How to [email protected] HARVARD tutorial plagiarism

How to [email protected]
HARVARD tutorial
This tutorial explains what plagiarism is and how to avoid it through correct Harvard
referencing practice.
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Referencing
Plagiarism
Referencing Styles
Harvard: quoting, paraphrasing and summarising
Harvard: within the text
Harvard: Reference list
Related links
Referencing
What is referencing?
Referencing is an important part of your coursework. It serves several key purposes:
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Acknowledges the use of other people’s ideas and opinions within your work
Demonstrates the depth of your research
Gives authority to your words and arguments
Allows others to follow up the resources you have used
Prevents accusations of plagiarism
Knowing how to incorporate the work of others into your assignments and reference your
sources correctly is vital.
2.
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is taking the words, theories, creations or ideas of another person and passing
them off as your own.
Plagiarism can be deliberate – copying a passage from a book or journal or pasting
something from the internet into an assignment without referencing the original source.
It can also result from not referencing correctly.
Plagiarism is a serious issue that can result in failing an assignment, failing the year or
even having to leave the course.
To avoid plagiarism, make sure you include references within your assignment to all
sources you use and then include full details of all the sources in a reference list at the end
of your assignment.
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Referencing styles
Referencing involves three stages:
1. Correctly quote, paraphrase or summarise your source.
2. Include brief details of the source in your assignment text. This is called a citation.
3. Include full details of each source cited in a reference list at the end of your
assignment.
There are several referencing styles with each one having set practices for setting out
references within a piece of work and the reference list.
ALWAYS check with your tutor which referencing style they want you to use. If no style is
specified, Harvard is considered a default style.
ALWAYS be consistent in how you reference in terms of punctuation and layout.
4. Harvard referencing: quoting, paraphrasing and summarising
At University, you are expected to engage with the research and writings of others in your
subject area. This can help you substantiate your own arguments in your course work and
improve your understanding of your subject.
However, you must indicate where you are referring to the work of another person. To do
this without plagiarising, you must either quote, paraphrase or summarise the work you
are referring to and give brief publication details for the work (also called citing). Full
details are then given in your final reference list.
Quoting: copying the words of another person into your assignment. Different formats are
used for quoting depending on whether it is a short or long quote.
Short quote: copying a few words or a sentence
“a short quotation can be incorporated into the flow of a
sentence” (Smith 2008, p.1).
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Enclose in quotation marks (use either "double" or 'single' quotation marks - but be
consistent)
Use … to indicate where any words have been omitted from the quotation
Use [ ] to show any words that you have changed or inserted into the quotation (e.g. to
change the tense of the sentence)
Long quote: copying a few sentences or a paragraph
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Start the quotation on a new line
Indent the quotation and use single line spacing
Smith (2008, p.1) has stressed the importance of quoting
correctly:
By indicating clearly where you are quoting from another source,
you are less likely to be accused of plagiarism. You must also
include the details of the source you are referring to. How you
do this is determined by the referencing style you are using
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such as Harvard or APA.
* NB: Traditionally, double quotations are used when quoting direct speech - actual spoken words - and single
quotation marks are used for written text. However, as the University now uses Turnitin for essay submission,
it is important to note that this programme will only exclude quoted material from the similarity comparison if
the quotes appear in double quotation marks, or in indented quotes.
Paraphrasing: incorporating someone else’s ideas into your work but using your own
words to express them.
Put another person’s ideas into your own words but acknowledge the original source by including
brief publication details e.g.
Knowing how to avoid plagiarism though correct quoting and
referencing is an important skill for students to acquire (Smith
2008, p.1)
Summarising: summing up the main points in a long piece of work.
Use your own words to condense and re-state someone’s ideas rather than include a very long
quote or several short ones.
If you are summarising an entire work you can omit the page number in the reference. If
summarising a chapter or section, include the page range.
Ensure you don’t distort the author’s original meaning.
Smith outlines Harvard, APA and Numeric as three referencing
styles students could use (2008, pp.1-23)
5.
Harvard references within your assignment
References within an assignment indicate where your work is based on another source.
This prevents accusations of plagiarism. It also provides the reader with brief details they
can use to look up the full reference in the final reference list and then locate the original
source.
Harvard (also known as Name and Date) referencing involves entering several details in
brackets alongside your quotation or where you have referred to someone else’s work:
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Author’s surname.
Year the work was published.
Page number(s) - if relevant.
These details can be provided in several ways:
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Put all details in brackets at the end of the quotation or paraphrasing:
It is clear that “referencing is a skill all students should
develop” (Smith 2008, p.1)
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Incorporate the author’s name into your sentence and follow it with the year and page number in
brackets:
Smith (2008, p.2) highlights the importance of consistent
referencing within an essay.
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Incorporate the author’s name into your sentence and put the year and page number in brackets
at the end of the quotation or paraphrase:
As Smith has argued, teaching staff should introduce students to
referencing as early as possible (2008, p.2)
If a work does not have a named author, use Anon
(Anon 2008, p.3)
6.
Harvard references in the final reference list
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Include a list of all your references at the end of your work. This gives full details
of each source so your reader can look them up.
Include your references in alphabetical order of author surname and then by date
if necessary.
If an author has written more than one work in a year, add a,b,c… after the date to
distinguish between them (both in your in-text references and your final reference list).
Different sources are referenced in different ways. A book has different details to a
journal article or a website so you need to know how to reference each type of source:
The information below shows you how to reference some of the most commonly used
sources:
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6.7
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6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
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6.20
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6.22
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6.24
Harvard references: book ..................................................................................................................... 5
Harvard references: ebook ................................................................................................................... 6
Harvard references: essay in an edited book ....................................................................................... 6
Harvard referencing: sources with no author ....................................................................................... 7
Harvard references: journal/magazine/newspaper article .................................................................... 7
Harvard references: article from an online database ........................................................................... 8
Harvard references: ejournal ................................................................................................................ 9
Harvard references: websites............................................................................................................... 9
Harvard referencing: market research reports ................................................................................... 10
Harvard referencing: FAME and OSIRIS references ......................................................................... 11
Harvard references: emails and blogs................................................................................................ 11
Harvard references: images ............................................................................................................... 12
Harvard references: conference papers ............................................................................................. 13
Harvard references: theses and dissertations.................................................................................... 13
Harvard references: DVD, video and film ........................................................................................... 13
Harvard references: command papers ............................................................................................... 14
Harvard references: legal cases......................................................................................................... 15
Harvard references: legislation........................................................................................................... 16
Harvard references: secondary references ........................................................................................ 17
Harvard references: authors with multiple publications...................................................................... 18
Harvard references: television and radio programmes ...................................................................... 18
Harvard references: interviews........................................................................................................... 19
Harvard references: CD-Roms ........................................................................................................... 19
Harvard references: sound recordings ............................................................................................... 19
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6.25 Harvard references: published music ................................................................................................. 20
6.26 Harvard references: letters and telephone calls................................................................................. 20
6.27 Harvard references: Hansard: Parliamentary Debates ...................................................................... 21
6.28 Harvard references: maps .................................................................................................................. 21
6.29 Harvard references: podcasts ............................................................................................................. 21
6.30 Harvard references: missing details ................................................................................................... 22
6.31 Harvard references: useful abbreviations .......................................................................................... 22
6.1
Harvard references: book
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a book is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher
Examples
Single author:
In text
Stevens (1996, p.2) pointed out that “referencing is a skill all students
should develop”.
Note that you give a page number for a quotation or a shorter idea that
can be taken from a specific page (or perhaps crossing two pages). If you
are summarising a general theory across a book or a chapter, you would not
give a page number in the text
Reference list
STEVENS, M., 1996. How to be better at … giving presentations.
London: Kogan Page
Two or three authors:
In text
McCarthy and Hatcher (2002, p.78) suggested...
Reference list
Put initial before the surname for the second and third author:
McCARTHY, P. and C. HATCHER, 2002. Presentation skills: the
essential guide for students. London: Sage
More than three authors:
In text
Mares et al. (2002, p.105) proposed...
Reference list
Always give the first author, with or without the others - use et al. if not giving the other names:
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MARES, P. et al., 1995. Health care in multiracial Britain.
Cambridge: Health Education Council
Later editions of a book:
In text
Bell (2005, p.244) considered...
Reference list
BELL, J., 2005. Doing your research project: a guide for first
time researchers in education, health and social science. 4th
ed. Maidenhead: Open UP
6.2
Harvard references: ebook
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an ebook (electronic book) is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title [online]. Place of publication: Publisher [viewed date].
Available from: URL
Examples
Ebook on the internet:
In text
Docking and Tuffin (2005, p.8) observed...
Reference list
DOCKING, M. and R. TUFFIN, 2005. Racist incidents: progress
since the Lawrence Inquiry [online]. London: Home Office [viewed
9 May 2008]. Available from:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs05/rdsolr4205.pdf
Ebook from an online database - include the database name instead of the URL:
In text
Raisinghani (2002, p.235) gave the example of...
Reference list
RAISINGHANI, Mahesh S., 2002. Cases on worldwide e-commerce:
theory in action [online]. Hershey: Idea Group [viewed 9 May
2008]. Available from: NetLibrary
6.3
Harvard references: essay in an edited book
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an essay in an edited collection is:
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AUTHOR(S) OF ESSAY, Year of publication. Title of essay. In: EDITOR(S) of book. Title of book.
Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers of essay
Example
In text
Andrews (2002, p98.) put forward the idea that...
Reference list
ANDREWS, M., 2002. Using technology in your presentation. In:
L.WHITE and E. DAVIDS, eds. Enhancing your presentation. London:
Sage, pp.91-104
Note that the actual page where the quotation comes from is given in-text,
while the page numbers for the whole chapter are given in the reference
list.
6.4
Harvard referencing: sources with no author
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a source with no author is:
ANON., Year of publication. Title. Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher
Example
In text
Records for intervention services are categorised in two types (Anon.
2004, p.2).
Reference list
ANON., 2004. Social services year book 2004.
Pearson Education
32nd ed.
Harlow:
ANON can be used instead of the author in the reference for any type of
source. However, note that for websites, rather than use ANON, we
generally give the institution or organisation that produced the webpage
as the author. This is also true for brochures, leaflets and pamphlets
which have a clear corporate producer, but no named author - give the
company name as the author in this case.
6.5
Harvard references: journal/magazine/newspaper article
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an article is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(part
number), pages
Examples
Journal:
In text
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Wilson and Till (2008, p.60) discovered that...
Reference list
WILSON, R.T. and B.D. TILL, 2008. Airport advertising
effectiveness: an exploratory field study. Journal of
advertising, 37(1), 59-72
Newspaper: include the newspaper title and the date of publication
In text
Foreman (2005, p.1) described...
Reference list
FOREMAN, J., 2005. Olympic cities brought to their knees by the
games. Daily mail, 7 July, 1-2
Magazine: include the magazine title and the date of publication
In text
Whitfield (2008, p.35) stated...
Reference list
WHITFIELD, N., 2008. The evolution of broadband. Personal
computer world, June 2008, 30-7
6.6
Harvard references: article from an online database
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an article from an online database is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication of article. Title of article. Title of journal [online], volume
number(part number), pages (if known) [viewed date]. Available from: Database name
Examples
In text
Fitch and Butler (2008, p.331) attempted to prove...
Reference list
FITCH, R. and Z. BUTLER, 2008. Million module march: scalable
locomotion for large self-reconfiguring robots. International
journal of advanced robotics research [online], 27(3-4), 331-343
[viewed 28 May 2008]. Available from: Academic OneFile
If the journal does not have a volume and part number, use the publication date instead
MESSMER, M., 2003. Public speaking success strategies. The
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national public accountant [online], Nov 2003, 26 [viewed 6 May
2008]. Available from: ABI Inform
6.7
Harvard references: ejournal
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an ejournal article (electronic journal) is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal [online], volume number(issue
or part number), page(s) if available [viewed date]. Available from: URL
Examples
Ejournal article available on the internet:
In text
Poole (2007, p.45) described how...
Reference list
POOLE, N., 2007. Activating laboratories using Visual Basic for
Applications. Engineering education [online], 2(2), 44-53 [viewed 9
May 2008]. Available from:
http://www.engsc.ac.uk/journal/index.php/ee/issue/view/22
Ejournal article available from a database - give the database name instead of the URL:
In text
In Williamson (2007, p.9) there is a description of...
Reference list
WILLIAMSON, H., 2007. Disconnected youth?: Growing up in
Britain's poor neighbourhoods. Journal of social policy
[online], 36(2), 356-7 [viewed 9 May 2008]. Available from: ABI
Inform
6.8
Harvard references: websites
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a website is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication or last update. Title of page [online] [viewed date]. Available
from: URL
Examples
In text
Williams (2010) described how...
Note that no page number is given because this comes from an online
source.
Reference list
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WILLIAMS, R., 2010. Universities and colleges hit by industrial
action [online] [viewed 6 May 2010]. Available from:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2010/may/06/cutsandclosuresmiddlesexuniversity
Some websites don't provide all the details you may need - include as much
information as you can. If no author is given, use the provider of the
website as the author (this may be the name of a University, a company, a
newspaper, or just the website name).
In text
Figures provided by Deakin University (2010)...
Reference list
DEAKIN UNIVERSITY, 2010. The literature review [online] [viewed 6 May
2008]. Available from:
http://www.deakin.edu.au/library/findout/research/litrev.php
Often the date that the webpage was published is not available. You may
find at the bottom of the page a note of when it was last updated – give
this as the date (as we have done in the Deakin University example above).
If no date is provided then you should put n.d.
6.9
Harvard references: market research reports
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a printed market research report is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Report title including series and date if available. Edition (if
not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher
Example
In text
Mintel (2001, p.9) found that...
Reference list
MINTEL, 2001. Women’s accessories: Mintel market intelligence;
August 2001. London: Mintel
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an electronic market research report is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Report title including series and date if available [online].
Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: database
name
Example
In text
Mintel (2008, p.9) found that...
Reference list
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MINTEL, 2008. Clothing retailing – UK – September 2008 [online].
London: Mintel [viewed 26 January 2009]. Available from: Mintel
6.10
Harvard references: FAME and OSIRIS references
The format for creating a Harvard reference for FAME or OSIRIS is:
CONTENT PROVIDER, year. Title of report [online]. Place of publication: Publisher [viewed
date]. Available from: database name
Examples
In text
Top Shop had a good profit margin in 2009(FAME 2010)...
Reference list
FAME, 2010. Company report: Top Shop (UK) Limited [online].
Brussels: Bureau van Dijk [viewed 17 August 2010]. Available
from: FAME
In text
Abercrombie & Fitch had an annual turnover of…(OSIRIS 2010)
Reference list
OSIRIS, 2009. Company report: Abercrombie & Fitch Co[online].
Brussels: Bureau van Dijk [viewed 12 August 2009]. Available
from: OSIRIS
6.11
Harvard references: emails and blogs
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an email is:
SENDER'S NAME (sender's email address), date. Subject of message. Email to RECIPIENT'S
NAME (recipient's email address)
Example
In text
Jones (2008) stated...
Note that no page number is necessary when citing from an email.
Reference list
JONES, A., ([email protected]), 4 May 2008.
Email to D. BROWN ([email protected])
Writing essays.
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a blog is:
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AUTHOR(S), Year. Title of blog entry. In: Blog title [online]. Full date of blog entry [viewed
date]. Available from: URL
Example
In text
Bradley (2008) explained...
As web pages, blogs do not have page numbers.
Reference list
BRADLEY, P., 2008. Word of the day is 'exaflood'. In: Phil
Bradley's weblog [online]. 29 April 2008 [viewed 9 May 2008].
Available from:
http://philbradley.typepad.com/phil_bradleys_weblog/
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an electronic discussion list is:
AUTHOR(S), year. Subject of message. In: Discussion list [online]. Full date of message
[viewed date]. Available from: URL of archive or individual message or email address of list
Example
In text
Jones (2008) stated...
Reference list
JONES, A., 2008. Citing standards. In: Lis-link [online]. 16 June 2008 [viewed 20 June
2008]. Available from: http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/LIS-LINK.html
6.12
Harvard references: images
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an artistic image is:
ARTIST(S), Year. Title of work [material designation]. At: Location
Example
In text
As can be seen in the painting Dancing lesson (Degas 1880).
Reference list
DEGAS, E., 1880. Dancing lesson [oil on canvas]. At:
Williamstown, Massachusetts: Sterling and Francine Clark Art
Institute (no.562)
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an electronic image is:
ORIGINATOR(S), Year. Title of image or a description [digital image] [viewed date]. Available
from: URL Filename including extension
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Example
In text
In Iman and Bowie (Malafronte 1999), the photographer captured...
Reference list
MALAFRONTE, V., 1999. Iman and Bowie [digital image] [viewed 23
June 2005]. Available from: http://edina.ac.uk/eig/ jk8490001.jpg
6.13
Harvard references: conference papers
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a conference paper is:
AUTHOR(S) OF PAPER, Year of publication. Title of paper. In: EDITOR(S). Title of conference
including the date and location. Place of publication: Publisher, pages
Example
In text
Hummel and Atkinson (2007, p.18) gave the proposal...
Reference list
HUMMEL, O. and C. ATKINSON, 2007. Supporting agile reuse through
extreme harvesting. In: G. CONCAS et al., eds. Agile processes
in software engineering and extreme programming: 8th
international conference, XP 2007, Como, Italy, June 18-22,
2007, Proceedings. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp.28-37
6.14
Harvard references: theses and dissertations
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a thesis or dissertation is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Type of qualification, Academic institution
Example
In text
Davis (2006, p.24) explained that...
Reference list
DAVIS, L., 2006. British travellers and the rediscovery of
Sicily: 16th-19th century. PhD Thesis, Southampton Solent
University
6.15
Harvard references: DVD, video and film
The format for creating a Harvard reference for DVD, video or film is:
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Title, year [material designation]. Subsidiary originator (if applicable e.g. Director). Production
details
Examples
Film:
In text
This can be seen in Welles' version of Macbeth (1948).
When referencing films or DVDs, you only need to give the film title and
the year of production the first time you reference it. After the first
mention, you can just use the film title.
Reference list
Macbeth, 1948 [film]. Directed by Orson WELLES. USA: Republic
Pictures
DVD/Video:
In text
Cross Cultural Communication Skills (2005) illustrates...
Reference list
Cross cultural communication skills, 2005 [DVD]. Gower
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a digital video is:
Title, year [material designation]. Subsidiary originator (if applicable e.g. Director). Production
details [viewed date]. Available from: URL
Example
In text
Mark Herman, in his film Brassed Off (1996), attempted to show...
Reference list
Brassed off, 1996 [online video]. Directed by Mark HERMAN. UK:
Film4 [viewed 11 August 2009]. Available from:
mms://mavis.solent.ac.uk/ContentLocal/200209-0542-20575.wmv
6.16
Harvard references: command papers
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a Command Paper is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title (Command paper number). Place of publication:
Publisher.
Example
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In text
The Law Commission (2006, p.11) reported...
Reference list
LAW COMMISSION, 2006. Parliamentary costs bill: report on the
consolidation of legislation relating to parliamentary costs (Cm
6846). Norwich: TSO
The author can be an organization, government department or institution. Enter the details as given
on the publication.
6.17
Harvard references: legal cases
The basic format for creating a Harvard reference for a UK case is:
Names of the parties [Year of publication] Volume number (if available) Abbreviated
Reference for the Law Report Series Start page
The first time you refer to a case in your assignment, include the case reference in full. You can
generally use the first party name for any subsequent references if it is clear to which case you are
referring.
In text
...as documented in Central London Property Trust Ltd v High Trees House Ltd [1947] KB 130
and subsequently:
...also in Central London Property Trust Ltd.
Examples
UK Case in a law report:
Macfarlane v EE Caledonia Ltd [1994] 2 All ER 1
Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart
[1993] A.C. 593
If you wish to refer to specific pages within a judgment, then include these after the reference:
Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart
[1993] A.C. 593, 594
Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart
[1993] A.C. 593 at 594
Neutral Citations:
High Court and Court of Appeal cases from 2001 onwards have neutral citations. A neutral citation
includes the year of the judgment, the Court abbreviation (e.g. UKHL=UK House of Lords,
EWCA=England and Wales Court of Appeal) and the case number. This can be included before a
law report citation, or where a case is otherwise unreported:
R v Rezvi [2002] UKHL 1
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If you wish to refer to specific paragraphs within a judgment, then include these after the reference as
above.
Cases only available electronically
Where a case is only available electronically you should indicate that you looked at it online and
include after your reference:
[online] [viewed date]. Available from: internet address or database name
R v Rezvi [2002] UKHL 1 [online] [viewed 16 June 2008].
Available from: http://www.bailii.org/uk/cases/UKHL/2002/1.html
R v Greet [2005] EWCA Crim 205 [online] [viewed 16 June 2008].
Available from: Westlaw
Unreported cases:
Some unreported cases can be found as transcripts or via the legal databases. A neutral citation
should be given where possible. Cases prior to 2001 should include:
Names of the Parties. Court. Date of Judgment (Unreported)
Hare v Pollard. Court of Appeal Civil Division. 16 June 1997
(Unreported)
Use of Round or Square brackets
Round brackets should be used instead of square where the date is not essential for locating the
case - e.g. where a volume number is provided and the date referred to is the year of judgment
(rather than publication date):
Holdom v Kidd and Others (1986) 61 P&CR 456
6.18
Harvard references: legislation
The name and date of the legislation should be included within the text of your assignment, with
additional information in the reference list.
UK Acts (Statutes):
Title of legislation, including year
Examples
In text
This is governed by the Environment Act 1995.
Reference list
Environment Act 1995
Each Act has a chapter number which you can also include:
16
Environment Act 1995, Ch 25
If you are referring to a particular part of an Act, then include the section (s. or ss.), schedule
(sch.) or paragraph (para) reference:
Environment Act 1995, Ch 25, ss.5-11
Environment Act 1995, Ch 25, sch. 1, para 2
Statutory Instruments (Orders, Rules and Regulations):
Title and year of Statutory Instrument (number)
Example
In text
Cite the title and year and number of the SI in italics – after the first mention you can refer to them by
title/year or SI number.
...as stated in the Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925).
SIs are divided into articles (art.), rules (r. or rr.) or regulations (reg or regs):
...with reference to the Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925) r.15(2).
Reference list
Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925)
Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925) r.15(2)
Bills (proposals for legislation)
Short title (Parliamentary Session) Serial Number
Example
In text
...as described in the Harbours Bill HL Bill (2002-03).
Reference list
The serial number changes every time the Bill is reprinted. Include [ ] for House of Commons bill
numbers.
Health and Safety at Work (Offences Bill) HC Bill (2002-03) [38]
Harbours Bill HL Bill (2002-03) 24
6.19
Harvard references: secondary references
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If you have not read an original source but have read about it through another source and want to
discuss it, you must reference the source you have actually viewed.
If possible, try and locate the original source yourself so you can refer to it directly. If not, the format
for creating a Harvard reference for secondary references is:
In your assignment text:
As Smith (cited in Jones 2007, p.4) has suggested...
(Smith cited in Jones 2007, p.4)
In your reference list:
Fully reference the source you have actually read (e.g. Jones in this example)
'Cited' is another term for 'referenced' - when you refer to another's work, you are citing them
Example
In text
Shuell (cited in Biggs and Tang 2007) puts forward the idea that…
Reference list
BIGGS, J. and C. TANG, 2007. Teaching for Quality Learning at University. 3rd ed.
Maidenhead: Open University Press
6.20
Harvard references: authors with multiple publications
If an author has written more than one work in a year, add a,b,c, etc after the date to distinguish
between them.
Examples
In text
Smith (2007a, p.22) suggested… Further, Smith (2007b, p.3) explained…
Reference list
SMITH, A., 2007a. How to cite references. Southampton: Solent Publishing
SMITH, A., 2007b. Avoiding plagiarism. Southampton: Solent Publishing
This system applies no matter what format the source material is in, e.g. if one author published a
book, a podcast and a journal article all in 2010, they would still be given as 2010a, 2010b and 2010c.
6.21
Harvard references: television and radio programmes
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a television or radio programme is:
Programme title, Year [medium]. Channel. Date. Time
18
Examples
In text
This event was reported on television the same day (News at Ten, 2008).
Reference list
News at ten, 2008 [TV]. ITV1. 16th June. 22:00
Woman's hour, 2008 [radio]. BBC Radio 4. 4th June. 19:00
6.22
Harvard references: interviews
The format for creating a Harvard reference for an interview is:
INTERVIEWEE., Year. Interview. In: Programme title. Medium, Channel. Date. Time
Example
In text
Blair (1997) made the claim that…
Reference list
BLAIR, T., 1997. Interview. In: Six o'clock news. TV, BBC1. 15
August. 18:00
6.23
Harvard references: CD-Roms
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a CD-Rom is:
AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title [type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher
Example
In text
The Story of Glass CD-Rom (Victoria and Albert Museum and the Corning
Museum of Glass, 1995) provides interactive information on…
Note that no page number can be given for a CD-Rom.
Reference list
VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM AND THE CORNING MUSEUM OF GLASS,
1995. The story of glass [CD-Rom]. London: Reed Interactive
This information may be found on the introductory screens as the CD-Rom loads, on screens about
the CD-Rom or on the Library Catalogue.
6.24
Harvard references: sound recordings
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a sound recording is:
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ORIGINATOR(S), Year. Title of piece. In: Title of source. Medium. Production details,
numeration. Distributor
Example
In text
Gordon (1976) gave the example of…
Note that no page number can be given for a sound recording.
Reference list
GORDON, D., 1976. Settin' the pace. In: Long tall Dexter, the
Savoy sessions. Stereo sound disk. New York: Savoy, SIL 221,
side B, track 5. Distributed by Arista Records Inc
6.25
Harvard references: published music
The format for creating a Harvard reference for published music is:
ORIGINATOR(S), Year. Title. Subsidiary ORIGINATOR (e.g. editor). Place of publication:
Publisher
Example
In text
...as seen in the influence of folk music (Britten 1980).
Reference list
BRITTEN, B., 1980. Eight folk song arrangements, for high voice
and harp. Osian ELLIS, ed. London: Faber Music
6.26
Harvard references: letters and telephone calls
It is generally accepted that personal communications such as letters and phone calls do not need to
be included in the final reference list. However, you can refer to them in an assignment and include
full details in your text.
You should get permission to refer to the communication before using it.
Examples
In text
J. Brown outlined this idea in a telephone call on 10th August 2008.
As stated in a letter from D. White on 21st July 2007, it is...
Reference list
If you do wish to include full details in your reference list, you could follow this example:
NAME(S), Year. [Outline of topic discussed] (personal communication, date)
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Examples
BROWN, J., 2008. [Telephone conversation on study skills]
(personal communication, 10 August)
WHITE, D., 2007. [Letter on the history of education in
Southampton] (personal communication, 21 July)
6.27
Harvard references: Hansard: Parliamentary Debates
A Harvard reference to Hansard should be constructed as follows:
House abbreviation Deb (Parliamentary Session) Volume number col. column number
Abbreviations:
use HL for House of Lords and HC for House of Commons
Deb stands for Debate and col. stands for column
Example:
HC Deb (2001-02) 391 col. 982
HL Deb (2005-06) 685 col. 767
6.28
Harvard references: maps
The format for creating a Harvard reference for a map is:
AUTHOR, Year of publication. Title of map, scale. Place of publication: Publisher
Example
In text
On examination of the Ordnance Survey (2002) map of the Isle of Wight, it
can be seen…
Reference list
ORDNANCE SURVEY, 2002. Hampshire and the Isle of Wight: for
touring and local route planning, 1:100000. Southampton:
Ordnance Survey
6.29
Harvard references: podcasts
The format for creating a Harvard reference for podcasts is:
BROADCASTER (if available), Year. Title of podcast [podcast]. Date of podcast [accessed
date]. Available from: URL
Example
In text
21
Riddoch (2008) described...
Note that you cannot give a page number for an audio recording.
Reference list
RIDDOCH, L., 2008. Harnessing Scotland’s energy [podcast]. 29
December [accessed 9 February 2009]. Available from:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/audio/2008/dec/29/scotlandenergy-lesley-riddoch
6.30
Harvard references: missing details
You may not be able to find all the details you need for some references. If some elements are
missing, indicate this in your reference using the following notes:
Examples
6.31
Date unknown
n.d.
Place of publication unknown
s.l.
Publisher unknown
s.n.
Harvard referencing: useful abbreviations
You can use a number of abbreviations within your references:
Examples
anon.
anonymous
ed(s).
editor(s) or edition
et al.
and others (for multiple authors)
dir.
director
wr.
writer
prod.
producer
p.
page
pp.
pages
op. cit.
in the work already quoted
ibid.
in the same book or article etc as just
quoted
Be CONSISTENT in the way you write the references (e.g. use of punctuation and layout).
If your tutors give you specific instructions on how they want references laid out, follow
these.
You may be asked to provide either a:
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•
•
reference list: gives full details only for the sources you have directly referred to in
your assignment
bibliography: gives full details for all sources used during your research as well as
the ones directly referred to
Here is an example of a final reference list:
List all your sources in alphabetical order of author.
Reference List
ANDREWS, M., 2002. Using technology in your presentation. In: L.WHITE and E. DAVIDS, eds.
Enhancing your presentation. London: Sage, pp.91-104
BELL, J., 2005. Doing your research project: a guide for first time researchers in education,
health and social science. 4th ed. Maidenhead: Open UP
BRADLEY, P., 2008. Word of the day is 'exaflood'. In: Phil Bradley's weblog [online]. 29 April
2008 [viewed 9 May 2008]. Available from: http://philbradley.typepad.com/phil_bradleys_weblog/
DEAKIN UNIVERSITY, 2006. The literature review [online] [viewed 6 May 2008]. Available from:
http://www.deakin.edu.au/library/findout/research/litrev.php
Macbeth, 1948 [film]. Directed by Orson WELLES. USA: Republic Pictures
MESSMER, M., 2003. Public speaking success strategies. The national public accountant [online],
Nov 2003, 26 [viewed 6 May 2008]. Available from: ABI Inform
POOLE, N., 2007. Activating laboratories using Visual Basic for Applications. Engineering
education [online], 2(2), 44-53 [viewed 9 May 2008]. Available from:
http://www.engsc.ac.uk/journal/index.php/ee/issue/view/22
STEVENS, M., 1996. How to be better at … giving presentations. London: Kogan Page
WHITFIELD, N., 2008. The evolution of broadband. Personal computer world, June 2008, 30-7
WILLIAMSON, H., 2007. Disconnected youth?: Growing up in Britain's poor neighbourhoods. Journal
of social policy [online], 36(2), 356-7 [viewed 9 May 2008]. Available from: ABI Inform
7.
Related links
Southampton Solent University’s academic misconduct procedures
Library referencing guides
Refworks: online software to help you store, manage and use your references in
assignments
BU guide to citation in the Harvard style - guidance produced by Bournemouth University
PEARS, R. and G. SHIELDS, 2010. Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th
ed. Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books (shelved at 029.65 PEA)
For additional tutorials see [email protected] on myCourse:
http://mycourse.solent.ac.uk/succeed/research
Last update: Sept 2010
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