices
clude
con-
been
the birds protest.
loudlydo
But
notes, I
has
find the
to
Hawk
a
of both.
Every
to
and
notes
the call of
is well
Jay'sunusual intelligence
the
easy
his
Jay'sfamiliar
Blue
so
those birds themselves
even
I hear
when
quicklyfollowed by
lent
excel-
an
Hawks
Sparrow
detect the difference between
can
their
I
is
imitate the calls of the Red-
can
shouldered, Red-tailed,and
closelythat
versational
con-
so
easilyimagine
can
one
notes
talkingtogether. Perhaps they are.
are
Added
SS
the
If you
to
the whereabouts
nestingseason
should
chance
will he say about
in the
careful
to
be
ably
it. Prob-
Even
vicinity.
searchingyou
his
when
find his
You
him
think
may
of the Robin
bravery
still will make
dwelling,he
well-made
great fuss would
a
crowd,
from
so
is
Jay
not
in
defending
coward; he
Screaming and making
might draw
and
stilland watches
keeps perfectly
he
has led him
let
a
Crow
near
his eggs
take
not
live
to
Owl
or
watched
once
birds for
young
of the
Then
over
which
their nest,
near
young
as
fast
first blow
an
I
and
he
a
he
will
give you
a
containing{ivQ
I
anything
saw
have
must
and
moment
to
were
stuffed Screech
the
me.
seen
defense
gone
Owl
of their
wings could bring them, and
littleOwl
was
offspring.But
before
hour
placed a
their
as
his
Jay'snest
they came
attacked the poor
the
harm
of his courage.
only for
when
believe that you
he may
though they
they came
But
or
Blue
a
parents,
again.
us,
appear
convincingexhibition
I
you
nearby hiding place.
a
Perhaps with that confidence In mankind
will
the
point to
a
help matters
not
outcry.
no
of that discretion which
some
is the better part of valor.
a
and
other birds
and
have
to
cowardly
Blue
But
their haunts.
merely seems
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
56
with such force that
knocked
completelyoff
at
his
perch.
About
woven
May
nest
of
first Blue
Jay
builds
a
large,finely
twigs,lined with rootlets,and places
CARDINAL
A
BIT
O
do
closely
the
from
all
but
in
as
is
he
his feathers, which
tips to
winter, having
in
all times
when
one
sharp,
would
small
It is when
seen
best
to
perch
four
has
conceal
to
near
he
points
raised,
calls
a
at
gleaming
chip, tells
he
is
of
in
white
his
age
plum-
of
he
Then,
bush
he
will be
is
can
an
borne
his
rich, sympathetic voice
head
his
hiding.
seeks
compass,
and
cover
only
Cardinal
often
But
disappearing
enough
not
the
off.
worn
the
58
ground,
back-
slightlyveil
coat.
his "message
with
ish
gray-
was
Then
storm
snow-
the
in what
us
a
summer,
season
singing that
advantage.
where
there
him,
richly clad
a
we
there,
to
in
home
surprisingway
think
his
that
alike
against
fieryin
more
even
least
At
seem
at
visitor
a
the winter
pass
thicket
is
he
as
to
much
as
like
seems
seasons
tangled
some
Brilliant
foliage.
at
feel
to
appears
tropics that
the
Equator.
expect him
he
with
Cardinal
the
brightly
associate
we
birds
colored
and
FEATHERS
IN
FLAME
OF
to
erect,
be
posed
ex-
the
crest
"De-ar,
BIRDS
HOME
59
he-ar, he-re-he-re;quick-quick,
de-ar, de-ar, come
hurry-hurry-hurry/'
Before
brown
is a
long his appeal is answered
Unlike
mate.
and
vocalist,
of her lover with
no
means
so
loud
If all goes
of
in
most
a
as
birds of her
respondto
can
song
by
sex
an
olive-
she,too,
the ardent serenade
of her own,
though it is by
his.
well with this musical
wooing, a
nest
twigs,rootlets and bits of grass will soon be built
the nearby undergrowth,and in due time it will
contain three
speckledwith
or
four bluish white
brown.
Cardinals
eggs,
are
spottedand
rarely seen
OUR
6o
north
of
New
from
and
point
Except
year.
the
male
Is
brown
above,
tinged
with
red.
male,
but
of
the
BIRDS
City.
York
that
the
chin,
WINTER
southward
for
bright
Her
when
the
black
the
crest
erect
with
Is
found
is
his
on
female
the
not
migratory
not
are
are
red;
below,
paler
They
wings
so
large
conspicuous.
out
throughface
and
olive-
Is
and
as
tall
that
FLICKER
A
CANDIDATE
FOR
NATIONAL
HONORS
{Fi^s, 21, 22)
|F I
were
asked
bird
I should
Flicker.
North
cast
He
Central
this wide
territoryhe
the
though
year,
he
is
The
not
he inhabits
during the
he
appearance
is
would
have
is
clearlya
members
the
to
every
latitude
been
have
forests
unable
to
been
made
go
they
adapt
vote
of
part
in
month
York
only because
therefore
sent
repre-
character, habits, and
to
the
Pileated
themselves
disappear.
61
Canada.
of New
not
can
in their haunts
also
extends
country.
ful.
success-
family (for example,
and
of
winter.
credit
of his
Ivory-billedWoodpecker
which
America
alert, industrious, progressive and
Some
have
in
home
found
my
in it, but
His
greater
entire nation, and
state
every
He
the
of the
north
common
Flicker
be
may
for the
citizen
real
a
the
Throughout
national
a
ballot
my
is
America.
from
for
vote
to
the
Woodpecker)
to
by
the
man.
changes
When
This
limbs
dead
post
in, he drills
nest
his
defend
his
minds
but will
can,
That
necessary.
althoughwhen
when
affairs,
own
take
to
is doubtless
Flicker
undisturbed
he Is
aroused
prised
sur-
a
foe
to
feared.
Flicker
his diet
his
owes
as
well
that it is
observe
His
curved.
Downy
or
his
to
success
his
as
his billwith that of
to change
ability
If you
nestingsite.
other
our
compare
Woodpeckers
slender
longer,more
you
and
Hairy Woodpecker,
the
will
slightly
also, is unlike that
tongue,
of
the
tipbeing practically
barbs.
without
can
he
and
Flicker's home,
find that
no
offer him.
we
rightscourageouslyif
of
possession
and
fence-
a
often tries
settler,the Starling,
bird
to
hole in
a
peaceablyif
his way
wins
orchards
our
forester leave him
and
accepts the boxes
or
He
new
to
the woods
When
live In
to
comes
If the pruner
gardens.
BIRDS
the Flicker's fate.
not
IS
felled,he
are
be
WINTER
OUR
62
Flicker
like a probe than a chisel,
Although more
the chipsflyfrom an old log or dead limb
make
when
These
but his
grub-hunting,
he usuallycaptures at
why
explains
In the distance
at
The
a
worm,
often
so
we
we
see
he
and
Flicker
he
the
on
was
a
with
a
gummy
this
ground.
Robin
rapidlyprobes an
long tongue, covered
is ants.
their homes
might think
as
fare
favorite
ging
tug-
ant-hill.
secretion,
HOME
Is thrust out, the
are
have been
3,000
and
found
Flicker adds
ants
Virginiacreeper
and
gum
of wild
berries of the dogwood,
cherries,pokeberries,
others.
ash and many
supply of
his
food
of trees,
trunks
well
as
In appearance
beautiful
many
the
birds.
our
His
or
and
scarlet band
^'flicker"of
in
The
black
in his
yellowrevealed
his lower
away
from
in his
us
him
distinguish
from
his habits and
notes,
Among
over
back
crescent
when
he
the
flash,
wings when
so
goes
mer.
other birds and,
have
won
bounding
togetherwith
him
many
names.
others,he has been called
Rump; High-hole,Yarrup
These
wide,
Flicker
as
any
seems
all show
and
possess
bird
in
a
should
and
Yellowham-
that Flicker is known
national
to
he
ously
conspicu-
Crescent-Bird, Golden-winged Woodpecker,
Cotton
on
all
graceful,
undulatingflight,
hundred
one
strikingbut
a
flies;the large white spot that shows
on
contains
his nape,
on
of the
one
costume
colors combined
the
they bear.
mind, is
my
pleasingvarietyof patterns.
his breast
the fruit
draws
from
and
ground
from
as
tain
moun-
Flicker therefore
Flicker,to
attractive of
most
from
fruit.
sour
he is also fond
his favorites and
among
caught in
are
Flicker.
grubs
berries of the
The
63
it and
to
as
many
one
his fare of
To
as
of
in the stomach
stick
ants
that
such numbers
BIRDS
be.
far and
In
high degree all but
fact,
one
OUR
64
WINTER
of the attributes which
should
He
have.
is
native of every
a
beautiful,but he
preeminentlythe
which
lacks it does
not
gutter with
for the
He
beats his
of would-be
ears
accented
*'cuh-cuh-cuh"
is
much
as
piping of frogs. The
which
he
cannot
well be called songs,
of the
most
them
April,but
They
his
mate
the eggs
are
number
are
born naked
times
part of
repeated
odd
he
the
spring as
with
courtshipposes,
springsup
but
at
least
before
they are
and
us
one
voices,with
establish associations that make
dear
inexpressibly
Flicker and
consideration
loud, strongly
a
characteristic of Nature's
which, in time, we
tin roof
a
"kwee-chu, kwee-chu"
when
utters
on
than
with
a
accompanieshis
the chuckle he
tattoo
his many
and
"Kee-yer"
accomplished
bedrooms.
sleepersin adjoining
his presence
announces
is an
enthusiasm
more
bird
a
than
repertoire
greater
a
so
quiteperfect.
family. He
and sometimes
drummer
or
of his
members
be
to
seem
ful
use-
is
song
giftof birds, that
divine
is
state, he
sing;and
cannot
Flicker,it Is true, has
most
bird of the nation
the chosen
peacefulbut brave;
intelligent;
adaptive and
and
BIRDS
to
go
not
us.
house-huntingearly in
laid for
a
month
later.
five to nine,and like those of all .Woodpeckers,
white.
spotless
and do
not
The
young
Flickers
get their firstsuit of
are
feathers.
SPARROW
SONG
"a
bird"
brown
little
{Fig- 34)
ATE
In
when
February,
nook, I hear
sheltered, sun-warmed
a
is
spring
has
told
show
willows
the
have
sign
no
"crept
frogs piped
life.
"Spring, Spring, Spring,
It is said
such
by
cannot
at
message
When
the
but
any
Geese
in such
modest,
a
the
Cranes
call it
long before
one
may
a
Nature
they
the
have
hear, those
bough,"
nor
is the
pussy
have
signal,
here."
are
little bird, that
would
send
so
and
one
great
a
way.
trumpet
through
bare
the
the
there
may
unpretentious voice
unassuming
simple
ground
even
days
sunny
sweet,
a
first believe
in such
But
single note.
a
little bird
snow,
Not
each
along
out
with
white
of
The
so.''
that
know
"a
because
near
me
still be
branches
sing, I
Sparrow
Song
some
in
it
the
to
sky,
we
spread
whose
66
ears
four
know
the
news
are
winds
and
it is true;
so
attuned
that
to
HOME
voices,loud
Nature's
BIRDS
67
low, have heard it from the
or
Song Sparrow.
him
Watch
as
he
singsthe gladtidings.He
seems
realize their
importanceand, with head thrown
back and body quivering,
puts his whole soul into
the delivery
of his message.
Only the born bird-lover may want to know all
should know the Song Sparthe birds,but every one
row.
The Warblers, Vireos and Flycatchers
each
for him who
bear a message
can
interpretit,but
the Song Sparrow.
understand
He
one
can
any
language. In February,when he
speaks a common
to
singsthe
welcome
I half expect
the
distinctive mark.
littlebrown
Sparrow
Although his song
hears
the
ways,
two
there is a
enables
wears
the
so
gold,but
rest, he
streaked below
varies
one
to
sing in
qualityabout
it.
identify
as
well
greatlythat
half
just a
as
above.
great
the
rarely
one
and
even
different
dozen
three
usuallyalike and, however
variations that follow,they have
of the
a
is
his voice which
The
year,
his breast is his
upon
For
are
tone
new
Song Sparrows singexactlyalike
bird may
same
a
clad in cloth of
him
see
of black he
badge
only
to
of the birth of
news
always
openingnotes
may
be
the
unmistakable
Song Sparrow'svoice.
Equallycharacteristic is Song Sparrow's call-note,
a
questioning"chimp"
or
"trink"
which,
once
you
have
the
though
song,
and
end,
bird
good
as
Sparrows
which
seems
bears
no
of
is
of
motion
He
alarmed
of
patches
the
sunlight
Song
He
less
far
the
opens
it in
November.
build
on
or
near
rootlets, dead
with
with
fine grasses.
numerous
of
season
Late
the
in
ground
leaves
The
and
in
reddish-brown
flies
when
and
water,
of
the
than
winter
February
he
of
nest
strips
or
ing"
"pump-
an
like
boring
neigh-
home.
April
a
four
a
of
five
in
the
throughout
us
song
with
green
in
is with
cented
ac-
He
marigolds,
ideal
abundant
Sparrow
fields.
generally
fresh
his
nor
strongly
the
of
marsh
the
makes
the
vicinity of
with
on
beginning
which,
into
the
of
kind
parent.
bird
a
as
name.
own
neither
tail, he
brook
meadows,
Though
not
mark
rambling
a
to
their
prefers
alder-bordered
have
bushes
from
far
sing
resemblance
Sparrow
lives
never
its
speak
to
performance
Song
identification
an
to
were
Song
Young
low
it, is
learned
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
68
and
eggs
markings.
mate
grasses,
coarse
bark
year.
closes
his
and
mer,
sum-
and
are
line
whitish
it
GOLDFINCH
THE
CANARY
WILD
{Pigs, 33, 36)
OLDFINCH
he
but
summer,
black
gay
change
be
to
he
changes,
never
the
and
yellow
his
the
through
We
recognized by
summer
receive
feeding shelf, but
filled sunflowers
he
In
if
can
with
song
as
The
males
well
the
arc
will
hanging
swelling buds.
One
with
should
if he
expects
it.
His
he
nature
is
fellow, who
call from
we
he
always
calls his
ing
bound-
goes
Then
will
maples
the
imagine
birds
now
the
changing
69
a
few
old
our
seed-
in the
surely
visit them.
to
take
trees
every
bud
den,
gar-
toll of the
cal.
musi-
seem
is
happily while
the
at
stalks
very
that
chatter
Goldfinch
leave
their
on
troop
April they frequent
fast
his
he
winter
or
a
his merry
and
replaces
air.
not
may
the
costume
also
name
"per-chic-o-ree,
per-chic-o-ree" as
gay
during
olive-brown
sweet-voiced, cheerful
same
he
when
and
of
one
be
may
bursting
feeding.
olive winter
plum-
WINTER
OUR
70
for their
age
be
soon
them
the
their
seeds
of that
wandering
like the
loth
seems
life for
Waxwing,
The
families
although, as
in
in bushes
grasses,
warmly
be used
three
to
his
or
is
the
in
he
seen,
not
grass
are
the
with
country
a
Loop
the
after
birds
most
dons
until late
trees,
and
have
rather
than
tume
nuptial cos-
or
This
and
moss,
as
his
June
home.
a
plant-down
in mid-winter
six eggs
housekeeping, and,
prolonged courtship for,
a
often
more
soft
care-free,
VVv
Loops
build
mate
strips of
with
also
for.
have
we
April, it
that he and
are
"
companions long
he believes
Perhaps
*
Goldfinch
provide
to
of
about
roves
'v*
of his
for
for
his
give up
to
duties
the
^^
troop
fondness
their
from
They
won
plant.
Goldfinch
The
Canary."
"Wild
of
name
gether
to-
costume,
that has
canary-likesong,
*'Thistle-bird"
called
It is this
will
and
dress
wedding
Goldfinches.
true
with
black
and
gold
BIRDS
July
even
they place
of
make
padding
though
it
mid-summer.
pale bluish white.
were
fine
it
as
to
The
JUNCO
A
WELCOME
VISITOR
WINTER
{Pig- 43)
with
EPTEMBER,
marching
rare
the
spring, may
is
too,
birds
the
infrequently
not
therefore,
the
as
see
may
we
While
in
lookout
bird
watching
seven
Soon
the
months
the
our
leaves
that
woods
will
keen
of
others
and
for
will
come
71
all when
in the
us
This,
and
we
are,
"accidental
them.
itants,"
vis-
Perhaps
been
never
i
in
found
!
host
the
which
inexperienced
way;
calls
has
have
thought
and
these
before
country
Flycatchers, Thrushes
by
for
passed
an
month
in numbers.
their
which
therefore
we
lose
at
seen
young
ornithologist
some
of the
part
our
the
on
is
Birds
army
found
be
when
season
not
or
migrating
often
now
sorrowful
but
bird-lover.
the
were
of birds
steadily southward,
interesting
for
its army
not
enjoyment
and
Warblers,
Vireos,
go
the
by,
we
are
succeeding
know
citement
ex-
dened
sad-
six
or
them.
flutteringgently
down-
for
ward
short time
a
food, will seek
pleasantit
How
pass the winter with
Junco is the
enough,
is
a
lower
showing
as
A
neighboring trees,
of the
their white
go
"true-true-true"
to
cheer
us
during the
little later in the
to
at
we
call
our
may
Junco greets
is
the
the
you
Junco
for
the
of
the
most
one
of
come
to
long
north
spring.
our
the
frequent
before
simple littletrill with
coming
I
and
have
comes
leaves
feeding-stands.Not
hear
I pass,
as
me
winter."
season,
until he
following April, he
guests
tail-feathers,
outer
"Yes, surelyit is 'true' that
dooryard and,
goes,
twitteringnote, they fly
a
branches
they
contented
back
their
they always spread In flight.They
the banner
answer,
greens,
ever-
in Canada.
into the
a
of
from
just arrived
have
approach,with
I
As
there,
whiteof the littlegray-coated,
company
home
summer
his familiar,
group
a
to
come
of the month, and
near
all
Visitants,"
I firsthear
ground
birds, which
vested
have
which
known.
un-
among
these 'Winter
Of
the end
the
on
that
know
to
welcome.
most
with
frost is
where
some
are
us.
about
kissing''tsip"
sure
home
a
is then
there
these travelers
wood-path
carpet the
to
ter
the birds, deprived of their shel-
brightcolors,and
and
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
72
he
which
WINTE.R
OUR
74
back
So the
at
Then
the bottom.
to
Creeper
task he
some
BIRDS
can
but fate
and faithful,
had
finish. He
The
is
He
spends
he reaches
falls and has
and
slips
persistent
to
the
from
start
again.
the bottom
This
he
working
be
againsthim.
seems
his life tryingto climb trees, but when
firstbranches
begin again.
to
to
constantly
appears
never
he
view
of his
Creeper's
Brown
place In
nature
Bill
Probe-like
and
would
doubtless
Pointed
Stiffened
Tail-feathers
surprisethe
larvse his
and
eggs
when
we
him
found
probablybe
would
to
how
see
pursue
that he is
His
Creeper.
one
of
measure
in the numbers
of insects,
patientgleaningdiscovers;and
well his stifftail and curved
his
we
specialcalling,
of the
success
valuable
most
cannot
bill fit
doubt
guardiansof
the
bark.
The
we
he is diligent.
as
Creeper is as uncommunicative
A faint,
thin,high screepingIs the only note
shall hear
spring he
has
from
a
him
short
song
in
winter, but
of
four
notes
in
late
which
HOME
has
been
described
From
northern
Creeper's
summer
to
and
the
Gulf.
start
others
BIRDS
exquisitely
as
New
England
home.
south
with
to
75
winter
He
from
tender.
northward
it
leaves
Junco,
and
pure
is
late
in
Red-breasted
New
England
the
tember
Sephatch,
Nut-
to
SPARROW
WHITE-THROATED
FEATHERED
A
FIFER
{Figs.
HEN
his
to
the
So
I
whose
language
I
tongues
know
makes
Any
throat's
and
closely
agree
his
are
songs
two
His
with
can
which
those
be
I
I
that
but
between
I
rarely
birds
the
written
often
acquire
our
on
hear.
76
White-
clear, high, and
Is
his
between
of
that
us.
can
voice
birds
whose
those
true
say,
those
least, they reply, and
Intervals
the
with
with
Is
whistle
can
language.
sweet,
what
sympathy
of
than
It
at
with
Interpreter.
an
speak
possible
talk
to
once
relations
be
had
we
acquainted
of
who
one
of
master.
meaning
bond
a
aid
can
understand;
to
seem
I
cannot
the
If
feel better
always
It would
than
create
at
we
friendly
more
him
foreigner
a
language,
own
establish
with
address
can
we
in
46)
43,
musical
our
There
notes
so
scale, that
staff.
are
Here
many
BIRDS
HOME
variations of this
theme,
but
rhythm
is
the
=^=ir:
-"p
Peabody
northern
from
England
September.
that go
as
of
far south
days after
few
White-throat
express
has
it
also been
in
home
summer
with
placeswhere
Junco,
food is
will remain
his kind
as
Florida will visitus
is therefore
White-throat
fall and
springmigrations.
his arrival,in late
restingfrom
be
to
seems
quietlywith
remains
his
a
few
words
to
White-throats,they all
to
some
them
appear
look-out
September,
his
journey
travelingcompanions
But
brushy place in the woods.
some
up
to
Canada
and
others
duringhis
numerous
hop
Songs
all winter.
us
whistle
his
In sheltered
again in April and May.
in
used
White-throat
comes
New
Those
and
9-9-0
#-#-#
"
Bird.
available,he and
a
0
White-throat's
of
sometimes
are
reason.
White-throat
For
9
9
Pea-
and, for this
most
#
xwo
body, Pea-body"
with
"
The
Pea-body,
late in
irjff=xjs-4^
*
or
*'01d Sam
called
f ^ ^
^,
"
the
always
same.
words
77
when
I
language of
in the
interested and
much
perch curious
to
see
who
is speaking.
Perhaps
shaky voice
some
a
bird will
littleoff the
replyin
a
key. Even
rather weak,
mature
birds
WINTER
OUR
78
BIRDS
they do in the
In the fall as
never
singas well
Most
if
birds,indeed, sing little,
fall
are
We
those of young
all know
crowing
at
that
birds
a
tryingtheir
bird
formed
is
crow,
but it may
in the
voices.
his father's
The
laughable as
so
son.
sea-
rooster's first attempts
young
''cock-a-doodle-doo."
young
hear
we
unlike
ridiculously
are
all,at this
at
of the songs
Probably many
spring.
of
song
no
cockerel's half-
a
quitedifferent from
be
sounding
re-
that
of his parent.
White-throat's notes, however,
those of his kind.
while his song
it will be the
welcome
He
is
addition
chisel.
to
White-throat
and
can
are
loud, clear,and
ringingas
nature's small autumnal
to
produced by
are
you
his
and
will hear
a
companions are
the birds
easilyimagine that
busilyplyingthe
dozen
chisel
one
or
to
which
to
coming
to
calling
a
well-
marble-cutter's
the bushes
near
a
chorus.
"chink," has been
call-note,
the sound
When
night,you
so
followingspring,it is nevertheless
White-throat's
likened
not
improve rapidlyand
to
seems
unmistakably
are
for the
another,
more
finish the
men
work-
day's
task.
We
shall have
older White-throats
them
at
their name,
the front end
no
in recognizingthe
difficulty
which gives
by the throat-patch
togetherwith
a
faint
yellow spot
of the whitish line that passes
over
HOME
the
are
that
In
eye.
not
sharp
a
body-peabody,"
other
than
birds
young
well-defined;
so
calls
BIRDS
(No.
but
"chink"
we
White-throat.
may
when
and
be
79
46)
we
sings
sure
that
these
see
markings
a
Sparrow
"Pea-body-peait
can
be
no
FINCH
PURPLE
MINSTREL
WANDERING
A
{Figs. 32, S3)
HEN
a
patronize
In
cheery
with
all the
English Sparrows
the
Mexico,
of
House
heart
of
large
It is
Sparrow.
male
musical
though
he
with
air.
We
hear
at
though
a
in
a
our
men.
his
he
were
see
with
as
blooming
an
Usually
bird
he
80
English
above
a
flowing,
pleasure
as
orchard.
is
is but
"Creak,
flight-call,
in the
ored
brightly col-
a
much
apple
into
home
telegraph wire
eastern
low
be-
relative
near
vehicles, singing his
seemingly
Unfortunately
of
much
as
surprising to
were
haunts
a
most
on
been
southward
Linnet,
as
perched
warble
or
seems
had
streaked
or
and
west
Finch
though
as
sing.
to
cities
thronged
street
the
the
Purple Finch,
our
ink
our
and
color
It is
song.
in red
taught
of
parts
some
with
bright
seems
and
dusky
feeding-stand,
our
garden
dipped
with
Purple Finches
of
company
not
a
so
fond
voice
of
in the
creak,'' as
he
WAXWING
CEDAR
A
OF
BIRD
WAYS
GENTLE
{Fig. 40)
F the
his dress
be
and
His
of
even
pleasing
more
hues.
refinement
of
by
a
and
which
adds
its
does
The
its
Waxwing's
bird, and
others
Waxwings
uses
bird,
Humming-
or
exquisite shading, trim
adornments
than
of
one
with
them
the
of
make
clothes,
wears
to
as
liancy
bril-
the
lacks
gayer
to
so
an
his
dignity of
it
air
pearance.
ap-
is increased
manner
expressively as
a
horse
ears.
He
appearance.
with
he
of
famous
most
eye
he
distinction
which
crest
would
Waxwing's
a
fit him
His
disposition,he
plumage
the
to
Furthermore,
speak, always
match
unusual
and
voice
Tanager
but
tasteful
to
a
the
among
birds.
elegance,
had
Waxwlng
is
habits
is
a
his
always
always
on
Doubtless
kind.
show
in
keeping with
his
quiet, gentle, well-mannered
apparently
of
are
a
fondness
82
excellent
for
for
one
this
terms
reason
another's
HOME
society. One
associate
bird.
rarelysees
in small
found
theyare
BIRDS
a
singleWaxwing. Usually
the members
flocks,
closelythat they
so
When
they alightIn
limb, like Parrakeets.
the
at
When
there
row
do
begin to
not
date when
While
a
for the
of
most
wing. Only
flyin
fondness
large,well-formed
fruit
The
tree
eggs,
quiteunhke
as
is
nest
often
which
on
a
one
other
an-
establishment
rule,they
a
of
June,
families
on
a
the
berries is
he shows
home
site.
responsible
ence
prefer-
no
Indeed, the
usuallyplacedIn
a
shade
lawn.
our
number
those of any
same
later.
nests
first name,
trees
for
the middle
for cedar
Waxwing's
one
close formation.
As
birds have
our
the Goldfinch
for cedar
or
before
nest
the
on
separate families.
as
as
ly
they perch close-
Perhaps it may be their attachment
that delays their pairing and
here and
act
they leave, they take
and
moment
same
a
of which
to
seem
tree
a
together,often sittingin
wing
83
from
other
three
of
ground color Is pale bluish gray,
our
to
five,are
birds.
which
Is
Their
thickly
and
distinctly
spottedwith black and dark brown.
The
Waxwing has no real song and his faint,
lispingcalls and stringof beady notes are probably
uttered by both sexes.
does the male
Nor
differ
from
the female
in color.
Not
every
It
individual,
is true, has the littlered
sealing-wax-like
tipson
wing-feathers(and rarelytail),which
inner
the bird its last
distinctive mark
It is
adult
does
Waxwing
berryof
their parents in
the
tree
after which
so
who
knows
our
shade
share of
will
elm
our
no
one
protector of
a
as
rightto
a
strawberries.
and
gracefulof flycatchers
into the air
of th:^ most
one
or
from
darts
a
well-
upward
passinginsects.
Notwithstandinghis gentle,quietways,
wing
of
canker-
trees, and
he becomes
perchswingsout
vated
culti-
is also fond
deny his well-earned
midsummer
expert and
after
to
seems
add
the
insects,particularly
cherries and
our
to
the
to
He
slow
not
was
of his valiant service
trees
Toward
chosen
of
destructive
worm
he is named.
his bill-of-fare. He
to
kinds
various
restrict his diet
not
fond of all wild fruits and
ones
colored
beinglighter
below.
stronglystreaked
and
The
by nestlingbirds, which
rarelyworn
further differ from
lack
wholly
not
are
the
give
which
Probably those
name.
peculiarand
this
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
84
is
follows
adventurous
no
regularroutes
guide the journeysof
but
prompts
and
an
the
him
to
go.
erratic traveler.
and
time-tables such
Warblers
wanders
apparently
Wholly
the Wax-
and
wherever
absent
some
most
He
as
grants,
mi-
the mood
winters,
HOME
he
be
may
for
us
takes
others.
present
But
to-morrow.
gone
to
coming
beheve
first
that
place.
BIRDS
and
among
85
Here
doubtless
going,
them
and
to-day,
he
it
the
has
is
his
pretty
question
he
own
safe
of
has
sons
rea-
for
food
GOLDEN-CROWNED
OUR
KINGLET
SMALLEST
GUEST
WINTER
{Figs. 62, 63)
E
smallest
our
far
as
go
America
is it
the
mingbird,
Hum-
the
bird, should
south
Central
as
spend the winter.
to
equally
not
the
brave
But
that
wonderful
Golden-crowned
size, should
in
smallest
that
It wonderful
think
Kinglet, next
winters
of
New
of
your
England?
has
He
it is
but
thumb,
feathers
body
a
when
even
the
birds, all of
parts
of
in
found
except
nies,
on
on
the
which
which
depths
south
to
small
a
live
in
of
the
northern
higher, colder
he
end
thick
of
is found
Carolina.
86
parts
as
far
but
evergreen
zero.
hardy
group
northern
more
himself
New
of
and
warm
an
of
coat
a
registersbelow
Golden-crown
world.
summer
the
in the
belongs
so
the
is doubtless
thermometer
Golden-crown
of
with
covered
sleeeping
than
larger
Golden-crown
that
comfortable
no
not
England,
the
south
is
Allegheas
North
HOME
It Is
only
not
him
makes
BIRDS
Golden-crown's
remarkable, but
Perching Birds, he lays,as
than
other;
any
this active littlebird
as
which
size of
his
Song
our
or
rule,a largernumber
a
as
of
ten
as
many
of green
builds for
sometimes
tree
also the
In the great purse
found
endurance
smallest
the
family. Although
of eggs
87
monly
com-
which
moss
In
nest
a
are
high as sixtyfeet
an
green
ever-
above
the
ground.
Golden-crown
few
September.
A
travelingin
small
twig
during the winter,
and
often
are
ciated
asso-
restless,active
are
bud, about which
they
for insects' eggs
never-endingsearch
high, thin
attentive
April the
more
males
into
then
the
this is the song
"
"In
by
only by
March
lispingnote,
it,and
from
it were,
heard
be
writes:
continue the
power
scaled
*'ti-tl-tl"
may
Hoffman
ears.
trill fall,as
have
They
late in
larvas.
Their
and
the north
from
companies which
little explorersof
flutter in their
us
birds remain
Chickadees.
with
and
to
comes
a
heightto
and
put
more
descending
which
they
of the Golden-crowned
Kinglet."
Both
sexes
w^ear
yellowwith
a
crown.
bordered
flamingorange
of the female
a
"
shall
we
That
of the male
by yellowand
black.
call her Queenlet?
black border.
"
is
That
Is only
SCREECH
THE
OWL
FEATHERED
CAT
{Figs.
14)
13,
OOKING
from
in the
I
the
the
on
glance, seemed
erect
eyes
what,
be
to
glared
at
followed
every
window
for
and, with
me
*'cat"
feathered
into
the
one's
nearer
view
spread
its
neighboring
first real
meeting,
One
face
big yellow
I
head,
raised
the
behold!
and
spruces.
Its
of the
turn
when,
wings
little
cat!
its
to
of
first
queer,
a
Slowly
I made.
move
a
sharp
a
ning,
eve-
at
feathered
up
pointed slightly outward,
ears
winter
a
nearby ridge
roof
piazza
hunched
of
dusk
saw
dow,
win-
second-story
a
my
lessly
noise-
flew
gets
for-
never
face, with
an
Owl.
Probably
country
near
them.
short
are
have
which
night-fallto
a
there
Only
my
distance
few
a
pair
short
time
not
a
but
home
down
in
a
the
88
homes
of Screech
ago
while
large city,I
street
and
in
town
Owls
or
living
walking
saw
fly
one
alight
at
in
a
OUR
90
WINTER
of their unwelcome
his
attention the littleOwl
in song;
quavering voice
tremulous
whistle,on
followed
by
long-drawn, high,
a
refrain.
It Is far
^'screech,"this plaintivenote;
be
scarcely
the
Heard
and
his ways,
a
who
whom
to
persons
have
this somewhat
mournful
Insects,Screech Owls
realize that
rather than
near
we
have
unluckyto
can
well with
the hour.
with
learn
we
Is
him
a
and
that in addition
of harmful
also expert
are
a
call is considered
consider
may
It
the little Owl
sympathy
no
from
while
of
spirit
destroyinga large number
to
and
the
eveningand
of ill-omen;but when
note
we
the
by
stranger
and
called cheerful,It harmonizes
quietof
raised
descendingscale,sometimes
a
mellow
a
BIRDS
grubs
mousers,
ourselves fortunate
them
their home
make
ours.
the middle
About
from
four
in
use
a
to
so
nestingbox
or
The
quietlythat
near
presence
April the
six white eggs
of Flickers.
duties
of
us
until
In
we
have
go
out"
they ^'brlng
Then, suddenly,the place seems
They
from
overhead
the branches
after the
young
sail from
curiouslysolemn
Owls
stillwear
to
their
look
manner
their
know
be
or
lays
sibly
pos-
for the
erected
about
not
may
with Screech Owls,
Owl
hollow tree,
a
log we
birds
Screech
family
of their
their
family.
overflowing
tree
to
down
tree
upon
of Owls.
nestlingcostume
and
us
The
of soft
HOME
feathers
downy
quite
unlike
of
Some
the
and
Its
and
but
has
14)
no
cause
Whether
the
the
called
Screech
are
this
never
gray
or
by
with
of
costume
gray
to
been
reddish
Its
small
feather-tufts
In
either
blackish
their
color
age,
dish
red-
are
(see
sex,
and
parents.
others
while
variation
relation
has
Owl
conspicuous
"ears."
streaked
latter
91
barred
lightly
the
brown,
BIRDS
Figs.
or
13
season,
learned.
we
always
may
size
which
In
connection
are
know
with
commonly
BIRDS
FIELD
Ill
FIELD
BIRDS
LTHOUGH
their
birds
enables
easily from
need
be,
of
Buntings might
On
Winter
and
flowers
have
become
are
specialconditions
conditions
Birds
choice
which
of haunts
are
and
The
in habit.
the
daisies
or
and
Grouse
the
forests
flower.
Such
to
specialized;that is,they
termed
that
more
they
can
certain
life under
to
live
where
only
these
present.
are
bird.
moccasin
or
kind
Snow
no
should
we
closelyadapted
so
and
should
we
closely confined
partridge berry
birds
certain
a
Larks
woods,
than
their wander-
hand, the Ruffed
as
are
to
Horned
there
other
the
Wren
the
as
the
enter
find them
to
clover.
on
while
territory. Thus,
expect
restricted
ings are
"
of
thousands
speciesin
if
place and,
to
travel
to
flight
quickly and
move
place
miles, many
^
to
of
power
He
seashore
not
food,
are
for
Crow,
is found
and
closelygoverned
so
spoken of
example,
in both
in the
95
as
is
a
fields and
mountains.
He
in
the
ized
generalized
generalwoods,
usually
feeds
apples from
frozen
varies
the
rob
nests
take
or
his bill-of-fare
trees, and
the difference between
widely as
as
he may
ground, but
the
on
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
96
eggs
and
applesindicates.
Generalized
adapt themselves
they can
As
rule
a
those which
than
and
kind of haunt, nesting-site
who
well"
"geton
can
succeed than
unless he
The
can
secret
have
in the
cityor
food.
Just as
unhappy
and
He
country,
cobble
on
streets,
anythingand
relish it,and
any
place that will hold
In
have
is
a
not
with
difficulty
so
easy
to
the
well
them
as
as
more
in the
be
to
appears
his
nesting
their haunts
we
it
we
Include in this
Goldfinch,Siskin, Redpoll and
found
at
in the
frequently
in the woods
times
but since
fields,
Field Birds.
in the
where
placethe generalizedspecies
section,the Crow,
may
or
home
but
specialized
species,
they belong. Of the birds which
Bob-white
is
home.
birds by
attemptingto classify
no
them.
equallyat
seems
almost
for
to
apt
more
he wants
eats
suits him
man
a
uncomfortable
barnyard; he
material
far
English Sparrow's success
generalizedhabits.
his
are
requirea particular
things exactlyas
of the
anywhere.
speciesand
anywhere is much
is
who
one
adaptive,because
life almost
to
the successful
they are
abundant
more
called
speciesare
we
open,
will doubtless
we
may
as
see
class them
OUR
98
WINTER
for
Unfortunately
of the world
bird he Is treated
him
the
the Crow
toward
as
protectionhis
black ogre
this Is
him.
laws
The
with whom
and
man
former
denies
designed to give
are
consider him
to
seems
tude
the atti-
not
both
By
outlaw.
an
birds,the latter
other
BIRDS
great
a
bird
self-respecting
no
would
associate.
the Indian treated the Crow
Whether
I do
to
know, but
not
since the white
ever
this country his hand
bird of sable
pinion.
from
has been
The
he
readilyas
he
ever
take
did savages,
their toll. This
that he
those who
tell us
his
have
that he does
The
Crow
owes
can't fool him
matching of
value
much
good
his remarkable
may
of
be
corn
and
his
but
grass-
grasshoppers,
to
man.
closelystudied
most
as
the birds still
alone
not
some
quiteas
He
Intelligence.
but you
which
In the pastures
without
not
marks
man
also captures countless
is
abundant
as
them by placing
against
consists
grubs.
injurious
lots the Crow
so
protest
he formerly
kill Crows
to
civilized
In the fields from
also of
againstthis
appeare
long since dis-
is doubtless
Unable
was.
enemy
came
of the country in which
most
If harmless
indignant
scarecrows
an
man
raised
Indian has
thrived,but the Crow
to-day as
as
as
success
deed,
In-
his fare,
harm.
in life to
at times,
over-suspicious
often.
wits in the woods
When
It comes
he will
to
a
usuallyout-
BIRDS
FIELD
guess
you.
about
to
crow-killer should
If the would-be
of
get within range
99
or
inexperienced
some
is almost
bird, he
unsuspecting
be
of
always warned
danger by his companions.
It is
to
this
to
and
good fellowship,
another, that Crows
one
safetyfrom
has
as
been
they have
of alarm
note
a
is beyond
all other Crows
instrument
telegraphic
is
limit
no
think
of the Crow's
word
"caw"
and
two
caws,
caws
stand
all apparently
the Crow
hears
dozen
was
one
Crows
stoppingto
It
man
question. The
one
on
are
to
a
his
could
of
note
key, but
this
a
convey
and
phrasesof
one
are
rasping
four caws,
for different things. When
Owl, for example,he
flyingabout
The
we
surprising
and
rollingcaws
a
there
syllable.There
questions,
every
three
utters
rallycall,and
overhead
caws
Crow
soon
where
discoveryof danger
series of hurried
ask
by
expression.So, while
is apparently
a
before.
by
takes
an
which
short caws,
a
short
phrases of
caws;
is understood
which
the
language as containing
meanings with
and
long caws
know, but that
not
can
he, nevertheless,
of
number
do
is all
of
its power
to
comparative
stated,they post sentinels
I
raidinga corn-field,
when
their
owe
loyalty
by man.
attack
Whether,
their
to
is
but
nounced
an-
and, without
ing
within hear-
wings.
not
talk he would
be but littlehigher
WINTER
OUR
loo
in the scale of life than
to
communicate
develophis
to
animals.
some
It is his ability
with his fellows that has
mind.
So
perhapswe
is related
intelligence
Crow's
the
BIRDS
helped
believe that
may
his powers
to
of
speech.
If Crows
show
a
avoided
by
likingfor
the
arc
great
It is only when
companies.
nestingthat
Then
of
society
Cmws
they scatter
arc
ground. They
hears
never
trespasser
The
middle
a
of
too
more
grape-vinebark,
their
near
Catbird
which
are
wise
does
not
nest
placehis
to
eggs,
they could
easilythan
if he
be
were
widelyseparatedplaces. However
as
soon
the young
companies.
From
flythe
can
the
States southward
the year;
states
go
to
large
above
the
One
nests.
againsta
protest
at
United
in
or
bluish green,
the Crow
basket, where
as
found
do.
laid about
the
thicklymarked
of brown.
Perhaps
one
six eggs,
April,are
he is
and
not
build their
voicingits
Crow
tG
with shades
silent
very
the Robin
as
four
are
another.
thirtyfeet
etc., usuallyabout
grass, moss,
one
to
of sticks lined with cedar
nests
in
birds,theyat least
other
but
most
birds
northern
Crows
it were,
as
found
to
and
all
stroyed
de-
hide them
this may
gatherin
be,
loose
boundary of the
found throughare
out
of those in the
the Middle
in colonies because
more
northern
States for the winter.
In
FIELD
October
we
the
across
in
roost
the
is
of
one
the
as
fly
return
ing
string-
such
close-
night
Crow
great
to
ing-house
lodgCrows,
200,000
as
remarkable
most
in
every
a
many
day,
Crackles.
or
Such
contain
by
never
Crows
woods.
may
and
migrating
Crows
winter
same
loi
Redwings
do
as
the
During
for
sky,
flocks
massed
them
see
may
BIRDS
sights
in
can
Ameri-
bird-life.
In
the
on
more
his
the
to
compass
the
the
morning
uplands,
arms
fly
for
food
forage
in
or
disreputable
ill-clad
birds
old
looking
in
silent,
cornfields
than
unheeded
out
to
along
where
ever,
point
every
the
of
beaches,
scarecrow,
still
warning.
spreads
SNOW
THE
BUNTING
TREE
AND
SPARROW
TWO
FRIENDS
OF
Snow
FARMER
THE
Bunting
{Fig. 57)
F
flake
snow
a
of
should
bird, I
a
In the
blown
a
flurry
of
but
snow
the
with
spring
they
In
snow
to
return
their
to
It.
They
leave
suggest
north
look
with
like
to
come
us
it in
in the
home
summer
flock
a
the
only
not
spicuous
con-
so
see
they
come
be-
white
Is
spirit of
fall and
the
we
wind
the
They
love
to
seem
The
very
In them.
embodied
seems
Bunting.
when
before
The
snow.
It would
Bunting's plumage
that
form
the
sure
am
Snow
a
take
the
Arctic
regions.
Always
spreading fields,or
They
walk
leaves
a
for
that
track
of
or
along
in the
snow
Horned
flocks,
the
v/hlch
Lark
1 02
of
long
can
or
plains, wide-
on
shores
their
and
run,
the
In
them
see
we
be
lake
hind
toe-nail
mistaken
Longspur.
sea.
or
only
In
all
BIRDS
FIELD
three
of these birds the hind-toe is
for
similar
As
from
surmise
its terrestrial
short,strong bill,the Snow
and
Dr.
eater.
Judd, of
found
of
stomach
as
the U. S.
singleSnow
a
Department
weed
1,500
as
many
Bunting is
Bunting.
Sparrows,therefore,this visitor
is not
What
harvest
states
a
of
the far north
south
of
find in
the snowfall is too
describes the
of the Snow
notes
Bunting
mournful
''high,
sweet, though slightly
tee-oo,'a
sweet
fortunat
Un-
vania.
Pennsyl-
of seeds he would
where
culture
Agri-
the Tree
useful guest.
very
seed-
stalks !
hide the weed
Hoffman
a
a
a
habits,
seeds in the
Like
from
rarely found
is
southern
more
lightto
as
but
only a welcome,
he
the
trees
places.
might
we
the Robin, and
they rarelyperch in
reason
tended
in-
not
evidently
it is with
grasping, as
doubtless for this
or
103
rollingwhistle
Tree
and
a
'tee
or
'bzz.' "
harsh
Sparrow
{Fig.44)
Early in October, some
Chipping Sparrow
his
comes
April. The
appearance,
largerand
from
two
but
weeks
our
familiar
leaves for the south, a cousin of
the
north
remain
to
birds resemble
the
heavier
before
Tree
and
each other in
Sparrow
in the
with
center
us
until
general
is somewhat
of his breast
WINTER
OUR
104
wears
a
small,
Sparrow
is
unmarked
he
In
would
is
call
Chippy's
but
the
which
stick
up
gathering
to
to
return
hear
their
We
care-free
the
one
short
A
little
already
seed-eaters
but
winter
in
seeds
think
of
old
in
bird
a
lot
dent;
stu-
are
in
a
panies
com-
weed-stalks
happy,
before
time
which
notes
their
snow,
a
usually
are
unlike.
"chip"
one
home
summer
canary-like
have
no
birds
for
makes
their
of
The
above
nuts.
Chipping
quite
are
little
Sparrow's
hunting
chatter
cousins
the
attention
Tree
when
and
the
while
insignificant
an
tinkle.
merry
badge,
below.
the
attract
crisp,
dusky
character,
and
voice
BIRDS
of
they
Canada,
sational
conver-
children
leave
we
us
may
song.
seen
(p.
do
for
how
5)
a
farmer.
much
these
Even
their
now,
the
almost
name
Warbler,
or
VIreo
but
tropics,
distant
coming
then, without
will
to
the
not
October
warning, some
the
from
us
and
by
go
can
Flycatcher,
the
tell when
can
may
We
mystery.
a
back
come
one
no
polls
Redbe
one
or
vember
No-
will arrive.
flocks of them
to
Is
day when
exact
Years
will appear.
seen;
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
io6
They visitthe fieldsfor weed-seed and the birches
get seeds from the catkins,callingand actingnot
Goldfinches
unlike
until
nest
a
a
number
from
four
six
to
to
return
tree
the boreal
tuft of grass,
or
and
main
re-
moss,
and
line
plant-down. The eggs
and are white, tingedwith
hair, feathers and
or
low
of dried grasses
It with
green
then
earlyspringand
regionswhence theycame.
There, In earlyJune, In
theybuild
Usually they
Siskins.
and
blue, spottedwith reddish brown.
Siskin
{Fig-55)
The
Siskin
seems
and the Goldfinch.
midway
He
between
has the streaked
the
Redpoll
dress of the
former, while the tinge of yellow In his plumage
wing-bandsof this color,which he displays
his relationship
to the latter.
mark
flight,
The coming of the Siskin,like that of the Redpoll,
and
in
the
cannot
be
foretold,but since his
summer
home
in
BIRDS
FIELD
the
and
Canada
visits
is
He
frequently
also
Florida;
the
New
that
of
than
Redpoll,
far
that
Redpoll
England
the
rarely
he
northern
sometimes
south,
farther
goes
while
northern
than
nearer
more
us
bird.
of
forests
evergreen
107
ing
reach-
beyond
goes
Virginia.
To
much
that
like
both
the
on
good
and
often
The
form
cones
nest
of
twigs
down,
is
white,
thinly-spotted
June.
built
in
when
his
at
rest,
and
and
eggs,
at
Redpoll
rootlets,
of
are
laid
has
sings
not
and
four
from
so
weeds,
kins
cat-
mealtime
padded
The
evergreens.
another
He
but
Seeds
fare,
the
adds
cousin.
Goldfinch.
with
found
be
to
and
the
as
Siskin
the
Goldfinch
his
of
wing
voice
a
"e-e-e-p,"
call-note,
his
he
is
Goldfinch.
with
plant-
pale
bluish
April
to
LARK
HORNED
TWO
AND
LONGSPUR
RUNNERS
ON
Horned
Lark
SKIS
{Fig, 42)
E
that
all know
write, but if
cannot
right places we
his ''mark''
when
it
Horned
Lark,
Longspur
which
has
on
the
which
During
the
open
birds
winter
also called, Shore
broad,
are
a
the
or
live
three
terrestrial
the
on
toe-nail
is
birds, and
toe-nail
hind
strong,
a
Lapland
rare
long hind
the
snow,
either
firm
which
of the
grasp
resting.
Horned
Larks,
as
or,
Larks, live in flocks which
fields,beaches
disturbed, they bound
a
have
curved, hooked
they
the
on
see
surely as though
as
All
us.
walking,
perching
gives most
limb
to
imprinted
Bunting,
before
been
belongs
quite unlike
Snow
in the
sometimes
written, that
were
Lark
look
we
may
know
we
all three
and
ground,
or
Horned
the
and
tidal
lightly into
high, thin, "tsee-tsee," and
108
swing
the
off
they
are
frequent
flats.
When
air, uttering
to
some
new
FIELD
BIRDS
109
a moment,
as If their
feedingground, or, hesitating
meal were
too
good to leave,they drop
interrupted
back
us
leave
In the
home
with
us
with
a
which
they started.
Larks
that
earlyIn Aprilto
return
of the Horned
Most
with
place from
the
to
Arctic
during the
white
regions.
are
summer
spend the winter
their
to
Those
summer
remain
that
smaller
and
paler,
yellow forehead and with
the throat.
This, the Prairie
instead of
littleor
no
Horned
Lark, Is the firstof
yellow on
our
birds
song
to
go
to
housekeeping,the three or four greenish white,
speckledeggs being laid as earlyas the firstweek
Lark is a cousin
In March.
Although the Horned
of the Skylark,Its song Is a weak, unmusical twitter
bears
which
small
but
relative.
famous
which
sky, there
to
singsfrom
a
resemblance
to
Skylark far
carries the
of its
It lacks the inspirat
because
Perhaps
that
Into the
up
forth Its song, the Horned
pour
humble
clod of earth
well
as
Lark
while
as
soaring.
Lapland Longspur
If
we
two
have
seen
find in
or
a
flock of Horned
three
that
darker
rare
Larks
birds, we
winter
one,
will
visitor from
or
haps
per-
probably
the
far
North, the Lapland Longspur.
Possiblybecause
he loves company
and
cannot
find
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
no
enough individuals of
his
kind
own
companionship,the Longspur
Buntings. He
Snow
in
resembles
and
Lapland
of
the presence
a
blackish
of
afford him
also
associates with
both
Lark
his reddish
generalhabits,but
the absence of "horns"
to
and
brown
ing
Bunt-
wings,
yellowmarkings,and
Longspur
patch on
the
tinguis
breast,dis-
him.
The
harsh
Longspur'swinter
and
the Snow
notes
are
described
as
"a
chirr,less musical than the roll of
rattling
responds
Bunting,"and a sweet "tyee,"which corto
the "tee" of the
Bunting.
BIRDS
FIELD
On
our
winter
in
storm
in
1904,
on
the
plains
western
such
million
snow-covered
Longspurs
Minnesota,
on
Longspurs
earth
dead
after
that
were
or
the
during
occur
numbers
countless
southwestern
several
m
dying.
March
found
a
severe
13,
lying
SHRIKE
NORTHERN
BUTCHER
THE
BIRD
{Fig. 56)
HE
author
Here
Hawk."
relative
called
A
of
Sparrow)
the
but
Preacher),
a
feather-suit
cut
feet fitted for
who
shows
No
he
larger
the
much
on
is
of
a
Passeres
Is
who
a
such
astonishingly
known
commonly
than
a
to
as
Grosbeak,
with
and
with
pattern,
same
approach
any
was
(sometimes
perching (not tearing) only
bill shows
a
VIreo
,
hooked
row
Spar-
which
Perching Birds;
or
that
Butcher-bird
bird
a
group
gentle Red-eyed
bloodthirsty habits
the
the
In
born
of
Become
to
is
stories
"The
to
Tried
that
So'*
heading
my
Shrike"
^'Northern
"
"J^st
change
might
{Passer
the
of
the
his strong,
of
structure
Hawk.
But
has
If he
done
could
his best
in
disposition,he
of
his
own
not
to
make
kind, and
form
his habits
make
seems
his
to
the
112
avoid
only
the
hawk-like,
he
Unsociable
so.
even
company
interest
he
shows
in
WINTER
BIRDS
where, with much
tugging
OUR
114
tree
or
bird is stuck
upon
help himself
can
prompts
him
There
is
has
Songbirds,he
of
it is in
earlyspringto
birds
a
from
Hawk
a
and
April.
He
One
strange
man
hang-
is not
unlike
expect music
soon
as
in northern
summer
in October
us
rarelysees
a
Loggerhead
smaller
or
to
than
more
the
remain
a
Canada
until
early
few individuals
speciesdoes
not
as
from
Maryland
as
often go
southern
lives
insects which
thirtyyards
or
cousin known
in
Canada
and
as
the
summer
winters
southward.
Loggerhead
other
southern
Migrant Shrike, which
far north
nests
and
of the
Maryland.
has
The
the Shrike
member
which
song
would
the
duringthe winter, and
south of
which
hungry.
itself.
to
comes
he is not
hear this cut-throat and
One
Shrike passes
The
leaves
instinct which
the
to
the
on
stillsing; and
must
warbling a
Catbird.
that of
found
wantonly
discarding.A
in
Order
among
he
Sparrow-liketrait
one
Butcher-bird
are
when
destroyeven
to
succeeded
not
often
sacrifices
there, vain
them
also mice
but
shambles, and
Shrike's
close-
a
his leisure.
at
only birds
Not
hung from
or
the well-named
Then
branch.
forked
thorn
a
the
fitting,
and
more
chieflyon
it detects
from
its
at
grasshoppers
a
distance
of
perch as they crawl
FIELD
their
in
about
thorns
upon
it
which,
the
and
also
be
of
purpose
the
upon
well
115
it
impales
wire
fences,
These
jungle.
grassy
might
double
BIRDS
barbs
imagined,
of
it with
supplying
for
erected
were
and
perch
meathook.
Only
expert
an
Shrike
Northern
at
seen
close
Northern
whiter,
in nature;
has
and
Shrike,
therefore
the
other,
and
characteristic
them
from
strong
followed
flightof
other
our
fliers, a
by
a
ends
of
whatever
of
prey,
by
it may
the
of
sail,
short
an
and
bird
keep
white
and
Shrikes
a
are
the
the
usually
northern
bird
the
breast.
on
distinguish
to
from
one
plumage
gray
quickly distinguish
birds.
They
are
not
rapid wing-strokes being
as
though
swing
alights
a
the
sliding,and
upward
than
are
cross-lines
winter
number
alternately running
always
and
black
that
blacker
of
difficult
birds
observed
underparts
brownish
having fine, wavy,
the
be
individuals
immature
While
the
the
when
but
forehead
the
from
Loggerhead
a
it will
range
Loggerhead
tell
can
sharp
on,
to
the
were
the
flightalmost
the
highest part
where,
outlook
bird
for
like
a
bird
its quarry.
MEADOWLARK
OF
HERALD
A
SPRING
{Fi0. 23)
Meadowlarks
HE
during
us
in the
the
ground
their
with
feeding
was
which
from
very
breast
heart
of
gleamed
I
Meadowlark
brightly
winter
like
a
a
and
flower
this bird
his neutral-toned
on
vivid
vest
back
and
toward
horseback
spring
bird's
before
the
he
not
and
grass
in
set
rich
saw
to
the
yellow
green
cravat,
ground.
back-
me,
for
show
his
but
turns
observer.
through
Il6
the
ing
see-
green
against the
black
In
spring oozing
bit of
the
grubs
remember
can
of
careful
seems
colored
Traveling
was
probe
can
snow-surrounded
It
saw
I
patch
a
a
hillside.
a
Evidently
the
on
bordered
freezing.
bills for
long, strong
first Meadowlark
The
worms.
from
places they
such
where
flowing spring, prevent
a
earth
the
lowlands
or
or
with
live in flocks
winter
the
marshes
tides,
remain
that
a
part
of
Cuba
BIRDS
FIELD
Meadowlarks
where
by
I
as
me
the roadside
passed. Try
to
came
turninghis
back
myself,is
a
with dead
I
the field behind
and
see
him,
much
mitted
per-
I said
bird who
inexperienced
conspicuoushis
more
and
grass-blades
saw
stems;
to
does
breast
Meadowlark.
The
ther,
but, lookingfurthe field justbeyond
coursingover
Hawk
a
the
bird, too, had
him, and evidently
choosingthe lesser of
turned
his
strongly-markedbreast
the neutral-tinted back
while
not
his back, with its dull earth-brown, streaked
is than
had
toward
would, I could
by without flying.Here,
young
realize how
not
I
as
toward
ride
to
me
their backs
turned
the
perchingon
colored underparts. Finally
differently
bird who
faced me
one
squarelyand,
their very
I
along the highway,
common
were
that all the birds
I observed
fences
117
seen
evils,
two
toward
me
the
presentedto
was
Hawk!
While
the
of the time
spendsmost
its food
and
perchesin trees.
like
the
on
times
"Marsh
name
it.
is
so
walking birds,
ground, where
builds its home, it also
When
on
the
Bob-white,it often will
steps upon
such
like all
Meadowlark,
Its resemblance
frequently
ground in the
not
flyuntil one
to
a
it secures
grasses,
almost
Bob-white
great that it is sometimes
Quail"; Quail, we
of Bob-white.
remember, being a
But the white outer
at
called
mon
com-
tail-
feathers which
will
WINTER
OUR
ii8
the
BIRDS
Meadowlark
it from
always distinguish
Let
us
then
watch
our
flashes
as
it flies
Bob-white.
bird as, first flapping,
then sailing,
in
flappingagain,he alights
a
tree
nearby,
i^^
Meadowlark
"The
white
outer
flies will
(Upper Figure)
tail-feathers
which
and
Bob-white
the Meadowlark
always distinguishit
from
flashes
as
it
Bob-white."
and metallic twitter while nervously
a sharp note
Uttering
his tail and showing its white feathers.
flitting
Alert and suspicious
he seems
realize that
to
now
his brown-streaked
cloak no
longer conceals him
to his wings instead of to his protective
and, trusting
BIRDS
FIELD
flightbefore
colors,he takes
yards of
with
High,
and clear his
sweet
fifer;
greet the feathered
plays
ringlike
notes
air,and
stop
we
of
herald
^true
a
spring.
perhaps when his mate is near,
ing
twittera warbling,
singswhile flying;
that with which
quiteunlike
song
the birth of
a
been
have
known
to
yards of occupiedhouses, but
very
in
little confidence
for
always regretted,
I
own
company
are
free from
of
ours,
and
intrusion.
golfcourses
make
within
nest
as
a
rule
a
a
they
fact I have
that these
strong,
be well worth
bering
num-
The
But
uncut
admirable
and unused portions
meetingplaces
struct
Here, in earlyMay, they con-
for Meadowlarks.
their arched
six white eggs,
announces
they prefertheir
usuallynest where they
one's friends.
to
man;
sure
am
wholesome, hardy birds would
among
he
year.
new
Meadowlarks
show
"
the
are
in the year,
he sometimes
few
rivals
ar-
new
Grouse
clarion call through the chill March
Later
by
birds,but the Meadowlark
among
the fife.
passed
northern
more
taken
Ruffed
and
Woodpeckers
drummers
to
forty
the south.
from
The
be
placeswill
their
homes, and
for
will leave
us
have
which
Meadowlarks
the
winter
the
within
are
we
him.
March
In
119
nests
of grasses
and
lay four
spottedand speckledwith
brown.
to
BOB-WHITE
A
BIRD
OF
GOOD
{Figs.
ITH
the
includes
eat,
where
of
routine
and
their
this
ties
period
how
to
the
join
suit
are
and
great
Blackbirds,
Buntings.
Tree
which
when
for
it,how
young
also
length when,
to
sleep,
to
the
food, and
they
parents,
find
This
season.
variable
of
only
entirelydependent
parents
and
preparation,
for
learn
what
avoid
the
the
and
flocks
of
like the
Sparrows,
live
probably
120
and
for
their
to
mies
ene-
daily
exchanged
costume,
the
own
come
be-
young
themselves.
Some
species, as
Shorelarks
Starlings,
Others,
are
broken
shift
and
having
first winter
their
usually
independent
birds
time
lasts
lives.
nestling
family
a
their
of their
After
their
kind, where
their
nesting
the
on
of
care
family life
helpless and
are
the
2)
I,
birds
most
during
under
CHEER
and
do
Snow
Juncos, White-throated,
In
rather
associated
scattered
day
after
panies
com-
day;
WINTER
OUR
122
enough
tainlystartling
the
to
BIRDS
walk
into
a
during
covey
day.
plumage represents the
coloration.
protective
Bob-white's
is termed
what
of
arrangement
colors and
that it is very
to
markings
it is motionless,seem
the bird, when
rather
invisibility,
than
so
That
is,an
which
make
like its surroundings
if not
difficult,
Birds
it.
see
best type of
colored
so
to
flight,
almost
possibl
im-
relyupon
their
from
their
escape
enemies.
We
hear
not
At
as
us
to
suit and
they are,
that
can
after
his
to
bushes.
alert,but
that Bob-white
put
him
carry
step
"full
protective
the earth and
wings
For
it is necessary
in the
speed ahead"
a
on
far, but wings
the last moment,
on
waits
flyingstart.
a
possibletime, and with
springsfrom
almost
we
wings. Short, rounded
quicklyin
moved
waitinguntil
shortest
the
on
lose faith in his
designedto
not
be
to
seems
takes
only when
It is
pass.
that he
him
he is doubtless
does
his color he squats in his tracks and
to
trusting
us
crashingthrough the
come
we
the firstsound
for
believe that Bob-white
of course,
cannot,
he
whirring roar
shoots away
like
a
bullet.
Then, indeed, the familyis so widelyscattered that
one
wonders
how
again. They
that
sightis
its members
do
of
not,
no
as
a
ever
find
one
another
rule,perch in trees,
while the air
assistance,
so
route
BIRDS
FIELD
which
over
A
listen!
But
retraced.
be
soft,whistled *'Where
It
first from
comes
then from
us
draw
and
there
others
for
heard
once
a
the
Bob-white
Let
you?"
are
replythey
we
notes
twittering
into
out
runs
a
looking eagerly here
answering.
was
Then
my
New
City.
Little thinking
could be its author,I nevertheless
enter
to
of
in the Museum
window
York
is termed
it
immediatelyanswered it when, to my
Bob-white ran
the lawn
rapidlyacross
actuallyabout
left,
yonder.
this "scatter call,"as
by sportsmen, from
Natural
History in
that
it
you?**
are
we
twitter
excitedly
I
was
quicklywithdraw while they
their experiences
another.
to
one
and
come
low
erect,
bird
the
that?
as
Bob-white
a
nearby opening,head
and
and
hear
we
later
moment
a
note
where
you?
come,
Soon
could
that thicket
are
the responses
nearer.
What
trail that
you? where
right,then from
near
it, "Where
once
no
are
the
far ahead
answer
At
a
leaves
they travel
123
the
surprise,
and
door
Museum
was
when,
alarmed
Poor
and disappeared.
he took flight
by visitors,
little fellow,I wonder
did he ever
find his
out
way
of the
great
cityinto
which
he
had
so
strangelywandered?
In
to
April the
pair,the
diminutive
flocks break
males
game
up
and
battlingfor
the birds
their
mates
begin
like
their rivals
cocks, and challenging
WINTER
OUR
124
with
ringing
the
without
No
is !
it
call
they
they
of
feeling
a
whose
it
one,
voice
or
to
in
warmth
hear
can
heart
his
echoes
ful
cheer-
a
me,
the
the
as
What
seems
clearly
so
named:
are
call,
It, "Buck-wheat-ripe?"
puts
bird
which
from
notes
Ah-Bob-whitel"
"Bob-white!
farmer
BIRDS
the
for
of
joy
It
the
season.
Late
the
as
or
the
In
ardent
order
the
duties
place
on
tiny
concerned
lover.
to
of
which
the
the
nest
chicks
as
Unlike
he
household
appear
their
of
most
he
mother
his
to
she
Is
Is
he
in
the
and
eggs
are
well
as
as
of
members
does
not
leave
wife,
but
takes
feeding;
apparently
their
on
field,
white
husband
belongs,
when
some
pointed,
attentive
an
made
Is
nest
of
border
eighteen
Is
Bob-white
the
June
early
bushy
to
ten
as
many
the
her
May
ground
laid.
an
In
welfare.
and
as
all
his
when
much
HAWK
SPARROW
HUMBLE
A
OF
MEMBER
{Figs.
HAVE
and, In
hawk-like
a
It
man.
will
We
Hawk
Falcon
a
falconry
North
to
hunt
America
for
permitted
wing
and
to
hence
use
nobles
this
powerful
therefore, while
a
very
of
125
young
not
yet
him
trust
At
given
when
the
its
the
to
Falcon
Hawk)
The
Sparrow
who
of
(which
In
trained
was
alone
bird
Sparrow
relative
of
most
heard
have
We
splendid, fearless
humble
go
like him.
to
belongs
England,
foot.
a
to
that
Peregrine
Duck
to
us
call.
remember
Is called
the
and
to
come
has
taught
of Hawks.
the
how
and
be
whistled
and
distinguished family
which
master
a
however,
must,
Is
to
come
not
has
one
apparently
way,
least, it recognizes its
freedom,
can
Sparrow
permit
not
Hawk,
Sparrow
fear
will
Still,if
him.
to
bird
will
he
wild
a
who
one
any
with
The
and
us
to
known
friends
Hawk.
learned
8)
7,
never
made
FAMILY
ROYAL
A
were
of
fleet
Hawk,
the
dash-
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
126
with
to
Intelligence
and
temperament
The
The
Usually he
favorite look-out
telegraphwire, or
keep
can
a
I have
their feet
Hawk
emblem
of
to
alarm
accepts It
eyes
though It
an
he last
saw
stub,
which
the
his
was
ground where
detected
a
disappear he
the
It,waiting for another
to strike,
opportunity
justas
own
fliesperhaps
and
above
rapidlybeatingwings directly
which
dead
flagfluttering
starts
have
If the insect should
on
ground.
staffs which
the
to
directly
marvelouslysharp
a
the
birds,but the Sparrow
victory.Suddenlyhe
more
on
The
most
as
the
on
try.
surrounding coun-
use
golfcourse.
a
might
fifty
yards or
his
them
known
the
on
on
perch from
similar
some
close watch
the holes of
mark
at
a
boldly
watchful
in
believes
captures his quarry
has
feeds
strikes his victim
Hawk
Sparrow
waiting,and
he
birds,but
Peregrine goes
forth in search of food, and
a
ciate
asso-
its name,
spiteof
in
Insects.
chiefly
upon
wing.
to
man.
Sparrow Hawk,
the
learn
Peregrinepreys exclusively
upon
The
con
Fal-
enough true
ing Peregrine,evidently
possesses
hopper.
grass-
hovers
placein
view
the Fish Hawk
and
and
Kingfisher
poisebefore plungingon their prey.
Woe
to the unsuspecting
grasshopperthat crawls
leaf
beneath
from
the protectionof a sheltering
when
the
Sparrow
Hawk
is
watching nearby!
FIELD
bird
Quicklythe
him
bears
well
as
a
to
his
BIRDS
drops,seizes
perch,which
"Hovers
Sparrow
states
on
in
serves
Its claws
as
a
and
table
as
always a
Hawk
rapidly beating wings"
Hawk
is
not
common
during the winter, but
duringits northward
is
him
look-out.
Sparrow
The
127
ern
In the northincreases in
In
migrations
bird of the open
March.
bers
num-
It
and rarelyvisits
fields,
the woods.
The
Falcons, unlike
most
Hawks, build,as
a
rule.
but
nest;
no
openings
selects
lay
hollow
April
the
three
to
characteristic
the
case
The
has
(Fig. 7)
are
below
from
male
has
sides
and
eight.
or
seven
tinted
breast
always tell a Sparrow Hawk
color, black
of
markings
by
aid
of
The
glasses,it
it is
whether
male
a
or
Hawk's
Sparrow
about
is
on
the
season.
of
name
wing,
I do
call is
the female.
especially
by
know
once
female,
in the fernale
is streaked
brown, while the
the
and
One
black.
can
ish
size,brown-
habit
the head
and
the open,
and, with
say
female.
"Killy Hawk.*"
not
or
at
generallypossible to
"Killy,killy,killy,"which
it the
male
its small
perching in exposed places in
the
laid in
brownish
with
spotted with
abdomen
don
female
The
reddish
bill to tail with
the
after
are
birds
or
pecker,
Wood-
a
year
eggs
in the tail,while
bar
one
the
top
male, it will be observed
The
,
there
of
by
place
same
young
plumage
the
drilled
In
or
Hawk
Sparrow
brownish
seven
be.
may
the
to
in trees,
it from
enters
doorway
or
early May.
or
in holes
eggs
limb,
returns
The
BIRDS
in cliffs. The
hole
knot
a
and
year.
their
ledges
or
a
through
as
WINTER
OUR
128
the
whether
a
peated
high, rapidly re-
in the
This
male
south
note
In the
is
gives
given
mating
It Is also uttered
by
Like
Owl
white
the
nests
are
in
not
to
ears,
unless
eyes
While
identify
they
the
with
and
it.
Short-eared
the
laying
ground,
April.
connection
yellow
serve
Hawk,
the
evident
barely
fact,
in
eggs
"ears"
Marsh
upon
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
130
the
the
four
its
and
them;
yellowish
of
brown
its
seven
Owl's
short,
are
raises
character
to
Short-eared
certainly
Owl
Marsh
or
haunts,
being
this
age,
plumwill
BIRDS
FOREST
IV
FOREST
BIRDS
which
homes,
when
forests
In extent,
the
and
change
But
this
there
Either
change.
wild
The
good
home
as
if
we
While
to
want
we
birds
wilderness
will
leave
not
him
see
must
go
to
near
Downy
should
and
with the mystery
by
and
too
and
express
forever
they
nature
ours.
apple-treejust as
But
the
ing;
his forest dwellanother
other
true
like it.
wood
habitan
in-
their haunts.
value
cannot
of Chickadee,
some
old
they are
it disappearshe seeks
when
we
or
an
make
cannot
forest-growingbeech.
Owl
Horned
and
a
finds
orchards
our
find the food
not
of man,
Owl
of
of the woods.
their residence
up
Screech
a
Great
So
take
to
do
crease
de-
adapt themselves
trees
those
they
the home
disappear or
specieswhich
other
are
requirenear
too
place of
in
gardens
accept the
and
our
which,
all forest birds
are
the
about
come
the
peckers,
Wood-
and
Chickadee, Nuthatches
to
like
birds
tree-inhabiting
HE
be
Nuthatch, it is well that
to
us
the
associated
of the forest.
133
highlythe friendship
spiritof
in
our
the
minds
HAWKS
THE
AMONG
OUTLAWS
BIRDS
{Figs, 4-6, 9-12)
AWKS
warriors
the
are
world.
bird
the
Fierce, aggressive, usually
with
untamable,
spiritunbroken
imprisonment, they
give
of
neither
Raptores,
mercy.
by
ask
nor
Robber
or
Birds, the ornithologistcalls them,
I
but
do
robber,
only
think
not
as
the
law
do
at
attempt
has
laws
live upon
its
birds
to
other
special
prey
and
so
law, and
demand
the
who
one
Hawks
most
obey,
it with
do
they
A
not
in the
so
other
forms
of life.
which
abundant.
mice
upon
and
to
that
134
it
Every
no
prevent
would
life
creature
it from
is
shrews,
they
of
forms
prevent
So
animals
abundant
certain
that
enemies
unduly
duty
But
does
title.
concealment.
Nature's
shall
the
break
not
is
term,
usually
way.
this
deserve
the
but
sneaking, despicable
they
they
understand
we
breaks
that
coming
be-
Hawks'
the
lizards, frogs,
them
from
overrun
coming
bethe
FOREST
crueltyin
in
a
a
pointof
Nature's
world. From
Hawk's
Swallow's
BIRDS
135
view there is no
catchinga
than there is
mouse
catchinga mosquito. Both
the part that is
them.
assignedto
more
ing
play-
are
Hawk's
The
equipment of strong, sharp,curved talons,hooked,
effective
tearingbill,and great strengthare no more
the
than
But the Hawk
Swallow.
does
The
not, and
Powerful
we
Grasping
wonderful
and
large mouth
therefore
Feet
of
(a)
attribute
Owl,
an
a
It is
great Hawk
the
Eagle
made
the symbol of war, justas we
Dove
the symbol
gentle-appearing
a
"
the
looks the part; the Swallow
in keeping with
disposition
expression.
mer
of
agility
"
the for-
to
(b)
a
Hawk
its habits and
which
have
have
we
made
the
haps
Per-
of peace.
if the less obvious characteristics of other birds
as
were
well known
to
the
symbolizeindustry,
Creeper, perseverance,
us,
the
Woodpecker
Nuthatch
and
the
would
thrift,the Brown
Chickadee, good
cheer.
Man
has been
Cipher birds.
The
more
motto
unjustto Hawks
"give a dog
than
a
bad
to
any
name"
OUR
136
applieseven
WINTER
fondness
for
to
Hawk"
kind
one
of Hawk
poultry,all
Hawks
Hawk"
"Hen
Is
the
to
that,instead
poultry,
small rodents
so
destructive
have
offered
actually
a
It is
justas though
we
and
enemy
him
The
states
onlythe
not
turn
our
that
to
Hawks
of
givingthese
crops,
treat
him
upon
an
states
some
killed.
one
allyas
of dollars
instead of welcoming
foolishly
expended
been
so
suffered from
their crops
in the numbers
formerlykept in
were
an
ill-considered laws lost
passedsuch
increase
birds
the
destroying
for every
should
structi
de-
are
arms.
thousands
killed,and
at
habits.
in bounties,but also the services of the Hawks
were
lieved
be-
"Chicken
all Hawks
our
reward
guns
with open
undue
an
name
for their services in
of thanks
vote
has
of Hawks
generalis the opinionthat
So
a
Food
men.
hunts-
appliedto
large,without regard to speciesor
The
winged
commonly
are
thieves and
be chicken
or
these
closelyto
more
Because
BIRDS
check
condemned
unjustly
by
to
a
of mice
the Hawks
that
responding
cor-
which
that had
death.
(and also their
againstthe Hawks
serious that the
so
relatives,the Owls) became
United States Department of Agriculture
sent
quest
rea
throughout the country for the stomachs of
The
warfare
OUR
138
WINTER
The
Hawk
Sharp-shinned
chickens,but it is winged
of
BIRDS
is too
small
death
to
hundred
one
and
Red-shouldered
this littleHawk
or
birds, and
game
Goshawk,
which
numbers
showed
a
comes
in
very
to
to
small birds.
of
Hawk
other
ninety-nine
the northern
aminatio
Ex-
five stomachs
that six had
largecousin
catch grown
of these
states
winter, also feeds upon
eaten
poultry
birds.
two
The
Hawks,
usuallyin
small
other birds and
FOREST
destructive to game
is most
Grouse.
which
we
we
those
that
We
must
see
familiar
be
not
of
misled
by
those
species
winter's
day, let us
innocent
ones
from
The
appearances.
wide
circles while
callingloudly,
and Red-tailed Hawks
figuresto the farmer.
avoid
They
and
perchingin conspicuousplaces,
Sharp-shinnedHawks
and
any
the Red-shouldered
has made
common,
guilty.
are
soaringIn
of
to
not
only with
the
distinguish
may
large size,habit
and
bird is
concerned
expect
may
how
see
here
are
139
Ruffed
birds,particularly
Fortunatelythis
we
as
BIRDS
But
less
are
the
Cooper's
frequentlyseen.
exposed places,
slipquicklythrough the
woods, and,
lighterbirds
as
a
quiet. They
rule,are
than
the
Red-shoulder
are
and
smaller,
Red-tail,
and few
peopleseeingall four togetherwould
them
the criminals.
as
It
is,however, far easier
mouse
than
to
drop
to
capture
Sharp-shinIn pursuitof
a
a
Robin.
on
select
some
bird.
With
pecting
unsus-
Watch
what
the
speed
it follows its victim,dashingthrough the trees, making
every
flyingfor
twist and
turn
of the
its life,
until its keen
bird that is
poor
talons
are
plunged
into its prey.
The
not
heavy-bodiedRed-shoulder
perform
in the open
this feat.
They
are
and, while they may
or
Red-tail could
built for
sometimes
hunting
take
a
OUR
I40
bird
the
on
flyhim
ground
for
they all nest
which
the mouse-hunters
hunters
The
black
has the
so
Jay
would
The
and
shall find
trees
are
in
the bird-
or
the bird
he is but
think
band
The
be
a
it with
Hawk
of black
immature
mistaken
markings
by
a
its cry,
for
the
sky.
of his own,
notes
near
by.
be known
by the reddish
singleblack bar, and
the
parts.
markings crossingits underbird has the tail barred
a
below.
a
circles,
well that if he
so
some
was
a
"Kee-you,
speck in
mere
out
with-
brown
fierce
a
the
large as
sails in wide
imitates this call
tail-featherswith
broken
the Red-tail
quite so
not
adult Red-tail may
known
watch
Its call is
usuallyfollow
not
black
there
underpartsreddish
as
high that
Blue
may
is
markings.
kee-you" uttered
brown
of "Birds
Still we
may
Red-shoulder
Red-shoulder
Red-tail and
The
it were,
hide.
The
often
as
in the forests and
also in the fields wherever
them
not,
in the group
Hawks.
wood-inhabiting
true
one
theydo
unawares,
placed these Hawks
of the Woods,"
did
BIRDS
down.
I have
are
WINTER
Red-shoulder
This
Hawk
but
may
and
for the
best be
high,long-drawnsquealing"Kee-
ee-ee-ee-e."
Both
the Red-shoulder
and
Red-tail build
bulky
BIRDS
FOREST
seventy feet above the
they return
three
laid
in
of sticks,
placingthem
nests
the
to
trees
nest
disturbed
The
are
eggs
earlyin April.
Darter."
Sharp-shinnedHawks
the
far
So
is called the ''Blue
color is concerned, the
as
above; but old and young
With
called darters.
"Bullet
name
air and
is very
a
Hawk."
apt
to
grow
a
they
visit
be followed
I suppose
to
know
the
with
Woodpeckers
guests.
nuts, seeds
and
blood,
for human
taste
flesh of
doubtless
pullets
hen-yard;but
that the
for
placedthere especially
counter
true
poultryyard
that he should pay
It is proper
Hawk
the
to
is the
Darter.
for his raids upon
mere
This
by another, and just as
the tender
the Blue
upon
be
through the
shoot
their prey.
One
likingfor
slatyblue
speed which givesthem also
man-eatingtigeracquiresa
does
name
equal truth
with
may
Hawk,"
plunge upon
"Chicken
is
adult bird, which
the
appliesonly to
so
not
after year.
year
In the south, Cooper's Hawk
a
to
thirty
four dull white, brownish-marked
or
Cooper's and
the
from
When
ground.
same
141
him ?
and
Chickadee
chickens
We
suet
and
the penalty
how
is
not
were
spreada
a
lunch-
for the Finches,
make
Why, therefore,should
them
the Darter
come
welnot
WINTER
OUR
142
BIRDS
believe that he
was
which had
prepared for
been
Contrary
is
hawk
Invited
the
to
a
male
to
(
figures
our
indicate.
Hawk
The
of this
Darter.
While
a
identify
the male
male
Darter
This
Pursuing
female
sexual difference
and
Sharp-
clearly
of them
smaller of the two,
speciesIs nearlyas large as
it is therefore
Sharp-shinand
and
feast
Redpoll
a
9-12)
Sharp-shinis the
female
be
birds, the
in the Darter
Nos.
a
him?
larger than the male.
Sharp-shinned
but
partake of
rule among
in size is well marked
shin, as
to
female
a
a
always possible
female
Darter,
Sharp-shincannot
tainly
cer-
in life. Indeed, it sometimes
distinguished
puzzlesan
expert
to
name
in the streaked.Immature
specimens
plumage.
of them, when
FOREST
Both
the
from
smaller,
Red-tail
tails.
Note
how
folded
wings
reach
nearly
than
more
Neither
to
of
these
might
pursuit
call
for
not
the
Their
them
heard
only
their
of
than
Both
woods,
Those
blotched
weakly
a
build
and
of
nests
lay
the
with
from
Sharp-shin
brownish,
bluish-white, generally
are
the
the
tail,
not
tend
ex-
is
victory
for
they
hunt
with
food
and
chase.
calls
therefore
are
their
power
of
wing
their
defend
nest.
and
young
protest.
sticks and
three
and
Perhaps, indeed,
families
to
uttered
of
of
scream
their
attempt
no
their
do
approaches
one
Evidently forgetting then
foot, they make
of
tip
marketmen,
when
by
length.
insignificant cackling
usually
other
the
nor
pleasure
mere
be
may-
Hawks
other
huntsmen.
and
supply themselves
the
to
its
of
sex,
wings
Sharp-shin they
winged
better
in
and
half
cry
by
uttered
we
Darter
in the
to
shorter
bodies,
longer
while
regard
Red-shoulder
and
slender
more
143
without
however,
species,
told
BIRDS
to
twigs
six eggs
in
trees
early
in
in the
May.
bluish-white, spotted
while
unmarked.
the
Darter's
or
are
THE
BIRDS
OWLS
OF
NIGHT
THE
{Figs, 15^18)
HE
human-like
birds
evident
not
become
is
reveal
Any
their
can
one
At
least
us
to
since
mankind
We
must,
birds
whether
has
of
and
them,
compare
other
birds.
us
Owls
Doubtless
when
arise
at
we
about
to
attempt
our
first
the
this
time
144
it remains
for
the
deserve
borne
ever
their
measure
but
man,
thing
Owls
that
that
comparison
most
birds.
existence.
with
not
make
the
wise
remember
always
course,
in
their
of
do
are
have
they
faces
exceptions.
actually
which
known
they
ing
say-
are
birds, and
Owls
wisdom
for
that
glance
a
like wise
look
discover
reputation
are
at
them.
of
rule, birds'
a
ually
us-
actually-
we
way
characters; but Owls
see
they
as
are
with
another
only
make
us
until
acquainted
that,
not
which
interesting to
so
This
traits
birds
go
will
is
to
tellige
In-
with
press
imthat
bed;
live in the far north
the fact that these Owls
the
in summer,
four hours
there
consequently
when
Indeed, in the fall,
these Owls
be
can
sun
on
for
a
real
no
night,
for darkness
their hunt
for food.
to
long winter nightcomes,
the
migratesouthward
seen
is
wait
them
impossiblefor
startingforth
before
where,
is visible duringthe entire twenty-
sun
and
it
has made
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
146
to
latitudes where
part of each
the
day, and although
then divided into periodsof
are
twenty-fours
darkness and light,
they stillretain their habit of
their
huntingby day.
Food
The
studies of the
The
Survey
Biological
They
and
also
Great
fondness
not
records
for
our
as
other
mousers
figuresbased
of their stomachs.
two
seven
of
grubs
the
insects
and
Owl, it is true, shows
Horned
deservingof
given
by
Washington, have proved that
large numbers
eat
of birds made
therefore,valuable allies of the farmer.
are,
The
food
largestpart of the fare of Owls.
the
form
mice
in
of Owls
poultryand
the
on
of this
should
family.
shown
clearly
examinations
due
un-
and is therefore
protectionwhich
members
are
game,
an
by
be
Their
ing
the follow-
of the
contents
out of ninetyThus, eighty-four
Long-eared Owls, seventy-seven
Short-eared Owls, and seventeen
out
of
out
eightyof nine-
BIRDS
FOREST
of
while
had
Owls
Acadian
teen
all been
in their claws and
their prey
the
it entire.
be found
in which
From
them
we
Here
but
of
have
of
hundreds
for
identify
be
footed, wood,
meadow
may
No
mouse,
all have
or
the
been
of
a
of
Only
the
expert
an
which
to
meal,
one
can
we
shall find
one
familiar
important
more
could
we
alphabet. Placed together
hunting. The
night's
deer
mouse,
jumping mouse
on
roost-
of his
nature
as
readilyas
distinguished
theyspellthe story
daylight.
Owl's
an
the record
of animals
green
ever-
than by
certainly
more
meals.
the letters of the
name
of
in the hair, but
with the anatomy
can
the
away
all the littlebones
us
closelyembedded
ones
not
oblong
dense
of his stomach, the
we
tion
diges-
sometimes
some
onlylearn
tell far
can
examination
food.
dozes
not
may
but
ing-place,
an
Owl
an
of
pellets
may
ground beneath
the
on
large,
too
the mouth.
of these matted
Hundreds
pieceswith
into
formed
are
ejectedat
are
rule hold
a
the processes
By
hair
and
bones
which
wads
as
it into
tear
hundred
one
eatingit;but, if it is not
their billsbefore
they swallow
do not
Owls
Hawks,
Owls'
Screech
contained mice and
stomachs, ninety-one
insects. Unlike
mice,
feastingon
twelve
and
hundred
two
147
the
and
white-
short-tailed
tinyshrews
the bill of fare.
less than four hundred
and
of
fifty-four
these
found
In
Barn
pair of
in the
them
Institution in
Owls,
no
were
vicinity,
the tower
Washington, where
southern
a
that
rare
so
gatheredin
pellets
hundred
two
others
some
seen
ever
of the Smithsonian
a
of
and
littlemammals,
naturalist had
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
148
had
species,
made
their home.
if Owls
Even
by day, their
success
littleanimals
among
well
as
see
the
tangle of
idea that, like the hunter
to
appear
watch
lightof
the
automobile
capturedtheir
to
visitors
Owl
Owls
on
in the
apparentlyeither just
waiting for
were
a
victim
and the
the United
either
of
Owl
Snowy
States that
them.
we
But
such
are
sibly
pos-
may
the
Great
Owls
the Acadian
northern
are
and
from
the
sometimes
border
wanders
of the United
Screech Owl,
a
and
Long-eared, Short-eared
with us throughoutthe year,
Barred,
Horned,
Screech
to
see
never
marked
or
prey,
the Hawk
Both
The
his game
the road.
cross
rare
fallen
has
they had
where
ahead
road
waitingfor
"runway," Owls may
placesfor the coming of mice and
times,when motoring at night,the
Several
shrews.
I have
traveled
some
open
over
shelter
and
grass
is remarkable.
they live
an
on
do
capturingthese dull-colored
in
of leaves in which
Hawks
by night as
fondness
althougha
southward
States in winter.
Owl, shows
wood
for the haunts
of
man
that
so
we
FOREST
class him
may
with
Owl
Short-eared
BIRDS
149
"Home
the
Birds"; while the
belongsamong
the "Field
leavingthe remainingfive among
the "Forest
Great
They
not
are
did
them,
voices. How
the
deep,sonorous
Owl
echo
through the
Horned
Under
favorable
which
the
of
a
in
the birds and
preys
Owl
has
among
birds."
scream
which
than that of
Owl
a
on
on
heard
half
night!
birds calling
mile
a
my
a
which
tone
animals
away.
I
was
the Great
of the
nature
name
it calls
tones
a
an
of
Great
"tiger
wild, piercing
animal
rather
in the heart of the Adiron-
firstcampingtrip,
when
mountainside
der
won-
enemy?
Sometimes
bird.
one
I
the ominous
suggests the voice of
a
distance.
for it the
won
reminds
which
on
recognizein
ferocious,untamable
Horned
dacks
for their
stillnessof the
dog barkingin the
the voice of their natural
The
to
of the Great
notes
less than
not
note, and
same
Owl
Horned
it not
were
conditions I have
were
bass-voiced
do
be strangers
hoo-hoo-hoo,whooo, whooo," he cries,all
"Whoo,
on
Owl
forever
might
seek
not
Birds."
these soft-feathered lovers
numerous,
of darkness, and
those who
Horned
Birds,"
across
a
Great Horned
the lake uttered
"Panther?"
I gasped
blood-curdling
cry.
guide. "No, Hoot Owl," he replied.
to
this
my
OUR
150
Great
The
His
patch of
Horned
wild
family at
until late
for
home;
than
he Is
so
regions.Able
springor earlysummer,
rare
or
Is indeed
two
three white
or
Hawk,
of
food
above.
born
are
You
Owl
be
Fortunate
clad in
far
are
than
to
known
by
Is more
him; but when
In the Screech
Owls
a
eared
cat's
ears
and
"ears"
or
horned
Owl.
Horned
always
and
"ears,"
or
half his size.
enough
are
the
name
be
of
between
the feather-tufts of the
must
and
Short-eared
littleOwl
Owl, which, if feathers
Owls
"horns"
these feather-tufts
give this
her
on
he may
with "horns"
than
an
white down.
Owl," but there is small resemblance
"Cat
even
to
ears
sat
the young
seen
Long-eared,
Owl
which
Owl
conspicuousfeather
The
old Crow,
an
hear the Great
plateshows, less
our
like cat's
the mother
it Is that
nest; its
to
from
nest
one
Great
the latter part
early as
to
likely
his
in
thick suit of warm,
onlyother
Screech,our
as
a
more
see
large size.
are,
of
hanging while
birds
our
being laid
as
I knew
February.
icicle was
eggs
Squirrelnest
or
eggs
the first of
wait
not
abundant, before goingto housekeeping.The
Horned
known
un-
providefor
to
when
small
a
of the year, he does
time
any
a
the forests.
disappearswith
requiresmore
settled
more
BIRDS
Owl
nature
woodland
In
a
WINTEJ^
Long-
called either
"horns," might better be known
as
Long-
FOREST
A
and
Owl
retiring
is so
is
The
its roost
The
bird's
tered
pelletsscat-
the
other way.
earlyin April,laying
in
old Crow,
an
Hawk,
nest.
Squirrel
or
Barred
Next
to
largestof
our
and
his eyes
are
brown
dark
brown
not
are
Owl's
all
on
enough
to
to
be
speak the
even
With
Barred
understood
always answer
me,
Horned.
in the
concealed,he
look in his dark
alike,but the
of his call
hoots
"Whoo-whoo-whoo,
woods.
understand
cannot
much
deep and the
note.
one
are
by
oneself!
tones
a
peers
and
ing
boom-
littlepractice
one
Owl's
language well
the Owl,
even
Whenever
with such
if
I hear
he
down
who-
that go
rarelyfails to
daytime. Perching near
him
horns,
no
face,lacks the yellowish
of his
birds
two
is less
through the
learn
has
black, while his
or
whoo, to-whoo-ah" he calls in
can
He
tints of that of the Great
voices of the
Barred
Owl, the Barred Owl is
resident Owls.
that
plumage,particularly
The
Owl
the Great Horned
the
am
heard that
it.
about
nests
six white eggs
to
evergreens,
seldom
in any
as
Long-cared Owl
its three
dense
betrayed by
often
as
beneath
much
know
to
seems
one
presence
I
151
recluse of cedar swamps
the voice of this
no
BIRDS
an
eyes that I often feel I
one
one
come
where
to
I
intelligent
am
talking
to
a
feathered
rather than
man
is made
conversation
Our
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
152
to
only of "whoos,"
up
uttered in such
"ahs," and "whas," but they are
varietyof
a
or
Sometimes
flyfast
and
furious
two
real Owls
the
Occasionally
once.
perhaps
about
I should
half
hoots
ending togetherwith
shriek, emphasized
distress.
One
sweeping
limbs
house-boat
to
Owl
night an
of
the
on
a
Suwanee
us
upon
sprung
to
could
we
other, in
a
formers
per-
like
a
In the
low,
our
utterance
gave
denly
sud-
wild-cat had
a
not
have
of
cry
directlyabove
River,
If
ters
ut-
weird, gasping
a
perched
live-oak
scream.
hair-raising
this
singa duet;
prolonged "whoo-
its conclusion
at
all talk
fast,both
as
a
voices rise
Rarely their
then
and
we
as
the
while
rapid hoots
ten
joined
are
piecetogether. One
a
say
higher tone,
slightly
ah."
we
a
equally
an
(I almost said "third")Owl,
second
indeed the words
at
doubt possess
theyno
varietyof meanings.
great
by
that
ways
bird.
feathered
a
been
more
frightened.
Crows
if we
even
Barred
to
seem
do not; and
Owls
with
a
The
too
the
language of Owls
often my
interviews with
interruptedby the black bandits of
are
soundingtheir rallycall,soon
the air who,
in numbers
understand
ahd
chorus
Barred
worry
of
caws
Owl
the Owl
appear
Into retreat, while
they follow.
nests
In March,
layingtwo
to
RUFFED
GROUSE
DRUMMER
WOODLAND
A
{Fig- 3)
the
S
days
with
covered
with
Thrushes,
even
better
have
him
slender
on
the
in
protected
than
that
white
to
as
manent
Per-
further
south
or
lowlands,
but
the
class
the
weather
nor
domain
his woodland
then
leaves
fringes that,
soft
of
mercy
gone
any
has
summer.
toes
fallen
and
comb-like
no
in winter
home
The
moss
asks
Grouse
all
we
retreated
of
shelter
the
furnished
for the
prepare
have
of those
some
Residents
Ruffed
birds
Resident
climes;
sought
up
VIreos, Flycatchers and
Warblers,
Summer
warmer
clothing,
of winter.
biting cold
other
ponds
furnace, put
and
doors"
*'storm
heavier
don
fire In the
a
the
and
the
becomes
ground
snow
Ice, we
build
The
the
fall and
leaves
and
shorter,
grow
carpet
now
are
like
of
154
so
daintily trod
the
with
bordered
snowshoes,
support
earth, and
the
leave
him
be-
BIRDS
FOREST
their record
hind
deepeningsnows
changes his
is
bleak
too
into
sleepin the
Slender
Foot
(right)
When
of
catkins. If the
he
open,
night
fliesheadlong
bed beneath this
warm
a
Bird
Grouse
Ruffed
a
Foot
Fringed
the
the
With
Dons
of
a
in
Ruffed
(left)
Summer
Grouse
in
and
Winter,
Snowshoes
passingof winter the Grouse joinsthe
musicians. His part is not the pipe
Spring's
the
of
of the
and finds
dwelling and
blanket.
strange
band
to
and
buds
to
snowbank
a
The
diet
the
the seeds and berries,he goes
story of his woodland
the upper
to
wanderings. When
of his
cover
i55
frogs,the trumpet of the Geese,
of the Meadowlark.
The
drum
or
the fife
is his instrument,
does he play his part. Thumpvigorously
thump-thump, he begins,increasingthe speed of
and
most
beats until they run
How
the bird
long remained
a
into
a
muffled roll.
produces this remarkable sound
mystery.
Some
persons
believed
WINTER
OUR
156
that he beat the
stand; others
wings
It
were
until
not
was
tame
knee, that it
that
they would
was
learned
Grouse
a
is
The
of
May
on
sitting
Grouse
coveringof
power
the
ten
of
air.
then
With
it
nest
the base
at
pale buff
the
rolling
that his
know
may
dozen
a
of his
of
some
eggs.
like those of their relative,
the
chicks,
can
about
run
down
true
are
or
beneath
quickstrokes
rarely hear
and
with
whirr
startling
the air from
more
we
her leaf-lined
on
barnyard hen,
They
by
one's
on
rounded
stiff,
is his love song.
tattoo
through the woods,
tree,
The
springsinto
Grouse's
coming
clappedhis
almost
drum
wing-quills
beatingthe
The
mate
that he
that their
air.
one's feet is also caused
concave
his
usuallytakes
came
beGrouse, raised in captivity,
wings struck onlythe
which
he
log on which
equallysure
his sides.
on
so
BIRDS
in which
feathered
as
soon
they
is
born
are
brownies, and
becoming invisiblewhile
the thick
as
dry.
have
your
eyes
June
we
are
the
upon
them.
Walking through the
upon
a
mother
she desert them?
never
possibly
woods
Grouse
Not
enters
a
running so
and
her
family.
Thought
her head.
She
which
activelyabout
a
denly
sud-
come
bit of it!
of those littleballs of down
were
in
her.
of
thinks
moment
At
Does
ing
fly-
only
before
any
cost
FOREST
be saved.
they must
is not
But
strong enough
fly. The
to
bird
resorts
leaves she becomes
a
of youngsters
will note, however, that she does
We
If
increase
we
when
role
miracle, her
the
through
have been
firstsaw
woods.
led
rememxber
what
that
now
If
us.
we
we
mother?
bird.
at
and
so
the
we
placewhere
we
downllngs.
has become
we
of them?
We
may
caughtonlya glimpseof
such
to
the spot where
we
do
look
see
note
each
over
carefully
one
motionless
may
hear, nor
we
squattingon
that he
discover
might
a
wittingly
un-
Into their lives.
confusion
Not
a
their
theymagicallydisappeared.
for
callingplaintively
last
Perhaps we
from
that
find them
We
and
discover
return
can,
brought
Shall
Then
we
a
whirring off
goes
and then
hurryingforms
Finally,
if by
as
It,regains,
and
flight,
yards away
her and her
Meanwhile
Let
of
power
keep beyond It.
her, she drops her
touch
to
she assumed
quicklyas
as
reach.
our
she hastens hers.
pace
justabout
are
we
our
maimed,
poor,
barelykeep beyond
can
us,
the
over
who, fluttering
fully
pain-
wing-broken,whining creature
before
of the
out
trim,graceful
a
a
twinkling,
She
weak
too
being therefore
brood
In
she do It?
can
strategy. From
to
leadingher
how
157
fightand they are
to
of force
use
she
question,
BIRDS
a
we
see
a
foot of
ground
leaf head
down,
be
second
do
their
a
and
leaf himself.
a
third;but
although
within
At
first
the
them
the
life
In
all
wild
for
was
seek
the
us,
will
one
the
the
danger
Grouse
most
the
soft
past,
when
sheltering
each
one
wings
them
or
a
will
little
would
would
of
called
to
means
the
young
Obedience
death.
which
cluck
of
which
with
these
and
ten
mother
language
means
of
move.
Disobedience
instinctive,
waiting
and
of
of
often
creatures
danger
not
squat."
and
is, therefore,
now
sign
something
"scatter
feet
and
family
whole
few
a
Invisible
remain
BIRDS
the
know
we
is
dozen
of
WINTER
OUR
158
its
Grouse
were
tell
spring
parent.
them
into
GROSBEAKS
THE
T
is
blessing
great
a
neighbors whom
and
learn
Life
would
as
which
give
us
a
Nevertheless,
visitor
first time
upon
So
a
rare
eagerly welcome
He
brings
which
earth
from
news
him
through
and
places
us
the
merely
not
the
for
names
map.
though
Jay, who,
to
which
bird
must
we
Downy,
dear
thrill
experiences
common.
lands.
real
become
and
Blue
of the
parts
strange
society
their
in
share
and
always
we
distant
from
in
love.
to
out
dreary with-
be
pleasure
our
past
and
indeed
daily
see
may
know
to
associations
form
we
grows
we
good
have
to
congenial companionship,
their
and
VISITORS
WINTER
DISTINGUISHED
MOST
OUR
as
us,
tire
of
Chickadee,
of
Song
Sparrow,
the
years
pass,
daily
visits
their
passes
visitor from
It is the
not
through
us
remote
a
especial charm
159
of
and
Flicker
become
ingly
increas-
bring
never
when
hatch
Nut-
we
see
the
some
region.
making
friends
with
the birds,that
introduced
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
i6o
we
know
never
whom
to
will be
we
During the migrationmonths
next.
In
ing
springand fall when feathered travelers are arrivlist
In an endless procession,
and departing
our
of acquaintances
that If we did not
grows so rapidly,
their names,
record
when
there Is
But
year, when
have
we
not
month,
a
the
that
be
we
bility
possi-
winter
In mid-
lookout
with
richlyrewarded
of the Grosbeaks
season
bird
Even
constant
a
In the
present
ever
vigilance
may
our
for this Is the
"
them
day
a
some
see
the alert.
should maintain
hope
to
This
before.
keeps us always on
we
yes, not
chance
not
may
seen
never
remember
not
again.
met
we
should
we
Pine and
"
Evening.
At
addition
coming
at
at
to
to
us
than
hedgerow, these
Finches
About
are
them,
and when
come
or
a
worthy
note-
but
populationis
birds of any
kind
mean
they throng every field and
marked
large,handsome, strikingly
when
as
about
fascination of mystery.
will
feathered
our
welcome
as
make
the bird-life of the season,
time when
a
its lowest mark
more
they would
time of the year
any
when
they are
as
conspicuous.
the Crossbills,hangs the
No
one
they will
can
go.
say when
Absent
they
entirely
theymay be abundant others;and when
come
they show such entire confidence in
some
years,
they
do
1
The
laid In
are
erous
conif-
a
England
or
palegreenishblue,brown-spotted
eggs
The
Canada.
New
in northern
somewhere
tree
rootlets is placedin
twigsand
of
nest
BIRDS
WINTER
OUR
62
of the birds*
littleIs known
June. Very
nestinghabits.
Evening Grosbeak
Beyond questionour
is the
rarelyseen
so
was
Evening
that few
most
winter visitor
distinguished
Until
Grosbeak.
recent
Illinois
and
of Wisconsin
east
bird students could claim the honor
acquaintance,but for the past eight years
to
come
most
About
and
frequently
more
southern
pointfrom
of its
it has
in greater numbers
Grosbeak, southern New
the Pine
than
the
us
Jerseybeing
it has been
which
the size of the latter birds,the males
the forehead
yellow,crown
gray,
with white,while the female
tingedwith yellowbelow
wings and tail much
The
Evening
of from
feed
six to
mainly on
Grosbeak
as
and
on
is
mer
for-
is brownish
the nape, the
many
in flocks
usuallyseen
as
sixtybirds. They
the seeds of the box
and buckthorn, but also
sunflower seeds.
have
in the male.
as
eightto
corded.
re-
black,back olive-brown,
underpartsyellow,the wings and tail black,the
marked
it
years
elder,maple,
acquirea
evidently
By placinga supplyof
taste
for
these seeds
BIRDS
FOREST
first under
the buckthorn
In which
writer in Bird-Lore
feeding,a
were
tree
163
for
Grosbeaks
December,
thirtybirds to visit
selves
themwindow-sill,where they disputedamong
of feedingfrom her hand.
for the privilege
19 17,
her
induced
soon
a
flock of
EVEWlIfG
Surely no
!
honor
bird-lover
When
the
breakfast,
like the
sang
a
constant
jingleof
From
soft
could
be
perched in the
beautiful
a
GitOSBBAKS
small
accorded
trees
a
higher
their
.awaiting
of the birds sounded
chirping
sleighbells. Sometimes they
carolingsong
and
tered
utoccasionally
like a Bluebird's note.
throatytrill,
almost
Februaryto April these birds were
1
visitors
daily
for
No
found
rarely
all
during
is
evident
has
Canada
winter.
the
to
make
return
best
his
to
stay
us
the
continent
after
entertainment
so
every
attractive
winter.
less,
Un-
forests
United
guest
our
long
we
that
a
can
he
Finch
during
he
journey
give
will
it
States,
black
and
in
nesting
evergreen
gold
so
Grosbeaks
them
great
be
to
Mountains.
northern
to
been
Scotia
Evening
discover
the
they
have
Nova
Rocky
handsome
Certainly
the
us
of
or
this
crossed
the
did
Grosbeaks
summer
of
spread
Where
from
way
the
portion
remote
eastern
the
should
we
always
was
disappeared.
Pine
east
seen
therefore,
of
which
knows.
one
but
Alaska,
BIRDS
table
they
nesting
some
the
to
Then
them.
go?
are
WINTER
OUR
64
him.
be
the
serves
deLet
tempted
THE
CROSSBILLS
THE
CONE-EATERS
{Figs, 49-32)
OME
winter
day
you
by seeing what
looks
like
flock
a
Paroquets
of
in North
that, in
birds
The
of
and
man
them
approach
you
can
one
off the
tree
as
you
is
feeding.
in
seeing
Its
singularlycrossed
over
the
the
You
green
the
about
the
pine.
Then
cones
will
you
only Paroquet
we
ever
practicallyextinct, and
now
not
in
his
the
the
tips;
pictures
165
then
of
birds
that
pick
even
cone
difficulty
no
bill with
have
which
it
which
on
bird's
if you
who
tame
may
will, therefore, have
the
north
so
are
these
winters.
far
closely,and
of
se,e
northern
ways,
would
to
expect
our
peculiar form
list and
and
to
visitors from
most
little of
the
climes
red
hanging
or
should
we
southern
birds, like
know
Is
America
event,
any
or
spruce
that
perhaps,
remember,
had
a
of
prised
sur-
first glance
at
climbing
branches
be
may
may
looked
visit
1
OUR
66
us
duringthe winter,the
at
home,
they feed
can
autumn,
without
south
cold
by exceptionally
belief that
of food
the
birds
It Is not
that makes
sends
them
The
and
low
them
Canada,
have
been
But
weather.
usual winter quarters In the coniferous
England
At
It's littlethe Crossbills
and
about the weather.
snow
then, some
severe
predictan unusually
driven
abundance
come.
with them.
overrun
the
New
their seeds
on
being seen;
one
the country w411 be
Ice and
distant
a
Crossbills will
the
when
under
care
of
have, for
winter
given an
your
Crossbills there
see
hemlocks
or
the weather-wise will
once
about
cone-bearingtrees
exclusively.
say
pass
may
ably
prob-
you.
they must
cones
almost
one
"Crossbill'^ will
name
pines,spruces
forest;but
Years
BIRDS
justas likelyto
are
you
No
have
you
in the
to
occur
once
Should
as
WINTER
their
desert
of northern
trees
It Is
"
ture.
tempera-
hunger
that
south.
coming
of Crossbills Is not,
approachingcold, but an
of cones, on which theyare
then, a sign of
indication
that
the
crop
dependentfor food, has
failed.
The
Crossbill's bill looks
but here,also,we
too
hastily.Watch
of the spruce
cones,
him
as
must
though
it
form
an
not
force It between
and with
a
were
formed;
de-
opinion
the scales
dextrous motion
twist
BIRDS
FOREST
off to
them
will
at
once
of the birds
have
should
"chipsfrom
sightor
their
them
first sign we
quietlythat
so
had
not
we
rainydays,when
workshop."
the cone-scales
are
moist
on
or
closed
tightly
so
be forced off,the birds frequent
readily
theycannot
the ground to gatherthe crumbs, as it were,
fallen from
which have
the scales
days when
Like the
their table
tones
the
on
to
much
bills
resemble. Cross-
another
one
again,like Paroquets,they
and
while feeding,
all take
together,utteringa sharp cHckingnote
The
only song
loud
I have
return
the north; this may
remain
heard
ever
warbling,but they may
efforts until they
with
in
irregular
us
their
Nesting time
March
to
grasses
in
June.
an
their
to
be in
until
May,
was
The
evergreen.
a
short, and
their best
nestingground
March,
in their
Crossbills
nest
The
or
are
as
coming.
ranges
is built of
three
in
the birds may
or
for the Crossbills
the
wing
they go.
as
reserve
going as they are
with
dry,sunny
invitingly
open.
were
Paroquetstheyso
chatter in low
not
we
these
seen
seeds fall with the scales,and
Many
an
of these
sound
be the
feedingabove
passed
you
excellent tool for
an
sometimes
may
their base, and
at
The
this kind.
fallingscales
have
it is
that
see
operationof
that
the seeds
secure
167
from
twigs and
four eggs
are
1
OUR
68
pale
the
Red
the
north,
It
Alleghenles,
species.
two
our
In
only
Crossbill
American
or
of
not
the
by
known
while
name;
is
shows,
The
red
the
second
the
male
lavender
nests
about
more
of
rosy
in
plumage
and
year,
wears
a
than
that
both
species
during
plumage
the
like
Is
figure
Crossbill.
Red
until
gained
not
year
of
its
our
as
first
that
receives
It
the
of
readily
be
male,
the
of
Carolina.
may
adult
summer
North
as
moner
com-
parts
which
from
the
the
higher
the
south
the
much
spends
Crossbill
marking
that
In
far
as
Is
It
but,
Whlte-wInged
The
and
brown
end.
larger
The
with
spotted
greenish,
BIRDS
WINTER
its
of
its
mother.
life
is
It
whom
with
his
mankind
for
would
you
Is
It
little
he
him
has
I
quite
be
small
haven't
pleased
well
as
use
spying:
really
affairs
your
But
him
Imagine
want?
sprite
friends.
make
to
true
a
wood
evidently
you
about
on
quaint
would
and
go
makes
can
one
you,
which
glad
cousin,
what
for
anything
a
be
and
well,
"Well,
leave
and
me
mine."
It
Is
builds
softly
The
white,
In
when
with
some
snug
of
talented
song
nook
twigs
he
and
so
the
to
nesting
of
and
moss
one
every
roots
sociable,
un-
whose
for
reserves
In
Is
songster,
delight
brings
melody
home
a
rarely
a
This
him.
hears
time,
Is
trickling
rippling,
who
he
Wren
diminutive
this
that
pity
a
for
he
would
we
unlike
wholly
to
birds,
among
BIRDS
color
his
alone
not
Brownie
If
WINTER
OUR
170
a
tree
It
lines
feathers.
eggs
usually
number
from
finely speckled
five
with
to
seven
reddish
and
brown.
are
FROM
PIONEERS
TUFTED
AND
MOCKINGBIRD,
WREN,
CAROLINA
SOUTH
THE
TITMOUSE
HE
pioneers
pioneers
men,
among
withstand
the
regions usually
the
The
limits
ability of
of
its range
of
pioneers
and
in
entering
and
depends
their
success
as
of
an
posures
ex-
beyond
its
the
their
by
bird
upon
can
and
inhabited
species
any
who
hardship
life in lands
of
the
hardy,
are
individuals
venturesome
kind.
birds, like
among
extend
to
possession
guard
advance
establishing themselves
in
new
a
country.
species, therefore,
A
in
by advancing
outposts,
the
the
from
Titmouse
three
arc
are
in
occupy
by gradually
if conditions
population
tory
terri-
new
are
gradually
ing
form-
able,
favorfills up
areas.
Carolina
The
not
force, but
which,
increase
intervening
does
Wren,
good
southern
Mockingbird
examples
birds
of
which
171
bird
have
and
Tufted
pioneers.
been
All
slowly
OUR
172
WINTER
advancing northward
beyond the
by
BIRDS
and
which
represented
are
limits of the country where
more
less
or
theyare
mon
com-
widely separated outlying
settlements.
The
The
than
Tufted
Titmouse
his cousin,the
would
expect him
But
the
the very
bleak
Titmouse
looks
much
so
Chickadee,that
live much
to
Chickadee
limit of
tree-growthin
stronger
of the two
the
Hudsonian
farther
one
north.
lives northward
Labrador
to
the
and
interior of British America, while the Tufted
Titmouse
New
Is
York
With
it is
and
fall that
one
should
its
during these
one
is
his
peto,
peto," which
which
speciesusually
advanced
journeysin
to
apt
It
see
presence
can
the bird
is
and
by
be
a
Doubtless this call is the
Titmouse
than
loud, clear
never
for
a
to
of
equivalent
spring
perhaps
or
"
more
heard
seems
stations
the
it,for the Tufted
whistler
announce
this
more
short
more
hear
say
inveterate
and
of the latitude of
north
of winter
coming
little from
a
and
an
rarelyfound
City.
the
retreats
is
Tufted
apt
to
"peto,
tance
dis-
long
tire of
peating.
re-
dee's
the Chicka-
call,though
tenderlywhistled *^phoebe''
It is
FOREST
far from
BIRDS
resemblingit,in
173
either form
the sentiment
or
it expresses.
Should
follow the whistler and
we
discover him
activelyexploringthe branches, he might greet us
with a rather hoarse "dee-dee-dee,"which would
at
while
betray his relationship,
once
crest, soft gray
further
his
colors and black frontlet would
him (seeinitialat
identify
chapter)
to
serve
of this
nent
promi-
the head
.
The
Tufted
counters,
in
sometimes
visitsour
lunch
but he is far from
which
man
Titmouse
makes
his
showingthat confidence
cousin such a
black-capped
cherished bird friend.
The
The
regularrange
about
to
has
Carolina
Wren
of this fine largeWren
the latitude of central New
succeeded
Naushon
in
plantingoutposts
Island
the
at
it
Jersey,but
far north
as
Island,off the Massachusetts
Gardiner's
extends
eastern
end
coast,
of
as
and
Long
Island.
On
Englewood, New
at
as
the sheltered,
eastern
twelve
slope of
Jersey,I
Carolina Wrens
in
an
have
the Palisades
seen
hour, more
as
many
than
one
usuallysees
This
must
in this time in the heart of their
range.
speciesis not migratoryand these pioneers
withstand the
most
severe
winters of the
coun-
174
OUR
try in which
if they are
theyhave settled,
on
often
too
which
BIRDS
of their range.
the boundaries
tryingtest
WINTER
their
called upon
places a
to
pay
the
penalty
falls to the lot of the leader.
succession of favorable years
Carolina
multiplyand
which
they
comes
a
and
fact
and endurance, and only
vitality
they are
During a
and
This
advance
to
had
with
storms
of
with
birds from
been
not
winter
Wren
hears of them
one
they thrive
from
previouslyseen.
exceptionally
heavy
ice and
a
snowfall
the littlecolonies
the outposts die of starvation and the
in
Then
sleet that prevent the
securingfood, when
by generationsis lost
placesat
ground gained
singleseason.
hardiest individuals survive and
at
Only
the
it is their progeny
BIRDS
FOREST
which
the
takes
in
leadingpart
175
lost
regainingthe
ground.
Thus
endure
their
fitted to
pioneersgraduallybecome
these
hardshipswhich
could
species
southern
more
of
members
endure, and the range of their
not
kind is slowlyextended.
Every
who
one
wish him
make
him
again
community he
large
as
consists of
be
of w^hich may
most
whistler.
His
alarm
Inhabits.
a
that of the Red-headed
could
whistle the words
this Wren's
most
In the South
about
sense
no
clean-cut notes,
tree-toad
Woodpecker;
well
as
if
and
one
teakettle,''
tea-kettle,
"tea-kettle,
resemble
of
one
characteristic calls.
Carolina
the
but
dwellings,
bird of the woods,
thick
a
produced would
the sound
is in
imitated by a skillful
closely
is a loud, rollingchir-rnote
ring which resembles the call of
as
is
and
conspicuous
a
song
varietyof
the
looks
He
Wren
in color,with
His
voice
figurein
House
the
the eye.
whitish line above
trill but
as
cinnamon
more
brighter,
a
loud, ringing,musical
his
prominent and welcome
a
bird life of the
half
territory.
new
good fortune in conquering
and
activity
His
will
Wren
Carolina
the
knows
Wren
in the North
at
he
times
is
lives
usuallya
frequentingfallen tree-tops
undergrowths.
and
OUR
176
BIRDS
WINTER
Mockingbird
habits
pioneering
All that has been said of the
the Carolina
We
Wren
appliesalso
associate this famous
Massachusetts,where
Wren,
only bird
and
only superficial
is small
other.
a
The
much
when
its head
in its
wings
when
and
are
a
near
York
of
a
City.
the
is
for the
are
no
black
long, slender
mistaken
be
not
has
slender and
more
markings
it fliesthe white
rather
is
is familiar with both,
while
conspicuous,
more
Mo/ckingbird can
weapon
confuse
may
of mistakingone
possibility
enough, the
I recall
viduals
indi-
venturesome
we
one
longer tail;there
hooked
far north
Shrike, but the resemblance
Mockingbird
about
near
as
for, like the Carolina
year,
which
with
Is the
Mockingbird
there
magnolia,
Mockingbird is not trulymigratory.
the
The
it lives
few
a
spend the entire
Mockingbird.
songster with
yellowjessamineand palms,but
as
the
to
of
markings
if
is
one
bill of the
for the
stout
of the Shrike.
Mockingbird which
the Museum
of Natural
Its fare consisted
Virginiacreeper
the
museum
the
which
Starlings,
one
which
grounds.
now
This
was
peared
ap-
Historyin
mainly of
covered
make
November
some
before
New
the berries
rocks
the
day
such short work
in
of
of
who
coasting
were
BIRDS
merrily
the
past
tree
which
in
he
perching.
was
long
birds
as
accustomed
not
low
as
cold
guests
often,
is
not
a
distinguished
however,
bird
a
can
I
which
visitor.
we
have
survived
bird-lover's
that
thing,
those
even
temperature.
at
important
weather
Mockingbirds
of
number
all
the
well-fed,
are
to
surprisingly
winter
is
therefore,
Food,
as
WINTER
OUR
178
and
which
are
withstand
of
known
a
a
northern
It
lunch-counter.
are
honored
a
by
such
INDEX
for,
for,
stand
feeding
1
White-winged,
8,
for,
food
1
6,
97
4
summer,
14
in
4,
winter,
number
II,
Crow,
19
inviting the,
3,
Field
5,
in
seen
95
Finch, Purple, 80
II
Flicker, 61
day,
one
Birds,
Birds,
Forest
12
133
allies, 5
our
shelter
for, 15,
value
to
why
we
them,
man,
Goldfinch,
6-12
Goshawk,
and
159,
Snow,
161
Ruffed,
Grouse,
120
154
102
Broad-winged,
Cooper's,
58
birds,
Marsh,
14
Chickadee,
9,
Chickadee,
Carolina,
Creeper,
Evening,
160,
Pine,
for, 18
shelf
Hudsonlan,
138
162
Hawk,
Cardinal,
69
Grosbeak,
know
10
Bob-white,
Bunting,
16
should
window
Cats
167
Crossbills, 165
19
in
167
Red,
8
1
167
Crossbill, American,
window-box
Dutcher
Birds,
10,
139,
29
143
179
142
137,
138,
143
Red-tail,
73
141,
137
Red-shouldered,
24
29
Brown,
137,
137
137,
139,
140,
INDEX
i8o
Sharp-shinned,
Hawk,
138,
139,
137,
142,
I4i"
143
Sparrow,
place
Home
in
nature,
Birds,
Saw-whet,
147
Short-eared,
129
food
Place
of, 148
in nature,
Planting
23
for
food
16
96,
105
Shrike, Northern,
Siskin, 106
English,
Lapland,
109
Tree,
7,
8,
102
White-throated,
116
Mockingbird,
176
Red-breasted,
White-breasted,
30
49
Titmouse,
Tufted,
171
Waxwing,
Cedar,
35
Great
Horned,
Long-eared,
Hairy,
147
147
145
76
Starling, European,
Woodpecker,
Barred,
45,
Song, 66
Meadowlark,
Nuthatch,
20,
108
Homed,
Longspur
112
86
Sparrow,
Owl,
'
71
Kinglet, Golden-crowned,
Lark,
ter,
shel-
and
53
Redpoll,
Junco,
144
134
15,
Jay, Blue,
153
Screech, 88,
Owls,
125
food, 136
Hawks,
Owl,
Wren,
82
Downy,
37
43
Carolina, 173
Winter,
169
(1)
96
Landbirds
Winter
Northeastern
II
Plate
United
(Scale
^
-ohJE-
I 1213
Permanent
Resident
Species
the
.
21. Flicker,male
32.
female
22. Flicker,
33.
23. Meadowlark
34.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Visitant
in
41. Saw-whet
Species
the
44.
which
EnglishSparrow,female
PurpleFinch, female
PurpleFinch, male
Song Sparrow
37. Chickadee
38. White-breasted
40. Cedar
those
and
which
Remain
from
come
until
Lark
54. Pine Grosbeak, female
55. Siskin
56. Northern
Shrike
Sparrow,young
58. Winter Wren
female
Redpoll,
male
Redpoll,
male
49. Red Crossbill,
52.
the North
Spring
46. White-throated
.
male
fe-
Waxwing
57. Snow
51
Nuthatch,
53. Pine Grosbeak, male
Junco
Tree Sparrow
50. Red
Nuthatch, male
39. White-breasted
Sparrow,adult
48.
us
year
45. White-throated
47.
with
are
36. Goldfinch,male
Owl
42. Prairie Horned
43.
Fall
or
)
17 18 19 llOlH 112
35. Goldfinch,female
winter
Starling,
summer
Starling,
Downy Woodpecker,male
Downy Woodpecker,female
HairyWoodpecker,male
Hairy Woodpecker,female
EnglishSparrow,male
Winter
516
those
or
31
Jay
States
roo-r
IHI
throughout
20. Blue
of
female
Crossbill,
male
White-wingedCrossbill,
female
White- wingedCrossbill,
59. Brown
Bunting
Creeper
60. Red-breasted Nuthatch, male
61
Red-breastedNuthatch, female
.
female
Kinglet,
male
Golden-crowned Kinglet,
62. Golden-crowned
63.
/
1
pEBMANtNTjUSIDENTS
Winter
Visitants
`