the review

the review
European edition
Changing tides for the maritime industry • How to create behavioural change brands
Shining a light on British rail fares • Buildings, buildings everywhere!
The link between air passenger numbers and GDP growth
Issue 45 May 2014
welcome may 2014
Welcome to latest edition of the
Steer Davies Gleave Review
The end of 2013 was a busy time
for SDG which has continued on
into 2014 with some of our high
profile projects taking major steps
forward. More on these can be found
throughout this issue. To ensure
continued success we are focussed
on preserving the attributes of our
Company that set us apart from
others and underpin our position
and reputation as being the leading
independant transport consultancy.
In this issue of the Review we examine
a number of cities and the initiatives
that are currently shaping their
transport offer. We also focus on UK
rail fares - a hot topic following the
recent fare increases. And our Sports
and Major Events capability goes
from strength to strength, this time
with spectator forecasting for the UK
leg of this year’s Tour de France. This
issue clearly illustrates the diverse
nature of our business and service
offer. I hope you find it interesting.
Hugh Jones
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44 Septe
The Review is read by over 8,000
transport professionals around the
world. If you would like to receive a free
subscription visit:
Tim McQue
Tim joins us as Head of
Technical Due Diligence having
previously worked for Leigh
Fisher, Capita Symonds and
Halcrow. He is a Chartered Civil Engineer
whose lengthy career includes ten years
delivering Lenders’ Technical Advisory and
due diligence services. Tim has excellent
global experience having worked on due
diligence commissions in the UK, Germany,
Slovakia, India, Turkey, Portugal and India.
Stefan Reul
Stefan joins our Boston office
as an Associate from CDM
Smith (formerly Wilbur Smith
Associates) where he was
responsible for project management and
technical delivery of toll road, managed
lanes and travel demand modelling studies.
Before moving to the United States, Stefan
worked for over eight years as a consultant
in Munich and Stuttgart with a focus
on transit and rail planning projects.
Adrian Lord
Adrian joins our Leeds office.
He is a cycling infrastructure
expert who is well known in
the UK, having previously
led a consultancy team supporting Cycling
England, during which he helped to
write local Transport Note 2-08 on Cycle
Infrastructure Design. He is Vice Chairman
of the CILT Cycling Forum and infrastructure
adviser to British Cycling consulting on road
layouts, junctions and road design.
Bernie Rowell
principal consultant
Bernie joins our Advisory Team
as a Principal Consultant. He
joins from Angel Trains (a rolling
stock leasing company) where
he was a Fleet Engineer. He is a Chartered
Mechanical Engineer and has a Masters
degree in Railway Systems Engineering
and Integration. Bernie will support us
in the franchise evaluation process as
well as sharing his knowledge of railway
vehicle engineering and management.
Chris Hoskins
Chris joins us as Head of
Rolling Stock. Chris began his
career designing automated
condition monitoring
equipment for AEA Technology Rail. Following
a short stint at the Ffestiniog Railway in
North Wales, he moved to Sydney in 2006
where he was a rolling stock consultant
for Halcrow for 5 years working across
Australasia, including a spell in Malaysia.
Hannah Brown
principal consultant
Hannah joins us as Principal
Consultant in our Planning
Team. Hannah joins us from
London Underground where
she was working on Crossrail. Prior to this she
worked at LOCOG on Olympic Park transport
for London 2012. Hannah will be supporting
the Organising Committee for the Glasgow
2014 Commonwealth Games as Accessible
Transport Manager until August 2014.
SDG & SASI join forces
the rev
New faces
Steer Davies Gleave and Strategic
Aviation Solutions International (SASI)
have formed a collaboration agreement
to jointly promote aviation consultancy
services across specific geographies.
The collaboration agreement combines Steer
Davies Gleave’s air passenger, regulatory
and wider business strategy expertise,
with SASI’s airline fleet and cargo, cargo
facility design and logistics experience.
Bringing together Steer Davies
Gleave and SASI’s joint expertise
in the aviation and cargo markets
offers clients a unique service
capability built on combined global
experience. This combined team
brings together international expert
analysts and senior industry figures,
who between them have unrivalled
depth and breadth of experience
both on a global and regional level.
may 2014 news
Jim Steer delivering President’s
lecture at CILT
On March 25th Jim Steer, founder and
director of SDG and President of the Chartered
Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT)
delivered the President’s lecture at CILT on
Transport Planning: Back to the Future.
In his speech Jim examined how, in
the world of transport, planning is not
the enemy of economic ambition: it’s a
pre-requisite. Yet, transport planning in
Britain is at a cross-roads. Mega-projects
costing billions of pounds face lengthy
planning battles while more modest
investments are often overlooked and
there are no new major urban transport
initiatives outside London. Meanwhile,
there is unprecedented demographic
growth, and congestion is increasing
on road, rail and aviation networks.
Jim outlined how intelligent planning is
essential to providing good solutions that
will accelerate and facilitate change, ease
congestion and improve quality of life.
A recording of Jim’s presentation is now
available to view on our website:
SDG plays key role in Kingston being
awarded mini-Holland status
On March 10th the Mayor of London
announced that the Royal Borough of
Kingston-upon-Thames had been successfully
selected for full mini-Holland status
and awarded £30 million of funding for
substantial and transformative change. Steer Davies Gleave worked closely with the
Borough to develop design proposals and
technical documentation for their futuristic
cycling vision, which includes a major cycle
hub and new plaza outside Kingston Station,
a network of high-quality strategic cycling
routes across the Borough and a Thames
Riverside Boardway, a landmark project which
could see a new cycle boardwalk delivered
on the banks of the river. Peter Piet, head of
Design for Movement at Steer Davies Gleave,
said “the ambitious and visionary schemes
developed as part of the bid will transform
cycling in the Borough and encourage
people of all ages and backgrounds to
cycle more often”. British Cycling’s policy
adviser, Chris Boardman, said: “The
boroughs that have won funding today have
demonstrated that they understand what a
vision of a true cycling nation looks like.” When the boroughs were shortlisted last year
The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, said:
‘It’s fantastic that so many boroughs have
embraced the idea of going Dutch. We’ve seen
some really creative ideas – from a floating
bicycle boardwalk to cycling super hubs – and
they’ve all got huge potential to revolutionise
how we get around on two wheels.’
The making of a
connected city
Half the world’s population lives in
a city and the number is growing: by
2030 it will be five billion people.
In the face of such growth it’s vital
that cities meet their inhabitants
needs and wants. This was the key
underlying message behind the Route
To Smarter Cities conference on 20th
February 2014 (www.smartercities.
At SDG we believe that cities should
be connected: places where you can
easily live, work and play, and above all,
places where you want to be. We have
explored many of the issues around
making cities both more attractive
and more efficient in our publication
‘Connected Cities’, which accompanied
the conference. Topics covered include:
tt What makes a city ‘connected’
tt What do people want
from their cities?
tt How to design a city for people
tt Funding a connected city
If you missed the February
conference, but would like a copy of
the ‘Connected Cities’ publication,
please email us your contact details
at [email protected]
february 2014
Designing connected
cities for people
What people want
from their cities
Innovation in
The ‘best’ cities
in the world
Connected Cities
Cities that are
fit for the future
‘Connected cities
are places where
people are able
to move about
freely. Space
will be allocated
for pedestrians,
bicycles, private
cars, taxis, freight
vehicles, and
public transport
which is central to
successful urban
page 4
steer davies gleave conceptual design of a riverside cycle route, developed for the london borough of kingston as part of the mayor of london’s mini holland’s vision
The making of a Connected City
Half the people in the world live in cities, and their numbers are growing. By 2030 it will be five billion
people. In the face of such growth it’s vital that cities meet their inhabitants needs and wants.
This is relatively easy if you’re starting from
scratch and have the resources available, as
is the case in Masdar City in the UAE, where
a city is essentially being built from scratch.
However, in the UK we are constrained both
by history and limited resources. So how can
we make our cities better and fit for the future?
Our belief is that a fundamental element of any
great city is that it is ‘connected’ and in this
publication we explore what this means.
Conceptual design of a riverside cycle route
the need for a vision for the city
While being connected has many aspects, it
starts with a clear vision which reflects the
ambitions of local people and stakeholders. To
realise any vision will of course require funding; however, having a clear vision provides a
framework for individual projects, and in turn,
this can provide a convincing backdrop within
funding bids and help to overcome the fragmented and stop-start nature of this funding.
The vision should also create an understanding of what the ‘gap’ is between
where we are now and where we want
to be, and therefore also how much behaviour change is needed.
This will highlight the scale of the task required to achieve the vision. One way of breaking down the challenge of implementing
find out more
steer davies gleave
& connected cities
continued on p.2
If you would like to keep up to date with
the latest transport news between issues
of the Review, please visit our website
where you will find more insight into the
topics that matter to you:
Ned Boulting
Ned Boulting is well known in the UK
as the face of ITV’s Tour De France
coverage. An active cyclist himself,
here we asked him for his views on
the tour and cycling in general.
Our demand forecasts anticipate around
a million people a day will be watching
the tour. How can they get the best from
the event?
The very best value is at the start. The
team buses arrive an hour or so before
the start and that is the best chance to
see the stars. Lots of people congregate
at the finish but you need a TV feed
to get the best out of that. Or, pick an
uphill stretch. Some of the Yorkshire
areas will be best accessed by bike.
We estimate that a third of the spectators
will be cycling enthusiasts, does that
make sense to you?
Definitely, in fact I’d expect more. Unlike
other sports, the majority of Tour fans are
cyclists themselves. There is such a clear
link between the experience of riding a
bike and the elite sport. Also, some of
the areas will be easiest to cycle to.
As a regular cyclist in London what do
you think other UK cities can learn from
the capital when introducing designated
cycle routes?
The ‘Holy Grail’ in London at the
moment is segregation from traffic
especially where the road is busy
or the traffic moving fast. And don’t
make it piecemeal. It sends out mixed
messages if the cycle track disappears
at junctions or it changes from being a
lane to off road and then a toucan etc.
Read the full interview at:
Ey up, it will be a Grand Départ
This July the 101st
Tour de France
will start in the
United Kingdom
for only the fourth
time in its history.
With it come some
unique transport
challenges that require careful
planning and management.
By Euan Mackay
For the first time the North of England and
its biggest county, Yorkshire, will host the
start of the race which will move on to visit
five new stage cities; Leeds, Harrogate,
York, Sheffield and Cambridge. After 549
kilometres of determined cycling, its UK finish
will be in London, before returning to France
and finishing in Paris three weeks later.
The Tour de France is commonly recognised
as the most popular free-to-watch sporting
event worldwide, and this year’s is expected to
achieve crowds greater than ever experienced
before. But just how great will they be? And
how should the cities, towns and villages it
will race through prepare for their impact?
The crowds must get from A to B somehow,
so the event will undoubtedly result in
unprecedented travel demand in Yorkshire,
passing through some of the most stunning
scenery that the UK has to offer. This area
also includes some of the least accessible
areas in the England, which results in
some unique challenges that require
careful planning and management.
Road closures are required to allow the
safe passage of the race. In many cases
they will be necessary well in advance of
the race to avoid the race route from being
blocked by spectators trying to access key
vantage points. This all requires careful
planning to minimise inconvenience to
residents and businesses along each Stage.
Anticipating the crowds in 2013
UK Sport1 commissioned Steer Davies
Gleave (SDG) to derive spectator forecasts
for advance planning purposes for the first
three Stages of this year’s Tour de France.
When planning for an event of this size it is
important to consider previous spectator
attendance at similar events. In this case
we took into account cycle races in the UK,
particularly that in 2007 when the Tour de
France last visited the UK and the more
recent Olympic Road Race in 2012. We also
recognised the increased popularity and
continued worldwide success in UK cycling
and considered the geography and transport
modes that will be relevant to getting
spectators to viewing spots for each Stage.
Coping with the demand
What makes an event of this type unique
is that tickets are not typically sold to
view it and it’s difficult to predict both
UK Sport is the agency for responsible for promoting and supporting
high performance sport across the UK and is playing a leading role in the
delivery of the UK element of Tour de France 2014. It is accountable to
Government through the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
The Tour attracts crowds along the whole length of the race route
where and when the spectators will
arrive to view the race. It is not as simple
as saying the capacity of the venue is
‘X’ and spectators will arrive at ‘Y’.
This work has led to the following:
tt A set of transparent planning
assumptions being used by the delivery
stakeholders. These are to be revised
periodically and updated as more
becomes known about each Stage.
For the last six months work has been
undertaken to predict demand, initially
for UK Sport and then latterly for
TdFHUB2014, the company established
late last year to coordinate planning
for the first three stages of the Tour de
France 2014. This has included;
tt The assumptions have been used
to develop spectator forecasts for
the delivery stakeholders to plan
most effectively for the event.
tt The preparation of spectator demand
forecasts, followed by an assessment
of spectator capacity, to determine
areas where pressure might arise on
the various transport networks.
tt Each of the three Stages has been
assessed, and areas have been identified
where demand from spectators is likely to
exceed capacity, so additional measures
will be required to mitigate this.
tt The principles of the Traffic
Management Plan that each Local
Highway Authority (LHA) must deliver,
were established and reviewed.
tt Further engagement with delivery
stakeholders, concerning the next
stages of planning and preparation
for the event took place. This
included consideration of spectator
arrival and departure profiles.
tt Advice has been given on where and
how this can be done with interventions
such as ‘live sites’, to manage better the
demand that is expected. Conversely,
areas have also been identified where
surplus transport capacity exists
and where excess demand could be
accommodated. In reality, this balancing
act will be necessary to ensure that
all who wish to watch the event can
do so and enjoy the experience.
tt Crucially, spectator forecasts should
be refreshed periodically as more
becomes known about expected
demand, each Stage and where related
special events are planned. This
will continue to influence where and
how many people watch the race.
tt A forward programme of key activities
and timescales has been developed. For
example, it is essential that the spectator
market is tested to help validate both
any assumptions made and the findings
from the earlier work. This will ensure
the successful delivery of the event.
tt The delivery stakeholders are now
better informed and prepared
to plan most appropriately and
effectively for the successful delivery
of the event this summer.
Previous Tours tell us that spectator
demand will probably be greatest at
points when cyclists are going uphill, or
at their slowest, so very large crowds are
expected on many of the iconic hill climbs
Yorkshire has to offer. Similarly, large
crowds are expected at all of the start
and finish cities over the three days.
With less than six months to go until the Tour
de France starts, the excitement continues
to escalate and enthusiasts continue to
speculate about just how big the crowds
will be at this year’s Grand Départ.
Only time will tell, but with thorough planning
and forecasting we can safely assume that
the UK leg of the 101st Tour de France will
be remembered for all the right reasons.
To find out more contact:
Euan Mackay
e [email protected]
Simon Hall
e [email protected]
You can follow further progress and get
involved by registering your interest at:
NGT at City Square, Leeds
Transforming Leeds: the NGT project
As UK cities appear
uncompetitive in
the new global
economy, the
question is not can
we afford to invest
in our transport
infrastructure, but, can we afford
not to?
By Jon Peters
Well-designed transport interventions in
urban areas can result in a whole package of
positive impacts, far beyond simply making
a faster connection from A to B. For wellspecified interventions, such benefits far
outweigh the investment costs and are felt
across the social and economic spectrum.
Leeds is one of the few big cities in the UK
without a major urban transit system, and
the limitations of the existing transport
system are preventing Leeds from reaching
its full economic potential. The road network
is heavily congested in peak hours and city
centre car parking space is limited. Traffic
congestion affects the buses too, increasing
journey times and worsening punctuality.
The commuter rail network is well used
but is approaching its peak capacity.
Without major interventions, journeys
to the city centre will take longer,
be more unreliable and cost more
money – all of which will constrain
the growth of the local economy.
The Leeds New Generation Transport
Project (NGT) is part of an integrated,
city-wide enhancement package, with
projected construction costs of around
£250 million. It will see the introduction
of a 15 kilometre trolleybus system,
which will connect residential areas in
north and south Leeds to the city centre
and other key sites for employment and
education, as well as health and leisure
facilities. Park & Ride will make NGT
attractive to car drivers and people living
away from the route. It will open in 2020.
The increase in public transport capacity
into the city centre is projected to offer
journey times up to 20 minutes shorter
than existing buses. Services are also
expected to be more punctual. These
improvements will be achieved through
the provision of dedicated lanes, and
junction and traffic signal priority. Over
two thirds of the trolleybus route will
be segregated from regular traffic.
local economy. While supporting city
centre growth, NGT will also enhance
targeted regeneration and redevelopment
in south Leeds. Areas of deprivation
with high unemployment and low car
ownership will gain much improved
access to employment and education
opportunities across the NGT corridor.
In a recent update to the business case
we valued the benefits of NGT at £650
million. This is a prudent appraisal,
relying only upon benefits that can be
readily monetised. When the whole
package of positive impacts is fully
considered, transport investment in
transformative projects such as NGT
should be an easy decision to make.
To find out more contact
Jon Peters
e [email protected]
Integrated design means that these benefits
do not come at a net cost to other road
users such as pedestrians, cyclists and car
drivers. As part of the project, pedestrian
crossing facilities are being upgraded, with
additional cycle lanes and improvements
to traffic signal and junction operation.
Our Urban Dynamic Model shows that the
improvements to city centre accessibility
from NGT will facilitate the creation of
up to 4000 jobs in Leeds by 2030 and
give a £200 million boost per year to the
NGT at Brewery Wharf, Leeds
Shining a light on UK rail fares
It is now possible
to access industry
data for rail fares in
Great Britain. But
what insights can
this newly available
data provide?
to registered users for no charge.
Whilst this data is not exactly provided
in the most user-friendly format, we
have been able to build applications
to interrogate it. We are now able, in
a matter of seconds, to run queries to
identify all available fares for thousands
of origin-destination combinations and
present our results as heat maps.
By John Collins
The price of train tickets often makes the
headlines in Britain, especially at the start
of each calendar year when fare rises are
implemented. With increasing political
interest in the cost of living and the role
privatised utility companies play in the
UK, it is likely that this issue will continue
to attract interest as we approach the
general election in 2015. Traditionally the
debate has been framed by ‘extortionate’
season ticket fares, which are selectively
published by the media and contrasted
unfavourably with fares in other European
countries. But is it fair to use these
headline numbers to shape the debate?
To demonstrate the power of this data,
we have used these applications to
run queries on season tickets in South
East England, with striking results.
Our analysis suggests that while
season ticket fares tend to increase
with distance from London, there are
significant differences in the rate of
increase between different operators
and routes. For example, an annual
season ticket from Uckfield to London
Bridge (74 kilometres and 75 minutes)
costs £2,748, whilst an annual season
ticket to the same destination from
neighbouring Lewes (79 kilometres/70
minutes) costs over 50% more at £4,304.
Thanks to the government’s transparency
agenda, it is now possible to shed more
light and granularity on this complex issue.
In January 2013 the Association of Train
Operating Companies (ATOC) started
publishing data from the national fares
database and made this data available
The picture becomes still more interesting
when this data is combined with mortgage
costs, which we have estimated using house
price data and assumptions for interest rates
and deposits. Analysis of combined fare
and mortgage payments suggests that the
benefits of more affordable house prices
(and cheaper mortgages) available outside
London may, in some cases, be offset by higher
commuting costs. This data has also exposed
significant variations in the differences
between peak and off-peak fares and the
ratio of season ticket to single ticket prices.
These insights are some of our earliest
findings and, as new data is released over
time, we hope to track trends in the fares
market to help us better understand its
dynamics. Whether this can help cool the
fares debate, however, remains to be seen.
To find out more contact:
John Collins
e [email protected]
John Swanson
e [email protected]
Comparing the cost of commuting to the cost of living
figure 1 cost of annual season ticket to
central london (excluding underground)
Source: ATOC, TfL,
£0 per annum
£500 per month
£3,000 per annum
£1,500 per month
£6,000 per annum
£2,500 per month
figure 2 combined commuting and housing costs
Source: ATOC, TfL,,,
Long lasting impacts of change schemes
A behaviour
change challenge
is a competition
which runs within a
town, city or region
that encourages
participants to
choose a more
sustainable mode, such as cycling,
for their journey to work.
These challenges can be a great catalyst
for changing travel behaviour. Challenges
tip those who knew that they could
choose to travel in a more sustainable way
into actually trying it out – there are the
obvious health and financial benefits of
getting out of the car, but there is also the
feelgood factor of ‘doing it for the team’,
as well as the more tangible rewards
(points) and the promise of prizes.
By Fiona Jenkins
Short term challenge – long term impact?
But, what happens to participants’
enthusiasm after the intervention,
when all the competitive momentum of
the challenge period has dissipated?
Of course we want everyone who has
made a positive change to their travel
behaviour to stick with it, and for the new
behaviour to become a routine habit.
However, forming a new, positive habit
takes time and effort. When it rains,
when it’s dark when leaving work, or
when you move to an unfamiliar area,
the ‘easy option’ looks appealing all over
again and good work can be undone.
More and more behaviour change
challenges are taking place all around
the UK. The task in hand now is ensuring
that they have a lasting impact.
Encouraging change
Local Authorities are showing an increasing
interest in multimodal change challenges,
where cycling, walking, taking the bus or train
and car sharing are promoted. Their focus has
tended to be on workplaces where participants
join their colleagues to form teams, log their
journeys through the challenge website, and
rack up points (and hopefully prizes!) based
on the extent of their sustainable efforts. We
have found that the competitive element of
schemes like this is very successful when
pitched at workplace environments – perhaps
because an element of competitiveness
tends already to exist between colleagues.
The solution lies in a package of
measures. We need to think about
how to recreate the best parts of the
challenge on a day-to-day basis, without
the associated expense of promoting
and managing an intensive challenge.
Participants in Bristol, Peterborough,
Redditch and Swindon have all told us
that they love the camaraderie of taking
part, so we could help people stay in
touch, so that they can build their own
social networks to support those keen
to continue travelling by a sustainable
mode. A year-round reward system for
those travelling sustainably could also
work to recreate the tangible rewards from
the challenge – a similar scheme is used
by supermarkets who ‘buy’ the loyalty of
their customers for relatively little cost in
the form of points cards. If we can identify
how to protect the system from abuse (not
everyone cycles 100 kilometres a day,
surely?), we’d be giving participants very
clear, real incentives to resist the allure
of the car on rainy, windy or dark days.
There are many reasons why it is difficult to
maintain a change and develop a positive
habit; we just need to respond with
measures that make it that little bit easier.
To find out more about how we are
challenging conventional thinking to
deliver a new approach to sustainable
travel challenges please get in touch.
To find out more contact:
Fiona Jenkins
e [email protected]
Berlin city centre
Where old becomes the new, new
With rapid growth
over the last
half of the 20th
century, many
North American
cities are faced
with challenges
of increasingly
congested transport systems
and declining city centres.
In response they are now
trying to reshape themselves
into more compact, liveable,
sustainable cities of the future.
By Rebecca Powell
City planners are increasingly looking for
‘old’ examples found in many European
centres as models to aspire to. Replicating
a tried and tested model provides direction
and confidence in achieving an urban
core that meets city objectives, and
allows planners to benefit from lessons
learned in other places around the globe.
In doing so, ‘new’ examples are slowly
becoming the precedent for the old.
Over the past decade, Steer Davies Gleave
has been helping a number of cities use
our European Light Rail Transit (LRT) design
experience to address their need to develop
integrated transit solutions, improve
transit service and transport choice, and
support wider city shaping objectives. This
includes planning and designing beyond
just the public transport infrastructure,
considering a ‘complete street’ philosophy
in the design process. Although the term
‘complete streets’ was conceived in
North America, its principles are taken
from European experience and translated
into a North American environment.
Taking old examples isn’t necessarily
straightforward when applied in new
contexts. While many European cities
evolved over centuries, many North
American cities are under pressure to shape
their downtowns in decades alone. Despite
the advantage of precedents, the emerging
challenge is how to turn visionary longrange targets into real, deliverable projects.
Actively shaping places isn’t restricted to
the new world. With the introduction of
Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) in the
UK, existing locales are being redefined
and a new geography of ‘top-down’ and
‘bottom-up’ planning is underway. The
challenge will be establishing clear and
continuous links between the two.
Drawing on its European experiences
Steer Davies Gleave has been working
with the City of Mississauga in the Greater
Toronto Area to produce a Downtown
Movement Plan that will add a further
level of analytical rigour to their visionary
master plan, and transform the downtown
into a 21st Century urban centre.
To find out more contact:
Rebecca Powell
e [email protected]
Faced with this challenge, many cities
are recognising the need for both topdown visionary planning and a bottom-up
approach to planning and infrastructure
investment. While strategic policies with
clearly stated visions and objectives
are critical, to be successful they must
be linked with individual strategies that
provide sufficient detail to ‘prove the
concept’. Only when both are aligned will
cities have sufficient tools to deliver ‘old’
best practices within a ‘new’ context.
Innovation in transport
The Mayor of
Bogotá in Colombia
once described
road space as
‘gold dust’! As
cities globally grow
and populations
increase, authorities
fare some real challenges to ensuring
future levels of mobility, in particular
how to improve the efficiency and
use of road space. Here we examine
how some cities are using innovative
methods to ensure that their
inhabitants remain ‘connected’.
By Fred Beltrandi
A personal rapid transit pod, currently being trialled in Masdar City
Car Sector
Around the globe the car sector is changing
for the better. Most of the leading car
manufacturers are currently investing in
showcasing technology which will see
web-enabled cars with the ability to speak
to each other. This technology will allow
them to warn each other about congestion
hot spots that they have encountered, as
they cross each other. These vehicles are
also aware of vehicles around them which
is beneficial from a safety point of view.
Roads themselves are the subject of some
interesting developments. The Dutch are
installing smart road design that features
glow-in-the-dark tarmac and illuminated
weather indicators. Roosegaarde studio
has developed a photo-luminising powder
that will replace road markings – it charges
up in sunlight, giving it up to ten hours of
glow-in-the-dark time come nightfall.
Roosegaarde has also developed special
paint which can be used to paint markers
like snowflakes across the road’s surface.
When the temperatures drop to a certain
point, these images will become visible,
indicating that the surface will probably be
slippery. The Roosegaarde design looks very
promising for the UK, as some authorities
are considering turning off or dimming lights
on roads, residential streets, cycleways
and footpaths from late in the evening to
save money and to meet green targets.
Innovation is not only happening with
motorised transport modes. Many
cities have set ambitious targets to
increase journeys to work by nonmotorised transport modes, such as
cycling. However, one of the big issues
for cities is where to store bicycles.
The Japanese company Giken recently
launched the first automated, underground
cycle parking system in Tokyo. The system
is constructed of cylindrical structures,
seven metres wide and ten metres deep,
which are sunk below the surface, providing
storage space for up to 200 bicycles.
The Royal Borough of Kingston upon
Thames is now seeing the development
of its futuristic cycling vision which
includes a ‘Superskyway’ cycle route
over the Thames and a pontoon-style
cycle path along the river. Steer Davies
Gleave developed the conceptual design
of both ambitious schemes which aim to
encourage more cycling throughout the
borough. (See page 3 for more info)
Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)
Cities everywhere are finding that the
space available for roads is extremely
limited. For the committed car user PRT
could provide a public transport alternative
which potentially supplies the same
level of comfort and privacy as a car.
Examples of PRT schemes can be found
in United Arab Emirates Masdar City
and London’s Heathrow airport.
Journey Planning
With visitor numbers on the rise, the historic
City of York in the UK is using journey planning
to shape, monitor and encourage behaviour
change by residents and visitors alike.
Over the past year, City of York Council has been
developing the iTravel York brand and website
which includes a new and innovative multimodal
journey planner to provide useful alternative
mode information for journeys in the city centre.
As you can see, all sorts of technology
suppliers, digital media integrators and
businesses from other sectors are looking
at innovative solutions to urban mobility!
It’s a great sector to be involved in!
To find out more contact:
Fred Beltrandi
e [email protected]
An ‘ULTra pod’ at Heathrow Airport, London
Air passenger growth rates
Eurostat data for a sample of 24 countries
over the period 2004-2012, shows that the
relationship between GDP and passenger
growth rates might be described more
accurately using a non-linear function.
This indicates that, at high levels of GDP
growth, the ratio of passenger growth to
GDP growth exceeds 2:1, while at low levels
of GDP growth the ratio is much lower.
By Paul Cresswell
Since the dataset covers a period of economic
recession, analysing the Eurostat data by
year can tell us about the relationship at
different points along the curve shown in
Figure 1. Figure 2 presents the coefficient
obtained by regressing the growth rate in
passengers against the growth rate in GDP
for the same sample of countries. Before
the recession, passenger growth rates were
around five times greater than GDP growth
rates. However, between 2008 and 2010
passenger growth rates were less than onethird of the GDP growth rates. Although the
average ratio for the period is indeed close
to 2:1, this masks considerable variations.
If the relationship can be this variable
over a nine-year period, the consequences
of using an average relationship for a
30 year forecast could be significant.
% annual growth
in real gdp
figure 1 growth in gdp and passenger numbers
figure 2 relationship between gdp and passenger
growth changes over time
The analysis below aggregates data from
24 European countries, masking national
variations. Over the period 2003-2012,
passenger traffic in the UK grew at an average
annual rate 1.4 times faster than GDP, while
the corresponding ratio for Finland was 3.6.
This could reflect the state of the aviation
market in each country: while capacity and
taxation policy restrict the UK’s passenger
growth (particularly the domestic market),
Finland has been developing an international
hub at Helsinki and growth might be driven
more by rapid GDP growth in Asia than
national economic conditions. Subdividing
the total passenger growth into different
markets we can see that, in most of the
sample countries, domestic passenger
growth is much more closely aligned to GDP
growth than international passenger growth.
Therefore, the segmentation of the market
being considered will affect its relationship
with GDP growth. Furthermore, it is important
to note that GDP is only one of a number
of factors influencing traffic growth; full
analysis would also include factors such as
fares and competition from other modes.
It is clear from this that there is no one-sizefits-all multiplier to explain the relationship
between GDP and air passengers.
Rather than relying on generalisations,
old research or accepted wisdom, it is
necessary to analyse historical data to
understand the specific relationship for
the local market being forecast. As such
an important driver of forecasting models,
skipping this vital step in the process
could prove to be a false economy.
% annual
growth in total
Data for the UK provided by the Civil
Aviation Authority (CAA) and Office for
National Statistics (ONS) reveal 1990 –
2012 compound average growth rates of
1.6 per cent for GDP and 3.6 per cent for
air passenger traffic. Although in this case
traffic does indeed seem to grow at a rate
twice that of national GDP, the same may
not be true of all years or all locations.
It is generally accepted that air passenger
traffic grows at approximately twice the
rate of national GDP, but how valid is this
assumption? We analysed some publicly
available datasets to investigate further.
regression coefficient of % growth in
passengers against % growth in gdp
As one of the
main drivers
in forecasting
models, the
between GDP
growth and air
naturally attracts much attention.
To find out more contact:
Paul Cresswell
e [email protected]
Creating behavioural change brands
behaviours relies
heavily on the
creation of an
environment where
a new behaviour
is considered
or even desirable and the
provision of tools to enable
people to make the change.
By James Brown
In travel behaviour, that typically means
raising people’s awareness of their
personal travel options, supply of easy
to use information and the creation
of incentives to encourage people to
try alternatives to the private car.
All of this can be achieved through
cleverly executed branding. Here we
share our top ten tips for creating
behavioural change brands.
To find out more contact:
James Brown
e [email protected]
Top 10 tips
get leadership commitment
Commitment shows dedication to a
particular belief, and a willingness
to get involved. Branding is about
a long-term vision, not a short-term
goal. Without a vast amount to spend
on marketing campaigns, leadership
commitment is key to a successful brand.
consult widely
Consultation can often be seen as a
box-ticking exercise but it should never
be underestimated. Stakeholders can
provide valuable insight, helping to
create a solid foundation from which
to develop and grow the brand.
deliver stimulating storytelling
Brands must leverage storytelling to
create stimulating, sensorial experiences
that become etched into people’s minds.
ensure consistency
Brands must reflect a consistent image
and experience, being recognisable
in the online and offline worlds.
create a team of brand advocates
Internet users are becoming increasingly
comfortable sharing their experiences
on products and services through
social media. Brand advocates are
those that are key to promoting your
brand and its benefits to others.
build trust
In order for a brand to build trust, it
should reflect and meet the needs
and desires of your target audience,
adding value to their lives.
Make your brand relevant to your target
audience. Relevant, in the context of
brand positioning, means that you are
serving a need and solving a problem
your audience wasn’t aware it had.
more than a logo
Branding is much more than a nicely
designed logo. Ultimately, a brand is
about caring about your offer at every
level and detail and in every interaction
anyone is ever going to have with you.
connect with your audience
Creating a brand is about connecting
with and inspiring people, presenting
them with information that is easily
accessible and digestible.
Last but by no means least….
Don’t be afraid to try new ways of
engaging with people. Look towards
the commercial sector for inspiration.
It’s easy to follow what’s gone before
but that doesn’t necessarily mean it’s
right for you or your target audience.
Shaping and monitoring
behaviour change in the
City of York
With visitor
numbers on the
rise, the UK’s
historic city of
York is using
journey planning
to shape, monitor
and encourage
behaviour change in residents
and visitors alike.
By Craig Nelson
York is an easy city to explore with the centre
largely pedestrianised, miles of scenic
cycle routes and a well-used Park-andRide system. Ensuring that residents and
visitors are aware of this is the challenge.
Over the past year, City of York Council has
been developing the iTravel York brand
and website which includes a new and
innovative multimodal journey planner. City
of York was looking for a single solution to
provide residents and visitors with doorto-door journey planning information while
building on existing and trusted information
sources, such as the Traveline Yorkshire
and CycleStreets websites. In particular,
the Council wanted the planner to provide
useful alternative mode information for
journeys that ended within the city centre.
We were able to support the Council’s
marketing efforts and goals through the
deployment of our tried and tested journey
planning platform, as well as bespoke
features that were created specifically
for the area. A focus was the provision
of useful door-to-door Park-and-Ride
journey planning, a first for the UK. Parkand-Ride works particularly well in York
so it made sense to make it even easier
to use. Working closely with the City of
York team, we created a system which
automatically provides a traveller with
a suitable Park-and-Ride ‘option’ when
planning a driving route. The planner will
suggest the alternative (reinforced with
savings in journey time and cost), rather
than forcing it, and a driving route is given
to the Park-and-Ride site alongside an
integrated public transport stage. Using
the in-built GPS functionality, integrated
mapping and responsive smartphone
design, travellers can easily locate
themselves on arrival in the city and follow a
bespoke walking route to their destination.
Following a beta release in September, the
journey planner was launched to the public
at a series of events across the city. By
using Personal Travel Planning (PTP) travel
advisors armed with tablet computers, the
Council was able to show residents how the
planner works and collect useful feedback.
Facebook and GoogleAds were also used
to promote the iTravel York website and
have been very successful – the journey
planner, which is carefully integrated
with the iTravel York responsive website,
receives over 8,000 journey plan requests
a month. The Council will be carefully
monitoring use of the journey planner,
using the statistics package included with
the application, to understand what types
of journeys people are planning and how
travel patterns are changing in the City.
To find out more contact:
Craig Nelson
e [email protected]
News in brief
helping the saints go marching in
southampton, uk
We are currently working with
Southampton Football Club,
Southampton City Council and local
transport operators to develop a
series of activities to encourage fans
visiting the Club’s St Marys Stadium
to do so by means other than the car.
Our work also includes developing an
integrated marketing communications
plan encouraging others intending to
travel on matchdays, but not going to
the Game, to do so in such a way that
avoids the busiest times, routes and
modes of transport. Thereby ensuring
that the whole City is a winner!
Fans outside Southampton Football Club
rail advice in ethiopia
The Ethiopian Railways Corporation
(ERC) has an ambitious plan to
construct a 5,000 kilometre national
rail network and an LRT system
for the capital, Addis Ababa.
Climate Focus, a firm of climate finance
specialists based in Amsterdam,
is leading an initiative to support
ERC in its efforts to secure climate
co-financing for the project.
Steer Davies Gleave is providing
expert transport advice to Climate
Focus, and is engaged in forecasting
when and how much climate cofinancing might be required to help
realise the new railway schemes.
iTravel York multi-modal journey planner
Changing tides for the maritime industry
A recent article by
Lloyds Loading
List1 asked ‘Was
2013 a turning
point for container
shipping?’ Against
a background
of ongoing
overcapacity and plummeting
box rates on many routes2, some
surprising developments took place.
By Charles Russell
First, Maersk introduced the first of its
18,000+ twenty-foot equivalent units
(TEU) ships into service – and China
Shipping placed orders for five more.
At the same time, and perhaps in response,
three container liners are asking the
regulators to approve the P3 alliance – the
largest vessel-sharing agreement of all
time working together to establish a jointlymanaged fleet. The proposed alliance
would give the three carriers a 24 per cent
share of the trans-Pacific market, a 42 per
cent share of the Asia-Europe route and a
similar share of the transatlantic market.
Across the Atlantic, the Panama Canal
widening project moves on. Despite
contractual issues, it is still expected
2 15/1/14
falling near to $500 to move a 20ft box between China and North Europe
to open for operation in 2015. This new
capacity – allowing 12,000 TEU vessels
to transit from the Atlantic to the Pacific
– must have an important impact on the
patterns of shipping movement (and port
calls) up and down the coasts of North
and Central America. A game changer,
perhaps, for competing ports in the region?
In the UK, the new port at London Gateway is
now in operation. When completed, it will
provide six deep-water berths with depth
alongside of 17 metres. That is enough even
for the new megaliths with an annual capacity
of 3.5 million TEU, proximity to the heart of
the UK economy and great access to the
road and rail networks of the country. Surely
this will change the UK port geography!
Why are these developments important?
From Steer Davies Gleave’s perspective we
need to understand the implications of these
changes on the traffic that uses the surface
routes we study – the proposed Iliana toll
road at the heart of the US transcontinental
freight routes, the continental toll
network connecting Marseilles, Le Havre
and Rotterdam, and the overloaded rail
network in Great Britain. We are also
increasingly involved – with investors and
operators – looking at the shipping and
ports assets themselves and the potential
for investment in these opportunities.
A wide and diverse market
Across the Atlantic, the last few years
have seen varied projects completed in
the maritime sector, from assessing the
potential and value of new passenger
services across the East River in New York
to due diligence studies for investments
in new ports and terminals – including
recent work we have carried out at the
Tuxpan and Manzanilla ports in Mexico.
There are other opportunities globally,
however, and in the two articles following we
discuss work that SDG is carrying out looking
at canal and river transport – in the first,
helping launch a PPP project for transport
facilities on the Rio Magdalena in Colombia,
and in the second providing Technical
Due Diligence for major lock facilities.
These assignments indicate just a small
part of the work that Steer Davies Gleave –
working alone or with partners who might
bring specialisms the project demands
– is doing in the maritime sector.
To find out more contact:
Charles Russell
e [email protected]
the rio magdalena, colombia
ppp lock construction, holland and belgium
Over the last decades the largest Colombian
river, the Magdalena River, has not played
a big role in freight movements across the
country. However CORMAGDALENA, a public
entity promoting the economic recovery of
the Magdalena River, is currently setting up
the framework for a Public Private Partnership
(PPP) contract to undertake a major upgrade
of the navigability of the river. Two thirds of the
total investment of around US$600 million will
be allocated to infrastructure improvements
while the remainder will be used to maintain
a depth of at least two metres. The project
aims at reducing logistic costs for freight
movements between the ports at the Caribbean
Coast and the main centres of production and
consumption in the Colombian inland, and at
establishing the Magdalena River as part of
an integrated multimodal transport system.
Waterways and locks are perhaps the most
easily visualised examples of transport arteries:
locks act as valves to facilitate the regulated
flow of ships and barges. Vessels are getting
bigger and bigger: at 500m long and 68m
wide, the Berendrecht Lock at the Belgian Port
of Antwerp is currently the world’s largest; the
Deurganck Lock currently under construction
at Antwerp is deeper and will take the top
spot when it opens in 2016. (No fewer than six
locks based on the Antwerp lock designs are
currently being constructed as part of the US$
5.2 billion upgrade of the Panama Canal.)
In 2013, Steer Davies Gleave was commissioned
by CORMAGDALENA to estimate the potential
future demand for freight movements on the
Magdalena River, and to prepare a cost benefit
analysis for the planned substantial investment.
In addition, SDG reviewed the institutional
arrangements and usage charging schemes in
different countries such as France and Germany,
to provide CORMAGDALENA with effective
advice for their future administrative scheme.
Locks have not traditionally been constructed
under PPP arrangements and there is now
much interest in the Sea Lock PPP Projects
programme in the Netherlands. All eyes are on
the Limmel Lock PPP, first in the procurement
queue. The present lock does not meet the
demands of modern large barges using the
Juliana canal between Limmel and Maasbracht.
Five consortia (out of nine) prequalified in
January 2014 for the next phase of this EUR
60m, 33-year DBFM project – with three
shortlisted consortia expected to be chosen
in mid-March for Competitive Dialogue.
The Sealock IJmond, the gateway for sea-going
vessels between the North Sea canal and the
Amsterdam harbour, is due to be tendered in the
first quarter of 2014 together with the smaller
Eefde lock PPP. Also planned for 2014 is the
Lock Eefde on the Twentecanal, an important
thoroughfare for navigational traffic from and
to Twente. The third Beatrix lock, Canal Zone
Gent-Terneuzen, and Volkerak locks - Expansion
of Capacity Phase 1, are also in planning as PPPs.
So water transport PPPs look here to stay, and
not just in the Netherlands. Belgium, in addition
to cooperating with the Netherlands on projects
relevant to both countries, is forging ahead
with its own programme. The recent decision
in France to cancel the Canal Seine Nord as a
PPP came as a big disappointment to many in
the industry, but the Netherlands and Belgium
have come to the rescue with impressive and
seemingly very attractive programmes.
The industrial harbour area/The Scheldt River, Antwerp
Architect’s impression of the proposed improvements
Step by step in Moscow
In 2012 the
announced plans
to double the city
territory in size, yet
it is still prioritising
by pursuing a major strategy
to improve walkable routes
throughout the city.
By Richard Crappsley
Moscow is a city on the brink of significant
change with £44 billion of transport network
improvements expected by 2020. These
include over 100 kilometres of new Metro
lines. However, in keeping with its existing
walking strategy, the Government has
prioritised creating a high quality walking
and cycling environment, exemplified by
recent city centre projects (see European
Review 43) including the pedestrianisation
of Nikolskaya Street (designed by Steer
Davies Gleave) and other nearby streets, a
river cycle route and a cycle hire scheme.
The Government also wants to improve
walking and cycling further afield in
residential areas and districts up to
10 kilometres from the city centre.
To help achieve this Steer Davies Gleave
recently supported an international team
working for the Moscow City Government,
responsible for integrated transport projects.
A pedestrian route improvement strategy
will see 1.2 kilometres, or 15 minute,
walking catchments around 35 of
Moscow’s 190 metro stations. Routes will
be more pleasant, safe, and comfortable
– thereby encouraging more people to
walk. With improvements on this scale
come design challenges which must be
addressed if pedestrians are to benefit
fully. In Moscow’s case, the following
challenges have been identified:
tt Cars park everywhere in Moscow!
Moscow was not originally designed
for high car ownership; people park
on roads, verges, and footways, with
impunity. Full height kerbs and strategic
positioning of street furniture and trees
to mark pedestrian spaces were part
of our solution. Ultimately, however,
stronger enforcement is also needed.
tt Level changes present major barriers
for all people. We found steep ramps
and a lack of dropped kerbs on many
routes; issues that could be overcome
with properly designed standard details.
tt Navigation within ‘superblocks’ is difficult
due to unclear and undifferentiated internal
routes. Clear and consistent wayfinding
information would aid pedestrians greatly,
as would distinctive design elements
(feature planting, special street furniture and
surfacing) to strengthen ‘sense of place’.
tt Pedestrian movement is hindered
by footway provisions which are too
narrow, obstructed, poorly surfaced, or
simply not there. Our work identified
measures to enhance continuity
and consistency of routes.
tt Station entrances lack visibility; consistent
and distinctive public realm improvements
would not only enhance visibility but also
contribute to a stronger local civic identity.
To combat some of these challenges,
individual design solutions have been
created for each route, with accompanying
design guidance for wider application.
Delivery of these improvements is set to take
place this year, in line with the Government’s
ambitious investment programme. We’re
looking forward to seeing the results!
To find out more contact:
Richard Crappsley
e [email protected]
Buildings, buildings everywhere!
Taking a stroll from Blackfriars Bridge to the Millennium
Bridge is an excellent way to see how London is being
redeveloped, changing both the skyline and the streets.
Walking route
Viewing point
New developments
that SDG is working on
Existing developments
that SDG is working on
ludgate house and
sampson house
centre point
east-west corridor
steer davies gleave office
We have been based here
since 1996 and from this
location we have helped
provided transport advice
for many developments
in the nearby area.
A development of
nine new multi-storey
buildings including a 50 storey
residential tower incorporating
significant improvements to
the public realm alongside
the Thames. Construction
expected to begin in 2014.
Looking west from
Blackfriars Bridge you
can see the iconic 33-storey
Centre Point building which
is to be converted from
office to residential use.
Construction is expected to
begin in summer 2014.
From the northern end
of Blackfriars Bridge it is
possible to look down onto
Upper Thames Street, the main
route between the cities of
London and Westminster. SDG
has worked with private sector
clients and TfL to balance the
flow of traffic, cyclists and
pedestrians along this corridor.
new ludgate
one new change
city wide
canary wharf
20 fenchurch street
(“walkie talkie”)
A new retail and
office development.
Construction is currently
under way, opening in 2015.
A retail and office
development which
opened in 2010. SDG
continues to provide travel
planning support.
We are looking at a
number of schemes
to make wholesale
improvements to the public
realm across the City.
Looking east from the
Millennium Bridge
you can see the towers of
Canary Wharf. SDG has been
involved in the development
of the estate since back in
1985 and continues to plan
for further expansion.
A good place to finish
is in front of The Globe
and look north towards the
City. The distinctive shape of
the “Walkie-Talkie” building
designed by Rafael Vinoly can
be seen and SDG provided
detailed design support
for all parking, servicing
and waste management
elements of the building.
To find out more contact:
David Bowers
e [email protected]
News in brief
opening up aviation
services in africa
Steer Davies Gleave has been
engaged by the Infrastructure
Consortium for Africa (ICA) to
undertake a study that contributes
to addressing the barriers to the
expansion of effective aviation
services across Africa, through
analysis and targeted interventions.
Specifically, the study assesses
the Yamoussoukro Decision
implementation, and West Africa
Air Transport and Central Africa Air
Transport Hubs. This interesting
study builds on foundation work, also
conducted by Steer Davies Gleave,
highlighting the potential for private
sector participation in Africa.
Easing congestion in
Latin America
The experiences of
European cities like
London, Milan and
Stockholm show
that implementing a
congestion charging
scheme has a
positive effect on
road user behaviour leading to a
better quality of life for residents.
However, it also poses challenges
for decision makers, technicians,
the private sector and users.
By Alejandro Obregon
In Latin America, where congestion levels
are high and continuing to rise in its
major cities, there is an opportunity to
learn from European methods to help
reduce and manage the problem.
Jomo-Kenyatta airport, Nairobi
bogotá taxi plan, colombia
Steer Davies Gleave is working
with the District Department of
Transportation in Bogotá, Colombia,
to identify and implement measures
that will improve the quality of
the provision of public transport
in the city. In an effort to enhance
the existing transport network we
will be focussing on taxi provision
in the city. SDG will analyse the
supply and demand of the existing
taxi system, develop a strategy to
improve the quality and delivery of
the service and present a study for the
implementation of technological tools
to control supply.
Congestion in Bogotà
Members of SDG’s Latin American division
recently took part in a fact-finding mission in
London to see what lessons could be learned.
While London was not the first city in the
world to introduce road pricing in urban
areas, it was certainly one of the first to
apply it across a large area. Deliberately
conceived as a simple scheme, it now
delivers a 20 per cent reduction in traffic
levels inside the charging zone.
Some key lessons can be drawn
from the London scheme:
It is important to remember that London
had a number of advantages which might
not be available in other cities. Crucially,
the zone which was later covered by the
charge already had a very extensive and
highly used public transport system. At the
same time, the developers of the scheme in
London were pragmatic. Knowing that the
scheme had to be popular and easy to use,
they introduced a single flat charge levied
across the working day – to be paid without
discount by the great majority of users. While
they knew that varying the charge by time
of day and day of the week to reflect real
congestion conditions might be more effective
at reducing the number of road users, they
rejected it for the advantages of simplicity.
Implementing a congestion charging
scheme was relatively easy, but other cities
might face a more challenging environment
which could lead to higher costs.
The London example certainly does set
a precedent but, since its introduction,
travel behaviour and technology have
evolved, bringing new opportunities and
challenges for transport planners and
policy makers. While some of the principles
are still valid, fresh thinking is required to
take the London experience forward for
implementation in Latin American cities.
To find out more contact:
Alejandro Obregon
e [email protected]
tt The London Congestion Charge (CC) is part
of a package of measures – not a standalone policy. Other measures need to be
considered and implemented in parallel.
tt The CC was not primarily developed as
a new source of revenue. The aim of
the scheme was to reduce congestion,
and all the potential revenue needs
to be reinvested to support this goal.
Communicating and handling this well is
crucial to gaining support for the project.
tt The CC, at least in its first phase, had
broad public support. Public acceptance
is very important. The introduction of
CC will always be controversial and
will have some strong opposition.
Sao Paulo traffic
We can certainly fly high
Projects the size of the CPT network in Le
Paz are rare, with cities preferring to take a
more cautious approach in the form of short,
single, experimental or tourist-based lines
like Teléferico de Gaia in Portugal, the urban
gondola in Ordu in Turkey and the Grenoble
cable car in France.
More and more of these experiments are
appearing in cities all over the map (Bochum
in Germany, Algiers in Algeria and Istanbul in
Turkey are only some of the latest examples).
While these experiments are encouraging it is
worth considering the challenges of developing
a CPT system.
By Lucia Manzi
So far only a few cities in the world have
truly integrated CPT into their whole transit
system: Caracas, Venezuela; Constantine,
Algeria; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and Medellin,
Colombia, which was the first city to
install them for mass transit purposes.
The vast majority of CPT systems around
the world are used to get people across
a physical obstacle. City traffic could be
considered the ultimate urban topographical
obstacle. Could we therefore begin to
see even more CPT systems appearing
in busy cities around the world?
Later this year the world’s largest network
of urban transit cable cars is set to open
in La Paz in Bolivia. Three cable car lines
are currently under construction, with a
combined capacity of 3000 passengers
per hour per direction. Once opened,
the 10 kilometre La Paz ‘teleféricos’
will become the world’s largest
network of urban transit cable cars.
Should cities seriously consider adding CPT
to their transportation systems? Or is this a
bizarre idea that could only work in
niche areas?
tt Perception certainly plays a negative
role, with some viewing CPT as more of
an amusement park ride than a viable
way to get to a destination. However,
the examples above prove that CPT
has the potential to enhance the
existing transport provision in cities.
tt It can be difficult to integrate CPT with
existing transit systems because lines
don’t branch off or turn. But where
there’s a will there’s a way, as shown
in Medellin, where the system is fully
integrated with the public transit network,
providing passengers with the ability to
transfer seamlessly to local metro lines.
tt Passenger loads simply can’t compete
with light rail or bus rapid transit (BRT),
but CPT can go where light rail or BRT
can’t – up in the air – making use of
space that is free from delays caused by
congestion and which would otherwise be
vacant and of no benefit to commuters.
tt it can be constructed and up and
running quickly. London’s Emirates
Airline which crosses the River
Thames was open for business 10
months after construction began.
tt CPT achieves high service quality
with minimal resources. Maintenance
costs are much smaller than for
the individually motorized vehicles
of BRT or LRT and they potentially
need fewer staff with personnel
only really required at each of the
stations rather than in each vehicle.
tt it is much more flexible when it comes
to mountainous or water-laden terrain.
The argument for integrating CPT within
cities is becoming more conceivable as
‘flying high’ potentially offers a plausible
alternative to the more mainstream transit
options open to city planners. Steer
Davies Gleave has been supporting public
authorities, developers and operators
globally to develop and integrate cable car
schemes into the urban context.
To find out more contact:
Lucia Manzi
e [email protected]
On the other hand, some of the pros of
integrating a cable car system into the
existing transport infrastructure include:
million euro
Cable Propelled
Transit (CPT) or
cable cars as
they are more
commonly known,
initially existed
as a means of
transport in skiresorts. Recently though, CPT
experiments have been popping
up in cities globally. Could we
see CPT become a credible form
of urban mass transit around the
world in the future?
passengers per hour
figure 1 indicative comparative costs based on
operating costs of bus, tram and ropeway with hourly
patronage in grenoble, france
tt it is relatively inexpensive compared
with BRT costs. (See figure 1)
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