Family Planning Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World

Family Planning
Improving the Lives of Women
and Their Families
Around the World
Message from the Director
Family Planning Facts
10 Family Planning Research
14 Collaborative Research
16 Institutional Development
22 Individual Development
Inside back cover: Executive Committee, Faculty and Staff
Cover Credits:
Illustration: Joe Cepeda
Top: Photo Courtesy of Flickr
Creative Commons
Middle: Pakistani Family © DFID
Courtesy of Flickr
Creative Commons
Bottom: A child with her mother in
Accra, Ghana.
© 2008 Erberto Zani,
Courtesy of Photoshare
This page:
Photo Courtesy of Flickr
Creative Commons
Back Cover: Children in a village
near Jodhpur, India, where the
Veerni Project works. The girl at
right was married at age 10.
© 2004 Rose Reis, Courtesy of
Sometimes progress can be measured in leaps; other times, it is marked in an incremental
crawl forward. During the timeframe of this report, each progressive step taken by the Gates
Institute and its partners has fostered better understanding and improved lives around the
globe. Mothers were empowered to space the births of their children, fathers became more
involved in health and family planning, infants and youth saw their potential for a healthy
life increase. Through research, academic programs and partnerships with leaders and leading institutions, from individual choice to community enlightenment to national policy, the
Gates Institute is marking and making positive change.
Message from the Director
As our report goes to press, the seven billionth human (7BH) is joining the world’s
population. This baby has a slightly higher chance of being a boy than a girl and an
even greater chance of being born in India than any other country. Wherever this
baby is born, she/he hopefully will reach his or her 15th birthday with at least a
decade of schooling and good nutrition, having been nurtured in a positive family
environment. In 2050, when 7BH is 39 years old, she/he will share the planet and
its fragile resources with an additional 2.3 billion humans. Undoubtedly, the share
of the world’s population that is educated, urban and middle class will have risen
substantially by then. The global economy will bend to market demographics, most
likely focused on India, China, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Brazil, Pakistan and the U.S., but
also on market unions in Europe, Asia and Africa. Family and public investments
in 7BH’s start in life will be the most important factors in launching her or him on
a path toward a productive and healthy adulthood. In fact, pre-conceptional health
and pregnancy health are fundamental aspects of family planning and mark critical
periods to nurture and nourish.
Some experts liken contraceptive’s importance for maternal health as
similar to that of vaccinations for child health. Yet, while immunization
coverage of infants is 85 percent or higher in the developing world, there
are more than 200 million women who are not benefiting from access to
contraception. These women seek to space or limit their births but are not
using contraception.
The Gates Institute believes that women and men wish to experience parenthood responsibly and desire their experience to be enhanced by reliable
and accurate information. Delivering this knowledge and working with likeminded partners to discover new evidence are Institute objectives. Under the
Institute, a three-year initiative, Advance Family Planning, was launched in
2009 to conduct evidence-based advocacy. The Institute also co-organized
two international conferences on youth development in Abuja, Nigeria, and
on family planning in Kampala, Uganda. Four journal supplements have
captured some of the research presented there. More than 750 graduate
students across six academic partner institutions have gained exposure to
reproductive health and population training. Our partners themselves have
become independently recognized for their expertise in this area and contribute to national and international policy forums.
We are glad to have the privilege to work with many partners on a shared
mission to strengthen family planning efforts and improve reproductive
health and population well-being with solid evidence. For us, research evidence on family planning is a type of social vaccine. With a social vaccine,
individuals, families, communities and societies can enjoy security against
such adverse consequences as poverty, premature death, poor health, illiteracy and unemployment. Please join us in helping to develop and deliver
the social vaccines that will ensure a better future for the 7 billion human
beings—and counting—on the planet we share.
Amy Ong Tsui, PhD
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
“We believe that the Institute has
contributed in several important
ways to the development of increasingly strong academic centers, particularly in Africa, as well
as to a significant increase in the
attention being paid to population issues, family planning, and
reproductive health by those who
influence and make policy in the
region. This is no small
From “Report of an External Evaluation,”
September 2011
Photo Courtesy of Flickr Creative Commons
The 60% of women who used a traditional method or no method account for 91% of the unintended pregnancies in 2008.
No Method
Traditional Method
Modern Method
Source: Guttmacher Institute, UNFPA, 2010
Women wanting to avoid a
pregnancy (78 million)
Unintended Pregnancies
(17 million)
A couple and their two children in Nigeria.
© 2000 Liz Gilbert, Courtesy of Photoshare
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Family Planning Facts – Global and Africa-specific Statistics
170 million women have no access to safe and effective methods of family planning in developing countries.1
1/3 of population growth is due to unplanned pregnancies.2
year, nearly 80 million are unintended.3
Of the 210 million pregnancies occurring each
Each year, modern contraceptives help women prevent 215,000
pregnancy-related deaths (including 66,000 from unsafe abortions), 2.7 million infant deaths and the loss of 60
million years of healthy life.4
Demand for modern contraception is expected to increase by about 50% to
75% by the year 2020 in countries still reliant on donor assistance for implementing their programs.5
5 married women of childbearing age have an unmet need for contraception in Africa.6
women of reproductive age use a modern contraceptive in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Africa are unintended.8
and childbirth in Africa.
17% of married
39% of pregnancies in
For every 100,000 births, 640 women die of complications related to pregnancy
Unintended pregnancies would drop by 77%
in Africa if women’s family planning needs and maternal and newborn health care needs were met.11
million women 15-19 years old give birth each year.12
Sub-Saharan Africa.
1 in
n 760,000 lives would be saved annually in Africa if women’s family planning needs
and maternal and newborn health care needs were met.10
Adolescent women account for 16% of all births in
15% of unmarried adolescent women in Sub-Saharan Africa are sexually active and
want to prevent pregnancy.14 n 21% of married adolescents who want to prevent pregnancy are using a modern contraceptive method in Sub-Saharan Africa.15
Sub-Saharan adolescent females.1
2.2 million unintended pregnancies occur each year to
21.6 million unsafe abortions occurred worldwide in 2008.17
reasons why women do not use contraceptives most commonly include concerns about possible health and sideeffects and the belief that they are not at risk of getting pregnant.18
Each dollar spent on family planning can
save governments up to $31 in health care, water, education, housing and sewers and other waste disposal.19
Expanding the number of women in the workforce by investing in their education could increase per capita
income in some countries by as much as 14% by 2020, and 20% by 2030 in many developing countries.20
Smith et al. Family Planning Saves Lives, 4th ed. Population Reference Bureau, 2009, p. 4.
2; facts and figures.
WHO, Unsafe Abortion- Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2005, 5th ed.
(Geneva: WHO, 2007).
Guttmacher Institute, UNFPA. Contraception: An Investment in Lives, Health and Development, 2008 Series.
The baseline year is 2005. The lower number is the expected increase in demand based on projected fertility declines (UN median
variant). The higher is required to eliminate unmet need for family planning in these countries. Of these projected increases, 33 percent are
due to population growth; the rest to expected increases in demand. UNFPA Factsheet: population growth and poverty; http://www.unfpa.
Alan Guttmacher Institute & IPPF, Facts on Satisfying the Need for Contraception in Developing Countries, November 2010.
WHO, Adolescent Pregnancy. MPS Notes, 1(1): 2008.
Guttmacher Institute & IPPF, Facts on adolescent women in the developing world, 2010.
World Health Organization (WHO), Unsafe abortion. Global and regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated
mortality in 2008, Geneva: WHO, 2010.
Sedgh G et al., Women with an unmet need for contraception in developing countries and their reasons for not using a method, Occasional Report, New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2007, No. 37.
Guttmacher Institute, UNFPA, Contraception: An Investment in Lives, Health and Development, 2008 Series.
Goldman Sachs: Women Hold Up Half the Sky, March 2008, accessed April 2009.
The Gates Institute brings the world together around issues involving youth, family
planning and reproductive health. At international conferences, social and political
leaders meet scientists, and the exchanges enlighten and inspire. Participants return home revitalized and encouraged, eager to apply their new knowledge to benefit
their communities and nations.
International Youth Conference 2008
According to Girls Count, young people constitute the fastest growing segment of the world’s population. The Population Reference Bureau has underscored the significance of this by observing that there are 1.77 billion
youth in the world, ages 10 to 24—almost one-third of the world’s current
population—and 87 percent of them live in low-income settings.
To address the issues inherent in these numbers, the Gates Institute and its
partners—the Center for Population and Reproductive Health at the University of Ibadan and the Department of Community Health at Obafemi Awolowo
University (OAU)—hosted an international conference, “Investing in Young
People’s Health and Development: Research that Improves Policies and Programs,” in Abuja, Nigeria, in April 2008. More than 160 experts shared the
results of their research and program efforts on population, development,
sexual and reproductive health, poverty reduction and gender equity as they
affect young people.
There were more than 550 conference participants from 36 countries who
participated in the oral and poster sessions and expert roundtables that focused on such youth-relevant topics as nutritional challenges, urbanization,
networking activists for health, male circumcision, employment and malaria.
To enable policymakers to benefit from the wealth of evidence presented at
the conference, heads of national adolescent health programs were invited
from ministries of health in Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria and
Sudan. The policymakers participated in a special session to discuss scaling up effective interventions. Nigerian legislators also engaged in direct
dialogue with youth.
Well-attended, skill-building workshops were offered before and after the
conference by Advocates for Youth, Family Health International, Guttmacher
Institute, International Center for Research on Women, Population Council,
University of California at Berkeley, and the World Health Organization.
To increase public access to significant conference findings, the Institute
partnered with the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) to bring journalists
from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda to join Nigerian journalist colleagues to
report on the conference.
The Call to Action (available at
policy_practice/conferences-meetings/adolhealth/calltoaction.html) distilled the meeting’s key findings. It was shared with donors, program developers, policymakers and researchers, urging them to mobilize new resources
and scale up efforts to invest in youth. Two journals, the Journal of Adolescence and International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health,
have published research papers from the conference with overview papers
by Bloomberg School and OAU faculty, Drs. Michelle Hindin and Adesegun
Fatusi, respectively.
Research Messages from the Youth Conference
• Adolescent health and development research is diverse, expansive and
• Common concerns include stages of development; factors that influence
healthy transitions to adulthood; models for individual, familial and social
management of sexuality and initiation of childbearing; and gender security.
A substantial number of studies focused on contextual influences, such as
interpersonal relationships that mentor positive growth, and risk-protective
environments of institutions, such as schools, faith-based organizations,
legal codes and regulations, and societal norms.
• It is important to embed young persons in a multiplicity of supportive
• Education is critical for empowering young people because schools often serve as the gateways for exposure to and absorption of life-protecting
information. Educational programs need to be linked to national youth development strategies, and responsibility for their implementation should be
• Several innovative program models can expand beneficiary coverage,
including reaching newlyweds and tapping faith-based organizations.
• Most importantly, youth spoke out as researchers and educators and
said their future is NOW.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
“Young people need the right information at the right time and from
the right person, so we need to improve communication about sexuality. Adolescents shouldn’t fall victim to things like STIs, pregnancy
and HIV because of lack of good
Obe Olajide
Student of Dentistry
Community Dental Health Program
University of Lagos, Nigeria
An adolescent couple in Mexico. Mexico is home to
one of the largest segments of young people about to
enter their reproductive years. In fact, with roughly
half the world’s population under the age of 24, some
experts are bracing for a “Millennium Baby Boom” in
the world’s poorest countries where both education
and contraception can be hard to come by. Mexico’s
efforts to improve women’s status and to promote family planning services will greatly impact the quality of
life for everyone on the planet. © 2000 Rick Maiman,
Courtesy of Photoshare
International Conference on Family Planning 2009
“Family planning is to maternal health what immunization is to child
health.” These words from Dr. Khama Rogo, then of the World Bank, encouraged more than 1,300 conference participants from 61 countries to take
up the challenge to share and apply family planning research discoveries
and best practices for family health and family wealth. The conference was
organized by the Gates Institute in partnership with Makerere University’s
School of Public Health and more than 50 other organizations, including
WHO’s Implementing Best Practices Initiative in Reproductive Health, USAID,
UNFPA, the World Bank, the Gates and Packard foundations and others. The
conference was the first of its kind in more than 20 years.
The organizing committee re-affirmed previous calls for action related to
family planning, with an appeal to participants to fulfill past promises. The
international forum fostered the sharing of findings, identified knowledge
gaps and inspired vigorous discussion about using new knowledge to transform development policy.
The conference was attended by many dignitaries from African nations and
was opened by the First Lady of Uganda, Mrs. Janet Museveni, who observed,
“Family planning reduces maternal deaths by avoiding risky pregnancies
that are either too early or too late, too many or too close.”
The conference included approximately 300 oral and 100 poster presentations, numerous expert roundtables, and capacity-building workshops. It received media coverage from National Public Radio and from print and online
journals in China, Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda. Conference events were published through blogs, Twitter updates and real-time conversation through
Global Health Live from Kampala, hosted by Family Health International.
The ICFP has accelerated interest in family planning, especially in SubSaharan Africa, where families face many challenges. A team in Nigeria
replicated in 2010 the international conference at the national level, and
other conferences have been held in Kenya, India, Senegal and Burkina Faso.
In addition, the 2nd Women Deliver conference explicitly incorporated family planning as the third pillar to maternal health, for which the Institute
together with IPPF organized 10 panel sessions to address the link between
family planning and maternal health.
International Conference on Family Planning 2011
Family planning remains out of reach for many couples in low-income settings; more than 200 million couples in the developing world are unable
to control the number and spacing of births. Among the many technologies
available to improve the human condition, family planning is one of the most
cost-effective interventions, with enduring health and welfare benefits for
women, families and nations.
The coming decades will see a record number of young people entering prime
reproductive ages. Ensuring the Millennium Development Goal 5b of universal access to reproductive health requires comprehensive resource planning,
which in turn requires a continually refreshed base of strong evidence, best
practices and a wide range of contraceptive commodities.
To that end, the Gates Institute and the Senegal Ministry of Health—with
such partners as the Gates Foundation, USAID, DFID, UNFPA, World Bank,
AFD, GIZ and the European community—are co-hosting the November 2011
International Conference on Family Planning in Dakar. The conference program includes around 400 oral and poster presentations, interactive skillbuilding sessions, expert roundtables, and more. National and international
journalists will report on the event.
With more than 2,000 registrants to date—including researchers, program
managers, policymakers, representatives from international donor organizations and foundations, many young people and newly emerging leaders—
global discourse to advance family planning continues.
Research Priorities Addressed at the ICFP
• Contraceptive use—How can women and men be encouraged and enabled to use contraceptives properly and regularly?
• Contraceptive technology—Can we engineer contraceptives that provide
dual protection, e.g., vaginal rings combining hormones with microbicides?
• Service delivery approaches—What are the best ways to achieve community buy-in, involve community health workers, and integrate family planning with maternal and child health care?
• Commodity security\franchising—What are the most cost-effective
ways to provide high-quality injectables and implants and integrate family
planning into other health care points of entry?
• HIV integration—How can we prevent vertical and pediatric transmission cost-effectively?
• Cost\financing—Can we capitalize on private and public innovations in
service delivery and financing, e.g., social franchising and marketing?
• Youth and men—What is the best way to increase outreach to them?
Concluding Themes of the ICFP
• We know what to do—we need more action, as scaled-up programs.
• Our efforts must be harmonized to reduce duplication.If we work collaboratively, we are a powerful force for change.
• African leadership must continue to take ownership of family planning.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
“In Africa, a lot of young persons
are being plagued by sexual health
challenges like unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. In
many parts of Nigeria, there are
still gender inequities, and sexually transmitted infections are still
prevalent among youth. Coming to
a conference like this is a lifetime
investment because I realize I can
conduct my own research on issues
that are plaguing youths.”
Ayodeji Adeyemo
Action Group on Adolescent Health
Student, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
A mother with her child attends an awareness rally
on safe motherhood and family planning in Kolkata,
India. A recent report shows that in India every day,
288 pregnant women, most in the prime of their lives
and some still in their teens, die from pregnancy-related complications. In West Bengal alone, a pregnant
woman dies every two hours.
© 2005 Sudipto Das, Courtesy of Photoshare
Gates Institute researchers glean knowledge from around the globe, and study results are recognized in leading publications in the field of reproductive health. In
December 2010, for example, four original research projects, described below, were
published in a special issue of the African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 14.
In addition, all nine partner institutions are jointly pursuing a Family Health and
Wealth Study to understand better family planning’s consequences for household
Knowledge, Perceptions and Ever Use of Modern
Contraception among Women in the Ga East District,
R. Aryeetey, A.M. Kotoh and M.J. Hindin
In the Ga East district, a 30-minute drive from the business center of Accra,
Ghana’s capital, the district health administration commissioned a study
to understand why family planning (FP) was suboptimal and adolescent
pregnancies were on the rise. Trained field assistants interviewed residents
of randomly selected households in 2006, and study results were based on
surveys of 332 women, ages 15-49 years. Data was collected on awareness,
perception and utilization of family planning methods as well as barriers to
accessing family planning services.
Assessing the Importance of Gender Roles in Couples’
Home-based Sexual Health Services in Malawi
J.D. Gipson, C.J. Muntifering, F.K. Chauwa, F. Taulo, A.O. Tsui and M.J. Hindin
Malawi is a landlocked country of 14.2 million people with one of the highest
HIV prevalence rates in the world—11.8 percent among adults ages 15-49.
Gender-based differences shape HIV/AIDS and family planning knowledge,
attitudes and behaviors in the country. Although knowledge of family planning methods is widespread among both men and women, 28 percent of
women have never discussed family planning with their husbands, and 27
percent of men think that contraception is a “woman’s business.”
Knowledge of modern FP was almost universal (97 percent) although knowledge of more than three methods was lower, at 56 percent. About 60 percent
of all and 65 percent of married respondents reported ever use of a modern
method, and the most common methods ever used were the male condom,
injectables and the pill. Among ever users, 82 percent thought contraceptives were effective for birth control. However, one-third did not consider
modern FP safe, and 65 percent of users reported at least one side effect.
This exploratory, qualitative study examined the feasibility and acceptability of providing couples’ home-based sexual health services in selected
communities near Blantyre. Data from six focus group discussions and 10
husband-wife in-depth interviews provided a more thorough understanding
of how gender norms differentially impact men and women. Findings reveal
that women are expected to defer to their husbands and may avoid conflict
through covert contraceptive use and non-disclosure of HIV status. Many
men felt that accessing sexual health services was stigmatizing, causing
some to avoid services or to rely on informal information sources.
About 20 percent indicated their male partner as a barrier. Being married
was significantly associated with ever use of a modern contraceptive method, and most women who had used a modern method reported a joint decision on family planning with their spouse. A majority of women (81 percent)
thought that male partners should be involved in the decision to use modern
family planning methods. However, health services are not male-friendly.
Restructuring services to include men could greatly expand utilization by
both men and women.
Couple-focused family planning interventions were shown to be more effective, with respect to contraceptive acceptance and continuation, compared
to interventions with women alone. However, it is important to consider
potential repercussions of the intervention, as information revealed during
intervention could exacerbate existing gender inequalities. These concerns
are particularly salient for women, who tend to have less decision-making
power and are dependent on their partners or spouses for economic and social well-being.
The study found that health service barriers constitute an important challenge. Although there have been marginal improvements in infrastructure
and consumable items for service delivery, barriers to the utilization of family
planning remain: contraceptives are frequently out of stock and providers
lack skills and understanding of the full range of methods. Interventions are
needed to address service- and knowledge-related barriers to use.
Unless sexual health services reach men with more regularity, family planning and VCT will continue to be a “gendered” process. There are considerable benefits to couples being tested simultaneously, and the presence of a
trained counselor can help mitigate the risks of unexpected test results or
contraceptive use disclosure.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Use of HIV-related Services and Modern Contraception
among Women of Reproductive Age, Rakai, Uganda
F. Makumbi, G. Nakigozi, T. Lutalo, J. Kagayi, J. Sekasanvu, A. Settuba, D.
Serwada, M. Wawer and R. Gray
Contraceptive use is still relatively low in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the
levels of fertility and unmet need for family planning continue to be high. The
lifetime risk of dying due to pregnancy complications is 1 in 22 compared to
1 in 73,000 in the developed world, suggesting a need to prevent unintended
and unwanted pregnancies, especially among HIV-infected women who tend
to have poorer birth outcomes than those who are uninfected.
In Uganda, knowledge of modern contraceptives is almost universal, but current contraceptive use is comparatively low; the contraceptive prevalence
rate of married women is only 24 percent. Among unmarried sexually active
women, the use of contraceptives is about two times higher, 54 percent.
Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and HIV care (HIVC) can be an opportunity for reproductive health messages and services integration.
This study assessed the association between the use of HIV-related services,
the utilization of condoms for family planning and use of modern contraception among reproductive-age women in Rakai District. Data were derived
from community cohorts; HIV-positive respondents were referred to the Rakai
Health Sciences HIVC clinic.
The significantly high use of condoms for family planning among VCT clients
and HIV care attendees clearly suggests that HIV programs can increase
family planning practice in resource-limited settings. More needs to be done,
however, to increase the use of other contraceptive methods.
The greater use of condoms-only, relative to other modern methods for family
planning among the unmarried, suggests that this group may be opting for
a method that can both help them avoid unwanted pregnancies and protect
against sexually transmitted diseases. The study findings will be used to
help integrate reproductive health messages and services into VCT and HIV
care programs.
A community health peer educator in the Kamukunji slums of
Eldoret, Kenya, looks on as two adolescents study a book on
adolescent sexuality.
© 2003 Jones Kilonzo, Courtesy of Photoshare
Influence of Independent and Proximate Variables on
Condom Use in Selected States in Nigeria
A.I. Akinyemi, J.O. Aransiola, O. Banjo, O. Bamiwuye, O. Fadeyibi and A.
Family planning and reproductive health indicators in Nigeria are generally
poor, and child mortality and maternal mortality rates are among the highest
in the world. Sexual risk behaviors have contributed significantly to these
high rates. The spacing and timing of pregnancy occur at unintended times
for nearly one third of reproductive-age women. Although most women prefer
smaller family sizes, the total fertility rate is estimated at 5.7 births per
woman, signaling a substantial need for contraception. Coupled with these
factors is the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is low in Nigeria, with less than 15
percent of married females using any family planning method. This study
showed that efforts at raising awareness of the benefits of condom use
among married couples should be intensified. Condom use is one of the major forms of family planning that also reduces the likelihood of contracting
sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS.
The study examined factors associated with condom use, using data from
3,797 sexually active respondents of reproductive age. Levels of condom use
were very low in the northern, as compared to other Nigerian states. Younger
and better educated respondents were more likely to report condom use. Social values were becoming more tolerant to family planning, and condoms
were openly displayed in many health facilities. Awareness of HIV and other
sexually transmitted infections, as well as the desire to avoid unwanted
pregnancy, appears to motivate youth to use condoms.
Family Health and Wealth Study
In 2009, the Gates Partner network embarked on the Family Health and
Wealth Study (FHWS), a research project designed to examine the relationship between childbearing patterns and family health and wealth outcomes.
Nine Gates Institute partner institutions in China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana,
India, Malawi, Nigeria and Uganda are participating. As of July 2011, nearly
5,000 families had been recruited to the study by the partner institutions.
Currently, investigating sites are preparing for the second round of data
collection. One of the first analyses was completed by Carie Muntifering,
Michelle Hindin and Easmon Otupiri to examine how marital relationship
quality may influence contraceptive decision-making in Kumasi, Ghana. This study assessed psychometric properties of four relationship quality
scales and calculated mean ratings of different dimensions of relationship
quality for 799 cohabitating/married couples of reproductive age. The analysis showed that on average, men and women rated the quality of their relationship high, and several dimensions of relationship quality were positively
associated with contraceptive use. The study concluded that relationship
quality scales validated in high-income countries provide a framework for
constructing similar measures in Ghana and that relationship quality is itself an important aspect of contraceptive decision-making.
While there are national policies and programs aimed at promoting family
planning services, the study suggests that more efforts can be focused on
the marginalized—those uneducated and living in rural and northern areas.
In the same vein, religious leaders need to be encouraged to participate in
family planning programs. The paper concludes that understanding factors
influencing condom use is critical to improving family planning and reproductive health in Nigeria.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Although knowledge of family
planning methods is widespread
among both men and women,
28 percent of women have never
discussed family planning with
their husbands, and 27 percent
of men think that contraception
is a “woman’s business.”
Above: Adolescents at a high school in Bamako, Mali
perform a skit about unintended pregnancy and then
discuss the relevance to their own lives. © 2000 Elizabeth Robinson, Courtesy of Photoshare
Left: A condom demonstration for adolescents in Hanoi,
© 2002 Nguyen Thien Bac, Courtesy of Photoshare
The Gates Institute supports collaborative research between Johns Hopkins University faculty and faculty/scientists in partner institutions and other developing countries. The research relates to the key areas of adolescent health, family planning,
HIV and sexual health, maternal health, men’s reproductive health, post-abortion
care and population/demographic techniques. The findings are published in highly
regarded journals, influencing programs and policies around the world.
Adolescent Health
Abortion and Contraception
In this reporting period, the Gates Institute has funded three initiatives on
adolescent health. One was a three-Asian city study; one was a small grants
initiative for participants in the Gates Institute Summer Institute, and the
last was a small grants program for young researchers in Pakistan. To enable
interaction among researchers, the Institute planned that its 2008 leadership forum would focus on adolescent health and development at the Abuja
Youth Conference. Formal submissions were solicited from researchers, and
after review of the abstracts, six papers from the three-city study, five from
the small grants initiative, and four from the Pakistan small grants program
were accepted for presentation at the conference. A post-conference publication skills workshop was held, and the best papers were submitted for a
scientific journal supplement.
In 2006, case studies of how pregnancy termination relates to contraceptive
use were completed in five countries—Pakistan, Mexico, Peru, Nigeria and
the United States. The studies were conducted by researchers at the Population Council (Pakistan), El Colegio de Mexico, Cayetano University in Peru,
Obafemi Awolowo University in Nigeria, and the Guttmacher Institute for the
U.S. The qualitative studies, based on in-depth interviews conducted with
females and males, are now published in a 2011 supplement of the Global
Public Health Journal. In addition to the five case studies, two overview papers were prepared which found that:
One study has had more recent observations. In 2005, the Gates Institute
awarded a grant to Dr. Laurie Schwab Zabin. In collaboration with researchers in Shanghai, Taipei and Hanoi, Dr. Zabin assessed the determinants of
sexual behaviors and reproductive health of adolescents and young adults in
three Asian cities with Confucian-based cultures. In March 2009, the team
published “Levels of change in adolescent sexual behavior in three Asian
cities” in Studies in Family Planning. The study explores the dimensions
and context of this change in three sites at different stages in the process
of modernization: Hanoi (early), Shanghai (intermediate), and Taipei (later
stage). A survey was conducted of 17,016 males and females ages 15–24
in urban and rural settings. Survival analysis and Cox regressions were performed to explore ages of respondents at key transitions and the significance
of differences between two age cohorts: 15–19 and 20–24.
• Reproductive planning is largely non-existent. Accidental pregnancies
are common, not necessarily because of contraceptive failure but because of
careless unprotected sex.
• Opting between contraception or induced abortion is not really a matter
of choice.
• Contraceptive methods are negatively viewed by those terminating
• Male partners are engaged with pregnancy management but their roles
are poorly understood.
• Abortion stigma is strongly felt but not frequently experienced, largely
because disclosure is rare.
• Abortion experience affects subsequent reproductive behaviors, with
most females and males voicing intentions to use contraception postabortion.
The study concluded that considerable change in the romantic and sexual
behaviors of Asian young people may be occurring as traditionally Confucian
societies modernize and increase outside contacts. Significant differences
were found, even within the narrow time span reflected by the age cohorts.
The findings highlight the impact of modernization on adolescent sexual behavior as traditional societies undergo social change, and they underline the
importance of context in exploring youthful transitions.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
The study concluded that considerable change in the
romantic and sexual behaviors of Asian young people
may be occurring as traditionally Confucian societies
modernize and increase outside contacts. Photo credit:
Creative Commons
Maternal and Child Health
HIV and Family Planning Integration
In conflict-riddled eastern Burma (Myanmar), and particularly among internally displaced communities along the border, obstetric care was traditionally delivered by untrained birth attendants, resulting in rates of infant and
maternal mortality many times higher than rates in neighboring Thailand.
In 2005, four ethnic health organizations, the Center for Public Health and
Human Rights at Johns Hopkins, and the Global Health Access Program collaborated to launch the Mobile Obstetric Medics (MOM) Project, dramatically
improving access to skilled care.
In 2005, the Gates Institute launched a study in Ethiopia in collaboration
with Pathfinder International/Ethiopia, the Miz-Hasab Research Center and
Jhpiego, and with support from the David and Lucile Packard and the William
and Flora Hewlett foundations. The study evaluated whether adding a family
planning component to voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) programs fulfills an existing demand for contraception among VCT attendees, including
both HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. The study was completed in
fall 2009, and the results have been published in the World Health Organization Bulletin, AIDS Care and in the November 2009 AIDS Supplement on HIV
and Family Planning. Among the major findings are:
In a November 2010 talk at JHSPH, “Renewal Out of Ruin: Saving Lives and
Building Capacity in Fragile and Failed States,” Assistant Secretary of State
Eric P. Schwartz highlighted the MOM Project as an effective strategy. Also in
2010, project results were published in PLoS Medicine. Lead author Luke Mullany observed, “Our collaboration and the work of our implementing partners
produced a three-tiered network of community-based providers who were
able to provide elements of basic emergency obstetric care.” From 2005 to
2008, births attended by trained health providers increased almost ten-fold,
and the effort was viewed as a model for settings with similar constraints.
• VCT clients in Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Integrated with
Contraceptives Study (VICS) facilities are young, well-educated and urban.
Many are sexually inactive.
• VCT clients demonstrated more contraceptive use and lower unmet contraceptive need at endline compared to baseline.
• The quality of VCT counseling improved markedly post-intervention. Clients received more family planning and HIV counseling at endline than at
• Despite major improvements in counseling, contraceptive uptake was
relatively low. HIV-positive clients and those with more sexual risk were more
likely to receive both contraceptive counseling and contraceptive methods in
VCT sessions.
Many of the VICS clients were at low risk for unintended pregnancy and HIV,
either because they were not having sex or already using contraception. This
may explain the relatively low contraceptive uptake among study participants. Significantly, clients with more sexual risk were more likely to accept
both contraceptive counseling and methods, suggesting that the benefits
from integrating family planning and VCT services may be more pronounced
among higher risk populations. The quality of both HIV and family planning
counseling improved dramatically, indicating, at the very least, that service
integration is possible in the Ethiopian context.
Offering services that do not reflect the needs of the program’s catchment
population is a persistent concern for health programs. The most salient
finding from the VICS study is that policy-makers and program managers
should know and understand their client populations before deciding whether service integration is likely to be efficacious or cost-effective. This study
suggests that higher risk clients are interested in receiving family planning
methods as part of VCT, and HIV and reproductive health programs should
consider targeting clients who are most in need of sexual health services.
A health provider demonstrates the use
of the moon bead method for family planning at a health fair in Uganda.
© 2008 Daniel Kasansula, Courtesy of
Strengthening the reproductive health training and research capacity of institutions
in developing countries is a primary focus of Gates Institute efforts. Through MPH
degree training and strong, sustainable academic programs, we are producing wellinformed reproductive health specialists—future generations of practitioners who
will work at the community level to improve reproductive health.
Global Institute Network
Measuring Performance
In this reporting period, the Institute had multi-year partnerships with eight
academic institutions in seven countries: Assiut University (Egypt); Addis
Ababa University (Ethiopia); Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and
Technology (Ghana); University of Malawi (Malawi); University of Ibadan
(Nigeria), Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria), Makerere University
(Uganda) and the Health Services Academy (Pakistan).
The Institute monitors a set of performance measures that address the areas
above for capacity strengthening of six partnerships and regularly shares the
collective findings. The three newest partnerships (in Egypt, Pakistan and
Uganda) have significantly smaller programs and are monitored with other
criteria. Institute staff visit all partnerships annually to observe programs
and review progress. These partnerships have all built training capacity from
a base of zero: none of these institutions had a graduate training program in
reproductive health prior to the commencement of the partnership.
The first five years of each institutional partnership focused on strengthening an educational infrastructure for reproductive health training and
research, such as updating a Population and Reproductive Health (PRH)
curriculum, launching the PRH graduate degree programs, providing grants
to students and faculty for PRH research, enhancing the teaching skills of
faculty through visits to Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,
and upgrading computer laboratory equipment and Internet connectivity. In
some cases, it was necessary to acquire electricity generators to secure a
regular supply of power.
The table on the next page shows the status of five programs that have been
in the partnership for at least six years (2003-2009). The subagreement for
a sixth program, at the University of Ghana, was not immediately renewed
upon expiration in late October 2008. The “return on investment” was significant—that is, over this period, the amount generated in external RH funding
has ranged from $0.45 to $7.51, with an average of $2.28.
Work continues now in the second five years with the addition of steps toward
sustainability. In this phase, partners are encouraged to achieve sustainability by:
• Establishing a National Advisory Group to advise on priority research
areas, facilitate linkages to local funding agencies and translate results into
national activities;
• Mentoring another university to extend PRH training and research
opportunities and to integrate that increased capacity into national PRH
• Strengthening research and analytical skills to build a strong scientific base in country through peer-reviewed journal publications, externally
funded research and dissemination activities; and
• Establishing new professional RH associations (where none exist) to
enhance the exchange of findings between research and program practice
at annual meetings and through the regular publication of a journal that
includes peer-reviewed research articles.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
“Institutional development will be
the key to ensuring that the efforts
of the Gates Institute will have a
lasting impact on population and
reproductive health in Africa. All
the evidence shows that the partner
institutions have been significantly
strengthened through the work of
the Institute.”
From “Report of an External Evaluation,” September 2011
of Ibadan
University of
in PRH
RH program
PRH courses
Faculty visits
to JHU
Photo © Eric Bruce Salsbery
Partnership Site Reports
Egypt: Assiut University, Faculty of Medicine, Department
of Public Health and Community Medicine
Ethiopia: Addis Ababa University, School of Public
The project, Building Reproductive Health Capacity to Serve the People of Upper Egypt, is a collaboration with JHSPH and is funded by the Gates Institute.
The overall goal of the project is to reach the grassroots level in communities and improve reproductive health services. Manpower development is at
the heart of the project, with both short- and long-term strategies aimed to
provide the provincial Ministry of Health and Population with well-trained
physician leaders in the area of RH.
The number of MPH students specializing in Reproductive Health (RH Specialty Track) continued to be one of the highest in the School of Public Health
in 2009 and 2010, representing about one-third of the total enrollment. A
similar proportion of doctoral candidates who joined the school in the years
2009 and 2010 chose the RH Specialty Track.
In 2008 and 2009, faculty conducted 12 workshops for audiences such as
physicians and nurses. The workshops included a curriculum development
series on such topics as “Making Evidence-based Decisions in Reproductive
Health” and “Communicating Research Results on Population and Reproductive Health Issues to Policy Audiences.”
In April 2009, Assiut University organized and held the First Regional Conference on the Population Problem in Upper Egypt. Her Excellency, Dr. Moushira
Khattab, who was newly appointed Minister of Population and Governor of
Assiut Nabeel El-Ezabee, launched the conference. The conference was held
to define the universities’ role in the Strategic National Population Plan
(2007-2017), to agree on plans for setting a research strategy for population
and reproductive health for Upper Egypt, and to update achievements and
obstacles in Upper Egypt Governorates. As a result, a population control conference for north and middle Upper Egypt was held in Fayoum in December
2009, followed by the Second Population Conference for Assiut Governorate
in April 2010.
The Supreme Council of the Egyptian Universities is now proposing to introduce teaching of the Population Problem in Egypt to students in all Egyptian
universities as an important topic in their curricula. The Assiut partnership
has been approved to establish a new MPH degree program with a population
and reproductive health concentration.
Since 2006 Addis Ababa University (AAU), with the support of Bloomberg
School faculty—and for the past three years, specifically Dr. Henry Mosley—has conducted two-week training on family planning in RH for health
managers, RH and development officers in government and non-government
organizations, representatives of professional associations, and faculty from
other universities.
In December 2009, the partnership also established a national advisory
group composed of representatives of the Federal Ministry of Health, schools
and departments from AAU, international and national organizations working on RH and population, and other universities. The group has met twice,
providing these important outputs:
• Identifying two research priorities, one on maternal health and the other
family planning;
• Establishing a steering committee for advocacy on population and RH;
• Identifying activities for mentoring Mekelle and Hawassa universities;
• Identifying ways to sustain the gains of Institute-AAU collaboration beyond the project life and using this project as a platform for a larger area of
work to promote RH and related issues.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Population Council field worker (L) interviews men in the Sindh Province
of Pakistan while conducting research on reproductive health and population.
© 2000 Abdul Rashid Memon, Courtesy of Photoshare
Ghana: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, School of Medical Sciences (KNUST-SMS)
A number of events have taken place as a result of the Institute’s collaboration with Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST),
including admission of 34 MPH population and RH graduate students. With
support from the Institute, KNUST’s School of Medical Sciences enhanced the
teaching environment in lecture halls with ceiling-mounted LCD projectors
and mobile projector screens. KNUST also began a mentoring relationship
with the University of Development Studies public health program in northern Ghana. In addition, prompted by KNUST-conducted research, the Kumasi
Metropolitan Health Directorate designated family planning for the vulnerable female head-porter population as a top health priority.
Malawi: University of Malawi, College of Medicine,
Center for Reproductive Health
The Center for Reproductive Health (CRH) had significant accomplishments
in 2008-2010, including convening the second national reproductive health
conference in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and other stakeholders in Lilongwe in August 2009. Vice President Joyce Banda attended the
conference, the main objective of which was to share research findings to
help design interventions and improve reproductive health practice.
The CRH also conducted a number of research projects, including an obstetric fistula follow-up study to examine social recovery of women whose
obstetric fistulas were surgically repaired; a study to assess the feasibility
and acceptability of home-based family planning and HIV counseling and
testing for couples; and the launch of the Family Health and Wealth Study.
The CRH also conducted a number of studies with funding from other partners and donors (e.g., Columbia University, WHO, and the Family Federation
of Finland), highlighting the Center’s significant leveraging of the Gates
Training continued as a strong focus of the CRH grant. CRH faculty participated in teaching two MPH modules: family planning and gender and health.
In addition, in collaboration with other partners, the CRH staff received
training in qualitative, statistical and spatial analysis software.
Nigeria: Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of
Community Health and Department of Demography and
Social Statistics
Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) began 2008 by co-hosting the “Investing in Young People’s Health and Development Conference” in Abuja. Along
with the University of Ibadan, OAU played a critical role in coordinating the
National Steering Committee and bringing together key policymakers. The
conference convened more than 500 participants from over 30 countries.
As a follow-on to the conference, OAU conducted a series of activities addressing the needs of youth. Activities included a five-day training workshop
on adolescent-friendly health services for 12 doctors, nurses and community
health workers, and a one-day orientation for school counselors and health
teachers on school-based adolescent health programs. In July 2008, OAU
held a Strategic Leadership workshop for 23 participants. Also, 12 faculty
and five students attended the National Conference on Public Health in
Ibadan and made 10 presentations.
OAU continued to expand access to public and reproductive health education
for those already working in the field through its Executive MPH Program,
the only one of its kind in the country. The program targets people working in such critical government agencies as the federal and state Ministry
of Health, as well as international development organizations. A mentoring
relationship was launched with the University of Abuja’s public and reproductive health program.
OAU collaborated with a number of different groups. An important collaboration between OAU and Ibadan was the formation of the National Association of Public Health and the planning of a new research journal. OAU
also partnered with UNICEF to develop a national manual on school health,
counseling and adolescent health development, and on strategic leadership
management with the University of North Carolina-based MEASURE Project
and the Gates Foundation-funded Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative. Finally, many faculty partnered with the Ministry of Health by taking
lead roles in developing or revising the national policies on RH and HIV for
Finally, the CRH has become involved in advocacy, including taking journalists on a media tour of reproductive and maternal health project sites; disseminating research work to the Ministry of Health; conducting “science and
health” cafes at sports bars; and participating in radio talk shows and press
conferences about reproductive health issues.
Nigeria: University of Ibadan, College of Medicine, Center for Population and Reproductive Health
The University of Ibadan (UI) also began 2008 by co-hosting the “Investing in
Young People’s Health and Development Conference” in Abuja. UI, along with
OAU, played a critical role in coordinating the National Steering Committee
and bringing together key policymakers.
One of the outcomes of the conference was the recognition of the need to
educate traditional leaders about reproductive health issues and to utilize
them to lead change in their communities. To this end, UI held a seminar for
traditional leaders in August 2008. With support from Bloomberg School’s Dr.
Henry Mosley, Nigerian parliamentarian Saudatu Sani, and Mairo Mandara,
Senior Country Advisor of the Packard Foundation, the seminar demonstrated
to five selected northern emirs how they could use their leadership role as
advocates for improved RH services. The emirs carried this message to the
Sultan of Sokoto, and it is expected that these emirs will share their commitment to grassroots advocacy of birth spacing and child health investments
with other northern traditional rulers.
Also in 2008, UI organized a workshop on “Health Promotion and Education”
targeted at health educators and another on “Proposal & Report Writing.”
The public health faculty, in collaboration with two Nigerian partners, hosted
a national conference in July 2008 called “Public Health in Nigeria and the
Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): Science,
Policy and Programmes.” The Association of Public Health Practitioners of
Nigeria was inaugurated. UI also began a mentoring relationship with Bayero
University, a relatively new university with a growing public health program.
Despite school closures because of strikes, the program graduated 67 students in November 2009 and began two collaborative research studies: the
Family Health and Wealth Study and a study on husbands’ support during
childbirth. The husbands’ support study is aimed at evaluating the effect
of husbands’ presence during labor on subsequent intention to use modern
contraceptive after delivery. The key findings indicate that more women in
the experimental than control group use modern contraceptives at six weeks
and three months and that husbands in the experimental group are more
likely to initiate the use of modern contraceptives with their wives than those
in the control group.
Uganda: Makerere University School of Public Health
The Makerere University School of Public Health (MUSPH) assumed a major
role as co-sponsor of the 2009 International Family Planning Conference.
The School’s Dean and a large number of faculty were actively involved in
conference arrangements, including hosting the National Steering Committee meetings. MUSPH faculty presented their family planning research at the
conference, participated in plenaries, chaired sessions, and facilitated the
participation of Ugandan government officials. It also helped sponsor the
International Medical Student Conference in November 2010, which focused
on reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa.
MUSPH received Gates Institute funding to launch a Family Health Research
and Development Center that will focus on family planning and other priority
population and RH research; develop faculty and student research skills;
strengthen RH education and training; build the capacity of lower-level
health facilities and develop them as satellite sites for research, training
and advocacy; and conduct research translation to advocate for improved RH
policies. The Center model has already attracted interest from the University
of Sydney as a future partner.
Pakistan: Health Services Academy
A pilot partnership with the Health Services Academy (HSA) in Pakistan commenced in January 2007. Despite efforts to recruit faculty with RH expertise,
the Academy was only able to make instructor-level appointments. The absence of qualified faculty, leadership turnover and the political situation in
the country led to a decision in mid-2009 to suspend partnership activities.
Three HSA faculty, however, were sponsored to the 2010 Summer Institute,
but only one was able to obtain a visa to attend. JHSPH faculty continue to
advise HSA students on research protocols by distance.
Three brands of combined oral contraceptives (L-R): Lo-Femenal,
Confidence (Duofem), and Microgynon. Confidence pills are marketed in
Nigeria by Population Services International (PSI). All three of these oral
contraceptives can also be used as emergency contraceptives.
© 2003 David Alexander, Courtesy of Photoshare
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Munawar is 25 years old and has been married for four years. She and
her husband, Rashid, have two daughters and a son and live in Pakistan.
Behind them is a mobile health clinic where more than 50 women and
children gather around a female nurse for treatments of all kinds. © 2010
DFID, Courtesy of Flickr Creative Commons
Partner Network Meetings
The Gates Institute holds one to two meetings annually with its partners.
The goal of these meetings is to enable the partners to share the progress
and experiences of their training and collaborative research activities. Since
April 2008, there have been six partners meetings: 1) April 2008 in Abuja
subsequent to the youth conference, 2) October 2008 in Nanjing, China, in
collaboration with the Nanjing International Training Center and Nanjing
College for Population Program Management, 3) March 2009 in Baltimore,
Maryland USA, in conjunction with an investigators meeting for the Family Health and Wealth Study, 4) November 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, subsequent to the family planning conference, 5) August 2010 in New Delhi,
India, in conjunction with the Global Maternal Health Conference, and 6)
March 2011 in Baltimore in conjunction with the Population Association of
America Conference. The meetings have exposed the attending faculty to a
broad range and depth of population and reproductive health research. In
addition, the Gates partners have come to identify with the network, draw on
each other for consultations, and plan to continue it beyond the Institute’s
support period.
“The Gates Institute is uniquely positioned to continue the stream of
scientifically sound research on family planning and reproductive health.
According to one U.S. affiliate, ‘The
Gates Institute has established itself
as a global leader on family planning
and should keep that role and run
with it.’”
From “Report of an External Evaluation,” September 2011
The potential impact of one skilled reproductive health researcher or practitioner is
incalculable. By supporting the efforts of individuals in our field—who ultimately
form a powerful global community—we leverage the health of hundreds and thousands who benefit from their expertise.
Summer Institutes in Reproductive Health and Development (RHD)
The Gates Institute has held annual Summer Institutes since 2002, with an
average of 30 participants from more than 20 countries. The courses have
attracted key reproductive health researchers, programmers and policymakers who work in NGOs, academia, research centers and governments.
The course co-instructors, Drs. Michelle Hindin, Henry Mosley, Amy Tsui and
Saifuddin Ahmed, are assisted by other Hopkins faculty and Gates Scholars
as teaching assistants.
Evaluations indicate that satisfaction is consistently high. The Institute also
makes an effort to increase the workshop’s financial self-sufficiency annually, measured by the proportion of participants who self-finance. In 2005, 94
percent of the participants received Gates support; in 2011, only 20 percent
were supported by the Institute.
Gates Scholars
In this period one Gates doctoral scholar graduated, with two others remaining to complete their degrees. Chizoba Wonodi (MBBS-Ibadan, Nigeria)
successfully defended her dissertation on “Patterns and Correlates of HIV
Risk among Married and Single Men in Rakai, Uganda from 1997-2006”
and graduated in May 2009. Chizoba is currently working as an Assistant
Scientist with the Gates Foundation- and GAVI-funded International Vaccine
Access Center in the Department of International Health at JHSPH to increase
child immunization coverage in Nigeria. Maria Perez-Patron (Mexico) is
near completion of her thesis on “A Life-Course Approach to International
Migration: The Importance of Family,” while Dr. Ye Mon Myint (MBBS, Myanmar) is examining “Husband-Wife Differences in Reporting Pregnancies and
Outcomes among Married Couples in Rural Bangladesh.” Ye Mon Myint took
a leave of absence to work on an evaluation of the Global Fund in Myanmar
under the Swiss Tropical Medicine Institute.
Alain Koffi (MD/PhD, Cote d’Ivoire) was appointed a Gates Post-Doctoral
Fellow for 2010-2011. He strengthened his research skills in complex data
analysis, using linked couple data from the Demographic and Health Surveys
to study couple-level concordance on reporting of recent protected sexual
activity. Now a Research Associate in the International Health Department,
Dr. Koffi continues to be involved in the Institute, assisting partners with
their Family Health and Wealth Study activities.
Dissertation Research Grants
The Gates Institute enables Johns Hopkins doctoral students from developing countries who are pursuing research on population, family planning and
reproductive health to apply for dissertation support. The funds can be applied toward fieldwork, data analysis, writing and dissemination expenses.
In early 2010, Adel Takruri (Jordan), a PFRH doctoral student, received a
dissertation award to study “The Role of Men in Contraceptive Use and Family Planning Decisions in Upper Egypt,” using the Egypt Demographic and
Health Survey data. Terri Ann Thompson (Jamaica) received a dissertation
award to pursue her study on the “Influence of Parental Messages on Adolescent Contraceptive and Sexual Behavior” in Jamaica and graduated in May
2011. Ozge Tungcalp (Turkey) received a dissertation grant to explore the
concept of “maternal near misses” at a maternity clinic in a tertiary-level
hospital in Accra, Ghana. Esther Kaggwa (Uganda), who received a dissertation award to study the psychological well-being of Ugandan HIV orphans,
successfully defended her dissertation in 2009. She presented her findings
at the Abuja Youth Conference, and her papers have since been published
in Social Science and Medicine and International Perspectives on Sexual and
Reproductive Health. Esther is now with Makerere University’s Department of
Population Studies and is pursuing a prospective study of sexual behaviors
and reproductive health among HIV-positive youth recruited through an antiretroviral therapy clinic in Kampala, with support from the Institute.
Gates Interns
The Gates Institute offers three- to six-month internship awards to continuing MHS and doctoral students at JHSPH. Students are encouraged to perform their internship at Gates partner institutions, where they are supervised
by collaborating faculty. The arrangement allows for reciprocal enrichment
of substantive knowledge, analytic skills and cultural understanding. The
internships provide their hosts, Gates Institute partners, with assistance in
research and teaching.
Since the Gates Institute began its internship program, more than 40 internships have been awarded to Hopkins students to conduct work in developing countries on population and reproductive health issues. Twenty were
awarded for 2009 and 2010; most of the interns worked with Gates Institute
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
A group of Ethiopian women practice implant insertion on an arm model.
© 2009 Mengistu Asnake, Courtesy of Photoshare
2009 (9)
2010 (11)
3 (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science
and Technology)
3 (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology)
3 (University of Malawi)
1 (University of Malawi)
1 (Addis Ababa University)
1 (CARE-Ethiopia)
1 (University of West Indies)
1 (University of San Carlos)
1 (JHU Center for Communication Programs)
1 (Alianzas)
1 (Bandjoun Hospital)
1 (Center for Research on Environment, Health and
Population Activities)
1 (Shanghai Institute for Planned Parenthood Research)
Visiting Scholars
The Institute has increased its emphasis on strengthening the teaching and
research capacity of faculty at partner institutions by hosting Visiting Scholars at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. Gates Visiting Scholars spend
one or more academic terms at the JHSPH to audit (in some cases take for
credit) Hopkins courses in areas that they are, or will be, teaching in their
own institutions. Most scholars take three or four Hopkins courses during
their stay and come with research topics or data on which they work in collaboration with Hopkins faculty to strengthen their analytic skills. The result
has been new means and methods of delivering course content to students
at their home institutions. The faculty also are sought out as reproductive
health experts and consultants, raising the national visibility and appeal of
their programs.
In this period, the following visiting scholars were hosted at the Gates Institute:
Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Ethiopia
Nega Assefa
Telake Azale
Melake Demena
Abebaw Gebeyehu
Abebe Haile Gebremariam
Yohannes Wado
Assiut University, Egypt
Ghada Salah Eldeen Al-Attar
Mirette Aziz
Manal Darwish
Dalia Galal Mahran Mohammad
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
International Institute of Population Sciences, India
Hibret Alemu
Abhishek Singh
Fikre Enquosellassie
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
Dereje Habte
Emmanuel Nakua
Jemal Ali Haidar
Easmon Otupiri
Wubegzier Mekonnen
Assefa Seme
Solomon Shiferaw
Melesse Tamiru
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Imran Oludare Morhason-Bello
University of Montreal
Visseho Adjiwanou (PhD student, Togo)
Training Evaluation
To assess the impact of its efforts in training, the Gates Institute recently
conducted an evaluation and examined four Hopkins-based training activities—Gates Scholars, postdoctoral fellowships, Visiting Scholars and the
Summer-Winter Institute programs. The evaluation assessed the extent to
which participants’ training expectations were met and how the graduates
of the programs were utilizing the acquired knowledge and skills in their
post-training jobs and other activities. Respondents were also asked how to
improve the training programs.
Data were collected from the participants using both key informant interviews (19) and a Web-based questionnaire. The interviews were largely conducted by telephone. All 764 “graduates” of the various programs were contacted by email, but only 510 had current addresses. Of those, 176 (34.5%)
completed the survey. The responses strongly affirmed the value of the Institute’s various training programs:
• Participants expressed a high level of satisfaction with the quality of
the training received and thought the knowledge and skills acquired were
relevant to their jobs and enhanced their work performance.
• The level of met expectations of their Hopkins training was an average
score of 8.3 out of 10. The contributions of the Gates Institute to their training were positively rated at 8.7 out of 10.
• More than 40% were able to secure grants and/or publish on their PRH
work post-training.
• About 70% had presented their work publicly at meetings and conferences.
• More than 80% were serving in PRH committees at their own organizations, 54% were serving on national PRH committees, and 31% were serving
on international or global PRH committees.
• Most graduates of the programs (70%) now see themselves as PRH
leaders and hope to be even more active in the future.
Two gaps were identified: 1) an insufficient opportunity to develop program
skills and 2) an absence of public health practice opportunity, both while in
the U.S. for training.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Above, left: Plan B ® (levonorgestrel) emergency
© 2006 David Alexander, Courtesy of Photoshare
“Individual development is regarded by those we interviewed
as the most successful of the
three parts of the Gates Institute
mission. On a scale of 1 to 10,
Insert: A teacher explains reproductive anatomy and the menstrual cycle
at Urdu High School in Rakhial, Ahmedabad, India with the help of a
model of a uterus and diagrams. The recent census shows that India has
the highest number of adolescents in the world. Health education efforts
involving youth and teachers, such as the Adolescent Health and Nutrition Education project seen here, promotes the concept of “catch them
young and teach them right.”
© 2003 Rajal Thaker, Courtesy of Photoshare
Village families in Nigeria wait in line for HIV/AIDS voluntary counseling
and testing (VCT).
© 2003 Shehu Danlami Salihu, Courtesy of Photoshare
it received an average score of
8, and all but one of the people
who responded ranked it first in
terms of importance. It is especially valued by the partner institutions.”
From “Report of an External Evaluation,” September
The Millennium Development Goals have become a catalyst for increased funding
for reproductive health, an improved policy environment and greater visibility for
family planning. Gates Institute activities have also gained momentum through the
recognition of family planning as a sound investment, with dividends in health,
women’s empowerment and socioeconomic development.
Making the Case
Advance Family Planning
In 2008, the Gates Institute convened a group of five former directors of the
Population and Reproductive Health Program of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to prepare the report, “Making the Case for
U.S. International Family Planning Assistance.” The report called for renewed
U.S. political and financial commitment to international family planning programs, recommending that funding for USAID’s international family planning assistance be increased to $1.2 billion in FY 2010 (from $457 million in
2008) and raised to $1.5 billion by 2014.
In 2009, the Gates Institute received a grant to revitalize the family planning
and reproductive health global agenda. The goal of the three-year project is
to empower developing countries to advocate for universal access to reproductive health as a critical component in achieving the MDGs.
Increased funding would support training, equip health care providers, expand successful programs, extend programs into more underserved countries, secure USAID’s technical expertise, and renew U.S. leadership and
funding for global organizations. It would represent an appropriate American
contribution to international efforts to achieve the global consensus Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of universal access to reproductive
health services, including family planning, by 2015. The report was widely
disseminated in the United States and in Europe, and the directors held
briefings with members of Congress, their staff and senior executive branch
staff. “Making the Case” was just one of several advocacy efforts to increase
funding for international family planning.
Led by Duff Gillespie and supported by both the Bill & Melinda Gates and
the David and Lucile Packard foundations, with combined grants totaling
$12 million, the project emphasizes the urgent need to reach the 200 million
women who wish to delay or end childbearing but have no access to family planning services. Advance family planning (AFP) has three interrelated
Mobilize and strengthen sustainable family planning/reproductive health advocacy through catalytic invest•
ments in Tanzania, Uganda and Indonesia—countries with potential to
foster wider replication of the AFP approach in other developing countries;
Strengthen existing family planning/reproductive
health advocacy investments in India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Nigeria and Senegal by providing cutting edge and highly specialized technical assistance;
Leverage the voices of global South champions in
demanding revitalization of the family planning/reproductive health agenda
and to enable greater South-to-South cooperation.
The project has been implemented in nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
and South Asia by a consortium of core partners that collaborates with other
donors, organizations and the private sector to advocate for increased political commitment and resources. Additionally, the project works with USAID to
draw on lessons learned and to scale up successful initiatives.
In Indonesia, for example, AFP and USAID cost-shared an organizational
analysis of the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), which
in turn co-sponsored with Futures Group International advocacy training
for BKKBN officials. The project also helped establish a sustainable African
Women for Reproductive Health Network to harness the energy, talents and
needs of women at the community level.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Nigeria National Assembly Delegation
TIn 2005, the Gates Institute hosted a Leadership Forum with parliamentarians, which resulted in an enduring relationship with the Honorable Saudatu Sani of Nigeria. In December 2008, Hon. Sani and a delegation of 25
National Assembly members and staff representing the House Committee
on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) visited the Bloomberg School.
Their interest was in learning more about the areas needing investment and
the evidence-based strategies for achieving the MDGs.
Bloomberg School experts Amy Tsui, Robert Blum, Thomas Quinn and Duff
Gillespie made presentations on maternal and child health, needs of adolescents, family planning and HIV. Visitors learned about strategic approaches
being implemented by Johns Hopkins, including behavior change strategies,
service delivery and health systems. The delegation also met with a group of
Nigerian students attending the School to learn about their concerns regarding returning to Nigeria and the availability of jobs in public health.
Governor and First Lady of Zamfara State, Nigeria
In September 2009, the Governor and First Lady of Zamfara State visited the
Institute. Zamfara, in northwest Nigeria, has the worst health and development indicators in the country. It established a Sharial legal system, which
weighed heavily on women and discouraged female empowerment. First Lady
Hajiya Aisha Mahmud Aliyu Shinkafi is the daughter of Ibrahim and Maryam
Babangida, the former President and First Lady of Nigeria. Maryam Babangida was a participant in the Gates Institute Summer Institute in June 2006
and is considered to be one of the greatest women in Africa for her work in
rural women’s development.
The Governor and First Lady came with a two-fold purpose: to meet with faculty in the Department of International Health to discuss activities in Nigeria
around World Pneumonia Day and to learn about Johns Hopkins’ reproductive
health programs in Nigeria. The First Lady also inquired about the technical
resources necessary to invest in cancer treatment. The Governor and First
Lady visited Jhpiego and the Center for Communication Programs to learn
about their respective programs in Nigeria. They returned to the Bloomberg
School to learn about the Gates Institute’s Nigeria activities, including the
youth conference, partnerships with OAU and University of Ibadan, AdvocacyNigeria, work with traditional rulers, and obstetric fistula research.
A young father relaxes with his son in Funyula, Kenya. This young
man is one of the youths in his village who has taken on the
responsibility of parenthood at an early age, without a job. Such
young male parents do odd jobs in the village in order to survive,
sometimes being hired as grave diggers when a wealthy person
dies, or doing manual jobs at funerals.
© 2005 Felix Masi, Courtesy of Photoshare
“I am a strong advocate of women having
access to family planning. …We have been
able to draw the traditional institutions
into discussing maternal health, which had
never happened before. I saw myself as an
agent of change.”
The Hon. Saudatu Sani, formerly a Nigerian Parliament member
The documentary film, “The
Edge of Joy,” follows Nigerian doctors, midwives and
families to the frontlines of
maternal care as it explores
the complexities of bringing
emerging health technologies
to the developing world. One
of the two obstetricians featured in the film, Dr. Oladosu
Ojengbede, heads the Institute’s partnership with the
University of Ibadan. Global
Health Magazine called the film
“a timely rallying cry against
women accepting the perilous
status quo.”
This teenage girl, having never received any family planning information or services, is hospitalized for pregnancy-related complications. The
maternal mortality rate in Nigeria is among the highest in the world. A
Nigerian woman faces a 1 in 13 lifetime risk of maternal mortality. For
women in the United States, the risk is 1 in 3,500.
Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country with an estimated population of
nearly 123 million people. At the average annual population growth rate
of 2.9 percent, Nigeria’s population is expected to surpass 200 million
by the year 2025.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Gates Institute Journal Publications
Ahmed, S., R. Genadry, C. Stanton, and A. Lalonde.
“Dead Women Walking: Neglected Millions with Obstetric
Fistula.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
99, Supplement 1 (2007): S1–S3.
Ahmed, S., and S.A. Holtz. “Social and Economic Consequences of Obstetric Fistula: Life Changed Forever?”
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 99,
Supplement 1 (2007): S10–S15.
Bradley, H., A. Bedada, H. Brahmbhatt, A. Kidanu, D.
Gillespie, and A. Tsui. “Educational Attainment and HIV
Status among Ethiopian Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clients.” AIDS and Behavior 11, no. 5 (September 11,
Bradley, S., N. Prata, N. Young-Lin, and D. Bishai. “CostEffectiveness of Misoprostol to Treat Postpartum Hemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings.” International Journal of
Obstetrics and Gynecology 97 (2007):52–56.
Creanga, A., R. Acharya, S. Ahmed, and A. Tsui. “Contraceptive Discontinuation, Failure and Subsequent Abortions
in Romania: 1994–1999.” Studies in Family Planning 38,
no. 1 (2007): 23–34.
Creanga, A., S. Ahmed, R. Genadry, and C. Stanton.
“Prevention and Treatment of Obstetric Fistula: Identifying
Research Needs and Public Health Priorities.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 99, Supplement 1
(2007): S151.
Gillespie, D. Review of J.F. Kantner and A. Kantner’s “The
Struggle for International Consensus on Population and Development.” Studies in Family Planning 38, no. 3 (2007):
Gillespie, D. “Contraceptive Use and the Poor: A Matter of
Choice?” PLoS Medicine 4, no. 2 (February 2007): e49.
Gillespie, D., S. Ahmed, A. Tsui, and S. Radloff. “Unwanted
Fertility among the Poor: An Inequity?” Bulletin of the
World Health Organization 85, no. 2 (2007): 100–107.
Howard, C.T., U.S. McKakpo, I.A. Quakyi, K.M. Bosompem, E.A. Addison, D. Sullivan, and R.D. Semba. “Relationship of Hepcidin with Parasitemia and Anemia among
Patients with Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum
Malaria in Ghana.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine
and Hygiene 77, no. 4 (2007): 623–626.
Jaya, Jaya, and M.J. Hindin. “Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences of Adolescents in Urban India.” Journal of Adolescent Health 40, no. 6 (2007): 573.e7–14.
Jaya, Jaya, M.J. Hindin, and S. Ahmed. “Differences in
Young People’s Reports of Sexual Behaviors According to
Interview Method: A Randomized Trial in India.” American
Journal of Public Health 98, no. 1 (2007): 169–174.
Mullany, B.C., M.J. Hindin, and S. Becker. “The Impact
of Including Husbands in Antenatal Health Education
Services on Maternal Health Practices in Urban Nepal.”
Health Education Research 222, no. 2 (2007): 166–176.
Creanga, A., H. Bradley, A. Kidanu, Y. Melkamu, and A.
Tsui. “Does the Delivery of Integrated Family Planning and
HIV/AIDS Services Influence Community-Based Workers’
Client Loads in Ethiopia?” Health Policy and Planning 22
(2007): 404–414.
Stanton, C., S.A. Holtz, and S. Ahmed. “Challenges in
Measuring Obstetric Fistula.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 99, Supplement 1 (2007): S4-–S9.
Creanga, A., and R. Genadry. “Obstetric Fistulas: A Clinical
Review.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 99, Supplement 1 (2007): S40–46.
Tsui, A., A. Creanga, and S. Ahmed. “The Role of Delayed
Childbearing in the Prevention of Obstetric Fistulas.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 99, Supplement 1 (2007): S98–S107.
Do, M., and M. Koenig. “Effect of Family Planning Services
on Modern Contraceptive Continuation in Vietnam.” Journal of Biosocial Science 39 (2007):201–220.
Genadry, R., A. Creanga, M. Roenneburg, and C. Wheeless. “Complex Obstetric Fistulas.” International Journal
of Gynecology and Obstetrics 99, Supplement 1 (2007):
Barden O’Fallon, J., and A. Tsui. “Infertility.” Encyclopedia
of Public Health. The Netherlands: Springer-Verlag (2008):
Bradley, H., A. Bedada, A. Tsui, H. Brahmbhatt, A. Kidanu,
and D. Gillespie. “HIV and Family Planning Service Integration and Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Client Composition in Ethiopia.” AIDS Care 20, no. 1 (2008): 61–71.
Creanga, A., P. Roy, and A. Tsui. “Characteristics of Abortion Service Providers in Two Northern Indian States.”
Contraception 78, no.6 (2008): 500–6. Epub September
4, 2008.
Creanga, A., and A. Tsui. “Fertility.” Encyclopedia of
Public Health. The Netherlands: Springer-Verlag (2008):
Fatusi, A.O., and R.W. Blum. “Predictors of Early Sexual
Initiation among a Nationally Representative Sample of
Nigerian Adolescents.” BMC Public Health 8 (2008): 136,
Hoffman, I., F.E. Martinson, K.A. Powers, D.A. Chilongozi,
E.D. Msiska, E.I. Kachipapa, C.D. Mphande, M.C. Hosseinipour, H.C. Chanza, R. Stephenson, and A. Tsui. “The
Year-Long Effect of HIV-Positive Test Results on Pregnancy
Intentions, Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Incidence
among Malawian Women.” JAIDS 47 (2008):477–483.
Kassie, G.M., D.H. Mariam, and A.O. Tsui. “Patterns of
Knowledge and Condom Use among Population Groups:
Results from the 2005 Ethiopian Behavioral Surveillance
Surveys on HIV.” BMC Public Health 8 (December 31,
2008): 429.
Kumwenda, N.I., J. Kumwenda, G. Kafulafula, B. Makanani, F. Taulo, C. Nkhoma, Q. Li, and T. Taha. “HIV-1
Incidence among Women of Reproductive Age in Malawi.”
International Journal of STD and AIDS 19, no. 5 (May
2008): 339–41.
Liu, L., S. Becker, S. Ahmed, and A. Tsui, “Simple Approaches to Estimating Births Averted Due to Contraception
at the National Level.” Population Studies 62, no. 2 (2008):
Mullany, L.C., C.I. Lee, P. Paw, Oo E.K. Shew, C. Maung,
H.K. Kulper, N. Masenior, C. Beyrer, and T.J. Lee. “The
MOM Project: Efforts to Increase Access to Reproductive Services among Internally Displaced Populations in
Burma.” Reproductive Health Matters 16, no. 31 (May
2008): 44–56.
Mullany, L.C., C.I. Lee, L. Yone, P. Paw, Oo E.K. Shew,
C. Maung, T.J. Lee, and C. Beyrer. “Access to Essential
Maternal Health Interventions and Human Rights Violations
among Vulnerable Communities in Eastern Burma.” PLoS
Medicine 5, no. 12 (December 23, 2008): 1689–98.
Peterson, H., A. Creanga, and A. Tsui. “Family Planning.”
Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health & Preventive Medicine, edited by Robert Wallace and Douglas Scutchfield.
McGraw-Hill Publishers (2008): 1303–1316.
Rahman, M.H., W.H. Mosley, S. Ahmed, and H. Akhter.
“Does Service Accessibility Reduce Socioeconomic Differentials in Maternity Care Seeking? Evidence from Rural
Bangladesh.” Journal of Biosocial Science 40 (2008):
Roy, T.K., R.K. Sinha, M. Koenig, S.K. Mohanty, and S.K.
Patel. “Consistency and Predictive Ability of Fertility
Preference Indicators: Longitudinal Evidence from Rural
India.” International Family Planning Perspectives 34, no.
30 (2008): 138–145.
Bazant, E., and M.E. Koenig. “Women’s Satisfaction with
Delivery Care in Nairobi’s Informal Settlements.” International Journal for Quality in Health Care 21, no. 2 (April
2009): 79–86. Epub 2009 Feb 9.
Bazant, E.S., M.A. Koenig , J.C. Fotso, and S. Mills.
“Women’s Use of Private and Government Health Facilities
for Childbirth in Nairobi’s Informal Settlements.” Studies in
Family Planning 40, no. 1 (March 2009): 39–50.
Becker, S., R. Mlay, H. Schwandt, and E. Lyamuya. “Comparing Couples’ and Individual Voluntary Counseling and
Testing for HIV at Antenatal Clinics in Tanzania: A Randomized Trial.” AIDS Behavior (September 10, 2009). Epub
ahead of print.
Blanc, A.K., A.O. Tsui, T.N. Croft, and J.L. Trevitt. “Patterns and Trends in Adolescents’ Contraceptive Use and
Discontinuation in Developing Countries and Comparisons
with Adult Women.” International Perspectives on Sexual
and Reproductive Health 35, no. 2 (June 2009): 63–71.
Bradley, H., D. Gillespie, A. Kidanu, Y.T. Bonnenfant, and
S. Karklins. “Providing Family Planning in Ethiopian Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Facilities: Client, Counselor and Facility-Level Considerations.” AIDS 23, suppl 1
(2009): S105–S114.
Fatusi, A.O., and R.W. Blum. “Adolescent Health in an
International Context: The Challenge of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Adolescent Medicine State of the Art Rev 20, no. 3 (2009): 874–86, viii.
Gillespie, D., E. Maguire, M. Neuse, S. Sinding, and J.
Speidel. “International Family Planning Budgets in the New
‘US-Era.’” The Lancet 373 (May 2, 2009): 1505–1057.
Gillespie, D., H. Bradley, W. Woldegiorgis, A. Kidanu, and
S. Karklins. “Integrating Family Planning into Ethiopian
Voluntary Testing and Counselling Programmes.” Bulletin
of the WHO 87, no. 11(November 2009): 866–70.
Hindin, M., and A.O. Fatusi. “Adolescent Sexual and
Reproductive Health in Developing Countries: An Overview
of Trends and Interventions.” International Perspectives on
Sexual and Reproductive Health 35, no. 2 (2009): 58–62.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Jaya, Jaya, and M. Hindin. “Premarital Romantic Partnerships: Attitudes and Sexual Experiences of Youth in Delhi,
India.” International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35, no. 2 (2009): 97–104.
Danso, K., H. Schwandt, C. Turpin, J. Seffah, A. Samba,
and M. Hindin. “Preferences of Ghanaian Women for
Vaginal or Cesarean Delivery PostPartum.” Ghana Medical
Journal 43, no. 1 (2010): 29–33.
Mohanty, S.K., R.K. Sinha, T.K. Roy, and M. Koenig. “Programmatic Implications of Meeting the Unmet Need for
Contraception.” Asian Population Studies 5, no. 1 (2009):
Gipson, J., C. Muntifering, F. Chauwa, F. Taulo, A. Tsui, and
M. Hindin. “Assessing the Importance of Gender Roles in
Couples’ Home-Based Sexual Services in Malawi.” African
Journal of Reproductive Health 14, no. 4 (2010): 63–74.
Taulo, F., M. Berry, A. Tsui, B. Makanani, G. Kafulafula, Q.
Li, C. Nkhoma, J.J. Kumwenda, N. Kumwenda, and T.E.
Taha. “Fertility Intentions of HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected
Women in Malawi: A Longitudinal Study.” AIDS and Behavior 13, Suppl 1 (June 2009): 20–7. Epub 2009 Mar 24.
Kaggwa, E., and M. Hindin. “The Psychological Effect of
Orphanhood in a Matured HIV Epidemic: An Analysis of
Young People in Mukono, Uganda.” Social Science and
Medicine (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.12.002.
Teela, K.C., L.C. Mullany, C.I. Lee, E. Poh, P. Paw, N.
Masenior, C. Maung, C. Beyrer, and T. J. Lee. “CommunityBased Delivery of Maternal Care in Conflict-Affected Areas
of Eastern Burma: Perspectives from Lay Maternal Health
Workers.” Social Science and Medicine 68, no. 7 (April
2009): 1332–40. Epub 2009 Feb 18.
Yeakey, M.P., E. Chipeta, F. Taulo, and A.O. Tsui. “The
Lived Experience of Malawian Women with Obstetric Fistula.” Culture, Health and Sexuality 11, no. 5 (June 2009):
Yeakey, M.P., C.J. Muntifering, D.V. Ramachandran, Y.M.
Myint, A.A. Creanga, and A.O. Tsui. “How Contraceptive
Use Affects Birth Intervals: Results of a Literature Review.”
Studies in Family Planning 40, no. 3 (2009): 205–214.
Zabin, L.S., M.R. Emerson, L. Nan, C.H. Lou, E.S. Gao,
N.H. Minh, Y.L. Chuang, S.H. Baai, D. Bishai, and R.W.
Blum. “Levels of Change in Adolescent Sexual Behavior in
Three Asian Cities.” Studies in Family Planning 40, no. 1
(2009): 1–12.
Ahmed, S., A. Creanga, D. Gillespie, and A. Tsui. “Economic Status, Education and Empowerment: Implications
for Maternal Health Service Utilization in Developing Countries.” PloS ONE 5, no. 6 (June 23, 2010):e11190.
Aryeetey, R., A.M. Kotoh, and M. Hindin. “Knowledge,
Perceptions and Ever Use of Modern Contraception among
Women in the Ga East District, Ghana. African Journal of
Reproductive Health 14, no. 4 (2010): 27–32.
Bradley H., A. Tsui, A. Kidanu, and D. Gillespie. “HIV
Infection and Contraceptive Need among Female Ethiopian
Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Clients.” AIDS Care
22, no. 10 (2010): 1295–1304.
Lutalo, T., G. Kigozi, E. Kimera, D. Serwadda, M. Wawer, L.
S. Zabin, and R. Gray. “A Randomized Community Trial of
Enhanced Family Planning Outreach in Rakai, Uganda.”
Studies in Family Planning 41, no. 1(2010): 55–60.
Makanani, B., J. Kumwenda, N. Kumwenda, S. Chen, A.
Tsui, and T. Taha. “Resumption of Sexual Activity and
Regular Menses after Childbirth among Women Infected
with HIV in Malawi.” International Journal of Obstetrics and
Gynecology 108, no. 1 (2010): 26–30.
Makumbi, F., G. Nakigozi, T. Lutalo, J. Kagaayi, J. Sekasanvu, A. Settuba, D. Serwada, M. Wawer, and R. Gray. “Use
of HIV-Related Services and Modern Contraception among
Women of Reproductive Age, Rakai, Uganda.” African
Journal of Reproductive Health 14, no. 4 (2010): 91–102.
Midhet, F., and S. Becker. “Impact of Community-Interventions on Maternal and Neonatal Health Indicators: Results
from a Community Randomized Trial in Rural Balochistan,
Pakistan.” Reproductive Health Journal 7 (2010): 30.
Mmari, K., O. Oseni, and A.O. Fatusi. “STI TreatmentSeeking Behaviors among Youth in Nigeria: Are There
Gender Differences?” International Perspectives on Sexual
and Reproductive Health 36, no. 2 (2010): 72–79.
Mote, C., E. Otupiri, and M. Hindin. “Factors Associated
with Induced Abortion among Women in Hohoe, Ghana.”
African Journal of Reproductive Health 14, no. 4 (2010):
Mullany, L.C., T.J. Lee, L. Yone, C.I. Lee, K.C. Teela, et al.
“Impact of Community-Based Maternal Health Workers on
Coverage of Essential Maternal Health Interventions among
Internally Displaced Communities in Eastern Burma: The
MOM Project.” PLoS Medicine 7(8)(2010): e1000317.
OlaOlorun, F., and A. Tsui. “Advancing Family Planning
Research in Africa.” African Journal of Reproductive
Health 14(4)(2010): 9–12.
Olayemi, O., D. Strobino, C. Aimakhu, K. Adedapo, A.
Kehinde, A.T. Odukogbe, and B. Salako. “Influence of
Duration of Sexual Cohabitation on the Risk of Hypertension in Nulliparous Parturients in Ibadan: A Cohort Study.”
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and
Gynecology 50 (2010): 40–44.
Olayemi, O., D. Strobino, K. Adedapo, C. Aimakhu, A.T.
Odukogbe, and B. Salako. “Influence of Previous Abortions and New Paternity on the Risk of Hypertension in
Nulliparous Parturients in Ibadan: A Cohort Study.” The
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research (Japan).
doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01268.x.
Oni, G., A. Fatusi, A. Tsui, F. Enquselassie, O. Ojengbede, T. Agbenyega, E. Ojofeitimi, F. Taulo, and I.
Quakyi. “Strengthening Public-Health Education in
Population and Reproductive Health through an Innovative Academic Partnership in Africa: The Gates Partners’
Experience.” Global Public Health Journal (2010). doi:
Tsui, A., R. McDonald-Mosley, and A. Burke. “Family
Planning and the Burden of Unintended Pregnancies.”
Epidemiologic Reviews. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxq012.
Shah, N., W. Wang, and D. Bishai. “Comparing Private
Sector Family Planning Services to Government and NGO
Services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: How Do Social Franchises Compare Across Quality, Equity and Cost?” Health
Policy and Planning 26 (2011): i63–i71.
Shellenberg, K., A. Moore, A. Bankole, J. Casterline, F.
Juarez, A. Omideyi, N. Palomino, Z. Sathar, S. Singh, and
A. Tsui. “Social Stigma, Decision-Making, and Disclosure
about Induced Abortion: Results from a Multi-Country
Qualitative Study.” Global Journal of Public Health Supplement (in press).
Tsui, A., J. Casterline, S. Singh, A. Bankole, A. Moore,
A. Omideyi, N. Palomino, Z. Sathar, F. Juarez, and K.
Shellenberg. “Managing Unplanned Pregnancies in Five
Countries: Perspectives on Contraception and Abortion
Decisions.” Global Journal of Public Health Supplement (in
Wilson, A.L., E. Chipeta, L. Kalilani-Phiri, F. Taulo, and A.
Tsui. “Fertility and Pregnancy Outcomes among Women
with Obstetric Fistula in Rural Malawi.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 113, no. 3 (June 2011):
Yeakey ,M., E. Chipeta, Y. Rijken, F. Taulo, and A. Tsui.
“Experiences with Fistula Repair Surgery among Women
and Families in Malawi.” Global Public Health Journal (July
6, 2010): 1–15.
Bradley, H., A. Tsui, M. Hindin, A. Kidanu, and D. Gillespie. “Developing Scales to Measure Perceived HIV Risk
and Vulnerability among Ethiopian Women Testing for HIV.”
AIDS Care 23, no. 8 (August 2011): 1043-1052.
Bradley, H., A. Tsui, A. Kidanu, and D. Gillespie. “Client
Characteristics and HIV Risk Associated with Repeat Testing Among Women in Ethiopia.” AIDS Behavior 15, no. 4
(May 2011): 725-33.
Creanga, A., D. Gillespie, S. Karklins, and A. Tsui. “Low
Use of Contraception among Poor Women in Africa: An
Equity Issue.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 89
(2011): 258–266.
Creanga, A., H. Schwandt, K. Danso, and A. Tsui. “Knowledge about Emergency Contraception among Family Planning Providers in Urban Ghana.” International Journal of
Gynecology and Obstetrics 114, no. 1(2011): 64–68.
Schwandt, H., A. Creanga, K. Danso, R. Adanu, T. Agbenyega, and M. Hindin. “A Comparison of Women with
Induced Abortion, Spontaneous Abortion and Ectopic Pregnancy in Ghana.” Contraception 84, no. 1 (2011): 87–93.
Family Planning: Improving the Lives of Women and Their Families Around the World
Executive Committee, Affiliated Faculty
Gates Institute Staff
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health
Amy Tsui, PhD
Professor and Director
Saifuddin Ahmed, MBBS, PhD*
Associate Professor
Natalie Culbertson
Senior Program Coordinator
Stan Becker, PhD*
Monnie Heminthavong, MPH
Training Program Officer
David Bishai, MD, PhD, MPH*
Ken Creeger, MBA
Financial Manager
Robert Blum, MD, PhD, MPH*
William H. Gates Sr. Chair
Carrileen Edwards
Budget Analyst
Vladimir Canudas-Romo, PhD
Assistant Professor
Duff Gillespie, PhD*
Ronald Gray, MBBS, MSc*
William G. Robertson Jr.
Professor In Population and Family Planning
Bernard Guyer, MD, MPH*
Zanvyl Krieger Professor of Children’s Health
Michelle Hindin, PhD*
Associate Professor
W. Henry Mosley, MD*
Laurie Schwab Zabin, PhD*
Founding Director, Gates Institute
Other FACULTY Affiliations
Jane Bertrand, PhD, MBA*
Director, Center for Communication Programs
Professor, Health, Behavior and Society,
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of
Public Health
Anne Burke, MD
Assistant Professor, Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Andrew Cherlin, PhD*
Benjamin H. Griswold III Professor of Public Policy
Department of Sociology,
Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences,
Johns Hopkins University
William K. Pan, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of International Health,
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Taha E. Taha, PhD
Professor, Department of Epidemiology,
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg
School of Public Health
*Executive Committee
Gate Institute Advance Family
Planning Project
Duff Gillespie, PhD
Professor and Director
Beth Fredrick
Deputy Director
Sabrina Karklins, MPA
Senior Research Program Coordinator
Jennifer Carlin, MA
Program Administrator
Naomi Johnson
Senior Research Service Analyst
Girls from a village near Jodhpur, India, © 2006 Rose
Reis, Courtesy of Photoshare
Graphic design by Marti Betz Design
Bill and Melinda Gates Institute
for Population and Reproductive Health
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
615 N. Wolfe Street, Suite 4041
Baltimore, MD 21205-2179 USA
410-955-2232 (T) 410-955-0792 (F)
[email protected]