Document 189923

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How to improve the quality and reduce
the costs of meat products by using emulsifiers
Palsgaard Technical Paper, September 2010
way to succeed
- let us help
you do
so.
By Cai Clemen
Christensen,
Business Unit
Manager, Lipid &
Fine Food Group
Palsgaard A/S.
The use of emulsifiers in meat
product manufacturing
A meat batter is a fat in water
dispersion, with properties resembling an oil-in-water emulsion.
Emulsions are thermodynamically
unstable systems that need stabilization by emulsifiers, stabilizers
or combinations of both.
The emulsifiers already in the
batter are the meat proteins
which are activated by use of
phosphates, sodium chloride
and shear force. The stabilizers
already in the batter are collagen/
gelatine.
Over many years several new
types of emulsifiers for use in
meat products have been developed. In the following, the use of
Palsgaard emulsifiers in sausages
and patées will be discussed.
It is a well known fact that food manufacturers wish to
improve the quality of their products. They do, however,
also wish to reduce the costs of their products in order
to become more competitive in the market. For meat
product manufacturers the use of emulsifiers can
make both wishes come true. This paper describes the
effects of emulsifiers in both frankfurter sausages, liver
sausages and patées.
Table 1:
List of Palsgaard emulsifiers for meat products. They may be used alone or in combinations for creating a stable emulsion in the meat product.
Product name
E-number
Palsgaard® Citrem 3302
E- 472 c
Citric acid esters of mono- and
diglycerides of fatty acids
Palsgaard® Citrem 3307
E- 472 c
Citric acid esters of mono- and
diglycerides of fatty acids
Palsgaard® 3327
E - 471 and
E - 472 c
Citric acid esters of mono- and
diglycerides + mono- and
diglycerides of fatty acids
Palsgaard® DMG 0090
E - 471
Distilled mono- and diglycerides of
fatty acids
Palsgaard® DMG 0093
E - 471
Distilled mono- and diglycerides of
fatty acids
Palsgaard® MDG 0038
E - 471
Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
Palsgaard® MDG 0054
E - 471
Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
all produced under cold conditions
( 0 – 13oC ).
Emulsifiers are surface active
molecules and examples are proteins, phosphor-lipids and monoand diglycerides of fattty acids
and esters of these. This article
will focus on the use of the last
mentioned group, and the emulsifiers listed in table 1 and illustrated in figure 1 are used alone
or in combinations in sausages
and patées.
Sausages made from cold processed meat emulsions
We will first discuss the use of
emulsifiers in frankfurters, wieners, hotdog sausages, bolognas
and mortadella types, which are
Type of emulsifier
The sausages are all based on
a meat emulsion (a suspension
of fat particles in a gellified meat
and water phase) and they are all
stuffed in suitable casings.
Figure 1:
Palsgaard emulsifier for meat
products.
For these types of sausages we
will mainly recommend the use
of Palsgaard® Citrem 3302 and
Palsgaard® Citrem 3307.
In order to illustrate the functionality of the emulsifiers, trials with
Palsgaard® Citrem 3307 (E472c)
in frankfurter sausages were
performed.
Palsgaard Technical Paper - September 2010
How to improve the quality and reduce the costs of meat products by using emulsifiers
2
Palsgaard®
Citrem
3302
Palsgaard®
Citrem
3307
Frankfurter
sausages


Wiener
sausage




Bologna
Palsgaard®
Citrem
3327
Palsgaard®
DMG 0093
Palsgaard®
DMG 0090
Palsgaard®
0054
Palsgaard®
0038
Retorted
liver pâté
Fine liver
sausage
Table 2:
Overview of Palsgaard’s product range for use in sausage products.
In table 3 the test system is described and in figure 2 the process is illustrated. Frankfurters with
0.3 % dextrose, 0.3 % casinate or
0.3 Palsgaard® Citrem 3307 were
produced.
Figure 2:
The manufacturing process of the frankfurter sausages used in this trial.
Minced meat,
Phosphate, salt
Palsgaard® Citrem 3307
Cut for 30 seconds
at high speed
Cool sausages and
store at temperature
= 5oC
2/3 ice water,
dextrose,
ascorbic acid,
seasoning
Cut to temperature
= 5oC
Cook sausages in
stam to core
temperature = 70oC
1/3 ice water,
minced fat,
starch, soy
isolate
Cut to temperature
= 13oC
Smoke sausages for
60 minutes
Temperature = 65oC
Fill batter into
casings
Dry sausages at low
RH.
Temperature = 60oC
Table 3:
Recipe suggestion for frankfurter
sausages
Ingredient
Mass %
Beef III (18 - 20 %)
10.20
Pork II (12 - 12 %)
38.80
Pork backfat
22.00
Ice water
23.30
Nitrite curing salt
1.60
Dextrose
0.20
Ascorbic acid
0.05
Phosphate
0.25
Starch
1.00
Soy isolate
1.80
Palsgaard Citrem 3307
0.30
®
Seasoning
Sum
0.50
100 %
Palsgaard Technical Paper - September 2010
How to improve the quality and reduce the costs of meat products by using emulsifiers
3
In order to evaluate the functionality of Palsgaard® Citrem 3307
in the produced sausages the
purge loss and the cooking loss
were measured, and as shown in
figure 3, a clear difference can be
observed.
The cost factor is always important, and 2 different frankfurter
sausages were produced; with
and without Palsgaard® Citrem
3307. The recipes are listed in
table 4.
Based on our raw material cost
information, we calculated a cost
reduction of up to 5 % in the
frankfurter with Palsgaard® Citrem
3307, because of the increased
use of pork backfat and water addition and less Pork II with 10 – 12
% fat content.
By using Palsgaard emulsifiers in
sausages we obtained:
• A very good dispersibility in
the meat batters, processed
under cold conditions
• Stable emulsions also in products with high fat and water
content
• Reduction of purge loss and
cooking loss
• High quality of the produced
sausages
• Possible to optimize the cost
profile of the sausages
• Flexibility in raw material
selection
7 days
14 days
28 days
0.3 % Dextrose
0.3 % Caseinate
0.3 % Palsgaard® Citrem 3307
Figure 3:
The diagramme on the left shows the purge loss % during vacuum storage and the
diagramme on the right shows the cooking loss %.
Ingredient
Sausage 1
Sausage 2
Beef III (18 - 20 %)
10.20
10.20
Pork II (10 - 12 %)
40.80
36.80
Pork backfat
20.00
22.00
Ice water
23.30
25.30
Nitrite curing salt
1.60
1.60
Dextrose
0.30
0.30
Ascorbic acid
0.05
0.05
Phosphate
0.25
0.25
Starch
1.00
1.00
Soy isolate
2.00
1.70
Palsgaard® Citrem 3307
0.00
0.30
Seasoning
Sum
0.50
0.50
100 %
100 %
Table 4:
Recipes of two different frankfurters
with and without
Palsgaard® Citrem
3307.
Warm processed emulsified
meat products
This group includes the products
liver patées and liver sausages
and are produced by using a hot
process ( 50oC – 80oC ).
The products are packed in casings or in cans.
For these products a wide range
of the emulsifiers from Palsgaard
can be used; please look at table
5.
As for frankfurter sausages we
have chosen a test system for
these types of products: Liver sausages and as emulsifier we have
selected Palsgaard® DMG 0090,
which is a distilled monoglyceride
Palsgaard Technical Paper - September 2010
How to improve the quality and reduce the costs of meat products by using emulsifiers
4
Table 5:
Overview of Palsgaard’s product range for use in liver sausages and patées.
Palsgaard®
Citrem
3302
Palsgaard®
Citrem
3307
Palsgaard®
Citrem
3327
Palsgaard®
DMG 0093
Palsgaard®
DMG 0090
Palsgaard®
0054
Palsgaard®
0038







Frankfurter
sausages
Wiener
sausage
Bologna
Retorted
liver pâté
Fine liver
sausage

of fatty acids (E-471) based on
vegetable fats but with a fatty acid
profile like tallow. The recipe and
process are shown in table 6 and
figure 4.
For measuring the quality improvements we have evaluated
the emulsion stability and the storage stability:
Table 6:
Recipe suggestion for liver sausages.
Ingredient
25.00
Pork liver
22.40
Pork skin
5.00
Pork fat
34.00
Water
10.00
Nitrite curing salt
1.50
Ascorbic acid
0.10
Starch
1.00
Palsgaard
Seasoning
Sum
Meat, fat, pork
skin
Boil to 70oC
Hot water,
curing salt,
Palsgaard®
0090
Cut for approx. 6
minutes
Chopped liver,
ascorbic acid
At temperature
< 60oC and cut for
approx. 4 minutes
Cool sausages and
store at temperature = 5oC
Fill batter into
casings
Boil to core temperature of 75oC
Mass %
Posr II (10 - 12 %)
®
Figure 4:
The manufacturing process of liver sausages used in this trial.
0090
0.50
0.50
100 %
Palsgaard Technical Paper - September 2010
How to improve the quality and reduce the costs of meat products by using emulsifiers
5
Figure 5:
Stability test of liver sausages with and without addition of Palsgaard® DMG 0090. In
different dosages.
Storage stability (7 days)
% loss
ml / 20g emulsion
Emulsion stability - centrifugation test
water loss
without
emulsifier
0.3 %
Palsgaard®
DMG 0090
fat loss
0.5 %
Palsgaard®
DMG 0090
gel
without
emulsifier
0.3 %
Palsgaard®
DMG 0090
fat
0.5 %
Palsgaard®
DMG 0090
As it can be observed from the
above results of our trials in figure
5 it is clear, that the addition of the
emulsifier Palsgaard® DMG 0090
has a big impact on these quality parameters, and an increased
dosage will improve the results.
The emulsifiers impact on the cost
of the final liver sausage has also
Ingredient
Sausage 1
Sausage 2
25.00
22.50
Pork (10-12 % fat)
28.00
24.60
Pork fat
28.10
32.00
5.00
5.00
10.00
12.00
Palsgaard® DMG 0090
0.00
0.50
Nitrite curing salt
1.65
1.65
Starch
1.00
1.00
Dextrose
0.70
0.20
Ascorbic acid
0.05
0.05
Patée seasoning
0.50
0.50
100 %
100 %
Water
Sum
been examined. Please refer to
table 7.
Based on our trials we find a
reduction of the costs of up to 6 %
when comparing the liver sausages with and without the emulsifier
Palsgaard® DMG 0090.
No off flavours or smell
Possible to optimize the
cost-profile of the meat based
product
Conclusion
In this paper we have discussed
the use of emulsifiers like Citric
acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E-472c),
monodiglycerides of fatty acids
(E-471) and distilled monodiglyceride of fatty acids (E-471) and
combinations of these.
As described and shown above
it is possible to improve both the
quality of the meat based product
and at the same time to reduce
the costs of the product by adding
emulsifiers to the products.
We have presented the results
obtained with Palsgaard® Citrem
3307 and Palsgaard® DMG 0090,
but as explained there are more
possibilities from Palsgaard A/S.
Pork liver
Pork skin
•
•
Table 7:
Recipes of two different liver sausages
with and without
Palsgaard® DMG
0090.
We can summary our findings as
below:
• Emulsifiers give a smoother
texture to the spreadable
patées and the sausages
• Use of Palsgaard® DMG
0090 creates a more stable
emulsion with minimum fat
and water separation during
storage
Therefore it is, as always, important to test and examine the results of Palsgaard´s emulsifiers in
your own products and with your
process equipment. However, it
is also important to examine the
legislation as it might differ from
country to country.
Palsgaard
In addition to the above mentionned emulsifiers for meat
products, Palsgaard also manufactures a wide range of emulsifiers and stabilizer blends for fine
foods, lipid, bakery, confectionery,
dairy and ice cream.
For further information on the
abilities of Palsgaard’s emulsifiers
for meat products or if you would
like to order samples, please
contact Business Unit Manager
Cai Christensen at [email protected]
palsgaard.dk or +45 7682 7682.
Palsgaard Technical Paper - September 2010
How to improve the quality and reduce the costs of meat products by using emulsifiers
6