Document 188152

TEACHERS'
And
PROBLEMS
How
of
Hand-book
A
Educational
and
History
With
an
Appendix
Mission
OF
the
on
Limits
akd
History
THE
Practice,
Pedagogy,
Comparative
or.
Them
Solve
to
of
Editcation
by
Kenneth
VmSmm
A.M.,
in
Sewanee
M.D..
Sylvan Guthrie,
EztoKton, Univeraty
and
PI1.D,,
Huraid;
Medico-Chiniipcal
Soutli, Sewinee.
Tulane
CoUege,
and
OdumbU;
Philadflphit.
PRESS
LITERATURE
COMPARATIVE
P.
of the
O.
Box
75,
Grantwood,
N.J.
COPTBiaHT,
1917
BY
KENNETH
'All
Rights,
SYLVAN
including
GUTHME
that
LB
of
TranshtionM
Rtservid
"-J^*^-
l(|^
I
PREFACE
This
of
Education"
entitled
for
at
educational
has
adopt
science
volume
will
In
take
the
up
method.
for
source-book
of
teacher
the
for
volume
This
unfit
teacher.
problems
and
times
some-
popular
subsequent
supervisor in
A
the
spirit.
last
chapter
of practical self-helps
various
frequently
the
of
problems
the
not
of
theories
comparative
the
my
of Education."
of
its centre
as
the
similar
"History
pamphlet,
a
a
fanciful
idols, but
Mission
in
History
of Comparative
pioneer of the science
the
is to develop
current
object of which
the
As
by comparative
study.
thought
the child, so
its
must
adopted as its centre
being
Pedagogy,
school
is tiot called
detailed
reasons
and
"Limits
It aims
a
handbook
unpretentious
will
well
be
and
papers
find
will
guidance
the
a
of
his
fitted
to
discussions
in
number
teaching
as
serve
teachers*
conferences.
In
originality,but
own,
faithfulness
on
therefore,
I claim
be
willing to
Teachers'
College,
may
merit
this
desire
has
than
work
been
others.
unintentional.
original work.
excellence
work,
comparative
nothing
and
claim,
and
may
to
to
Mr.
be
found
depends
authorities.
what
but
to
my
MacEvoy,
to
not
on
As
my
others
none
opportunities
I attribute
possess.
My
at
any
only
completely and efficiently
credit has
been
failure to give due
Any
considerable
last chapter contains
The
to
serve
more
CONTENTS
PA6I
1.
Imitation,
the
Basis
of
Education.
Primary
S
..
2.
Habit,
3.
Specialization,
4.
Interest
40
5.
Self-Activity
So
6.
Self-Consciousness
63
7.
Discipline
80
8.
Method
94
9.
The
10.
the
Basis
Secondary
of
Basis
the
of
Education
18
Education
Tertiary
28
Himself
Teacher
123
138
Conclusion
(a)
Interpretations
(b)
Definitions
(c)
Genetic
of
138
Education
139
Education
of
of
Catalogue
147
Character-traits.
.
(d)
Types
(e)
Calendar
Historic
of
of
lS3
Characters
Famous
Men,
for
Object1S4
teaching
(f)
Appendix:
in
Study-Course
Limits
cation.
and
School
Mission
170
Ethics
of
History
of
Edu-
TEACHERS^
PROBLEMS
BY
GREAT
SOLVED
THINKERS
CHAPTER
Imitatioiif
Imitation
its
successive
be
in
interesting
the
various
down
to
the
EDUCATION.
education
prehistoric
whose
man
is
priest,
as
he
He
or
wit,
gained
is
the
exorcist,
wise
there
but
experience,
as
is
imitation
principle;
recognized
prophet,
himself.
and
day.
guiding
one
it will
advanced
theories
in
even
content
development
PRIMITIVE
who
but
the
and
and
application
children,
cation,
edu-
of
principle
therefore
is
It
pedagogical
present
In
small
in
only
education,
primary
EdacatioBu
Primary
of
psychological
basic
animals.
of
notice
Basis
not
seen
unreasoning
to
the
is
as
method
the
I.
man;
that
5
is
always
authority
medicine
who
experience
primordial
simple,
the
teacher,
is
some
greatest;
shaman,
man,
prescribes
as
from
who
conscious
un-
lutely
abso-
others
is
imitated,
or
TEACHERS'
6
and
thus
who
imitated
PROBLEMS
the
sets
form
ORIENTAL
In
of
others, to teach
by
China
the
SOLVED
which
worship
them
how
to
is to
be
work.
EDUCATION.
elementary
schools
strictlylimited to
the practice of imitation.
tary,
They are private, and volunsupported by contributions, beginning at six years
of age.
makeshifts, kept in vacant
They are accidental
The
sheds, rooms
or
temples.
schooling has
caves,
tion,
absolutely
no
use
except as preparation for examinathe
fail cannot
who
anci
ninety-nine hundredths
loss
avocations
of prestige.
without
return
to ordinary
The
mastering of the language is the chief object.
The
furnish
Hebrew
apt, well-known
psalms
amples,
exChinese
of
though
only rudimentary,
couplet
There
be
of
must
perfect correspondence
writing.
inflexion
verb, adjective, participle, and besides
noun,
of
voice
^which,
"
of
meaning
and
words.
is
as
it
is
as
This
the
were
glorified even
Such
it
as
well
are
influences
known,
is the
basis
of
culmination
education
individual
ments.
ele-
is
even
than
the
among
the
Hindus.
primary among
hereditary caste, whose
salvation,
whole
effort
However,
the
had
Hindus
the
this
Sudra, showing
primary education.
at the
is
insignificant, petty
numerous,
"^"
his
age
of
six
or
are
usages
seven
a
one
Huc.^
says
the sixthat
name.*
Chinese
to
details
of
a
only
learn
the
daily
life.
entirely untrained
significant limitation
This
primary education
years,*
into
the
him
to
cation
edu-
was
born
Being
perfectly
caste
diffused,
widely
in any
other
widely than
country,
Its importance
be
the
fact
judged by
may
year-old child, on entering, is given a new
more
says,
es-
cedure,
pro-
more
Much
poetic
?3f imitative
by habitual, and
is, primary
all
the
to
even
began
IMITATION,
Unless
led
are
to
believe
at
be
sources
our
PRIMARY
OR
home
that
really
Greek
a
the
among
until
EDUCATION
seven
7
Persians
child
a
of
years
we
romance,
age,*
mained
re-
when
without
astrologer, and
given a name
by an
and
truth, courage
developed
corporal
punishment
and
justice by physical training in running, throwing
ward
education
made
the
child
a
archery.
Primary
he
was
of
the
state
from
continuation
the
to
seven
of
fifteen
physical
years
training
of
age.
were
added
To
a
and
the
teachers
training by proverbs
prayers;
and
of virtue
old, models
over
fifty years
being men
knowledge.
existence
In Egypt, the
of several
castes
implied the
of son
imitative
by father, and for
primary education
general subjects, by priests. Outcast
pers
mummy-wraptheir
taught by
parents.
were
the
chief
But
lay in this,
significance of imitation
the
soul
that
expected to pass certain
Egyptian
gates
if
after
not
in the
next
world,
death,
by memorized
amulets
then
by the possession of certain
or
prayers,
of the
Dead.
The
magical copies of parts of the Book
of these
make
in the imitation
all
might therefore
care
moral
the
difference
between
the
Among
Hebrews,
salvation
primary
and
damnation.
education
was,
in
in the
home,
especially, carried
on
boys
the
being taught reading and writing, while
girls were
chief
the
elements
their
of
at least
taught
Scripture.
The
methods
of
imitation
of
biographical
patriotic
heroes
and
was
prominent,
particularly important
was
because
of women,
of their
ficult
difin the
case
perhaps
social
position.
The
have
Mahometans
in
schools
village,
every
method
their
of learning is rote
memorization
of the
written
So
Koran;
by their one
prophet, Mahomet.
exclusive
is their
imitation
of this, that
no
they allow
and
in
other
until
books;
cases
no
drawing,
lately
many
not permitted
in Constanwere
cameras
photographic
earlier
times
8
TEACHERS'
The
tinople.
PROBLEMS
with
Koran,
and
reading
writing,
is the
study.
main
GREEK
The
of
SOLVED
education
The
and
shelter,
period
though
imitation;
rhetoric, as in the
needs
humbler
Homeric
of
and
healing
the
of
instruction, than
music,
EDUCATION.
of
it extended
with
food,
home,
thus
to
Achilles.
of
case
life, connected
less
consisted
ing
cloth-
while
taught in the
the
of
received
in
higher duties
public service
were
and
councils, wars,
The
marauding
expeditions.*^
association
direct
of the youth with
adult
^the pedan
agogue
moral
first, and the **inspirer" next
produced
imitation
in
education
Great
by
practical ways.
thus
attained.
results
The
were
pedagogue,
though
careful
despised, exerted
control; the voluntary
pathy
symof the
the
best
inspirer awakened
impulses of
Oriental
While
education
therefore
consisted
youth.
were
"
"
imitation
of
of
In
of
the
of
of
education
primary
form
that
became
year?
when
fixed
age,
and
pupil
assumed
Athens,
the
dead
or
definite
a
Spartans
lasted
living
began
until
the
man's
six
The
seven
or
of
years
age,
toga.
period
lasted
curriculum
was
elementary
; the
model."
at
twelve
cation
edu-
Greek
custom,
from
seven
gymnastics
and
music, with the boy in charge of a pedagogue.
the elementary
school
In the newer
Greek
education
for
divided
the palaestra or school
between
period was
school
for music.
or
gymnastics, and a didaskaleon,
sixteen
to
of
years
age
EDUCATION.
ROMAN
principle
The
with
more
nation,
with
the
realized
of
their
of
imitation
purpose
imitation
in
biographies
in
Plutarch's
popularity
than
of
of
perhaps
the
by
parents,
heroes,
as
was
"Lives."
shows
used
was
how
by the
many
and
long
practical
The
Romans
another
familiarity
indeed
later
continuance
a
source
of
IMITATION,
OR
inspiration were
by the Lives
these
imitation
of
the
whereby
chief
youth
sanctification
The
School
no
of
reading,
mostly
were
of
Plutarch
civic
of
principle,
ential,
rever-
grave,
honest.
but
Orient,
This
from
the
ideals.
Literator
the
than
more
and
prudent
This
heroes.
pious,
the
continued
Roman
become
from
9
were
Biblical
and
manly,
imitation
from
not
later
educational
to
was
EDUCATION
which
Saints
courageous,
came
ideals
the
the
was
PRIMARY
the
(or Ludimagister)
rudiment
merest
calculation.
writing and
slave
pedagogues.
home
schools
can
life
of
also
wrote
and
the
was
have
been
death
made
legally, and
responsible
mother
for
had
Their
turned
arts
teachers
the
of
education
late.
The
family
the
and
the
father
the
and
in
social
power
unit,
as
personally
was
the
However,
band's
hus-
her
being
managerial
until
governess,
Rome;
father's
education.
partner^
and
the
on
independence,
nurse
to
but
child's
some
was
book
center
morally;
the
companion
she
first
the
of
Training
Children.
in object-lesQuintilian
strongly believed
sons
the
form
of
in
concrete
methods,
giving the
forms
of letters
and
with
Seneca
names
put
objects.
this
in the
of
'The
is gained
form
result
a
precept:
than
by example
sooner
by precept."
The
the
of
tempted
at-
the
ant:
assist-
boy
was
training. Later, of course,
for
the
richer
local
boys, in Horace's
day, there
were
not
paid private schools; but these were
strictly Roman
in dignity.
over
This
process
Quintilian 's day
was
far
father's
of
it
was
superior
MEDIAEVAL
If
the
and
Romans
organization
argued that
to
the
continued
public
private
until
school
tutorial
in
tion
educa-
variety.
EDUCATION.
clearly grasped the value
applied it by biographical example,
of
tion,
imita-
continued
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
10
Plutarch
by
in
the
biography
to
imitate.
of
its
upheld
the
most
this
purity of life
thoroughness
The
the
by
of
members
become
was
of
had
that
part
Church
conquest
of
**lt
for
the
the
to
those
of
the
the
first
reception
and
that
rapidity
world/'
Roman
as
of
one
schooling
who
expressed a desire
the
Church;
secondary
their
the
third, the
furnished
of
is
Christian
primary
attracted
been
large
imitation
an
says'':
historians
a
its
with
began
became
in history:
phenomena
largely responsible for the
definite
more
then
Christian
remarkable
Christianity supplied
submerged
masses
the
Monroe
for
the
training given
they
and
and
life
and
life
testimony
centuries,
for
founder,
schooling,
unanimous
then
"Lives/'
Christian
primary
two
his
SOLVED
was
to
struction
in-
catechumens:
imitation.
by
school
lifetime
he founded
a
During Charlemagne's
and in the bishopric of Orleans,
in each
one
monastery,
each
in
parish.
of chivalry was
The
education
page-hood,
primary
the
from
seventh
the
fourteenth
to
extending
year.
Imitation
here
was
wonderfully
brought into play, the
noble
the
attendance
personal
on
pages' continual
ladies
in concrete
giving not only beautiful
example,
intensified
form, but the length of the daily attendance
this imitation
contact.
by habitual
when
in
of primary
occurred
education
A later form
in the
thirteenth
its last organized
tury
cenreadjustment
Church
the
Roman
against the Pre-Renaissance,
the
extension
of
in the
form
a
primary
developed
imitation
of St. Francis
whose
appealed
Franciscans,
with
peculiar force to the common
people, as biography
does.
ever
At
universities,
the
primary
imitative
thereabouts
"determine,"
him
The
stage.
registered
for
with
as
with
unitl
he
some
was
the
trades,
of
youth
master,
able
to
there
was
thirteen
who
was
''define"
a
or
sponsible
re-
and
IMITATION,
PRIMARY
OR
RENAISSANCE
The
method
EDUCATION
PEDAGOGY.
imitation
of
H
suggested
was
by
only
of the mother,
and
teaching on the function
of play and
exercise, and the necessity
importance
with
the life of
keeping education
vitally in touch
Erasmus
the
of
the
in
times.
REFORMATION
PEDAGOGY.
The
Reformation,
for
nothing
primary
two-hour
by
the
be
Luther,
and
attention
MONTAIGNE
AND
order, did
unless
so
the
with
combined
exalt
to
Jesuit
education,
schools
reformers
directed
the
or
regarded.
a
The
to
trade,
tendency
of
suggested
of
have
well
very
imitation
REALISTIC
or
tion"
"continua-
trades, may
interest
little
work.
handi-
PEDAGOGY.
MONTAIGNE.
Realism
said little if anything
Humanistic
Although
about
in his
education,
elementary
Erasmus,
"System
of Studies"
of the
in basing
to the
root
problem
goes
that
of Things,
the
of Words
knowledge
as
on
more
the
furnished
If
with
be
important."
pupil
things,
Here
will follow."
words
the
lay the superiority of
the
of
in
words
at
education
things, over
Sparta
Athens.i""
and
once,
things
needed
the
correctly.
Montaigne
to
is
live
masters,
is to
language
of
expression
worth
supremely
to
best
Greek
their
introduce
why
the
best, from
The
this
is
the
be
be
learnt
learnt
only
that
if
to
the
of
knowledge
the
only introduction
speak that language
to
teaches
to
philosophy
teach
it not given to children
early ?
Why
done
living^^ ?
they have
only when
held
at
the
while,
ability
is to
live,
men
The
imitation
of
should
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
12
of
should
childhood
tage
advan-
taken
be
these
teaching of foreign languages;
to
learned
happened
early from
as
nurses,
the
stories
in
Ovid's
read
himself, who
and
took
part in Latin plays, thus employing
the
for
be
Montaigne
^2
nursery,
his mimetic
instinct.
believed
Nevertheless,
Montaigne
first.^*
schools
coming
vernacular
in
MULCASTER.
psychological
this
conceive
to
by,^* and
the
imitation, that by which
well
doubt
no
mind
"Art
with
analysis began
Mulcaster's
represents
grows.
COMENIUS.
insists^
*^
easily be
be formed
in early youth, and
cannot
properly
His
at this age."
psychological analysis of the
and
all things.
oneself
mentality is knowing
Comenius
formed
except
child's
School
took
advanced
and
of
and
LOCKE
AND
has
the
occur
"
exercise
of
to
maxim
before
^seeing that
say
him
which
it will
ular
Vernacin
in
and
and
a
tellect
in-
mornmg
in the
noon
after-
voice.
PEDAGOGY.
of
"pueris
The
hand
DISCIPLINARIAN
much
with
subjects,only
same
of
enforced^":
piety, together
developing
explanation,
manner,
memory
the
origin
truth,
obedience,
silence, patience,
sciences.
all the
all
up
the
be
to
are
religion and
repetition, with
Locke
really
was
educational
its
reverence,
industry, absolute
justice, charity,
politeness, courtesy,
notions
rudimentary
imitated
with
cleanliness,
temperance,
most
can
man
plays and occupations
Here
kindergarten.
games,
Froebel's
should
"a
Mother-School
Comenius's
more
that
imitation.
He
reverentia."
should
not
inevitably
be
by
emphasizes^^
Nothing
him
be
reproduced
OR
IMITATION,
sensitized
mind's
his
on
surroundings
of securing
a
from
even
should
was
mother,
who
it
the
of
imitates
should
fit for
be
more
which
during
taught anything
especially, their sight,
exercised."
are
bases
be
AND
ROUSSEAU
and
he
guide
will
training. 2^
room
"Children
their
memories
such
knowledge
senses,
only
simple
is by
Self-denial
must
for
the
PEDAGOGY.
of
the
and
Evidently
in the
5-12, training of
to
15, therefore,
12
child.
Robinson
By
useful
lay by
Crusoe
information
primary
Rousseau's
child's
earliest
Rousseau's
from
From
imitate
belated
is much
no
of
than
more
from
method.
both
organs.
is to
curiosity
and
their
as
1-5, physical;
from
members
methods
no
under
NATURALISTIC
consider
must
periods:
to
early. ^o
taught
We
falls
far
inductive
the
not
were
says^":
development
forms
complex
most
of
observance
he
The
the
to
child
the
which
as
they
to
Longings,
thing they
first
that
surroundfings.Yet,
its
be
may
be
used
be
their
The
of
'performance
but
because
pleased them,
not a
was
Evidently Locke
like to realize
the
length
it
them.
would
period
without
go
because
*
should
Cradles."
very
know
to
anything
thought
have
and
desires
learn
"children
that
importance
^"
tutor.
the
and
home
crucial
the
as
13
both
thus
little for
cares
but
their
Hence
examplar
proper
Locke
their
submit
EDUCATION
plate;
fateful.
are
However,
single act,"
a
PRIMARY
tion
educa-
indeed
life,which
has
university tertiary education.
PEDAGOGY.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
PESTALOZZL
Pestalozzi
at
Burgdorf
of
the
object lesson,
of
the
word
or
not
thing,
as
worked
merely
Comenius
out
to
the
gain
had
a
importance
knowledge
done,
but
as
TEACHERS'
14
a
of
means
chain
PROBLEMS
mental
of
graded
of
development
Mental
SOLVED
**
development.
exercises,
arithmetic
for
by observation
to
developed
child
the
basis
a
By
was
the
mental
entire
is
a
continuous
a
given.
great extent^'
;
imitative
from
to ''intuitive"
drawing
changed
was
or
from
the
vitalized; language
changed
spelling to
to be
syllabic methods;
phonetic and
was
geography
the
home
from
yard; singing was
secularized,
begun
influence
and
used
for
moral
on
feelings and
training.
from
Pestalozzi's
indeed
As
life-experiences,
appears
his work
to
chiefly confined
schools,
elementary
was
and
Herbart
points this out definitely, considering it as
a
foundation
his
for
additions.
own
^^
into numis analyzed
ber,
by observation^*^
form
and
to observe,
We
language.
1, how
are
what
of objects; 2, their
and
kind
appearance,
many
and
and
their
form
On
man
names.
a
3,
language;
the
of
result
is
this
the
of
recognizing
1, power
process
and
unlike
3, repreobjects; 2, stating their number,
senting
form
and
unobjects, number
by language,
law
of the
the immutable
art of
forgetably. Therefore
This
teaching
is to
education
and
from,
start
within
work
fold
three-
this
teach
should
to look
on
principle.
1, We
its environment;
object as separated from
2, to
the
size and
its form,
proportion; and 3, to teach
to them.
and
descriptive of objects known
names
every
teach
words
FROEBEL.
the
organization
in
Blankenburg,
planned
who,
at
It
resistance.
child
to
usually
in
Comenius,
While
was
Its
a
of
1837,
field
new
fundamental
himself,
express
The
acquisitive and
dominant,
are
"Mother-School,"
child's play, it was
his
now
actualized
and
hence
subordinated
Froebel
it in
his
offered
thought^" was
and
thus
produce
assimilative
had
to
least
aid
the
ment.
develop-
processes,
to
dergarten.
kin-
here
develop-
TEACHERS'
16
the
with
time,
PROBLEMS
of
facts
simple
knowledge,
common
distinctions
seasons,
SOLVED
of
in
kingdoms;
vegetable
occupations and products
the
and
mineral,
classes, the
preparatory
animals,
which
touch
their
domestic
form,
the
the
forest,
in
and
volcanoes
French
fossils.
specialty,
the
different
form
obtained,
of
forms
Science
Applied
is well
exemplified
and
seventh
eighth
whence
construction,
the
the
in
ing,
cloth-
birds, fish, insects,
in
garden;
winds,
used, the
hpw
animals,
the
field,
employed
materials
and
wild
and
life^"
daily
vinegrower,
farmer, the miller, the baker, the
of locomotion;
fuel, metals, means
the
direction,
water,
is
a
perhaps
by Figuier's
works.
F6n61on
imitation
of
of
the
this
lesson
may
wrote
for
he
of
the
removed
far
Rollings
indirect
be
the
this
from
insistence
the
Dead,
the
was
aim
Applying
storv
and
Jansenist's
and
of
fables.
minor
and
stories
direct
Homeric
formulation
both
on
the
instruction.
Dauphin
of
instruction,
interesting
outside
everything
Dialogues
Telemachus,
Not
that
so
of
value
educative
indirect
of
observation
from
fables,
doctrine
his
by
it
deriving
and
the
particularly emphasized
application
objective methods.
Another
attempt
for
of
reform
in
Lasalle
and
education
elementary
had
been
class
done
people
improvement
for
by
in
in
the
working
education
to
do
people
what
the
higher
lasting
and
effected
They
education.
primary
a
EDUCATION,
garten
school
primary
system ^the kinderremarkable
^has spread
with
speed, and
no
lack
its
need
of
centres
the
logical
psycholarger
any
The
school
elementary
system may
training.
American
"
child
and
the
was
Brothers"
Jesuits.
French
AMERICAN
The
"Christian
the
secondary
the
education
elementary
"
IMITATION,
hold,
not
but
children
outside
is
organization
of
history
1
"
6.
7
lb..
2
*
18.
Painter,
"
16.
lessons
13.
G"mpa3rre,
8
231.
"
Education
10
209.
i"Ib..
of
"
457.
Education,
18
458.
Monroe,
i"
28.
Education,
5.
1*
17
Locke,
lb.,
7.
70,
New
i^Ib.,
How
of
29
so
see
our
Montes28
225.
263.
York,
88.
87,
27
p.
619.
lb.,
Pcstalozzi,
665.
Schools,
Making
Locke,
Monroe,
Instructs,
ringdon,p.
in
26
Method,
Theory
71.
623.
23
607.
lb.,
Monroe,
sori.
21
32-35.
22
lb.,
20
521.
Monroe,
Th.
2"^
15.^
Didactic,
Great
plan.'^
Gertrude
taigne,
Mon^2
School,
Normal
i"
562.
24
taigne,
Mon201.
n
194,
98.
lb.,
Essay,
Monroe,
466.
MacEvoy,
Ed.
trades.
Pestalozzian
the
75.
445.
lb.,
on
garten
kinder-
higher
the
Oswego
MacEvoy,
63.
Monroe,
the
at
power
the
in
the
in
The
used
in
Its
costliest
time.
and
object-method
object*
promoted
and
place
any
Sheldon,^^
A.
and
largest
the
schools.
private
to
understood
the
in
and
Edward
in
well
is
going
of
one
society,
imitation
of
those
of
the
all
practically
receives
certainly
17
EDUCATION
PRIMARY
OR
Middle
par-
1823-1897,
por
can
Ameri-
E.,
Brown,
Schools.
1 8
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
CHAPTER
Habit,
Batit
the
11.
of
PRIMITIVE
Spencer
EDUCATION.
least
"The
saye:
Educatioiu
Secondary
developed
people
the
are
which
dividual
inresult
from
would
change,"
initiative, or specialTzation, the psychological
therefore
basis of tertiary education.
in
They remain
the domain
of secondary
is based
education, which
on
of
the
of
the
and
formation
habits,
toms.
cusacceptation
most
to
averse
These
appear
the
in which
initiation,
imitation
exercise
of
the
The
(of
J.
fiction
J.
Hobbs,
in
a
society,
is
tribes,
or
let
existed
human
race
own
and
anywhere;
law
our
could
which
contract,"
was
are
day.
priest.
not
by
be
unite
and
the
must
in
travel
made
verified
as
all
the
bound.
The
mechanism
be
schools,
in
"social
a
having
ever
of
rest
rules
mistaken
of
taken
mis-
a
ness,
self -conscious-
have
which,
gether
to-
existed
man
to
came
not
live
to
yet universally observed,
not
Individuality could
appear
and
which
by
"flareback,"
a
but
Contract"
not
self-consciousness;
impulse,
he
after
ever
or
primitive
could
he
oracular
Locke),
animals
The
before
alone
be
of
tion
divina-
or
to
do
to
"Social
a
and
to
seen
the
herds, and
clans, long before
and
of
supposed
were
anachronism.
flocks
shaman
philosophical
rituals
or
nothing
incantation,
leader, teacher,
Rousseau,
secrets
has
neophyte
of the
individuals
certain
doctrines,
as
habits
of
the
national
interin
even
before
for
tutored
un-
PR
HABIT,
SECONDARY
ORIENTAL
Chinese
education:
called
nature;
of
path
relationships have
Memory,
though
the
of
based
on
The
for
is called
the
path is called
occupations
structio
inand
centuries.
imitation,
memorizing
foundation
classics, the
is
nature
life's
varied
not
of
conferred
this
countries
habit.
from
with
characteristic
has
Heaven
regulation
those
chief
the
accordance
the
duty;
In
of
is
"What
an
19
EDUCATION.
recapitulation,
Habit,
EDUCATION
of
draws
its permanence
and
retention
Chinese
composition
peculiarly a secondary
activity.
essays,
"The
is
of
the
his
teacher
to
object
compel
pupils,
first, to remember;
secondly, to remember;
thirdly,
his
to remember."
and
The
pupil "backs
evermore,
and
then
"the
to insure
tion
attenbook,"
thoroughness,
of
the
is fixed
scholar
two
exclusively upon*
the
^the repetition of
in the
characters
same
things
the
in
and
the
book
order
as
they occur
(imitation),
of
at the
rate
repetition of them
highest attainable
(habit).
speed"
education
the three
admits
In India^
secondary
est
highof
school
is
"
castes; but
this
them
the
education
secondary
for
the
warriors
merchants
make
of
use
"finishing courses,"
official
practical life, and
fit
to
as
of
wants
and
civil
position.
In
education
Persia, secondary
been
limited^
to
mathematics
two
added
the next
the
third
sciences, language
of
significance
was
Egyptian
memorized
for
the
world
wa"
and
memnonical
consisted
fifteen
But
education
to
writing
of
caste, while
music.
times
some-
the
the
for
upper
chief
the
reciting of certain
certain
gates in
through
passage
the Hebrews
to be attained.
Among
that,
prayers,
have
to
military training, from
twenty-five years of age.
education
In
Egypt, secondary
and
seems
by
accurate
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
20
SOLVED
education
secondary
was
probably
at the
schools,
primary
synagogal
of
the
rabbinical
Scriptures and
combined
and
the
with
memory-work
writings
chief
the
subject.
GREEK
The
of
formation
of
habit, the
produced
Greeks
the
among
all forms
EDUCATION.
art
of the
athletics
by
music
presided over
by
soul,
^which
"
the
was
included
nine
muses:
the
drama,
proper,^
history, oratory,
sciences, and
the
musical
particularly singing, and
Homeric
recital of the
this that
It was
poems.*
duced
prothe
free
nobility, by which
or
personal worth
man
superior to the slave, as the Athenian
was
as
poetry,
music
citizen
to
was
reduce
The
importance
Plato's
attempt,
and
music
conflict
with
Thus
doing,
must
rationalize
basis
of
was
learning;
habit
be
followed
all that
can
formation
which
he
Spartan
twelve
and
entered
into
received
Athenian
the
of
wrote
is
that
formation
a
it
the
was
itself.
in
appears
the
poetry
not
might
of habits
by
of
formed
once
shaping
duct.
conby exercise,
in order
by instruction
arbitrary authority by reason
what
individual
is to
the
class
first
beyond
train
subject
to
of
of
ephebes
strict military training.
education
secondary
matter
the
control;
through
of
ethics,
treatise.
education
years
man's
for
individual
the
great
done
has
nature
is
habit,'' the
secondary
eighteen
the
with
what
to
mony
har-
conduct.
done
be
This
agreement
children^
the
the
taught
of
to
cities.
moralization.
virtuous
character
on
by
it, replacing
Aristotle
the
his
than
When
as
in
other
phase of education
to limit
"Republic,"
education*
Greek
training
this
their
rather
soul
the
of
learnt
of
citizen
the
to
was
occurred
age,
or
when
cadets,
consisted
between
the
where
of
pupil
he
gynv*
HABIT,
SECONDARY
OR
nasia, from
sixteen
EDUCATION
eighteen years
to
21
of
with
age,
with elders, attending lawtraining by conversation
courts, banquets and theatres.
Public
education
tained
being limited to the free, it conmanual
artisans
the
slaves
and
no
training;
learned
their trades by apprenticeship,or by actually
ing
doing the work.
Perhaps the Spartan ephebic trainfrom
be
to
considered
a
twenty might
eighteen
in
kind of definite manual
newer
However,
training.
Greek
education, the poorer boys at fourteen or fifteen
set to learning a trade, so that Socrates was
not
were
ashamed
of being a sculptor.
ROMAN
The
secondary
without
Their
certain
were
of
education
Roman
habitualizing the
education
"learning.''
form
process
doubt
a
EDUCATION.
was
Certain
"doing"
activities
habits.
approved
added
never
of
one
imitated
was
virtues.
than
rather
undertaken
were
to
tions
Rationalizing instruc-
thereto, except
as
ported,
im-
an
engrafted process.
that
Roman
of the
secondary school
was
elaborate
grammaticus,'' an
organized institution with
The
ti
method
and
public support.
systematized as
fixed
It
the
received
curriculum, which
and
taught grammar
liberal
seven
literature,
arts:
grammar,
rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, music
medicine
and
architecture
astronomy
being
"
added.
Gymnastics was
taught only
military service; dancing was
with
home.
memory
In
Quintilian
be
trained
Rome,
inasmuch
men
by
the
man
as
well
as
Cicero
in
and
times
some-
tion
connec-
learned
advises
that
at
the
selections.
by using
ized;
perfectly socialperhaps most
maintainecl
''justice"was
among
choice
was
as
state's enforcement
of
the
balance
be-
TEACHERS'
22
tween
PROBLEMS
rights
and
duties.
terms
were
the
in these
contribution
SOLVED
The
elaboration
Romans'
task
great
civilization.
to
to
meaning
1, piety, consisting
of
and
have
est
great-
left
They
standard
following
the
life
of
crete
con-
terms:
and
esty,
filiality;2, modwith
acter,
3, manliness
(or firmness, charreverence;
embraced
fortitude; 4, prudence,
"constantia")
and
earnestness
honesty,
("gravitas,"
graveness,
These
exercised
sedateness,
sobriety and
dignity).
towards
individually constituted
duty; but if exercised
the
word
virtue
The
state
they formed
justice.
the
and
continued
Romans
meant,
("virtus") among
to
manliness.
mean,
idealistic
practical
in
life
of
of
terms
formulated
as
the
is
virtue
duty is
by the
man.""
private
thought
the
public school
preferable
to
tutor.
EDUCATION.
MEDIAEVAL
The
of
terms
life; life in
of
conception
Quintilian
the
"Life
formulation
moral
the
reverence
Christian
of
secondary education, the formation
the
in
habits, was
catechumens,
training given to
which
of admission
into full memthey proved worthy
bership
by baptism.
education
consisted
Later, in chivalry, the secondary
of squirehood, extending frequently from
the fourteenth
noble
While
each
held
to the
his
twenty-first year.
benefits
of schools
were
own
court, the social
gained
in other
to serve
by sending their sons
courts, which
custom
of
may
taking
A
later
"extension
have
arisen
hostages,
to
form
of
movement""
from,
coalesced
and
peace
education
secondary
insure
occurred
in
readjustment
against the Pre- Renaissance,
organized
or
the
the
with,
co-operation.
"
when,
thirteenth
Roman
that
a
in
sort
its
of
last
century
Church
de-
TEACHERS'
24
PROBLEMS
himself,
indeed
This
secondary.
the
entered
who
SOLVED
occurred
college
with
thirteen
at
Montaigne
of
years
age.
of
habit, we
tion
heading
perhaps menmay
for
tion.
memorizamere
Montaigne's
great aversion
his lesson,
memorize
"A
not so much
boy should
him
it in
his actions.""
Let
repeat
practice it.
as
know
at all; it is
"To
only is not to know
by heart
committed
to his memhas
ory.
one
simply to keep what
knows
What
directly, that he will dispose
a
man
his
without
to
of
or
looking
turning to his book,
is here
the
considered
then
This
measure
pattern."
and
basis of efficiency.
Under
the
MULCASTER.
second
Mulcaster's^"
to
retain"
represents
psychological step of "memory
fairly well the habit-formation
of
education.
secondary
COMENIUS.
analysis
Comenius's
second
the
evidently
stage
the
LOCKE
of
creation
than
more
habit.
To
the
education
of
him
it
of
self""
habits.
Locke
was
basis
psychological
is "ruling one's
DISCIPLINARIAN
AND
Nobody
of
of
PEDAGOGY.
has
the
emphasized
means
by
one
the
value
the
which
developed
"faculties."
"It is not
that the performance
of a single act is in itself to be
deprecated
haps;
performation
of
is all-important."
habit
but
the
"Habits
work
constantly and with greater facility
more
impressionable
and
"powers"
than
reason,
is seldom
Practice
sensitive
which,
when
plate
we
of
tbe$e
are
npt
mind
have
fairly consulted, and
more
and
habits
everything.
are
faculties, but
the
need
most
of
rarely obeyed.
We
exercise*
are
born
Geniu3
it,
"^^
with
is
no
OR
SECONDARY
exercise;
many
HABIT,
than
more
due
not
trade.
of
avocations
poetic
a
lies hid
nature
difference
The
natural
their
to
25
EDUCATION
between
faculties, but
is
men
their
to
in
acquired
and
of rules
less
worthHearing
memorizing
are
forms
the
habit
of action
out
with: it is practice that
of right
Faults
reflection.
arise chiefy from
want
habits.
mind.^*
of
use
ROUSSEAU
AND
the
Between
child
begins
here
What
the
selfish
twenty
of
aware
others; his heart is
Adolescence
relationships. ^'
social
before
becomes
based
emotional
was
on
experience;
of
example
conscience
good
fifteen
become
in
PEDAGOGY.
to
"begins" education, instead
sense
interpretation is that
belated.
now
of
ages
to
trained
be
to
NATURALISTIC
his
and
is wakened
It:
with
contact
of
study
and
mon
com-
hate
is
association
sympathy
on
a
education
habitual
the
by love
ending
Emile's
mere
unity,
through
tutor,
of
and
men,
history,
that
point
on
the
his
out
evil.
and
PSYCHOLOGICAL
EDUCATION.
PESTALOZZL
Pestalozzi^*
habit
in
the
repetition
of
emphasizes
memorizing
the
of
value
of
the
the
and
verses
repetitional
continuous
lessons.
FROEBEL.
Froebel
While
hence
not
touching
the
recognized
principle
of
habit
himself
limited
crucial
the
to
secondary
importance
formation.
the
kindergarten,
school, he
fully
of
its
underlying:
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
36
.
HERBART.
suggested
Herbart
the
of
use
mind
drill the
by habits
of
velopmen
de-
psychological
the
classical
mathematics,
pure
and
lanfi;uages, literature
of
means
as
These
history.
study.
of
course
MONTESSORI.
The
Montessori
education,
secondary
much
with
of
the
the
basis
that
activity,
if each
and
in
favor
mechanism,
in
the
produce
^'sensory
and
refinement
of
culture."
The
of
in
as
an
under
its
present
mission,
volunteer
Its
habits
of
study
*^
So
carded
dis-
are
work;
It
least
school
position
of
as
service
drill is
severe
of
at
must
is
called
practice
such
the
an
and
in
system
the
Franco-Prussian
the
admirable
lished
estab-
was
Napoleonic
wars
and
regeneration
revenge,
It has
as
men
Schelling.
after
Lately it has undergone
old
the
to
by adding
real
Latin-scientific
gymmasium,
realschule, and
girls' gymnasium.
year
able
pleasur-
EDUCATION.
engine of
the
leadership
its
It
observation.^^
national
fulfilled
ment
employ-
habit.
of
benches^
form
teacher
secondary
German
of
discrimination.^^
GERMAN
The
result
need
no
the
as
education.
primary
is the
to
avoiding
of liberty.
of a conquest
ever,
Howeducated
to
by repeated exercise
are
patient
with
apply
itself
concern
as
orthopedic
favor
senses
of
be
change
of
not
habits
step
will
there
braces,
corsets,
long
of
primarily
not
it does
as
formation
imitation,
is expected
does
method
army
a
strated.
demon-
war
number
of
classical
commercial
It fits
means
self-discipline; but
the
course
the
and
fications
modi-
for
the
for
the
one
university.
formation
hardly
of
of
self-
control,
which
for
the
precludes
France
EDUCATION.
secondary
the
tenth
the
from
articulation
and
with
lends
it
practice,"
's
employ,
seventeenth
Greek
the
suggests
government
railroad
and
tems,
sys-
acter.
char-
of
much
and
precepts
basis
proper
close
Its
semi-political
"Few
precept,
extending
year.
innumerable
the
of
admission
for
postal, telegraphic
much
Ramus
foundation
almost
elaborately
is
system
government
the
its
the
the
to
with
positions,
school
forms
and
professions
the
demanded
student.
systematized,
to
27
obedience
implicit
the
FRENCH
In
EDUCATION
SECONDARY
OR
HABIT,
ary
second-
French
education.
AMERICAN
not
yet
all
its facilities
over
standard
whole
the
^
Painter,'
Monroe,
"^
Monroe,
154.
roe,
"
world,
for
20.
*
*
"
93.
^^
"
pace
for
the
matter
12
Monroe,
92.
4.
99.
ard
Monroe,
"
Monroe,
shall
yet
at
whole
the
of
insists
rate
any
but
country,
of
i*, Monroe,
and
tessori,
i^Mon-
it
on
go
this
and
that.
Conduct
Monroe,
516.
shows
Massachusetts;
16.
461.
Monroe,
child
the
but
appreciated
more
alone
state
McEvoy,
15Z
466.
One
school
the
and
more
every
set
90.
Monroe,
^
being
are
is
States
developed;
everywhere
school
attendance
of secondary
high
has
United
the
or
that
the
through
of
system
country.
our
standard
the
*
unified,
strides
immense
that
school
secondary
The
EDUCATION.
Understanding;
563-5.
Gertrude,
19.
Montessori,
^^
25.
i*
i*^
Montessori,
11.
LeonMon173.
TEACHERS'
28
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
CHAPTER
ni.
ilie Bam
SpecialiMiKon,
PRIMITIVE
limiting
to
man
an
habitual
EDUCATION.
second
then
of
initiation
when
into
sort
some
expertness, will
an
may
a
customary
or
said
be
be
effort, inventiveness,
arises
of
process
indeed
It may
or
Civilization
condition.
reached
habit-step of education,
be
called
imitation,
might
becomes
primitive by passing
mere
Man
savagery.
through
the
of
Absence
Edocatioii.
Tertiary
of
"
^the
third, combining
to
tion,
specializaor
ing"
"finish-
education.
self-consciously in primitive
have
ever
been
times, yet it must
ever
present, howimplicitly, in any distinctively human
activity.
be
noticed
that
the
first development
It will
of
ized
education, is characterprimitiveeducation. Oriental
by entire repression of the individuality; primitive
have
education
cation
been
must
therefore
a
socializing eduof
the
individuality even
impulses before
peared
apon
of
content
personality;
tribal
appear
Moreover,
the
scene.
the
training
of the
member
useful
not
the
was
directed
tribe, rather
learning
was
than
and
character
the
to
producing
an
international
tribal, and
taught
a
with
formalities.
ORIENTAL
If China
of
the
EDUCATION.
tion
possible example of the applicaprinciple of secondary education, habit, we
is the
best
OR
SPECIALIZATION,
be
not
must
misled
tertiary
education
absent.
Man
is
his
all
"
used
have
Chinese
slight, of
tion,
primitive educa-
in
even
must
men
the
and
that
saw
his first
at
however
trace,
some
29
principle of
be
entirely
supposing that the
individuality, would
incurably human
; and, even
We
powers.
the
medicine
individuality;
EDUCATION
into
showed
appearance,
TERTIARY
also
little
some
used
certainly
a
of
morally
so
adoption
exalted
tions
standard
Confucius
originated; the invena
as
of so
ing;
printhieroglyphic system;
a
complicated
inventions
other
anteclating
spectacles; and
many
Chinese
education, therefore,
by milleniums.
our
own
is civilization, though
stunted.
Again, recently, in 1 898, there were
great changes.
and
examinations
The
abolished,
temporarily
were
In
1901
western
literary style
colleges substituted.
modern
abolished, and
training introduced.
were
essays
these
doubt
No
changes will bear fruit, and demonstrate
So
will not
that
be
further
impossible.
improvements
deal
great
also
the
The
under
of
more
introduction
examination
it:
and
system
the
abolishment
was
of
established
T'ang dynasty, so that
these
then.
even
Only
changes
"natural"
personal actions, and
or
custom.
conflicting with
of odes
Besides, the composition
the
the
queue.
in 617
changes
there
were
were
looked
were
not
A.D.,
on
realized
as
as
though
couplet-writing, does
creative
ability, and
imply
"finishing" activity. But
exercised
the limits
this may
be
of couplet
only within
tirely
essay-style. Evidently individuality has not vet enor
in literary, as well
relations.
in moral
emerged
as
of
abortion
This
individuality has left
rudimentary
nation
materialistic
and
the whole
sordid; nothing to
"breath
of idealism";
even
inspire the individual, no
the
ethical
character
based
principles of
rare
are
tradition.^
wholly on arbitrary authority or irrational
It has resulted^
in a lack of power
of initiative,of incast
in inflexible
form
of imitative
and
essays,
30
TEACHERS'
ventiveness,
The
of
most
adaptability, and
of
it in
is
development
of
it not
the
be
due
was
to
the
ing.
function-
all creative
striking indication
formulation
Let
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
this
of
doctrine
that
absorption
in
is
the
Hindu
the
goal
of
sonal
per-
the
Nirvana,
nihilation
an-
individual.
thought that this
psychological
any
absence
ality
individu-
of
defect:
the
human
he is now,
and
born, the same
as
being was
ages
ago;
the
the
this social
that
Chinese,
proof of it is, among
of
in
it resulted
the
choking
unreliability of slaveviolate
cannot
man's
a
morality; one
nature, without
that
sinister.
are
suffering compensations
In India, only Brahmin
to tertiary
on
pupils continue
thus
since
their primary
education,* and
days
complete
this
twelve
of
Indeed,
long
study.
through
years
the
Hindus
achieved
course
great proficiency in
very
of algebra, thus
mathematics,
originating much
placing
the
of mankind
under
toric
Rherest
lasting obligation.*
and
cultivated.*
logic also were
In
Persia, the
twenty-five to
tertiary period from
of
consisted
of
a
as
fifty years
military service
age
added
soldier, but
Competent
reading and
writing.
retired
soldiers,
after
of
fifty years
age,
practised astronomy,
may
have
who
astrology,
Magi,
alchemy, priestcraft, and the study of the Zend-Avesta.
and
in sciences
In Egypt the highest education
sophy
philolimited
the
of
to
priests, whose
was
course
and
drawn
that Plato
such
to them,
was
reputation was
them
from
much
received
as, for instance, his legend
become
"
of
Atlantis.
Among
there
medicine
the
Hebrews
rabbinical
were
at
Alexandria,
(of
the
schools
century A.D),
and
law
theology,
and
Babylon
of
periods, the "schools
other
of prophets,
priests, and
aphy^ poetry, music, medicine,
earlier
of
first
Jerusalem.
In
for sons
prophets"
leaders, taught philos-
the
history
and
law."
32
TEACHERS'
eighteen
to
barracks
soldier
or
the
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
twenty
of
years
camp
second.
became
Athenian
regular
a
education
in
lived
youth
,
and
year,
one
the
age)
therefore
was
the
than
by the
Spartan
step further
social
of
education
of
a
genuine
secondary
presence
tion
culture.
this, the Spartan's finishing educaLacking
education
in point of time.
the
became
secondary
and
ian
Athenof Spartan
Besides, this military education
results.
the
different
showed
Spartans,
Among
developed
one
what
committed
was
therefore
of
the
end
very
Not
his
walls
of
existence
in
great
a
cause
be-
warlikeness
like.
war-
built
were
their
fitful;
than
more
never
material;
and
Habitually, incurably
was
Parthenon
the
;
remained
they
and
habit,
Even
war.
Athenian.
the
ill-assorted
of
out
their
of
with
so
cultured,
the
was
of
not
to Marathon,
they would
go
urgency
habit
of waiting for the
their
moon
new
national
to
permanent,
grew
direction
the
to
at
exigency
an
generals
not
were
civilians.
professionals, but elected
for
Of
the
said, "As
learning,
Spartans, Plutarch
cording
Acabsolutely necessary."
they had
just what
was
"exercise
to
Lycurgus, their chief object was
of
virtue,'' and
their
education
the
was
was
Sophists
information,
Plato
and
"concord
they
tion.^"
the
really
little
but
inhabitants.""
the
Hence
It
prevailingly physical and moral.
definite
to impart
first attempted
that
so
were
cared
who
of
in
so-called
the
of
reforms
of
nature
a
retro|;ression;
of
dissemination
for
Socrates
mformamatics,
mathe-
for
inadequate
science, history, language, or literature.
method
Their
EDUCATION.
ROMAN
their
Upon
education
years,
superimposed
kind;
but
Their
tertiary
this
of
habit, the
rationalizing
ever
or
was
remained
finishing
course
a
instructions
Greek
was
in
Romans,
of
later
formal
importation.
the
actual
ap-
SPECIALIZATION,
prenticeship
in
value
they
of
of. the
a
such
the
in
fuller
that
the
manifested
and
tion
instruccultural
of
nature
very
the
33
possess
development
characterized
as
They
training
activities
plant
much
EDUCATION
done.
be
to
of
selected
because
germs
activities
thing
whatever
certain
child
"
the
to
appreciation
no
TERTIARY
OR
manhood
in
liberal
the
education
Greeks.
"school
The
the
of
rhetor''
was
"finishing"
a
who
course,
for
preparing
for oratory.
It consisted
chiefly
of
declamation
and
debate
moral
batable
deabout
legal and
arithmetic,
taught music,
questions; it also
and
these
In time
philosophy.
geometry,
astronomy
culminated
into
Roman
finishing schools
a
university,
founded
a
begun
by
library
by Vespasian (69-79 A.D)
in
the
and
of
which
under
Hadrian
Peace,
Temple
ever,
Howto be called
the "Athenaeum."
(117-138)
came
patronized
public life
only by
especially
"
it attended
those
to
more
law
were
and
than
medicine
to
philosophy.
That
the
permanent
formation
was
Roman's
shows
was
the
that
taken
difference
remained
physical prowess
their secondary
period of
with
warlike
training.
up
between
Sparta,
Athens
and
so
habitHere
Rome.
warlikeness
Sparta, with
as
secondary
training, and
had
warlike
no
tertiary education,
a
people, but no
In Athens,
of warlikeness
good generals.
postponement
to the
few
brilliant
tertiary stage produced
generals
a
an
over
unwarlike
people.
secondary
education, gave
but
the addition
stability;
of
While
culture
these
added
schools
Rome,
with
warlike
people warlike
cation
of an
intelligent tertiary edubrilliant
generals.
all began
in a private manner,
her
whole
the whole
they soon
spread over
empire; but there was
no
governmental
oversight, compulsion,
uniformity.
or
the
both
however,
Gradually,
government,
imperial
and
the
aid
of
to
these
municipal, came
schools, and
them
certain
official standing, and
the
thereby gave
a
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
34
The
paying of the salaries by
system.
of
and
the
Rome;
University
developed
Vespasian
the
admitted
first
Pius
Antoninus
A.D.)
(138-161
and
to quasirhetoricians
philosophers
grammarians,
and
rank
senatorial
privileges.
of
semblance
a
EDUCATION.
MEDIAEVAL
The
in
Christian
the
earliest
called
of
from
the
For
this
of
centre
the
with
such
instruction
which,
Rome
cathechetical
Calixtus
through
was
activity,
in
Pantaenus
ginning
be-
A.D.,
1 79
continued
who
A.D.),
so
its method
and
intellectual
Origen
(231
and
in Syria
^^
Alexandria
centuries
convert
was
school,
cathechism,
some
Bethlehem.
at
Jerome
the
university education
or
theological
Stoic
and
Clement
with
of
use
instruction.
the
at
finishing
period the
followed
Cesarea,
founded
such
libraries, assumed
by
school
a
university
proportions.
in
specialization appeared
the
admission
monasteries,
through
devoted
the
work.
This
to
rough
The
brothers
the
of
germ
intellectual
more
monks
more
time
for
the
tercian
Cis-
of
lay-
allowed
study
and
literature.
in
Tertiary or finishing education
was
represented
chivalry by the last stage of the training of the squire ;
the
the immediate
He
was
''squire of the body.*'
sonal
per-
attendant
and
of
thus
promotion
to
his lord
in battle
upon
had
the
opportunities,
and
as
well
in
ment,
tournaas
right,
knighthood.
A later
of finishing education
occurred
form
when,
in
its last
thirteenth
the
in
organized
readjustment
the
the
Roman
century,
against
Pre-Renaissance,
Church
form
of
in the
developed
a
tertiary extension
the
in conversion,
Inquisition, a sort of graduation
which
for
life or
was
effectually prepared
death, as
showed
the
the
case
might be; at any
rate, it well
of will-directed, rationally efficient
methods.
power
SPECIALIZATION,
In
another
Paris, under
in
1121.
William
local
The
merged
into
students
who
of
cathedral
university,
an
flocked
(it is
said
up
full
so
at the
sack
readjustment
and
of
the
of
discovery
of
the
Amalfi
1135,
tertiary
Paris,
Later, these
Ab61ard
in
of
of
education
rose
developed
Pandect
created
true
of
grew
law
at
created
Arabic
the
of
numbers
prominence
fifty bishops
at
As
recovery
the
universities
^theology
importation
and
crusaders,
At
the
the
Especially
the
different
curricula.
symmetric
Irnerius, and
and
at Salerno.
medicine
schools
monastery
of
cardinals
twenty
Ab61ard,
and
because
there,
"
Bologna,
and
35
developed"
Champeaux,
The
them).
among
from
special schools
from
EDUCATION
TERTIARY
direction, tertiary interests
at
these
OR
by
Paris,
of
tinian
Jus-
Bologna.
returning
made
Aristotle
inevitable.
the
universities, as with the trade guilds, the third
entered
by an
period of education, the executive, was
a
examination,
a
a
''master-piece,''
"disputation,"
if sustained,
rewarded
with
the
''thesis," which,
was
license
teach
to
that
so
"
Pleasant
da
finishing
courses
life
balanced
the
to
Greeks
to
in
and
humanistic
form
was
very
finishing
a
cupation
oc-
tion.
educa-
liberal
seven
directly
a
"The
School,
Mantuan
the
prepare
for
a
arts
such
useful
and
a
citizenship based
on
with, the best in the life
Romans.
PEDAGOGY.
REFORMATION
Luther
his
leadership,
of, and
sympathy
knowledge
of
in
added
as
active
PEDAGOGY.
Feltre,
House,"
in
engage
constituted
this
RENAISSANCE
Vittorino
to
"incept,"
or
bitter
against
the
traditional
pagan
university course,
considering it a lingering
of the Greek
Indeed, the
ephebic organization.
36
TEACHERS'
Reformation
PROBLEMS
caused
the
SOLVED
chief
Wittemberg,
Marburg,
Koenigsberg,
and
Altdorf, to
Dorpat,
Strasburg,
and
papacy,
whatever
meanwhile
Teuton
high
degree
sank
into
of
supported
founded
The
sphere.
from
The
of
Roman
universities
universities
but
the
interest
the
them.
new
Jesuit
efficiency;
lifeless
secede
to
as
Helmstadt,
Jena,
themselves
house
reigning
Catholics
the
devote
to
such
universities,
within
presented
all
gradually
a
them
of
formalism.
MONTAIGNE
REALISTIC
AND
PEDAGOGY.
MONTAIGNE.
points
Montaigne
inasmuch
was,
the
as
and
musicians.
elsewhere
So
his
There
to
was
college at
association
time
more
for
with
fitted
a
his
for
this, because
; and
early an age
princes.
so
for
of
it included
for
for
painters
scheme
admirably
seems
Sparta
Athens
to
rhetoricians,
educational
own
education
generals;
for
to
went
cation
edu-
Greek
specialized
Greeks
and
legislators, magistrates
speakers,
how
out
and
tleman's
genpose.
pur-
starting
travel
and
MULCASTER.
Mulcaster's
threefold
psychological
discern
to
expertness
represent
by,^^ may
required in a finishing course.
of
scheme
that
cretion
''Dis-
specializing
COMENIUS.
psychological analysis of the third stage
towards
of education
is "directing oneself
God'*; i.e.,in
effectiveness.
lay language, specialization and
Comenius's
AND
LOCKE
Locke
work,
holds
then
may
PEDAGOGY.
DISCIPLINARIAN
"that
when
instruction
good
or
habits
have
learning"^"
done
come
their
in
SPECIALIZATION,
second
a
very
Even
of
his
"not
OR
place,
EDUCATION
37
subservient, casually in the bargain,
that
be thought
rate, by methods
on.
easy
may
in regard to "finishing,** Locke
loses
never
sight
he
principle of character;
prefers mathematics
as
much
so
reasonable
accomplishments
riding, travel
However,
and
not
but
of
of
ignored
within
drawing,
remember
Locke
scholar,
did
"finishing"
music, fencing,
taken
are
only
up
late.
stretching the
tradesman,
or
sional,
profes-
or
was
NATURALISTIC
advanced
in
to
as
The
dancing,
painting^*
a
not
PEDAGOGY.
tertiary
Emile's
Rousseau's
himself
creatures.*'
AND
more
mathematicians,
"gentleman."
a
ROUSSEAU
The
them
of
must
we
education
make
to
as
them
make
is
TERTIARY
university education
or
education.
vision,
does
It
for
perhaps
not
the
come
he
reason
it.
possess
PSYCHOLOGICAL
EDUCATION.
FROEBEL.
Froebel,
of
course,
of tertiary or
problem
that
he
imagine
may
"perfect social balance.**
the
definitely attacked
finishing education, although we
would
have
applied to it his
never
MONTESSORI.
Froebel's
improved
on
^
it to
of
the
senses^
by reducing
applying S6guin*s apparatus for their
Montessori
and
for
sensory
and
discrimination,
separately
repeatedly,
Each
has
sense
comparison.
thermic
stereognostic senses,
music.
Beyond
hearing and
ideas,
intellectual
education,
and
scientific
methods,
formal
gymnastic,
each
training
developing
its
taste, smell
which
and
is
of
tactile,
vision,
come
to
promoted
by
we
senses
sense
power
methods:
own
the
training
general
38
TEACHERS'
games.
and
The
PROBLEMS
steps
SOLVED
association,
are
test, motor
Then
activity
have
we
generalization.^"
observation,
^"^
and
which
analysis
voluntary effort,
by
knowledge
becomes
the
ever,
howkey of nature.^"
Children,
magic
not
ferences,
difindividual
are
alike, but show
profound
that
so
they
call
for
kinds
different
very
class-work
uniform
the
and
help from
teacher,^"
Montessori
practically impossible.^^
the specialization of secondary
education
field.
She
almost
of
expression
personality
like
dead
beings.
criticizes
usual
GERMAN
The
schools
as
of
is
is thus
applying
primary
repressing spontaneous
in the
till
children
are
EDUCATION.
tertiary school, the university, presents
school.
If here
contrast
to the
a
strange
secondary
habits
is
of study and
enforced, there
discipline were
is developed,
utmost
license, through which
practiced the
in those
survive
who
it, individuality and
intellectual
self-reliance.
The
liberty of teaching, the
misunderstood
and
"Lehrfreiheit,'' is often
misapplied.
the getting of the degree, or
Nevertheless,
preparation
recall
the
for
the
soon
professional state-examination
he
of his responsibility, and
erring prodigal to a sense
for himself.
begins to work
German
EDUCATION.
FRENCH
in
strides than
specialization made
more
is
which
On
the
lyc6e's baccalaureate,
American
than
the
college's degree, is
to
university examination-system,
open
has
Nowhere
France.
lower
perhaps
built
the
free
who
everybody
are
often
starting
choice
of
cares
any
try the
repeatedly
taken
his
to
career
other
earlier
tests
until
than
profession
old
in
is
more
"
indeed,
which,
age,
America;
and
the
but
more
pupil
his
im-
TEACHERS'
40
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
CHAPTER
IV.
Interest
has
Interest
old
is
It
been
in the
that
of
joy of
interesting.
is
individual's
of
speak
be
a
child
self-consciousness
be
can
be
can
the
his
is
earlier
it
but
Until
is
method;
coaxed,
tribe-
fellows.
born,
educational
an
as
in
with
individuality
interest
baited,
exists
survive
to
self-conscious
the
can
interest
desires
member's
recognition of something
in
old.
the
new
something
and
analysis, association,
EDUCATION.
PRIMITIVE
The
the
as
and
new,
the
therefore
progress
defined
vain
animal
an
only
to
human
a
interested.
ORIENTAL
EDUCATION.
"
Interest; of
born,
exist
can
being
taking
do
can
an
loses
duties
of
with
interest
will
family
is absent
the
it.
in
be
appearance
as
a motive
for
added
of
As
the
Indeed,
are
and
the
after
an
the
the
fully
human
no
individual
takes
recognize
these
classics
interminable
words,
pleasure."
among
which
not
without
thoroughly,
here
discipline is so
whether
irksome,^
duties
to
extent
well
anything
interest.
the
to
it is immaterial
ferocious,
or
only
individuality is
where
course,
''All
this
list
do
Interest, therefore,
Chinese.
^
INTEREST
41
"
In
India
also
is
interest
discipline.
mild
Persia
the
was
first
(if we
history), where
initiative, and
beginning
the
shameful
relates
mathematics
to
element
have
which
the
that
been
gave
that
the
even
of
represented
expression to
the
the
the
individual
being
and
interest
purposes
doctrine
the
among
and
loftiest
"A
the
free
lesson
remain
arouse
seems
Psalms,
the
religious
appeared
the
of
subordinated
ever
Koran
of
the
state
to
ments.
senti-
among
still
EDUCATION.
of
interest
not
was
Plato
Greeks.
child
to
mind
that
there.
children, the
that
solve
ought
is made
to
to
Then
rather
systems
issue,
methods,
side
itself.
entirely
cause
is to
which
learn
enter
unknown
distinctlyaffirmed
made
be
pleasant, m
learning should
"Education*^
of
be
is
profit.
might
of amusement,
discipline which, by way
of
to
as
the
Oriental
among
enforced
only as a
GREEK
The
teaching
Hebrews,
music
by
in
so
games,
interest, among
whole,
then,
education, interest
was
the
or
unhindered.
continued
of
wicked
a
Egyptians,
first
interest, however,
the
Saracens,
although
droning
On
citizens, from
to
Scientific
the
"take
laws*
the
inclination
no
enforced
states
Persian
care
used
(numbers),
of the
pupil.*
interest
The
have
a
other
deed."
Plato
the
exercise
on
accept
may
interest
was
country
as
Xenophon's
Cyropedia
While
developed
positively.
prohibitions by punishment,
the
ing
training demand-
lacking, the
use
no
them
mind
as
learn
that
it
skillful
very
leads
the mind
it finished."
a
slave.
by force, wjU
violence
to
a
make
nothing
the
order
that
towards
while
The
not
the
playing."
The
also^
Spartans
attract
them
to
the
among
school
should
play
interest
for
Romans,
of
the
EDUCATION.
of
doctrine
discipline of force
attractive.
pleasant and
educative.
be refining and
letters
Paula:
in
ivory,
and
hands
the
her
well
was
Eustochium
teach
her
"Induce
prize,
that
excite
in
to
about
of
the
of
construct
her
giving
by
or
pleases children
so
interest
said
that
recognized
in
education
of
the
Paula
letters
in wood
them.
of
names
playing."'^
the
discipline of emulation
was
the
Jerome,
writing about
Nor
said:
Cicero
making
or
will
She
while
learn
thus
into
"Put
of
rogation
ab-
EDUCATION.
of
to
even
the
for
argues
in favor
the
principle
Jerome's
unknown
not
was
Quintilian
MEDIAEVAL
The
to
toys
interest.
by
weapons,
warlike
children
gave
ROMAN
The
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
42
her
as
age.
the
commendations
her
the
and
words
of
known.
un-
Paula
offering her a
what
a
reward,
ordinarily
Let her have
companions,
by
she
of
bribing
education
receive
may
may
chide
Do
not
feeling
have
in learning.
On
difficulty she may
the
her
and
contrary, encourage
by commendation,
that she
will be equally sensible
proceed in such a way
to the
to the
pleasure of having done
well, and
pain
of not having been
successful.
Especially take
that
she
do
conceive
not
dislike
for study that
care
a
her into a more
advanced
might follow
age."
her
for
emulation.
the
.
There
a
was
(A.D.
Alcuin,
This
Rabanus
indeed
was
great
revival
771-814),
Maurus,
due
to
of
.
learning
with
and
the
.
the
Joannes
initiative
under
magne
Charle-
assistance
Erigena.
political in-
Scotus
and
of
43
INTEREST
of
terests
the
king.; but he
intelligentchurchmen.
more
Next
found
the
the
to
of
human
faculty
unrecognized,
though
treatment
a
from
willing help
when
recognized, is that of one
haps
perhave
unconscious
interest
So
just as active.
we
the
Irnerius
to
men
creating
university" drawing
at Bologna,
Of
interest
and
at Paris.
Ab61ard
course,
drew
the flower
in Palestine,
of chivalry to its destruction
and
in truth
interest
over
finally triumphant
was
and
the
"white''
"black"
of Dominicans
and
"dogs"
and
Franciscans,
Inquisition.
the
RENAISSANCE
in
The
doctrine
the
Renaissance
"modern
man,"
curricula,
and
Ciceronianism
are
gamfs
form
an
He
his
be
to
de
to
made
Feltre,
school
at
life of
Petrarch*
loose
breaking
living
to be
indulged
integral part of
the
made
So
in
Vittorino
called
practically foreshadowed
rediscovery of the beauties
the
by
attempting
is not
learning
is
interest
of
literature.
Ciceronian
of
PEDAGOGY.
the
the
from
the
reproduce
letters.
in":
So,
"Such
each
an
mediaeval
beauties
for
of
instance,
should
relations
modern
"The
pupils
first
the
day's occupation,
object of disgust."
first
Mantua
his
is
if
schoolmaster,
Pleasant
House."
pleasant and as
were
joined with
as
active
study,
possible; sports and games
cultivated.
and
aesthetic
appreciation was
"Guide
German
his
to
in
Youth,"
Wimpfeling,
the
all
be
for
of
pendent
indewished
quickening
"study to
Asham,
too, taught the "cheerful"
thought."
of the
the
value
lesson, and
quickening
expounding
of praise.
as
PEDAGOGY.
REFORMATION
The
doctrine
Reformers.
of
Luther
interest
himself
is
had
strongly
suffered
taught by the
enough
per-
44
TEACHERS'
sonally
at
of
cheerfuller
a
children,
hands
the
desire
to
PROBLEMS
he,
says
formed
which
the
of
bait
as
the
most
and
world,
part
but
be
to
the
ing,
sink-
Luther's
in
made
scientific
rigorous
discipline
had
thus
be
a
The
instruction.
culum
curri-
schools."
had
system
the
to
large
him
for
monks
repressed,
work,
especially
their
so
of
to
not
"continuation
Jesuit
The
and
teachers
method
are
encoura^^ed,to enjoy
SOLVED
enabled
been
of
use
interest
known
ever
in
with
dispense
to
interest
Evidently in this case,
punishment.
When
the
not
end, but a means.
was
independent
an
Jansenists
interest
the
make
to
end, they
attempted
and
reintroduce
to
failed,
corporal
were
compelled
is
demonstration
of the
a
Evidently this
punishment.
end.
an
inefficiency of interest alone
as
corporal
MONTAIGNE
AND
PEDAGOGY.
REALISTIC
MONTAIGNE.
Montaigne
Studies^"
to
used
be
in
innovation
to
were
be
made
for
this
the
of
matter
pleasant; games
purpose
as
well
physical development
his
their
and
for
practical bearing on
than
compulsory
life; attractive, rather
usefulness
which
practical educator,
no
his
for
accounts
were
was
their
for
as
of
the
in
perhaps
discipline.
and
sports
child,
the
duties
in
later
were
means
favored.
where
one
conversation
which
of
we
wisdom
employed
by visits to places
study history; also by biography, and
should
Curiosity
may
with
see
is
be
ourselves.
a
For
men.
continual
^^
The
the
world
most
cheerfulness.
is
a
mirror
magnificent
^^
We
in
sign
should
help the pupil digest the
learning attractive, and
virtue
of true
lesson
the
value
that
new
height and
consists
in the
ercise.^"
pleasure of its exfacility, utility, and
disof a college is
strict government
The
make
INTEREST
pleasing"
This
is
no
of
house
a
correction
produce
to
way
45
of
love.
imprisoned
Paint
youth.
school
a
with
and
there
is profit, there
gladiiess;where
is
joy
pleasure too.^*
in
the
believed
of
Montaigne
absorption
foreign
in the
and
languages
by children
by mimetic
nursery,
Thus^^
the
theatres
should
become
reproduction.
benefactors,
public
alluring; not
learning
making
laden
with
and
driven
the
with
asses
books,
making
the
lash; so that learning will not merely
lodge with
it.
children, but that they shall espouse
this emphasis
doubt
owed
no
Montaigne
on
alluring
interest
Rabelais.^*
to
MILTON.
Milton
attracted
his
in
too,
and
to
learning,
discipline.
children
wished
Tractate,
not
be
to
to
mortified
by
be
necessary
un-
MULCASTER.
Mulcaster
his
demand
the
to
the
of
any
made
be
in
Realists
pleasurable
child."
AND
Closely
tasks;
with
human
that
it is
lessons
should
be
of
of
in
are
done
common
as
course,
that
liked.
are
knowledge
clinatio
inaptitude and
and
tune
only
of
lessons
any
given
seasons
minds
the
be
matter
have
beings
when
a
have
not
should
such
only
PEDAGOGY.
self-activity is,
would
Locke^^
insists
Locke
DISCIPLINARIAN
connected
So
interest.
that
as
should
education
that
LOCKE
are
strong
as
was
when
posed;
well-dis-
the
mind
is
apt.
Reading,^"
but
a
for
privilege.
instance,
Learning
is not
should
to
be
made
become
a
a
task,
sport;
46
TEACHERS'
children
should
laid
matters
cheated
read
work,
pupil
should
should
be
religious
things
playmto"
"played
he
be
should
business**; indeed,
Fables, pictures
a
other.*"
each
serious
or
have
dice*^;
on
is not
which
should
matters
is to
principle of interest
his tutor
exchanges
This
who
like
be
only
him.**^
to
until
; he
pasted
teach
to
used**;
be
to
are
letters
learning,
are
The
him*"
teach
SOLVED
nothing
them.
bv
into
children
have
on
apt to
spelling*";
PROBLEMS
he
his
by
interest
love's
his
for
thus
continue
all the
mistress,
his
becomes
way
girl,*"
a
future
long
life-
teacher.
AND
ROUSSEAU
doctrine
The
in which
his
education
curiosity
or
understand
was
must
no
do
nor
of
that
the
anything
whole
of
tides
the
interest.
that
take
cannot,
one
there
with
case
need
view
interest
an
; hence
the
this
of
it is evident
fancy,
indeed
and
form
with
up
habits,
takes
Hence
no
pleasure.
is in reality a drifting on
limitations
The
ont;
he
PEDAGOGY.
is bound
interest
of
Emile
self-activity.
of
NATURALISTIC
anything
in
could
except
be
but
pointed
be
not
from
one
chance
not
may
little progress,
as
Emile.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
PEDAGOGY.
FROEBEL.
The
doctrine
of interest
is
made
use
organizing intellectually, socially and
Monroe,
play of childhood.
out that
a
misinterpretation
"through
detrimental
There
has
this doctrine
upon
has
crept into
grown
a
tendency
of
many
to
in
by Froebel
evitable
morally the inhowever,**^
points
of
of, and
interest, much
a
modern
interpret
the
emphasis
over-
an
that
is
school.
idea
that
48
TEACHERS*
and
PROBLEMS
love, of sacred
SOLVED
curiosity, and
of
a
desire
achieve
to
this
be
spiritual greatness, and
inspired by self-sacrifice.^2
The
is the
real
of progjoy of creation
spur
ress.
^"
This
again is chiefly applied to the teacher.
GERMAN
EDUCATION.
German
remarkaby
high rate of suicide
among
shows
how
little interest
eduis employed
school-boys
of
Herbart.
those
Nevertheless,
catively in the land
that
this
survive
become
discipline and
intelligent
real
social
desire
to
survival, develop
a
enough
very
in
their
and
interest
manifest
of thoroughness
work,
The
results
and
two
three
school-boys
the
German
defense
whose
to
abandoned.
often
The
system
and
ahead
years
survival
legal
thus
as
was
the
uses
lever
a
unnecessary;
unnatural
of
use
an
of
violation
personality,
FRENCH
such
emulation
with
would
seem
about
interest
in
use
of
of
it
fables.
human
to
seem
interest;
self-
render
that
it is
a
humiliation.
EDUCATION,
chief
lever
of
a
discipline,
and
Jesuit
French,
which
tracting
dislead
it can
to little but
employed,
amusements,
personalities, or lack of thoroughness
work.
be employed
It can
however
by making
instructive
natural
out
answers
curiosity to draw
the
from
of
on
depends
rewards
demerits.
and
Compared
or
erally
genit
of physical punishment,
stimulation
the
tion
hesitathere
evident
that
was
hardly any
the
Indeed, until
superiorityof interest.
the
as
as
it would
but
of
compulsion
strong
so
is
progress
interest
degrading
a
is, edivently, the
Interest
social
and
can
Ameri-
of
those
interest
chance
police compulsion
this
of
is
so
teacher.
by the
Moreover,
imitative
primary
F6n61on
methods
would
of
make
use
history and
49
INTEREST
also
So
Jansenists
the
moral
of
training
literature
be
did
aroused
teacher.
fact
all
that
will
his
can
and
freely
the
of
paths
in
"Painter,
23.
8
33,
Compayre,
Compayre,
"
Monroe,
Montaigne,
lb.,
cry
15
of
"
"
6.
the
on
terest
in-
which
emulation
was
of
Indeed,
the
be
to
indeed
is
child
American
interest
30.
McEvoy,
lb.,
214.
Education,
24
Monroe,
358.
216.
Monroe,
457.
roe,
187.
14
193.
lb.,
Monroe,
i"
the
in
kept
hold
only
sanction
i"
467.
lb.,
McEvoy,
is
is
72,
jb.,
73.
156.
27
25
29
633,
ib.,
82
lb., 13.
xxxix,
of
iSl.
88
our
28
ib.,
sible
pos-
21
157.
26
28
p.
3i
42.
Middle
48
ib.,
Monxxi.
Montessori,
lb., 24.
ib.,
152.
ib.,
662.
Monroe,
80
139.
Jb.,
155.
221b.,
Making
The-
20
148.
lb.,
153.
Compayre.
Education,
13
192.
17
after
disciplinary
McEvoy,
-*
^^
368.
12
136.
2
67.
11
199.
teach
can
process.
of
It
other
no
44.
Monroe,
7
the
allowed.
or
1
secure
guidance
where
of
advancement."*
self-improvement.
land
a
all
schools
self-activity
skilful
the
pupil,
zeal
indifferent.
the
of
the
to
EDUCATION.
to
irrepressible
grammar;
sanction
of
self-activity,
American
employed
needs
that
completion
earliest
the
love
often
paradox
AMERICAN
In
dry
religious
were
arouse
insure
the
esting
inter-
through
disciplinary
but
results
based
needed
the
cipline
dis-
whatever
attain
through
affection
the
But
Jacotot
wish
not
the
by
than
emulation,
Jesuit
the
to
they
rather
they
likewise,
tried
lb.,
Brown.
Schools,
9.
50
TEACHERS'
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
CHAPTER
V.
Self.
EDUCATION.
PRIMITIVE
allowed
have
him,
either
own
fancy.
by
became
the
the
entered
he
that
as
we
man
third
its
or
ceased
tribe
was
germ
call
may
things well,
primitive
a
tribe
prehistoric
do
of
member
; when
custom
the
others
seeing
The
and
savage,
of
self-activity, it is evident
awakened
in the
teacher,
no
must
a
member
the
While
by his
being a
initiation
on
into
step of will, effort,
originality or self-activity,then he entered
of
civilization.
into
We
the
might, in this
sphere
until
FroebePs
that
therefore
not
day had a
sense,
say
of civilization
been
fully developed.
pedagogy
combination,
ORIENTAL
In
education
with
education
was
Hence
1,
education
Primitive
Asia,
past, for
EDUCATION.
arising
the
little
more
changed
into
than
a
recapitulation
the
of preserving custom
purpose
its general characteristics
were:
authority
static
character
4, the
dominance
education;
practical
in the
5, the
literature.
individuality;
of
Suppression
of
society,
Oriental
nationalities.
of
and
and
Oriental
2,
the
unchanged.
control
thought-life;
educational
of
of
ternal
ex-
3, the
ideals;
priest-craft, or of religion, over
of linguistics and
of religious
importance
of
a
SELF-ACTIVITY
The
A.
for
essential
instance, are:
1, A conception
the
ethical
literature
ruling
leaded
which
have
ethical
with
of
education
the
whose
social
of
basis
S,
duration
but
few
essential
hierarchical
method
of
the
education
of
entire
the
literary; 3,
great
but
1,
the
elimination
the
of
part
and
for
developed
of
2,000
its extent
of
religious
ism;
Confucian-
in
content
ship
relation-
4, the
;
system
influences
close
found
as
the
of
years
vast
over
linguistic and
organization
and
examinations,
its
Social
intellectual
stability,without
progress;
important social interests, and
of
disparagement
on
is
imitation.
were:
the
4,
of
system,
recapitulation of
a
religious and
exercised
by the
education
system
servile
Its results
2,
Chinese
a
authority
life and
The
a
as
dominance
changes,
territory and population ; 6, a
its highly
religious material,
of
the
class; 2, the dominance
prevented
3, the
progress;
between
and
features
of
IJirough
past
5l
of
intellectual
interests, except
formalism
in life;
of
perpetuation
the
individual, the
abilities
of
certain
of initiative.
slight power
Self-activity, responsibility of
of
development
restricted
type,
with
is therefore
son
is
are
exterminated
punished
The
B.
for
the
for
essentials
the
individual,
yet distinct
father's
misdeeds,
not
crimes
of
of
of
any
Hindu
in
dividual
in-
the
China:
families
whole
its members.
education
are:
1, the
tion
of educasociety and
based
cal
philosophia
prominent
upon
literature
and
of
element,
great merit; 2, an
a
to each
educational
caste, but
system that is adapted
education
affords
only to the upper
literary and formal
of formalism'
and
priestly caste; 3, the perpetuation
the
the
in life; 4, on
ment
developpart of the individual
dominance
of
type,
So
of
great
a
system
religion, with
caste
intellectual
of
abilities
of
a
certain
restricted
of initiative.
slight power
in India, the highest religious aspiration is
but
with
to
be
absorbed
into
the
de-individualizing
C.
to
Turning
the
through
people
essential
the
Nirvana.
features
ceremonial
of
ancient
the
education
formal
the
1,
2,
a
the
hence,
external
to
the
of
law, constituting
individual
the
of
subjection
is called
religious literature;
their
of
part
heaven
their
world-spirit;
unconscious
great
education:
Hebrew
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
52
large
same
authority;
emphasis
the
provision for individuality through
moral
was
personality in this religious literature
on
became
prominent
expressed by the "prophets,'' and
of nationality; 4, the
tardy
only with the decline
very
for
of any
formal
literary education
development
any
schools
the
of
developed
priesthood; no
system
except
of
Christian
the
the
until
5, the
near
opening
era;
the
child
the
of
family,
through
practical education
moral
education
his
and
through the priesthood and
3, the
law.
ceremonial
So
among
of
amount
the
scientific
material,
limited
Rabbis,
the
Hebrews,
exercised
great
a
in
genuity
in-
iri the last
it ; but
nevertheless,
dealing with
the deciding factor.
analysis authority was
of
essential
features
D.
to the
Egyptian
Turning
well
ancient
the
most
one
education,
as
as
probably
ancient
of
the
all
of
most
enduring
systems, were:
life and
of caste
in social
controling influence
1, the
in
education
; 2,
The
control
of the
education
of
all lower
castethrough a system of family training, and
of society by a politicoapprenticeship ; 3, the control
the
belonged
keeping of
religious priestcraft, to which
which
their
the
society and
religious literature, upon
of
their
education
based;
4, the
prominence
was
in
scientific
and
philosophical elements
mathematical,
education
of this priesthood, and
this literature, in the
character
of
in their
5, the mediating
investigations;
castes
their
education
on
the
one
other.
as
hand,
contrasted
and
the
with
education
Oriental
the
of
the
tion
educa-
Greeks
on
SELF-ACTIVITY
in
So
opposed
We
enough
Persian
Persian
upon
that
they
Xenephon
of
Persian
it
to
ideals.
Greek
cause
was
The
traditional
of
the
social
information.
due
shows
Empire
organization
produced
warriors.
On
the
learning
with
other
were
their
the
without
significant
tions.
descripof
the
of
of
career
this
peculiarly
and
dexterity;
only secondarily
ephemeralism
these
by
the
measure
unstable
permanent
so
to
and
how
hand,
Greek
a
valor
But
Persian
is
victorious
training in physical
truth-telling, and other virtues,
in
by
education
affords
doubt
no
attained
it
in
us
the
certainly
class
being
but
methods;
describes
priestly
education
individualistic
in
the
Oriental
preserved
are
and
noble,
application
the
leave
cannot
touching
of
self-activity, salvation
of the
saving texts.
any
memorization
E.
dominance
the
Egypt,
S3
was
individualistic
Magi
who
to
endow
as
the
opolized
mon-
ization
civil-
But
as
''magicians."
in political control,
their
not
they were
stability was
infiltrate
and
immortalize
the
to
able
body
politic,
have
endured
which,
however,
longer but for
might
cohorts.
his Greek
and
the irruption of Alexander
of life as
a
struggle
Still, in Persia, the conception
in which
distinct
a
good prevails was
prelude to self*
sides, at least.
activity, on the physical and moral
made
While,
by the same
ingenuity, the Saracens
fatal resignation of
the
discoveries, nevertheless
many
did
not
orthodox
and
Islam
loyalty to their founder
them
allow
really to develop self-activity.
Oriental
see
education, therefore, we
Summing
up
which
lack
entire
of initiative.
Evidently, systems
an
could
alteration
or
provided
no
change,
progress,
of teachings, cusindividual
renovation
for
allow
not
toms,
whole
views.
The
political establishment
or
in advance.
Even
the
individual
condemned
physical
"
uncultivated,
was
f)rowess
asted
only
names
so
long
as
no
as
and
those
irruptive
great
force
civilizations
proved
itself
54
TEACHERS'
superior
to
the
natural
the
Wall;
Great
SOLVED
physical
Chinese
itself, the
Of
PROBLEMS
state
every
powerless,
was
that
army
defence.
of
resources
except
crossed
the
for
layas
Hima-
did
and
India, as
Alexander,
conquered
sensitive
the Mahometans
to the southern
ever
; Egypt,
and
Roman
spoiled by Greek, Medo-Persian,
tribes, was
Mahometan
in turn.
With
no
great physical prowess
afresh
part
as
unconditional
on
individual
in
except
ideals, the
its
of
of
permanence
of
conformity
originality
cases,
the
the
pended
de-
state
individuals;
of
out
was
the
question.
all Oriental
In
has
not
education,
(Persia)
(China) ; the state
(the Jews).
in
dawn
the
of
individuality
desirable
even
for, social
included
"the
which
he
of
of
volition
the
his
It
progress.
formulation
the
to
rose
tradition
(India)
; caste
civilization
Greek
of
ancestral
cracy
theo-
or
self-activity in education
of
beginnings
individuality
EDUCATION.
GREEK
The
fossilized
from
yet emerged
the
therefore,
thought
stability and
is
was^
individual
freedom
welfare,"^
conduct
entered,
by
a
appear
''some
compatible
modern
the
principles of
moral
where
pression
ex-
with,
which
conception:
into
which
and
through
recognition of
moral
responsibility."
This
worked
the
out
self-activity* was
on
thought
side by love
of knowledge
for its own
sake
; by inquiries
into
the
supernatural, reality divorced
nature,
man,
from
priestly privilege; curiosity,
reverence
or
awe,
intellectual
drove
Plato
to
imagination
bravery, and
own
"Let
us
say,
We
must
extreme
to
insincerity
follow
not,
which
and
the
wherever
argument
shrink
from
however,
this
led:
dishonesty;
it leads."
noticing the
their
versatility, became
light heartedness, became
56
JEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
scholasticism; whose
the
Occam)
opened
But
it
of
liberty.
socialized,
in
caused
The
For
good
and
one
that
causes,
such
of
University
France,
doubt
No
and
revolution,
developed
they became
Holy
this
the
of
itself.
principles
thoroughly
to
as
aid
of
be
sented
repre-
the
king
another
to be deposed.
the
stitutio
representative inof
Roman
was
Empire
became
the
as
(William
Renaissance
power
with
the
and
Paris
results
the
recant, and
to
pope
Germany.
for
attained
parliaments;
of
the
nominalistic
way
universities
the
was
SOLVED
ultimate
the
was
of
cause
the
taigne.
self-activity preached by Monspirit
self-activity was
kept alive in
the
such
universities, and
produced
men
as
Roger
Bacon,
Dante,
Petrarch,
Wycliffe, Huss, Copernicus,
the men
who
introduced
the modern
spu^it.
This
of
RENAISSANCE
The
of
principle
interest
in the
self-activity
Renaissance
the
at
PEDAGOGY.
psychological
practically
reawakening
was
by
world
the
of
emotions
shadowed
foreof
whence
Petrarch"
So
springs poetry, history, and the sciences.
the values
of the opportunitites of this life
emphasized
for
the
self-development
through
greatest variety of
cism
experiences and efforts wholly forbidden
by the ascetiand
spirit. The
self-abnegation of the mediaeval
remained
Renaissance
the
and
to
true
development
culture
of the
little interest
in the
individual, having
of
The
improvement
society in general, in Italy.
the
life of
ancients"
the
both
intellectual
portrayed
emotional
sides
of
and
the
of
the
free
development
moral
Vittorino
de
personality.
Feltre, in his school,
'The
House
of
made
his
Pleasure,"
pupils' life as
active
activities
of the
as
possible, using the natural
children
strong
as
a
basis
emphasis
side
of
the
for
upon
work
much
of
activities
as
the
and
furnishing
work,
upon
an
and
the
he
laid
tive
construc-
immediate
in-
SELF-ACTIVITY
troduction
into
the
utilizing
on
useful
a
life.
activity
have
we
either
side
seen,
of
the
which
self-activity
movements
various
children
that
child.
PEDAGOGY.
"
Melanchthon.
should
MONTAIGNE
be
not
discipline still
stern
insisted
individuality was
hardly desired on
Reformation
the
struggle, and
only
existed
leaders
in
the
of
the
lay
such
as
Luther,
Loyola, Aqua-
and
Calvin,
viva,
also^^
Erasmus
the
of
REFORMATION
As
57
checked
in
said
Luther
True,
but
everything;
existed.
AND
REALISTIC
PEDAGOGY.
MONTAIGNE.
Montaigne
the
be
not
diagnosed
disease,
known
for
mto
even
Aristotle's
The
to
^yll
to
pollen
make
our
teacher
fail
and
"
from
own
should
to
recognize
of
pupil's recognition
in
an
from
a
truth,
reason
^*
So
error.
peasant,
this
is the
We
should
reward
learn
be
^
teacher^
should
filtered
should
"
therefore
be
the
may
one
to
know,
not
the
of
authority
supreme
truth; the
carefully,
careful
very
should
teacher
quiesce
ac-
edge
gladly acknowleven
something
and
learn
worker^*:
humble
what
and
self-activity.
makes
us
learning first our
own
being wise
sphere, and
rhetoric,
good; later acquiring physics, geometry,
science.
not
speak
pupil taste and
no
authority
^no, not
should
learn
not
We
by rote.
at
be
must
but
everywhere,
honey.
bricklayer or other
of open-mindedness
what
Should
but
sake,
own
The
individuality.
the
pupil, but let the
pupil should
accept
pour
first.
The
its
ing
know-
pedantry as
patient; literature
the
not
of
cause
the
throu|;h
may^2.
liberty
but
the
free;
and
and
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
58
MULCASTER.
Though
insisted
caster^*^
help
is to
and
that
nature
child, and
the
repress
the
using
not
end
"the
"self-activity,"
term
of
perfection," not
deprive it of its natural
to
ing
train-
and
education
her
Mul-
to
force,
cies
tenden-
activities.
COMENIUS.
analysis of the three stages of education
oneself
self
one(and with
psychologically, 1, to know
are
all things) ; 2, to rule
oneself; 3, to direct oneself
to
God
towards
imitation,
corresponding
roughly
he formally enunciates
volition.
and
habit
Moreover,^"
is the
of the
the basis
that
efficiency of administration
Comenius's
"
exact
borrowed
order
Locke,
of
which
he
whole,
PEDAGOGY.
full
thorough-going
naturalist, made
child's
self -activity of the
the
for
curiosity,
the
should
be
taken.
On
due
advantage
in
and
this, following
developing
was,
as
allowance
nature.
DISCIPLINARIAN
AND
LOCKE
from
a
Montaigne.
The
principle of self-activitybeing established, there
natural
of how
the
to conduct
problem
appeared
very
The
answer
is, that the
regular and
organized work.
of education
is to get the
problem
pupil to ask what
should
he
must
learn; and
besides, the
pupil's mind
self-mastery, as that he shall be spontanegain such
ously
in tune
at the
right time, and in the right way.
there
is a danger^'' that
For
of the
waiting for seasons
mind's
duce
being "in tune"
neglect, inmight, by habitual
idleness.
ROUSSEAU
AND
NATURALISTIC
Rousseau's
of
"negative education"
child was
self-activity. The
PEDAGOGY.
is the
to
be
typical form
left free
to
de-
59
SELF-ACTIVITY
influences
unaided
instruction.
by outside
velop
or
and
members,
Physical welfare, the training of organs
and
cessive
curiosity,
socializing morality and religion in sucthe unfoldment
of his being.
But
stages caused
result
noticed
that
the
of this was
it is to be
delayed
ing,
showand
Rousseau's
on
own
partial accomplishment;
inefficient
be but
an
spring of
self-activity would
education.
complete
PSYCHOLOGICAL
EDUCATION.
FROEBEL.
Self-activity is pre-eminently
resulted
assertion
its
in
socialization.
and
the
principle only to
everywhere,
spread
his
is laid
more
technique
development
than
rather
1829
dren^^
the
process
character
of
the
of
Froebel
applied
the
its influence
than
and
the
on
whenever
is
personality
information
of
has
emphasis
child
instruction;
and
riculum
cur-
sought,
and
ing
train-
abilities.^"
educational
work
of
this
the
expressed
Froebel
rather
of
of
impartation
tendency
action;
of
changes
wherever
appears
activity
creative
are
all
that
of
intellectual
of
In
on
Though
kindergarten,
and
the
modern
the
idea; and
Froebelian
a
than
based
be
to
express
the
first
instruction,
chil-
that
and
receptive creatures,
should
children
realization
this
on
herent
in-
themselves
law
in
self-
was
activity.
revealed
Nature
God
to
the
child^^;
natural
hence
in his successive
used
symbolically
were
phenomena
order
whose
of
in an
development
"gifts," arranged
of evolution,
method
cording
acself-activity, the secret
was
to
The
of
Lamarck
self-activity of
Pestalozzi,
while
(A.D.
the
former
in
that
was
1802-9).
Froebel
the
different
was
latter
seeking
learning
was
unity
from
with
others
that
facts,
in
the
TEACHERS'
60
PROBLEMS
being, and
whole
SOLVED
progressed
never
primary
the
beyond
stac^e.
MONTESSORI.
the
Developing
methods
Froebel
of
and
Pestalozzi,
self-activity, limiting it*^ only by
in
the
undue
effort
of
autopossible wearying,
an
teacher's
where
the
cation
education,
guidance steps in. Eduit.
child
is to guide
The
activity, not repress
has
a
right to be active, to explore his environment
his
inner
and
develop
resources
through
own
every
of investigation and
creative
The
school
form
effort.^*
must
the
of
manifestations
permit the free, natural
Montessori
stresses
2*
child.
The
the
but
bench,
school
needs
tion.2"
in
order
teacher
2''
not
of
must
about
bring
to
child.
the
of
The
liberty.^^
only to the
civilization
the
Auto-education
of
the
GERMAN
of
the
libera-
watch,
of
progress
arousal
the
by
seek
a
spontaneous
ment
develop-
spontaneous
physical personality."
spiritual and
mental,
also
but
and
spontaneous
must
We
activity.
the
activity, to complete
psychic
body,
himself,
is assured
of
traditional
This
is that
restrain
^^
sense
mechanism
of
conquest
applied
slavery has
spirit.^' The
history
the
not
EDUCATION.
tion;
taught liberty for the child by negative educabe allowed
for themselves.'^
to learn
they should
Kant
He
much
was
human
concerned
more
faculties
than
for
for
the
the
culture
acquisition
of
the
edge.
knowl-
of
"*
The
little
servility of the German
self-activity he is expected
The
result
of
this
restraints
fancy
the
rise.
and
result
is that
license
that
many
to
for
the
self-active
sink
into
have,
at
when,
removed,
are
shows
school-boy
the
or
is allowed.
university,
student
how
ternal
ex-
mistakes
responsibility, with
to
never
intemperance,
61
SELF-ACTIVITY
What
self-activity the
translated
the
into
"
occupied
by^his French
their activities
employ
Russell*"
answers
very
for
are:
thinker
No;
doubtful
the
best
in
emulation
the
FRENCH
the
As
in
who
can
sports,
spectively.
re-
one
concerned;
emphatically
yes,
made
attempt to arouse
self -active
child's
chetical,
comprehension
by using catein instruction.
quiz, questioning methods
all
noticed
his paradox
based
that
above, Jacotot
teach
can
a
tivities
ac-
little
EDUCATION.
Brothers
Christian
The
but
average;
class."
field
pupil becomes
good teachers, my
poorest
the
the
in
or
German
the
as
musical
cousins,
"Granting
?
far
so
for
in
American
whether
asks
independent
an
or
is
possesses
of
permissible form
their predominance
also
hence
boy
German
after
on
which
the
fact
all
that
will
interest
an
can
arouse
self-activity,
completion
ensure
of
the
process.
Condillac**
places
far
above
the
education
which
we
give ourselves;
on
of
to his princely pupil, the
grandson
saying farewell
Louis
I gave
XV, he said^ "It is only the education
you
which
You
to
anew."
are
ceases.
begin
since
insisted
the
had
Socratic
Ramus
long
on
had
renovated
He
method
of "maieutics."
logic, and
the
vernacular.
emphasized
in the
French
be
It must
that
secondary
granted
life is
His
lyec6 the child's self-activity is lessened.
his
after
choice
of
lived
study-groups,
by schedule;
receive
there
the
is
activity
"natural
results
no
has
education
further
been
method"
have
been
that
hesitation.
we
However,
where
self-
the
in
with,
experimented
modern
of teaching
languages, the
raised
and
have
least
thorough,
most
TEACHERS'
62
fundamental
questions
at
languages
all,
Italian."*
or
PROBLEMS
ratio
; which
that
the
possibility
ideal
his
allotted
self-active
tertiary,
and
and
management
in
an
Monroe"
lb., 55.
359.
Monroe,
of
lb., 182.
18
lb., 183.
467.
1"
Comenius,
Education,
needs
ditional
ad-
than
the
Nevertheless,
and
acquisition
directed
and
i^
Locke,
75.
to' notice
is
642.
Montessori,
23
lb., 15.
21.
28
lb.,
lb., 229. 29
Schools,
Great
334.
Theory
Monroe^
84
82
lb., 230.
649.
lb., xxl
25
lb.,
80
1b.,
22"
sell,
Rus-
German
G"mpayr6,
3ia
88ib."
235.
Farringdon,
lb., 335.
86
81
lb.,
19.
27
22.
and
327.
lb., 335.
22
lb.,
French
roe,
Mon-
America,
20
224.
24
26
177.
in
lb., 644.
38.
364.
of
need
needed.
least
19
the
about
lb., 61.
ib.,
15
that
talked
really
55,
Montaigne,
12
175.
14.
rather
21
"lb.,
n
124.
McEvoy,
Education,
Didactic,
is
TMcEvoy,
1
18
industry,
awakened
be
is most
15,^
6
lb., 60.
126.
"Ib.,
2
54.
p.
4
to
however,
self-activity
awakening
such
where
8
and
manner.
instructive,
awakening
1
flirting, bribed
creativeness
need
may
expert
It is
8
and
repression
self-activity.
of
problem,
self-activity, but its
The
disposal.
spoiled
educative
self-active
of
usually
entirely.
latter
skilful
excitement
right kind
of
knowledge
time
of
in candy
indulged
habits
of self-respect
to
parents
poned
post-
Emile,
the
child,
American
inverse
observation
child, the
development
and
effective
proper,
by
a
the
the
to
American
the
is not
obviously,
in
EDUCATION.
with
dealing
whether
vary
Rousseau's
lacked
AMERICAN
In
not
education
Spanish
arises
supported by
child,
secondary
the
to
is
of
English
therefore
do
foreign
learning
for
question
scholarship
self-activity and
the
to
as
substitution
or
The
SOLVED
64
TEACHERS'
If, then,
"return
hold
it.
nature
the
should
writers
fearless
their
and
exact
as
virtue, "man
flow
downward,
proceed
far
as
far
as
to
the
as
or
things
Chinese;
limitation,
as
they go,
observations,
Herbart.
as
virtue,
wild
ogy*
psychol-
"
as
Pestalozzi's
were
inclines
to
three
on
the
this
is
a
on
agree
from
agreement
indeed,
are
perfectly correct,
though he did not
a
cannot
insistence
virtue"
Chinese
doctrine, the
is, what
question
further
not
SOLVED
is
nature"
If modern
?
habit
to
But
wc
and
PROBLEMS
So,
water
as
as
does
to
the
beast
does
to
seek
more
than
to
preserve
That
is the
forest/'
"Ethics
and
nature,
education
and
direct
are
in its
man
contribution
of
But,
that
implies
line
first
"Men
based
we
commendation,
Confucius
said
learn
might
in
modern
"I
teach
nature"
The
ideal.
is:
radically good."
is
nature
times
"
of
revelation
a
principle of a
word
"natural,"
the
cardinal
of
to
"return
word
as
a
in
spite of
often
virtues
of
rectitude
Confucius's
the
contrary,
Persia, for
truthfulness,
genuinely
natural
you
mental
funda-
subject,
wife
and
the
"
charity, impartial
and
ceremonies
and
therefore
five
justice,
usages,
sincerity."
pure
formulation
remerely
a
rules.
"nature"
the
the
and
and
was
natural
this
of
sovereign
mind,
and
revelation
India,
In
husband
established
heart
of
In
between
^universal
"
to
conformity
"
what
but
nothing
you
^the observance
relation
child, and
and
father
:
yourselves
laws
of
acteristic
char-
dogmas.
our
on
whole
to
and
perfect,
by nature,
are,
use
"return
a
learns
that
the
So
nature."
of
birth
presumption,
is
God,
of
good,
child
Chinese
their
at
this
On
the
doctrine
is
nature
ways."
Mencius.
of
a
course,
no
was
ultimate
the
justice
process
first
and
very
object
time,
courage
of
we
little
was
have
developed;
tion.
self-annihilathe
developed
physical training.
virtues
by
the
65
SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS
Persian
education
its
psychology; however,
constituted
mg
a
Egyptian
another
existence
which
and
made
principle,
materialistic
methods
GREEK
social
and
they
moral
elevation
of
but
the
of
considered
first
who
desirable, and
as
and
Socrates
for
not
encouraged
hence,
the
Plato
people,
as
may
is shown
have
the
structure.^
Greek
been
by
multitude,
tragedians.
and
supply religious sentiment,
unfinished
dividual
in-
progress
and
For
to
were
the
salvation
judgment.^
short
moral
their
efforts
of the
stopped
unable
sanctions
to formulate
were
adequate
principles. For the few
philosophers, the
liberty
But
initiative
of
of
a
in
imagined
psychology,
by imitative
was
detailed
soul
the
EDUCATION.
Greeks
the
was
of
a
in
survival
for
education.
memnonical
It
nature.
existence
to
train-
physical
to
it
for
much
care
of
return
though
it led
their
to
training
the
even
terms;
underlay
definite
very
educational
The
cardinal
military
beginnings
too
was
The
the
for
moral
tive;
effec-
writings
the
thus
life:
Hebrews
complete
Greek
mind
chiefly secular.*
domain
Nevertheless,
one
they had
gift, in whose
results
the
aesthetic
they achieved
quite distinctive:
ment.*
embodia
general truth in concrete
ability to express
for
the
depended
interpretation
on
They
than
in
rather
on
imagination
creating
reason,
of expressions,
sculpture, painting, music, poetry, forms
of the
under
the patronages
Muses, called the beautiful.
of
thus
abstracted,
generalized and
conceiving
They
remained
law
as
The
an
Athenian
by
courts,
a
close
art.
was
method
attendance
at
practically
contact
with
sation,
training youths by converand
lawbanquets, theatres
object-lesson demonstration,
of
an
nature.
TEACHERS'
66
Aristotle
a
of
which
which
can
appetite, and
the
of
that
soul
the
"^
other.
cardinal
The
self-control, honor
wisdom,
is to
other
or
trol
con-
elements
the
perfection of
corresponded
which
parents,
good
of
source
the
to
courage,
either
the
were
to
of
education
of
balance
to
elements
psychological
these
"
tend
may
virtues
each
element
^the
duty
so
According
appetite,
parts: the
of
on
his
founded
also
side
the
"The
love.
three
element
philosophic
and
culture
of
on
based
be
psychology.
spirit, the
enlisted
be
the
evil;
the
Plato
on
consists
tamable;
is
should
pedagogy
education
soul
the
SOLVED
individual.*^
the
of
system
him,
to
that
taught
knowledge
whole
PROBLEMS
to
ness,
truthful-
courage,
love
and
for
one's
fellow-citizens.
ROMAN
We
must
the
the
of
this
line
and
pupils by
of
within
the
Cicero.
the
is
of
nature
see
we
man
rude
it
of
soul
Dionysius
of
the
is immaterial
was
the
ginning
be-
the
dispositions
the
evil
of
that
the
the
tendencies
a
is evil.
education
that
it
education:
life-long task, thought
beginning of the idea that
is
EDUCATION.
of the
Plotinos
period demanded
after
Charlemagne's
of the
mystics was
his Neoplatonism,
and
monastic
but
psychology;
underlying
revival
education
of learning, the
on
of
considers
overcome
no
based
the
Seneca
MEDIAEVAL
The
of
study
to
individual;
Here
reverentia";
who
JuvenaF
of
the
urges
the
teachers.
education
was
nature, of the paedocentric
Quintilian proceeds further
along
assertion
education.
idea
aim
pueris
it
principle
memorable
ever
debetur
of
that
forget
never
formulated
"Maxima
EDUCATION.
and
Areopagite.
Monroe"
and
because
immortal
says : "The
it belongs
to
(il
SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS
world
the
of
threefold:
"
the
lowest
body; the
its peculiarly
spiritual part
the
identified
human
is
three
soul,
the
"The
Victor:
is to
child
the
combination
sign
rather
note
also
than
So
of
attitude
characteristic
Erasmus
study,
these.
of
that
of
of
centre
in
interest
through
said
So
descend
is
is, the
the
of
of
Hugo
in
or
man
^that
"
St.
self."
one's
foundations
the
lays
Renaissance
education
is
PEDAGOGY.
RENAISSANCE
The
which
excellencies
experience."
God
in
or
three
are
with
up
part of the soul
the
superhuman
intelligence
highest
to
way
which
by
of
part is bound
reasoning
part; third,
there
stages
animal
is
Its nature
spirits.
or
or
that
Hence
ideas
or
logical
with
divine.
of
reality
psychology,
return
a
Petrarch"
objective
taught
and
nature,
that
literature
the
making
first
becomes
a
and
methods,
a
the
shows
self-analysis
modern
in
to
modern
of
thought.
^^
"things
words."
Sylvius, ^^
study, according to Aeneas
moral
The
is character,
our
only sure
possession.
is
element
is asserted
from
secular
standpoint, and
a
by a non-ascetic
object.
accompanied
of declaration
sort
was
a
Evidently the Renaissance
human
of
independence
reason
against the
by the
and
ments.
of
intrusion
spiritual eleby the social
bondage
it is a
isolated
It is not
an
phenomenon:
had
which
of a tendency,
already manifested
symptom
and
the
in
thirteenth
under
century
Charlemagne,
The
under
aim
lead
the
notably
measures
of
all
of
the
learning,the
Saracen
poets,
of
mediaeval
Greco-Roman
Dante.
succeeded:
Scholar,
Wandering
But
of
none
all failed
Christianity, and
culture.
Dominicans,
Franciscans,
except
the
these
direct
and
the
the
half-way
rejection
reintroduction
of
58
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
REFORMATION
The
birth
of
Servetus
fortunate
leaders
the
the
just
was
threefold
Jesuit
novices
who
other
hand,
the
but
being
another,
by
decree
the
Jesuit
burning
a
merely
the
for
views
their
their
of
the
as
except
impose
to
bitterly opposed
object is witness
eigns.
sover-
educational
tem
sys-
individuality. The
this; they accepted
to
to
fond
docile, or who
were
efficient
discipline of emulation
of
not
were
motives.
its
to
able
were
espionage,
on
for
reformed
Their
innovations.
based
as
testifies
who
described
been
individuality;
authority
one
countries
On
often
of
Calvin
by
of
no
has
emancipation
substitute
on
PEDAGOGY.
Reformation
or
SOLVED
was
adroitly introduced
joined
to
the
members
order,
hands
in the
of
"perinde ac cadaver"
on
superiors, joined to their continual
espionage
other, destroyed
leanings towards
utterly any
their
oath
to
to
be
Of
they,
course
word
the
juggled with
nothing, but a convenient
As
observes,
Macaulay
found
the
point up to
could
the
ligious
re-
their
As
of
carried,
be
MONTAIGNE
'^reason,"
cloak
"the
which
without
AND
well
as
really it meant
their
preferences.
but
for
Jesuits
seemed
intellectual
reaching
REALISTIC
viduality.
indi-
Reformers,
the
as
each
to
have
development
intellectual
pendence."
inde-
PEDAGOGY.
MONTAIGNE.
to
a
object in education
produce
Montaigne's
was
rhetorician.^^
not
He
a logician or
gentleman
began
and
this progress
broad
thus
culture
a
early,
developed
effective
The
at
an
always
individuality was
age.
end
held
the
of the
which
the
learning, through
as
latter
education
that
The
not
only to filter.
was
was
"
SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS
of
body
a
soul, but
or
of
69
this continual
With
man.
a
character
(the teaching of philosophy
late
and
the
from
to
early adolescence
senescence),
and
to live, of goodness
virtue,
early teaching of how
fail to
the
well
So
not
develop.
individuality could
"The
that of living well"
said Cicero:
best of all arts
in their lives, rather
ing.^*
learnthan
in their
they followed
insistence
the
on
"
"
MULCASTER.
Mulcaster's^*
is
psychological
by, memory
conception
a
much
saner
to
of
discretion
education
form
a
retain,
than,
of
"art
to
discern
grouping
according
for
to
to
ceive
con-
by/*
in
nature
Rousseau's.
instance,
RATKE.
chief
Ratke's
be
done
in natural
nature
order, in the
connection,
for
everything
that
of
course
a
which
should
"Since
nature.
to
proper
is in
man
it also
herself,
certain
a
in the
art
of
all
ing
teachunnatural,
violent, or forcible
and
weakens
nature."
learning is harmful,
teaching;
and
This
was
particular method,
the
of
understanding
had
be
to
regard must
uses
with
principle^ '^
method"
"natural
bequeathed
was
to
his
pupil
Comenius.
COMENIUS.
Hitherto^^
education
instincts
mental
and
other
emotions;
and
and
all
1, eradicated
and
discipline towards
hand,
sought
self-control
through
virtue
moral
the
on
and
had,
things;
piety.
based
on,
whereby
2,
by
that
his
natural
furnishing
end.
sires,
dea
ius,
Comen-
religious end, 1,
of
self
one2, knowledge
emerged,
knowledge,
TEACHERS'
70
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
MONTAIGNE.
discussing
In
the
and
individuality of the
child, it is not out
study also the ultimate
end
of the
individual.
off
when
or
Although
purpose
his
the
vidual's
indidogmatic
guard, Comenius
assigned as
of the
end
life,^*^yet he
prolongation
begins
that
it lies beyond
this world
statement
by an inherited
in eternity,^" which
indeed
is true
in a spiritual sense.
psychology
of place to
RABELAIS.
Rabelais
had
words.
LOCKE
of
the
there
systems
its
the
also
of
which
of
"innate
evil
the
supported
into
by
the
demanded
the
scholastic
the
part
This
both
old
on
was
was
of
elements
it
of
the
of
straightteaching
the
school
ground
the thing,
not
by
supported
and
langxiage,
our
Aristotelian
the
nature.
It
**faculty"-
training of the various
mind
the
lated
by appropriate disciplines formuschool
While
Locke
procedures.
rejected
ideas,"
attributed
and
the
a
considered
the
mind
a
"tabula
of mental
virtues,
development
and
facilities, entirely to habitual
experience,
powers
whose
the
most
disciplinary training thereby became
is the reason
of growth.
This
why
important element
is pedagogically
classed
This
he
a
as
disciplinarian.
^^
selected
then
holds,
a
disciplinary conception
1, that
rasa,"
he
needs
burst
justify
to
training.
or
had
conservation
important
conservative
eradication
faculties
natural
attempted
process,
psychology
the
than
rather
PEDAGOGY.
languages,
The
in education
religious
was
things
on
world
Latin
survived.
Latin
of
Reformed
the
jacket
but
insisted
DISCIPLINARIAN
AND
When
that
already
^"
TEACHERS'
72
ROUSSEAU
As
the
and
Emile,
the
define
must
we
if we
is some,
educated
"negatively"
altruism
of
to
with
^unlikely to
"
the
acting
without
as
natural
he
aided
un-
pleases;
finishinig
the
is some,
individuality, there
selfishness; the late development
unconnected
doubtful
years,
Of
terms.
the
fifteen
from
child
by
exemplified
our
understand
several
is retarded
university stage;
thereby you mean
PEDAGOGY.
individual,
there
that
quite
of
progress
Rousseau's
SOLVED
NATURALISTIC
AND
to
progress
PROBLEMS
twenty
years
preliminary
in
occur
of
age
if
of
seems
stages, and
very
reality.
EDUCATION.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
PESTALOZZL
Psychological
education
is the
development
terest,
in-
by
in our
three
nature, from
genius implanted
physics
of knowledge:
experimental
experience, metasources
of any
and
mathematics,
denying the existence
Pestalozzi's
to base
tion
educafaculties.
was
great aim
it.^^
cation
Eduon
experience, and to "psychologize"
the
than
is little more
organic development of
individual
moral
and
the
the
mental,
physical
of
all
natural, progressive, harmonious
development
and
faculties
of the human
the powers
being.
Pestalozzi's
chief
Sense
impressions^*
are
logic
psychoof
"
"
the
basis:
to
the
number
sense
All
or
error,
onesided
bias
may
fuse;
con-
rest
on
simple
impressions
is increased
of knowledge
accuracy
of
of the senses
employed;
2, power
yet complex
the
elements, while
with
from
truth
ideas.
lead
rises
instruction
to
clear
may
either
mind
psychological
be
Nature:
which
the
of
impressions
phenomena
sense
impressions,
are
related.
Mere
vigor of impressions may
1,
are:
sources
sense
SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS
impressions
sense
of
All
interwoven
conditions
outer
of
indefinite
images,
of
3, from
from
foundation
power
consciousness
which
mere
of
flow
the
1,
language;
of forming
; and
form
sensuous,
consciousness
Sense-impressions^^
of
of
origin
tion
rela-
ing.
learn-
sources:
sensuous
longer
of
power
three
the
"
3,
emotions;
own
from
arise
no
calculation.
and
one's
simple
which
definite,
imagination,
to
sounds
making
out
with
flows
knowledge*^
power
2, from
n
of
power
unity
of
the
are
absolute
knowledge.
HERBART.
Herbart^''
limited
was
talozzi
clearly
elementary
saw
to
field; and
referred
principally
work
into
of
a
mental
moral
basis,
foundation
no
for
that
to
method
than
more
the
higher
assimilation, developing
and
^
added
therefore
character,
the
of
they
these
sense
were
converted
of
process
whose
moral
universe
not
only
up
instruction.
While
Hence
or
growth
it is
Pes-
1,
practically
sense-impression
thereto.
appreciative
process;
which,
through the
of
because,
character.
Herbart
moral
pedagogy
himself
observational
2, his
introduction;
an
education
limited
actually
Pestalozzian
that
experience,
Pestalozzi
wished
but
and
aesthetic
end
of
of
to
human
on
the
tion
presenta-
education,
converse
"psychologize
by
ideas
into
instruction, bear
chief
is the
perceptions
made
and
tion,"
educa-
constructed
which
Herbart
only a basis, on
his superstructure,
built
logically and
philosophically,
work
the
basis
of a unified
on
establishing educational
life and
of
the
he
mental
child, whom
development
of
Monroe
thus
made
the
this
centre
states
study.
"This
is Herbart's
then
tribution
development^":
great conhe
to
education.
The
movement
which
Locke
TEACHERS'
74
in
began
destructive
schoolroom
and
that
it
Pestalozzi
made
actual
an
investigative
down
basis
of
every
permanent
place of
empirical
in
and
Rousseau,
the
to
hands
the
tablished
es-
critical
brilliant
made
scientific
of
one
Rousseau
of
in
Herbart
educational
of
brought
concrete
movement
ifivinp;
maginative
form
the
in
work
literature; which
teacher,
SOLVED
the
child
the
centre
making
and
pedagogical theory; which
his
in general form
through
endeavor
and
PROBLEMS
the
by
the
one
Pestalozzi."
of
advance
great
of
foundation
psychological
Herbart's
on
intuitive
inborn
or
but
the
Locke's:
one
power
environment
^that
"
is
soul
faculties,
a
unity,
an
birth
at
of
not
was
very
devoid
blank,
a
into
entering
sessing
posrelation
system,^^
of
and
"presentations"
receiving thereby
whose
interactions
lead
through
sense-perception,
the
interaction
of
which
to
generalizations
concepts,
and
leads
These
interactions
to judgments
reasonings.
of ideas
assimiliations
of ideas
are
by means
already
result
in "apperception-masses."
These
acquired, and
two
contact
originate from
or
experience,
sources,
with
with
intercourse, or contact
nature; and
society.
with
its
These
the
are
of
the
the
through
its primary
of
material
the
nervous
and
teacher,
the
original power
from
knowledge,
experience
sympathy.
teacher
one
by
has
and
expansion
velop
to de-
from
course
inter-
PESTALOZZI.
Sensation,
of
adds
"
number,
taste, and
^the
word,
with
fitting,
that
which
Pestalozzi,
form
and
obligation,
the
its
formed
language;
the
beautiful,
in
was
"aesthetic
moral,
perfect
state
contemplation.
There
function
is no
independent
"'motivation"
consisting of desires and
to
by
these
the
ments
ele-
Herbart
presentations"
just: in one
pleases after perfect
the
of
will; only
good
will
a
spring-
75
SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS
ing into
will
of the
making
when
choosing
The
presentation.
by the pupil himself
rejecting the bad; thus
action
from
is discovered
the
good and
developed.
is the
self-
true
FROEBEL.
From
Froebel^s
love
profound
nature
throughout
a
Schlegel,
and
nature
revealed
preached
university, but
two
a
great
sults:
re-
that
conviction
unity of idea
the
philosophy
that
in
was
the
at
for
was
that
realization
emerged
training^"
nowhere
of
cational
edu-
in
found
and
work.
In
^-of
the
life of
the
the
stages
of
which
and
truer
This
let
to
it to
at
ends
least
applied
development,
a
"
unity
same
hood,
youth, and maneducation.
complete
knowing,
feeling
ably
probpsychology
of
than
eliminate
help
to
those
these
secure
but
to
it would
ends
evolutionary
tion.
self-determina-
continuous
neither
alone,
the
education
to
seeks
severely
higher
to
of
unity
is the
Herbart's.^^
education
it
one
mind
the
of
in
the
on
first
of
theory
activities
than
Froebel
unified
be
insisted
willing
there
infancy, childhood,
must
Froebel
So
individuals^
nature,
nature
reach
by readier
and
^to
"
nor
guide
unaided,
or
direct
more
means.s^
MONTESSORI.
The
object of the Montessori
them
children, S2
encouraging
This
which
of
is the
course,
this
system
result
specially
GERMAN
Kant's
chief
development,
interest
a
method
educate
to
of
self
is to
awake
the
themselves.
-activity and
interest,
stresses.
EDUCATION.
in
practical
education
education
lay in characterthe concombining
1(^
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
training of the will. He, too, had evolved
sort of culture-epoch
a
theory by seeing that the child
of which
he needed
passed through three stages, in each
different
treatment.
As
a
infant, he needed
nursing,
scholar, he rechild, he needed
discipline; and
as
as
quired
the
education
"not
must
be
teaching'^; while
for
the
condition
present, but for a possibly improved
duct
of
and
the
in
man
the
future."
the
German
school-period,
student
in
has, if possible,less
individuality than
France.
This
is shown
by the prodigious thoroughness
of the
the
work;
life-long social
disgrace
gymnasium
for self and
family, of failure ; and the alarming rate of
suicide
of German
Nevertheless,
school-boys.
during
his earlier
university days, suggested by the *'Lehrfreiheit"
of
the
professors, the German
youth is left to
sink
swim
he
of individual
or
as
enjoys the license
his
French
cousin
is still driven
by
fancy, while
year
examinations
he
to
further
more
exacting the
year
If the
advances.
German
survives, he develops
siderable
conthe
of his reself-control, and
thoroughness
searches
is proverbial.
In a very
fore,
therepeculiar sense,
is the
German
the
field
representative
university
of individuality; before
for
the
exercise
this the
child
considered
had
been
more
an
object, than
a
subject.
there
What
is, is applied to walkingappeal to nature
for which
the German
trips in the forest and mountains,
During
the
secondary
is famous.
FRENCH
Jacotot,
that
three
all
can
basic
stages; and
EDUCATION.
fearlessly appealed to nature
and
teach
learn
; learning by correlating the
the
successive
education
principles of
interest
teach, by arousing
through selfhowever,
"
activity.
Condillac'*^
thought
that the
first thing
to be
done
is
SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS
make
to
child
the
soul, and
them.
His
reasoning
a
effort
being
with
reason
was
that
the
was
to
need
his
of
of
of
making
use
of his prince-pupil
make
had
Locke
as
"
faculties
the
said,
must
"We
children."
our
Diderot
feel
him
chief
with
acquainted
make
to
77
the
instruction
that
sure
of
dress
insisted
that
progress
cious,
morally efficasymbolized
purity of
was
morals.^^
Helvitius
there
had'*^
of
was
most
of
to
In
the
on
contrary,'"
its
progress,
potent
power
the
sanctions
The
individualistic
indfvidualization
laws;
the
on
and
all
did
he
individual
its
in
his
rewards
and
specialization
yet,
promotes
Demolins
M.
as
formation
a
national
for
himself
end.
an
from
criticized
child
this
uses
not
means,
be
the
powerfully
is
exclusion
is
well
child
of
inexorable
might
standpoint of
Froebelian
of
system
attitude
This
and
emulation
communistic
with
; the
the
of
expertness;
this
noticed,
advancement
conditions
individuality
promoted
by
and
punishments.
well
fanatic
it.
promote
the
has
a
was
being instruction,
means
France
all
were
senses
man.
Condorcet,
subject
the
; but
the
it
might
between
difference
the
child's
replied there
was
a
his
fancies.
The
of
destiny and
over-emphasizing
has
Froebelian
kindergarten-play-habit
already been
that
the
"child
himself"
censured,
expression the
so
be
should
not
considered
function
child's
this
a
limited
be
socially
and
to
from
but
be
child's
factor
of
his
Froebel
never
well
inevitable
the
added
become
co-ordinate
with
be
but
becomes
expertness
should
a
fancies,
standpoint
though
even
individualisement
means,
the
Here
career.
interest;
the
that
merely
the
social
needs.
It is evident
considered
from
the
the
ideas
that
the
supreme
of the
individuality thus
This
good.
may
Jansenists,
that
the
is not
be
a
child's
entirely
survival
nature
TEACHERS'
78
PROBLEMS
and
wholly evil, and
replace it with
had
said
even
the
was
that
AMERICAN
the
most
modern
of
Ceyran'*
soul
of
appeal
to
the
EDUCATION,
ENGLISH
nature
St.
child.
unborn
Probably
this,
eradicate
must
religious spirit.
already possesses
devil
the
education
that
the
SOLVED
PEDAGOGY.
and
recent
times,
important
Spencer's,
Herbert
resulted
in
psychological scheme:
1, direct
vation;
self-preserself-preservation by acquisition of
2, indirect
of life; 3, the rearing of children; 4, social
necessaries
and
demands
citizenship; 5, literature, art and aesthetics
tentative
a
for
leisure
the
It
part of life.
Arnold
Thomas
was
who
Winchester)
idea.
incentive
made
This
Christian
implicit
him
to
who
1818)
Alexander
was
applied
and
science."
of
forces,
resulting
in
defective
children.
There
study
students
tional
educawas
an
yet !n
molding
of
has
Ziller
to
do
of
all the
condition;
institutions
man
him
need
formative
a
of
Aberdeen
(born
SCHOOLS.
because
schools,
American
the
an
cation
to "eduphysiological psychology
and
He
taught conservation
relation
corof
mental
and
physical relations;
of
disorder, and
fatigue, nervous
much
not
is
Americn
allows
in
Bain
AMERICAN
a
character
trust
and
Rugby
self-control.
Next
are
of
(1795-1842;
a
to
knack
this ; and
psychological
the
or
when
return
a
school
but
in
nature
organizations
there
child's
instinctive
he
to
is need
nature.
tact
of
The
which
in
perfects himself
disposal of the material, should
80
TEACHERS*
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
CHAPTER
VIL
Ditdpline.
PRIMITIVE
EDUCATION.
sometimesi
discipline of primitive education
was
brutal
physically, including rites of self -mutilation,
very
and
useless
the
candidates'
suffering, merely to show
it mentally
and
ence
ability to survive
morally; or in obediattitude
to some
This
is still in
prescribed rite.
existence
in Germany,
where
it is advanced
cation
justifias
The
the
of
unfortunate
ORIENTAL
characteristic
The
of
path
student's
duels.
of
a
perfect
both
of
life is
Chinese
the
"The
of
equilibrium
extremes
or
vices,
untrodden!"
mean
Confucius.
From
the
suggest
western
desirable
a
here
luxury; but
thoroughgoing,
of
torture
feet
doctrine
golden
mean";
and
passion, between
is the
"How
path
is virtue.
of
EDUCATION.
the
emotions
cries
results
"
of
deforming
it not
of
between
asceticism
balance
effective
untold
all of
expressions
again,
and
any
standpoint, such
the
words
mislead.
and
almost
all emotions.
millions
of
Witness
women,
only useless,
skulls
of
but
children.
It
ferocious
the
would
and
means,
cipline
dis-
nameless
their
deforming
crippling; also the
Discipline has
western
considerably more
by certain
it
enforced
land, country or age
writers, but no
ever
more
uselessly, ruthlessly, effectually and universally.
been
talked
about
DISCIPLINE
Their
a
Scripture
Jesuit
rewards
for
anticipated
the
for
substituting
physical punishment,
seems
in
rigor
shows
emulation
to
and
been
have
where
the
whole
ing
China,
nation, includholders, is disciplined by examinations
offices.
is devoted
The
to
punishments
Indeed,
of
system,
office
higher
the
without
indolence."
teacher's
The
educate
"To
says:
81
of
ment
political advanceexaminational
dexterity;
for
prizes
disgrace.
are
Chinese
whole
is
discipline
The
severe.
teacher^
bamboo
in a conspicuous
or
keeps his rattan
hanging
he
place, and
uses
scolding, castigation, starving, and
For
to incite
to
disobedience
imprisonment
diligence.
parents
Hindu
the
discipline*
failure
of
Persian
admonition
is mild;
is resort
made
only after
to
corporal
by the rod, by uncomfortable
the
pouring on
culprit of cold
the
there
education
punishment*^
even
judges
that
have
may
for
corporal
whole
the
on
either
punishment,
or
by
In
is allowable.^
death
even
been
but
children,
beaten
were
ture,
poswater.*
little,if
no,
counts
reXenophon
severely if they
erred.*
Persian's''
The
said
are
to
have
practiced
no
corporal
this seems
due
but
of
to their
conception
punishment;
fife as a struggle, and
whole
education
of their
to the
and
moral
maxims
the
with
which,
exception of some
consisted
have
of
to
seems
hymns,
physical exercise
and
have
not
tailed
enmilitary service, that in itself would
was
discipline. There
really nothing
severe
any
child
to study.
in this to drive
a
The
Hebrews
discipline.*
enforced, at times, a severe
could
Children
strap;
it
but
made
to
seems
to
have
be
fast,
or
been
limited
with
struck
to
a
the
years
an
ox";
eleven."
after
the
Indeed,
however,
mg
be
to
Talmud
it is also
their
says,
advisee!
strength.
^^
to
"load
treat
him
the
like
young,
accord-
82
TEACHERS'
Like
the
Hindu,
for
a
the
Hebrew
and
eating
hemmed
was
ritual
ceremonial
burdensome,
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
discipline.
developed,
Management
by a
regulations
was
really
detailed
and
intercourse.^^
social
in
This
severe
Talmud
the
that
children
caressed
and
hand,
and
however,
shall
it is said
with
punished
be
in
one
two.^^
with
Orientals,
as
discipline was
interest
was
as
only casual; the justification,
severe,
doubt, lying in the self-preservation of a
therefore, no
of its law, especially in times
when
in that
it had
race
to be safeguarded
by force of arms.
the
Among
GREEK
Of
Sparta;
EDUCATION.
physical
course
an
even
therefore,
punishment
Iren, if he
did
not
was
in
common
properly
tutor
the
punished, sometimes
by the
^*
The
trained
to stoicism.
boys were
biting of his thumb.
did
The
not
story of the boy who
wince, when
under
his robe
he carried
bit his vitals, is wellthe fox
The
known.
pancratium
was
practiced, chiefly for
It was
even
disciplinary purposes.
customary
upon
both
and
occasions
the
the
to beat
youths
frequent
boys
altar
before
such
of Artemis,
the
with
severity that
death
not
infrequently ensued.
doubt
this disciplinary severity was
No
considerably
boys
his
in
relaxed
Athens
in
the
were
;
was
yet is it safe
likely
Greeks
their
considering
new-born
charge,
babes;
to
of
himself
Besides,**^ he
parents,
who
advised
protests
seek
to
exposing
against
their
that
at
instances
individual,
the
spare
say,
no
time
over-sentimentality,
and
slaves, women,
furnish
poets
The
beating aged parents.
disciplined unmistakably.
Plato
by
err
treatment
the
to
the
of
therefore,
of
was
children.**
weakness
children
even
every
of
those
trouble
DISCIPLINE
and
'^I
pain.
83
he, "that the
persuaded,"
says
inclination
the
humor
to
likings of children, is the
of all ways
should
make
to spoil them.
We
surest
not
much
too
is pleasurable,
haste
in our
search
after what
from
shall
be
especially as we
wholly
never
exempt
what
is painful.'*
Their
skilful
education
is "a
very
of amusement,
leads the mind
discipline which, by way
even
of
the
child
love
to
am
which
that
ROMAN
Discipline
but
find
we
the
was
EDUCATION.
doubt
no
of
strict
in the
and
Seneca
Quintilian,
abandonment
it finished."
make
is to
Cicero
therein.
force
schools
Roman
arguing
What
;
for
stituted
sub-
was
of
was
duty which
concept
ethics:
"The
wise
man
thoroughly
Roman,
applied to
will
should
not
both
look
oversin, though
men
gods and
the deed
ment
through the fear of punish; for it is not
therefor?
of
or
This
in
is
Roman
that
he
abstains
from
It is from
sin.
is just and
obligation of what
stoicism, originated by Epictetus, a Greek
Romanized
by Marcus
territory; and
desire
the
shame
The
lius, and
good."
and
and
emperor,
Seneca,
MEDIAEVAL
slave,
Aure-
statesman.
a
EDUCATION.
cussed
diswill
be
discipline of asceticism
and
obedience
elsewhere.
Chastity, poverty
it
its moral
significance; and by self-denial
completed
state.
achieved
freedom
from
society and
family,
rules
This
supplemented
by the monastic
was
inent
promThe
mediaeval
"
which
among
the
latter
the
the
career
the
severest,
to
all
the
tercian;
Cis-
tions
restric-
silence.
adding
In
being
the
and
Benedictine
the
were
secular
of
life
world,
chivalry
was
to
was
be
no
less
entered
a
discipline;
also
by per-
TEACHERS'
84
sonal
realized
fitness
vigil
in
solemn
by
and
the
Inquisition.
merit-slavery
But
notice,
sake
of
the
the
for
the
the
slight value
spiritual
of
more
physical
when
Humanism
activities, corporal
study
to
as
the
while
worth
show
with
PEDAGOGY.
in the broader
seen,
exercise
furnished
the
well
da
interest
of
social
the
conduct.
tive
incen-
For
"Pleasant
Feltre, in his
the
its
furnished
moral
to
as
of
days
down
narrowed
punishment^"
Vittorino
however,
counted
were
to
spiritual gain. It only goes
of anything
physical compared
have
we
as
the
cruelty of
these, including
all
that
Jesuits,
Renaissance,
study,
a
and
Franciscans
the
gruesome
RENAISSANCE
While,
after
taken
vows,
discipline of
the
came
Dominicans,
the
SOLVED
Church.
the
Last
PROBLEMS
this,
House,"
by the boys of the school, ^^
self-government
and
interests
of the
the natural
pupil.
a
on
dependence
of
methods
the
barbarous
Erasmus,
too, deprecated
of interest.^"
discipline, advising the method
substituted
resulted
This
in
an
authority
individuality.
what
However,
secondary
schools
keep
the
to,
acted
almost
which
absolute
of
obedience
pictures
"
rod
and
the
in the
REFORMATION
In
in
the
matter
Reformation-times.
hold
of
we
possess
British
most
under
for
respect
elimination
as
of^"
German
ditions,
trasecondary
position.
prominent
PEDAGOGY.
discipline, there
So
Luther^^
discipline, and
he must
be honorably
principles of integrity, and to
them
and
was
no
"So
says,
teach
them
trained
to
hesitation
that
you
spect
self-readhere
to
...
the
virtue, and
to
shun
85
DISCIPLINE
contamination
the
think
not
of
that
"Our
vice."
schools
are
children
where
should
children
no
checked
be
longer
in
hell
a
for
tortured,
are
Luther
Nevertheless,
thing.
every-
and
with
did
tory
purga-
flogging,
and
children
learn
anguish
trembling,
wretchedness,
The
Jesuits
have
must
this
understood
nothing."
the whole
and
did away
with
point, for they went
way,
physical punishment,
except in the most
flagrant cases.
for it a system
of prize-giving, rivalry,
They substituted
senists,
succeeded
which
emulation;
or
however,
back
went
well.
very
the
to
The
of
use
demanded
spirit of rivalry, however,
of supervision and
The
system
espionage.
This
divided
his
had
to
into
the
under
groups
''rival," each
while
monitors,
acting
as
check
a
Jan-
the
the
rod.
closest
pupils
were
pupil
every
and
incentive
other.
MONTAIGNE
REALISTIC
AND
PEDAGOGY.
MONTAIGNE.
Montaigne^o
be
to
brought
inured
up
exercise
to
teacher
should
it
thought
be
its
on
mother's
and
pain.
sovereign,
well
not
was
and
author
not
be
ity^^
most
of
hindered
bodies
while
should
be bent
Young
hard
to get children, but
to train
easy
important difficulty of science.
parents.
It is
child
the
it should^^
lap;
The
for
be
the
by
supple.^*
them
"
^the
RABELAIS.
Yet
mildness
of
had
Rabelais^*
even
insisted
on
comparative
discipline.
COMENIUS.
Comenius
chapter
of
devotes
his
Great
to
school
discipline
Didactic, showing
his
the
xxvith
comprehen-
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
86
of
sion
the
Comenius
the
Besides,
practical school-room
problems.
the
makes
on
improvement
epoch-making
"loud
Chinese
schools"
LOCKE
seen^T
be
that
the
from
silence.^*
PEDAGOGY.
DISCIPLINARIAN
AND
It will
demanded
he
"
absolute
mother-school,
very
SOLVED
idea
Locke's
of
discipline
was
meant
idea, and
means
by no
great all-inclusive
mortification.
consistent
with
It was
austerity and
interest.
Great
much
pecially
severity, esself-activity and
is
in corporal
the
to be avoided;
punishment,
which
arbitrariness, with
authority was
severity and
would
Locke^"
deprecated.
customarily exercised, was
think
think
it the
not
pain the greatest of evils, nor
a
alternative.
terrible
most
towards
Gentle
virtue,
inuring
of
pain
to
result
Locke^"
objected
There
submission,
^^
But
and
courage
results.**^
of
tutor, who
is
parent
discreetly
desires
and
the
forming
following them, as
and
habit
fits
enforced
the
latter
the
instincts
of
Rousseau
child
be
their
and
for
structio
in-
by the authority
preferably a
of
secret
by thwarting
trolling
con-
them,
instead
control;
advised.
life.
its harmful
modesty
the
know
of
rest
of
"Form
habits,"
actual
discipline
he.
The
may
then
master,
or
should
it
to
was
the
for
and
mind,
and
reason
that
discipline
natural
insists
another
Sparta.
light degrees
of
for
vance
ad-
in
of
children"
"spoiling
to
great
a
understood
was
resolution
namely,
moral
it
as
unshrinking suffering
while
to gain firmness
to
is worth
in
constitutes
It
need
be
of
better
such
for
liberal
understood
contemporaneous
about
"The
Monroe,"^
punismment
a
the
view
from
of
a
circumstances,
very
extensive
slightest offense
consideration
in
use
or
the
of
words
of
of
corporal
deficencies;
TEACHERS'
88
Now
left
to
altruistic
logic
it ignores the
reason;
usually the suffering
victim, not
anud
children
not
criminals,
who
turn
to
crime
that
learn
children,
high morality
child
the
lot
of
not
does
experience
is the
denly
sud-
not
of
others;
innocent
the
gets the
system
might, indeed,
develop
dence;
pruusually
morality and
spirituality; and
This
but
of
do
religious;
and
welfare
criminal;
the
training.
ruined,
that
like weeds,
do
not
up
of sudden
suffering;
grow
the
by
shows
experience
become
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
victim
crime
when
from
turn
the
it is the
most
who
their
forms
superstitious, dogmatic
of
religion, that promise pardon without
genuine
penance.
Experience, therefore, decides
against
of
Emile's
historical
career
an
being
human
experience.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
restitution
the
is
life
or
likelihood
of
statement
PEDAGOGY.
PESTALOZZI.
With
^nd
Pestalozzi
pupil
"Father
driven,
is
based
Pestalozzi.
but
led'";
the
on
""*'
and
only
love.
between
he
Hence
children
The
as
relation
a
result
called
was
not
were
his
teacher
school
to
be
a
was
bedlam.
FROEBEL.
in Froebel's
school.
Discipline hardly appears
The
of
of
principle of love, and
creative
development,
time
for
of
self
activity leaves
the
to
no
opposition
social
does
Nor
the
individual
know
unity.
the
in the
harmonious
struggle of self-denial
self-active
his
of
whole
It is possible, that,
development
nature.
if
the
a
very
teachers
kindergarten
different
story might
appear.
actual
consulted,
were
In
any
case
DISCIPLINE
this
system
limited
have
to
seems
89
itself
pre-primary
to
education.
MONTESSORI.
The
but
in
in
only
nourish
to
must
not
duties
to
quarrel
perform
citizen
by
punishments
lessen,
our
or
at
must
of
the
each
but
modern
civilization; to
thereof.*"
of
them
and
do
not
in
useless
are
is to
gression
retro-
cause
is
the
only
external
victory
progress.'**
only
prize
joy of approval; repression is evil.*^
desk
is self-avenged
The
by moral
degradation.
other
as
as
degrading
punishments.*"
prizes and
cause
The
is the
of
dangerous
free
children
acts
must
and
all
children
who
to
her.*"
between
to
Dr.
confusion
with
collective
of
liberty,
deterrents
evil, but
to
in
order
being
the
are
care
served
advised
and
as
the
is
a
culture
isolation
must
of
and
human
cipline
Dis-
stroyed,*
de-
or
to
eject
spectful
disre-
not
lead
or
ness
bad-
starting place
is
an
essential
thereof.
limitation
unnecessarily.
is
difference
the
immovability,
Independence
children
serve
teacher
the
later,
comes
education.^^
and
learn
must
with
of
in
of
is wrong
consists
child
goodness
activity.^^
Seating
be
course
Evil
Useless,
suppressed
Montessori
took
good care
were
dirty, incorrigible and
of
The
and
good
active.*''
be
must
a
be
Prizes
force"
and
is
must
spirit, which
'Inner
The
'*2
They
use
each
teaching
entail.
slavery
deformities.
provoke
are
other
otherwise
All
may
of
the
individual
good,*^ they
; they have
common
community.'*^
it
taught
must
join
not
are
group
subordinate
times;
restrict,
or
the
with
stated
strain
any
of
They
prescribe,
Children
member
interfere
in the
limited
assist.
and
demands
the
to
interfere,
to
but
each
groups,
the
exercise.^"
caprice
free
is not
teacher
^^
It
Education
life.^*
special care.*^*
As
90
TEACHERS'
GERMAN
The
of
means
Punishment
anger
constant
faculty
meeting,
dismissed.
the
Children
even
to
the
in
schools.
volunteer,
and
wrapt
up
delinquents.
much
for
in
and
in
of
itself
FRENCH
Jansenists
The
emulation
in
teacher;
In
the
to
response
but
France,
it
was
fact
An
The
pupils
that
many
army
own
of
the
the
expense,
is
whole
family
the
are
the
passing
this
his
of
discipline,
discipline
prestige of being a
social
favor
teacher's
strict
the
frequent
it,
Besides, the
the
theless
never-
school-room.
honor
that
be,
wood.
introduces
at
the
and
and
the
even
laws
effeminate.
army,
Besides
potent incentive,
so
the
in
provincial
temporarily, or
dead
the
as
reserve-officers,
are
one-year
in
is scorned
serve
much
he
the
of
obey;
to
obtains
rod,
the
teachers
into
educated
teacher
expect
of
carrying
are
amiable
coherence
; natural
reprimanded
the
severe
social
natural
allows
to
be
be
not
is severe;
be
may
to
reported
fined, suspended
But, however
the
caste
; and
be
or
not
was
moral
are
criticism
and
school-board,
be
there
:
^^
should*^*
physical and
artificial; negative and
positive.
the discipline of a teacher
In Germany,
with
is under
IS
advised,
training it to yield to natural
opposition
slavery; natural
tractableness.
brings
given
and
Breaking
had
Kant
will; but
the
obstacles.
EDUCATION.
which
discipline,
breaking
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
suicides
professor
all-important
produces a servile
final
a
of
counts
tion,
examina-
obedience.
EDUCATION.
had
of
attempted
the
affection
a
markedly
Jesuits
and
practical
similar
ciplinary
disreplace the
by the pupils' love
religious zeal of the
to
failure.
to
the
Jesuit
schools,
DISCIPLINE
the
91
chief
and
rewards
system of discipline is emulation
:
different
from
the
and,
German
indeed,
markedly
The
to these.
is carried
opposition
marking
system
to its greatest extremes;
and
all marks
as
given in the
schools
the
to
are
day transmitted
principal,
every
be
notified
if a
parents can
immediately
pupil falls
back
in
his
work.
; extra
to
even
walks.
sent
the
to
work
with
censor,
permanent
by a warning.
of principal,
composed
or
two
ushers,
calls
up
students
is
The
act
as
a
discipline
of
of
only
from
is
There
the
social
to
of
"Officers
a
standing.
suspension
with
means
revocation,
and
hand,
or
of
teachers
total
permanent
of
a
loss
of
ponding
corres-
tion
decora-
the
is
five
given
years'
may
suffer
salary,
of
the
moval,
re-
These
disbarment.
tenure
are
Three-
which
Academy,"
other
or
to
an
ous
numer-
rewards.
Instruction,"
the
and
; there
distinguished by
Public
certainty
relieve
subjected
are
are
partial
interest
of
emulation
of
the
On
means
of
faculties
"Officer
or
room,
disciplinary council
five
professors, surveillant, and
not
but
only inflicts punishments,
congratulate them
on
good work.
scholarships.
many
teachers
themselves
fourths
Sunday
or
roll of honor,
public trimestrial
are
prizes, which
so
system of annual
to
as
to
have
may
Internes
a
elaborate
also
which
peated
re-
is also temporary
; there
the
school, usually preceded
note
a
be
to
be
may
exclusion
There
have
may
assigned ; or he
school
to
Thursday
or
Sunday.
be
of
their
Thursday
deprived
be
excluded
from
the
Pupils may
return
mav
work
Poor
danger
of
fossilization.
The
abolition
with
No
its
of
influence
of
France,
physical punishment
in
shows
long lingering in Germany,
immediate
of
the
democracy.
inconsiderable
payment
trasted
con-
fees
element
of
by the
parents,
practical interest in their
the
who
discipline
thus
children's
is
take
the
an
progress.
TEACHERS'
92
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
the
Aga!n,
continual
surveillance,
pupil is under
at night ; private difficulties
especially in the dormitory
arise.
This
to
have, therefore, less opportunity
sonal
perinfluence
of
have
been
to
seems
the
school
and
restraint.
is
uniform
AMERICAN
The
without
that
doubt,
dismissed, if found
be
too
were
to
the
presence,
the
Jansenists.
"interne"
outside
inspiration, protection,
EDUCATION.
discipline of
early
due
of
appreciable
an
continual
teacher's
originally
blue
the
Moreover,
the
of
the
rod.*^''
the
Emulation
severe.
The
lenient^";
too
school
American
was,
master
well
as
to
was
if he
as
not
however,
was,
Another
system
disciplinary motive.
had
there
Hall
of discipline was
fining. At Nazareth
d.
for
**a
J^
talking at meals,
been,
farthing for
of a
the
floor; 1 d. for tearing a leaf out
falling on
neglected*^"
book;
also
d.
2
in
In
as
for
lie; and
a
Phillips
at
vogue
times,
modern
3
d.
for
of
severe
restrictions.
is not
resort; in
allowed
teacher,
has
last
forced
practically
which,
no
however,
oppressive
system
pass
hold
cannot
above
2 MacEvoy,
Painter, 13.
18.
Painter,
^Compayre,
^ MacEvoy,
18.
Painter,
"^
* Painter,
25.
MacEvoy,
1
8
all
disciplining
for
political reasons.
done
places been
threatened
except
but
a
his
if
survive
hours,
limits; and
narrow
left
under
school
after
pupils
a
as
it is allowed
cities
some
Keeping
beyond
very
to
was
of
all forms
however,
been
means
this
"
Andover.
practically abandoned,
has
in
most
Physical punishment
it is sometimes
with, although
away
have
oath"^
an
the
so
few
pupils,
personality;
down
by an
very
own
ground
him.
6.
6;
16.
16.
"
13.
Proverbs,
"
MacEvoy,
payre,
12
10.
Compa3rrc,
23.13,
24,
19.18.
^^
10.
22.
lo
14;
Com-
Painter,
^^
Monroe^
29-
DISCIPLINE
I
i^Compayrl,
J.
i"
77.
20
28
n.
25
56.
"
lb.,
57.
81
of
90.
S^Gmdttct
the
84
ib.,
of
36.
88.
86
Under-
41
lb.,
lb.,
52
93.
54
5"
103.
*^,*,.
58
lb.,
our
lb.,
265.
93.
88,
51
lb.,
Middle
136.
lb.,
106.
192.
MacEvoy,
336.
of
26.
93.
58
56
Compayr^,
136.
lb.,
lb.,
97.
lb.,
*i^.,
Making
"o
50
lb.,
*"Ib.,
*8
86
**Ib.,
22.
21,
25.
71.
lb.,
*2ib.,
XXX.
*"Ib.,
lb.,
*"
xxi.
48ib.,
4"Ib.,
524.
Monroe,
160.
622.
Educates,
Montessori,
xxxviii.
*7
517.
35,
89
24.
chapter
Education,
lb.,
Monroe,
Gertrude
How
87.
Great
Monroe,
Education,
of
75.
Theory
26
in
28
22
88
553.
MacEvoy,
411.
27
28.
t"Ib.,
8
24
200.
Monroe,
Theory
Mon-
Edu180.
lb.,
Pedagogy.
1
"
21
lb.,
Wactic,
ib.,
Montaigne,
179.
ition,
*"
87
28.
standing,
IT
124.
MacEvoy,
434.
i"Ib.,
375.
Monroe,
18
"e,
29.
93
57
Brown,
Schools,
5"Ib.,
139.
TEACHERS'
94
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
VIIL
CHAPTER
Method.
EDUCATION.
PRIMITIVE
is
process
society through
It sought
in
and
faithfulness
and
into
become
A
the
it has
festivities
So
practical
survived
to
our
is
sions.
posses-
demanding
by
of
of
ways
prepared
tion,
revela-
or
or
this
own
for
and
secrecy
instruction
by
tional
educa-
cultural
often
was
promise
followed
fellowship.
that
it, and
preceded
often
was
education
to
the
into
acquisition of its
create
receptivity
solitude.
often
public
it has
the
enforcing
or
silence
"initiation"
the
without
first definite
The
terestin
in-
and
important
principles
basic
reveals
superstructure.
complicated
obedience
is
that
in
peculiarly
is
education
Primitive
reception
of
form
days,
when
entirely voluntary.
PREHISTORIC
EDUCATION.
The
of primitive people
practical education
is gained
direct
training in the
1, through
family group,
2,
division
of
the
labor, and
primitive
through
3, in the
of
the
class
beginnings
caste
rudimentary
or
system.
Their
theoretical
training and the attempts
pretation
at interof experience
are
given through the shamans,
exorcists
or
medicine
men,
and
later
through
the
hood.
priest-
TEACHERS'
96
individual
bv
of
object
in
recitation
SOLVED
'loud
the
school"; while
rapid repetition.. Jracing
a
remained
learning
in
used
was
PROBLEMS
writing-study.
learning was
primary
Hindus
also
by rote.^
Persian
The
of physical training evidently
method
led
dualism
to a decided
of friends
and
enemies, ana
conception of the average
a
being put on
person
bation.
prothe
Among
methods
Hindu
it is said, that
and
simple
are
teachers
aided
various.
However,
only by^ regular
This
assistants,
more
pupils.
by
monitorial
the
mutual
was
origin of Bell's
system.^
The
learned
aloud
lessons
of
are
by the whole
body
in his "Every-day
in
A. D.
Life
pupils at once.
Rowe,
hour
before
India," states that "an
closing the school
the
in a line, and
to stand
with
pupils are all made
up
their
hands
applied to their hearts, they repeat the
and
the
sacred
the
alphabet,
multiplication-table,
at
verses,
raised
also
the
end
their
to
then
master
houses;
After
are
written
with
of the
an
Persian
of
in
iron
plane-tree
The
that
exercises
and
in
duties
to
which
their
their
it
be
all assent
themselves
a
respective
were
held
sand
with
style;
with
method
tedious
loud
in
The
logue
cata-
in
their
Tes,
the
before
their
and
said.
discharged
with
are
bowed
was
and
long
a
hands
bodies
honor
whose
they prostrate
to
of
them
they
dismissed
mature
each
in
instructs
Religious
leaves
god
which
to
this
are
of
frivolous
of
not
the
foreheads,
the
to
reverence
and
but
are
yes.'
teacher,
homes."
daily.'' First, exercises
next
stick;
palmon
thrice
a
last
the
on
dry
leaves
have
been
ink."
of teaching
to
seems
object-lessons;
of
Cyrus at twelve
years
age,
his mother
relates
to
beaten
of
an
experience
being
decision
in
for having given an
trial
erring
a
judgment,
the
of
held to develop
sense
justice.
methods
the
To
concrete
are
really due
Egyptians
In
arithmetic
and
writing ^ approved
of
by Plato.
METHOD
In
of
the
Hebrew*"
writing
inscriptions
or,
("lay
^^11
^
in
"sitting"
and
down"
The
and
answers
of
the
Chinese
Hillel
words
gate)
in
methods
Hebrew
of
of
and
"heart
of
then
somewhat
Rabbis,
such
classics; however,
consisted
teaching
and
teachings,
the
of
insisted
questions
order
tne
on
advanced
liberals
the
on
best. Oriental
At
and,
methods
teaching
whole,
the
on
what
dred
hun-
mild,
unselfish.
and
patient,
and
;
pupils' understanding
the
learned,
explanation
being repeated four
the
if necessary**;
to
teacher
be
times,
they
the
the
and
-activity (speakin|;of them
as
of cToors, "lying
out
"walking"
house;
memorizing
to
as
up*'
and
forehead,
or
house
of
(phylacteries,
"rising up").
later
of
first
wrist
on
description
ii^ self
^
the
imitation
including
door-posts
on
fairly good
a
slips, bound
on
memorization
soul'Of
have
we
methods,
teaching
9t
consists
fragmentary,
are
of
chiefly
of
memorizing
Scriptures.
the
Among
scholars
Mahometan
this, and
the
so
and
alphabet;
of
mathematics
than
the
paper;
and
use
to
the
the
which
assumed
hands
it
was
a
manual
much
heritage
in
the
more
mediaeval
ing
train-
the
of
amination
ex-
Persia,
Hebrews,
and
geometry
the
state
system;
Phoenicians,
put
Sufis.
developed
China,
on
alluring
an
training:
; the
a
back
the
of
ended
Spain
thrown
was
Mahometans,
chemistry,
in
Moors
monitorial
Egypt,
A^ts
experimentation
as
schools:
physical
method;
Middle
therefore
had
biographical
the
the
India, the
and
education
at
modern
system;
state
the
however,
Persia,
of
far
mind
education
elements
great
of
still holds
early
as
Mahometan
in
form
Oriental
fall
which,
interpretation,
mystical
went
The
research.
and
the
during
However,
sway.
memorization
Mahometans,
tion
inven-
modern
|:Iorious
times.
9S
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
GREEK
OrttH
SOLVED
EDUCATION.
education
began in a severe
dogfmatic method,
that
of
whose
tiie
enforced
Pythagoras,
authority
said iV
maxim,
"ipse dixit,'* "he himself
This
be
may
broken
was
by
up
the
siunmed
under
up
"maieutics."
and
Socratlc
the
which
method,
of
conceptions
two
in drawing
Irony consisted
out your
i$ the
himself; maieutics
opponent to confuse
of self-activity, the
start
mind
help bv which
a
gives
birth
to new
opinions, ideas, and ideals.
Plato
these
"continual
sums
up^* both
as
processes
discourse
with
oneself."
Whole
be
to
thoughts
are
reached
of
by the method
dialectics, for this is the
basis
of the
mind's
forming
conceptions
through the
discrimination
of qualities and
attributes.
This vision
truth
of eternal
to Plato, the function
of a special,
was,
"irony"
or
sixth
"sense
a
sense,
Neither
of
ideas."
for
these
did
philosophers, however,
more
than
admit
into
national
the
of speculation
the
realm
passion for conversation,
which, at banquets, theatres
and
law-courts
method
the recognized
of tertiaiy
was
Aristotle
carried
this one
instruction.
step further by
and
while
this was
around;
so
teaching
walking
even
noticeable
a
of
feature
called
peripatetics.
physical; 2, moral,
habits
correct
still Aristotle
on
thus
Monroe
Aristotle
had
for
an
education
3, scientific.
first
moral
theoretic
precede
to
In
1"
was,
tion
educa-
write
a
teaching;
systematic work
discriminates
Plato
between
and
ideal
scheme;
Aristotle
taught
ciples
prin-
attaining it.
desired"
; Aristotle
the
the
for
were
:
Plato
for
order
to
were
his students
that
subject.
the
Plato
was
His
and
work
his
race..
the
possession
taught
that
ideas
of
ideas
have
in
concrete
an
vidual
indivalue
METHOD
exalted
Plato
in
action, resulting
Plato's
method
Aristotle's
method
Plato
sought
sou|;httruth
intellect
the
intellect
united
He
and
process.
subjectively, while
the
latter.
methods
of
used
the
value.
the
of
will
Aristotle
and
race,
He
applied
it both
the
Socratic
method
both
inductive
developed
objectively
used
only
and
deductive
procedure.
ROMAN
The
formal
for
truth
He
exalted
will; knowledge
passed into
happiness.
was
philosophic
introspective.
or
scientific.
objective and
was
mductive
an
Aristotle
;
and
experience
m
99
earliest
EDUCATION.
schools
Roman
have
to
seem
been
been
during the early Roman
period, and have
in some
ludi, or sports, and
private home
were
From
of
these
temple
porch.
or
one
was
Virginia
seized ; it must
have
been
formed
elementary, and have
extant
called
the
supplementary
of
sort
some
instruction.
schools
regular elementary
of
Soon
literatores,
the
There
Livius
Andronicus
'^ammatists."
into
translated
Latin.
the
RC)
Odyssey
said to
Caurilius
(260 B.C.) is by Plutarch
Ifae first to open
at Rome"
a
typical school
the
of
first grammar
Mallos, a Greek
as
the
imperial
or
does
grading
or
have
then
these
schools
Crates
B.C.)
tion
continua-
During
arose.
became
form
tablished
es-
education.
of
system
all schools
been
probably
rhetorical
B.C.)
general
a
had
have
(157
Rome
The
(92
period
(284-204
Spurius
mentions
to
or
a
pure
and
environment.
elevating
It
of
parts
as
would
Seneca
teacher.
finishing schools
third
the
ambassador
first Greek
or
Suetonius
school.
arose
not,
in
common,
the
however,
school;
but
not
appear
the
work
that
was
distinguished
there
either
into
was
anv
individual
grades,
nor
TEACHERS'
100
had
definite
any
stayed
then
long
as
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
times
needed
he
as
to, and
afford
could
or
pupil
each
graduation;
of
left.
EDUCATION.
MEDIAEVAL
It has
method
already
pointed
is
sermon
philosophical
Greek
method,
however,
was
scientific
"quiz" method.
Christianity had
earlier
The
world
needed
accepted
might
had
and
it has
method
a
doubt
took
failure
its
mil-
place
stood
revelations
of
of
the
with
institutions
have
to
as
whole
a
of
for,
truth.
continued
so
security engendered
the
bolic
para-
ment,
establish-
its
A.D.),
final
the
no
when
the
adapted
dealing
of
With
Christian
as
and
been
self-satisfaction
this
not
of
preparation
(325-1300
culture, and
were
Christian
oracular
foes.
when
almost,
any
and
later
period
a
the
adaptation
an
Semitic
Greco-Roman
began
lenium
only
years
examination
college
intellectual
of
In
utterances.
that
out
catechetical
The
disquisition.
founded
newer
a
development
formulation
Greek
on
the
of
been
the
definite
in-
fidence;
over-con-
crusades
both
let in
the
destroyed
chivalry and
gates to Saracen
itself forced
learning and
"heresy," Christianity found
which
indeed
to make
successful,
was
readjustment,
a
and
human
of
the
postponed
day of the awakening
reason
its
more
This
social
among
more
heresy
for
two
centuries, till the
more
Renaissance
and
sequel, the Reformation.
two-fold:
tellectu
inpractical, and
was
readjustment
The
of
three-fold
practical consisted
a
sinister
effort:
the
Italian
the
folk
common
and
Franciscans,
; the
Dominicans,
to
missionarize
to
reach
the
the
out
Inquisition, to stamp
wherever
branch
and
ciscans
Franroot
possible. The
tation,
to imicorresponded
represented cajolery, and
educated;
or
primary
education;
the
Dominicans
repre-
METHOD
corresponded
and
argument,
of secondary
sented
element
education
the
to
; the
executive
effective,
the
101
habitual
Inquisition represented
of
methods
finishing
tertiary education.
much
So
the
for
readjustment
of
but
Church;
the
the
themselves
found
under
people
their
philosophy;
necessity of fusing their religion with
faith
of
need
of
the
supporting
by reason;
they felt
developing a logical system, and of giving ready access
This
these
done
to
results.
or
by Scholasticism,
was
used:
"tree"
the
methods
were
logical analysis. Two
the
of Thomas
method
Aquinas, and
or
"branching"
of
the methods
"chain"
of Ab61ard;
method
they used
efficient
Aristotelian
formal, final, material
or
causes,
moral
the
meanings.
literal, allegorical, mystic and
or
the
the famous
between
This
developed
controversy
intellectual
the
Realists.
and
Nominalists
ideas
only
are
Realism
Nominalism
ideas
Platonic;
the
were
ject.
ob-
the
in
reality inhering
names,
was
ian;
Aristotel-
was
realities,
Chamonly copies.
and
Aristotle
Ab61ard, and
really, took
a middle
peaux
and
the
not
day for mediation;
position; but that was
of
which
objects
fell
Platonism
good
the
of
of
translation,
Greek
text
the
for
Real
of
of
heresy.
translation
Hebraic
of
a
Renan's
versian:
of
Syrian
the
of
Aristotel-
between
divergence
Aristotle
from
is gained
Aristotelian
idea
An
a
Averroes's
a
of
ban
translation
Arabic
an
under
the
description
on
were
reason
and
ianism
William
"a
Latin
commentary
of
translation
a
Aristotle."
^
debt
The
numberless
of
modernism
words
of
to
the
William
"invincible"
Locke,
Pestalozzi
and
"There
is
in
previously
nothing
in
the
Herbart
the
sen$es."
besides
the
such
produced,
as
stood
underis best
"synthesis";
it was
the last great doctor,
of
who
Occam
supplied
method
"analysis,"
"syllogism,"
that
by remembering
scholasticism,
it
with
understanding
the
statement:
that
was
not
TEACHERS'
102
From
the
the
standpoint
to
attempt
supplement
standpoint
the
This
tinction"
and
society
door
the
theses
one
is
period
the
he
gives
meaning
peating
of
in
classic
the
literal
in
and
methods
four
punishments,
the
of
the
virtues
illustrated
in
the
morally,
plan;
ethical
and
better
it
the
nobler
neighbors,
struggle
of
through
sin
the
to
of
has
and
soul
human
holiness,
its
;
to
the
of
in
a
the
and
tion
presentasoul
details
as
of
political, and
worthier
citizens,
it
mystically,
typifies the
free, its growth
become
the
from
progress
life
presentation
destiny of
human
social,
its
as
making
men
"Convito**
it is
the
examples
concrete
purposes,
vices
a
and
hereafter^*^;allegorically
he
by rer
merely
but
ing
by revealinterpretation.
is
in
man
his
of
Commedia
hi
mediaeval
ideas, intellectual
the
the
sense,
defend
to
Commedia
not
education;
encyclopedia,
Aquinas's
rewards
the
his
In
universe;
of
Wittemberg
the
mediaeval
Thomas
a
the
summates
mediaeval
picturesque
ready
was
Dante.
exposition
an
gist
best
poet
the
enumerates
"In
who
man
he
debating
most
to
"dis^
tion,"
"disputa-
modern
the
and
sance.
Renaisthe
the
by
nailed
the
was
the
office,
Luther
when
of
method
While
authority,
philosophy
foundation
to
Nominalist
with
followed
was
intellect,
the
from
religion by
the
that
the
by
reason
pedagogical
fulfils
is
it
The
its
of
out
ninety-five
disputation.
public
conflict
"definition,"
still
of
but
public argument.
a
case
reason;
was
distinctive
The
authority
broaden
intelligence.
of
the
was
to
attempt
by
scholasticism
realism,
of
support
faith
it
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
finite
to
divine."
the
In
the
by assigning
thus
he
"Convito"
of
each
prefiguring
a
the
organizes
sciences
universe
of
mediaeval
to
one
education
education
of
his
and
heavens^
truth.
TEACHERS'
104
of
struction
PROBLEMS
clause.
each
SOLVED
information
Erudition:
3,
historical, geographical
5, Rhetorical
archeological
and
of moral
lessons.
poetical significance. 6, Drawing
This
tion's
was
chiefly a systematization of the Reformatails
translation"
method
"double
adapted to the deI^oman
rhetorical
of the earlier
method
of study.
MONTAIGNE
AND
REALISTIC
PEDAGOGY.
MONTAIGNE.
not
physician, cut" and
have
been
likely to
Montaigne,
naturally
of
use
books
this
him
their
contents
ends,
the
but
in
itself
hard
discipline
in
"a
of
habitualized
Montaigne
in
the
some
necessary
which, in his
young
gentlemen^
person
be
mert"
"
of
fellow
of
grading
whole
his
instruction;
that
not
^
ory
mem-
efforts
and
what
in
actors
boys
are
ing
gradLatin
travel.
of
or
of
efficiency of
benefit
to the
although
be
plays, and friends
was
Montaigne
"^"
is the
individual
would
occurs
it is easy
to get
and
interest
It unites
spontaneity.
class,
towards
advisable
education
alive^''
was
poor
the
is
science:
of
sweetness.
into
same
directed
not
only
with
children
of
them.
train
severe
method
The
did
trouble
therefore
education
the
to
made
"
difficulty
important
but
good, but
^taught
hands
^
Indeed^
them,
of
so
was
unskilful
method.
most
with
even
means.
Learning
when
but
the
from
only through the mastery
for
life^*; if he
m
practical service
with
books
him
were
object method,
be
to
was
teach
not
loose
break
education;
of
means
as
of letters, would
man
quite
to
every
even
attend
day,
that
is
school
or
sure
a
turned
place
a
study,
bricklayersand
either
institution,
"animals."
out
is
was
and
To
every
pe^"ant5^*-
loS
METHOD
Nevertheless
teacher.
Rabelais
as
and
the
sanctions
he
of
use
books,
did.*^
Milton
MILTON.
had
Milton, however,
The
house
and
grounds
contain
for
both
Milton's
of
idea
grading
them.
his
of
pupils
crowded
so
admit
well
not
plan for a school.'^
to
to be
were
spacious, and
university, so as to provide
definite
between
detail ; indeed
into
could
and
school
articulation
perfect
out
a
detailed
of
carried
not
was
curriculum
a
application; whole
left to the acquisition
languages, like the Italian, were
of "any
odd
hour."
But
nevertheless
he
had
definite
of
conception
ephebic
period of
an
of study, and
all the
essentials
hence
enforced
classification
his
as
a
very
service
of
a
grading.
of
BACON.
If
we
''Solomon's
was
a
on
house"
method
the
to
more
no
consider
be
what
his
in
than
worse
g;uess
inquire
to
were
Bacon
New
it his
Atlantis,
ideal
formulation
a
by his
might
meant
of
of
we
school.
a
knowledge,
and
of
investigation, experiment
inductive
plan.
It
but
research,
COMENIUS.
Comenius
Father
of
Although
Bacon's
may,
in
educational
a
method,
the
study
inductive
method
in
in
one,
his nine
certain
education
of
as
the
in
he
be
sense,
an
considered
individual
universe
favor
evidently
of
he
a
the
subject.
rejected
natural
logic
ana-
inductively produced
(in his "Method
principles of method**
of the Sciences")
:
application, and
teaching.
i, Object
2, Practical
4, Causal
teaching.
utility. 3, Direct, uncomplicated
i06
TEACHERS'
teachings, by
origins or true
detail.
precede
in teaching
must
interconnection
thing
one
at
time,
a
exhausted
be
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
ciples
prin5, General
6, Order^
position and
of
object.
7, Only
any
succession.
8, Subject to
nature.
proper
abandonment.
before
9,
Distinctions
clarify qualities.
These
principles applied with peculiar efficiency to
language and scientific
teaching.
After
discoverer
the
and
all, Comenius
was
mulgator
proof
surprised
method:
pedagogical
that
his
Great
Didactic
and
is
so
we
to
devoted
not
are
gogical
peda-
conciseness
and
facility,^* thoroughness,^*
methods
various
specially suited
rapidity.**^ There
are
different
the
studies*":
to
the
sciences,^'' the arts,^^
and
morals,^"
languages,*^
piety.^^
The
ten
and
principles "of
Facility in Teaching
of Comenius*^
Learning"
are:
1, Begin early, Beforfe
mind
the
is corrupted.
the
mind
duly.
2, Prepare
from
Proceed
to
From
general
3,
particular. 4,
easy
to
difficult.
too
5, Not
more
subjects.
many
slow.
forced
to
6, Progress
7, Intellect
nbthiog.
be
must
8,
Everything
taught through the medjum
in view
of the
continually the use
9, Keep
senses.
Teach
of everything.
of one
everything by use
10,
method.
obstacles
Five
to
education
are^^:
prolong life all
crowd
of
can.
we
we
objects: hence
2, Confusing
make
of opportunimust
3, Lack
judicious selection.
ties
hence
and
learn
seize
must
to
them.
we
recognize
:
of intellect and
hence
must
judgment:
4, Weakness
we
universal
In the
be
most
S, Errors
open-minded.
are
1, Shortness
of
conscientious
life:
work:
hence
hence
we
must
build
must
we
good
a
foundation.
We
text
the
must
books,
work
not
the
of
the
fail'*
"Janua
to
Comenius^s
mention
Linguarum^'^
Renaissance
for
the
which
gtea*
donfiinated
classrrooi".
It
METHOD
'com|)osbd
was
the
of
objectively
in
the
divided
Janua
of
First
the
Atrium,
was
later
The
the
carried
out
sented
repre-
"Pansophic''
then
Mother-School;
itself
gymnasium
classes, with
following
and
These
planned
the
School.
into
his
comes
the
1657.
in
Pictus,"
organization
Vernacular
the
The
"Orbis
school.*^
Latin
Vestibulum,
Thesaurus.
Palace^x)r
107
their
was
priate
appro-
mottoes:
Vestibular:
1^
2^
Janual:
Let
Let
no
3, Atrial:
4, Pfaiiosophical
here.
enter
who
one
enter
who
and
sports
)
that
by
Comenius
cleared
further
still and
dogmas
that
science
was
as
is
rooms
shown
Let
no
simple history,
training in games,
causal
relation
lasted
from
the
substitute
for
a
"
Gomenius
to
Czech
wrote
the
university,
into
gathered
a
come
later
"Solomon's
Baconian
wished
properly
the
House,"
of
text-books
only
by
very
mottoes
the
to
of
essence
inclusive, but
the
have
we
thus
unsectarian.
education
the
and
admitted;
Comenius
and
devoted
two
also
over
different
Comenius's
work
definitely exclusive,
the
years
doors
of
of
his
Thus
each
grade
could
have
the
the
Latin
,
school.
no
have
of all pagan
references'"; we
gone
Christian
of
the
text-books
cleared
even
was
not
Let
a
simpler
a
was
gymnasium
students
traveling
schools
it
Political:
not.survived."^
very
Grading
is
School
as
year,
these
For
of Light"
"College
"Academy."
or
made
teach
Vernacular
twelfth
the
followed
to
was
The
have
Above
history enter
of
ignorant
of
metaphysics,
(locality, time, and
gymnasium.
texts
speak.
cannot
.
the
to
matics.
mathe-
7, Theological:
reason.
and
manners
events*^
6,
of
irreligious.
is
and
geography
sixth
cannot
Mother-School
The
here.
enter
who
who
one
no
read.
cannot
ignorant
ignorant
one
Let
is
enter
one
no
no
Logical:
philosophy
one
the
Let
5,
natural
of
Let
:
who
enter
one
who
enter
one
no
maximum
;
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
108
scheme
classified
was
whole
school
all-embracing
grading
Besides
efficiency.
specialized
of
SOLVED
into
an
his
method.
LOCKE
On
DISCIPLINARIAN
AND
things
within
fell
that
held
Locke
whole,
the
PEDAGOGY.
object teaching, by
to
domain
the
of
senses,^*
the
be
to
by induction,
organized into the
forms
of knowledge.
most
complicated
of one
Again, he held to, 1, selection
object at a
time
to the
next
and, 2, proceeding
adjoining thing.*"
is
Also, 3, to approach
object gradually by what
an
hence
and
to the
obscure, 4, m
known,
more
regular
order
to
some
Though
thing.
interesting unknown
such
advances
slow" their results are
seem
by far the
which
were,
swiftest.
resolutely
Locke
which
him
demanded
induce
of
him
for
time
that
he
which
that
to
the
advanced
have
self -activity and
teach
should
his
mind
right thing, by
skill
teaching
is the
and
avoiding
lead
teacher
the
of
the
pupil
tune"
and
ask
should
the
at
self-control.*^
getting
to
and
him,*^
'In
interest,
So
right
the
art
tion,
atten-
keeping
inadvertency,
forgetfulness, un*
steadiness, and
wandering of thought.**
would
have
Locke
Latm
first spoken**
before
being
He
written, the
writing only later.
disapproves of
which
however
should
in English*'
be
done
at
themes
the
time
same
speaking and memorizing.*"
as
ROUSSEAU
The
of
the
method
AND
of
PEDAGOGY.
NATURALISTIC
Emile's
tutor
is
clearly
self-activity of
directing the natural
twelve
and
fifteen
period between
defined:
the
pupil.
years
of
that
In
age,
METHOD
child's
the
natural
is to
needs,
curiosity, outrunning
directed
be
109
the
to
of
purpose
natural
his
learning,
in
leads
his instinct
the
only in which
way.
In
his
earlier
education"
period "negative
carefully
barred
This
out
"education
foreign influences.
any
to
had
three
'The
nature"
according
meanings**^:
is the
self
himmade
be
for
is to
good
natural; man
and
citizen ; and
not
only last is he an object
as
a
those
of
fields
On
these
three
fifteen
years
of
teaching."
But
at
changes.
and
is
It
Now
the
lines
the
age
tutor
method
work.
must
suddenly
knowledge,
book
example,
dividual
inthe
contact
with
swiftly transforms
men
into
a
peace-loving, religious philanthropist.
the
here
influence
of
the
tutor
that
personal
personal
counts.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
EDUCATION.
PESTALOZZI.
Pestalozzi
taught
that
in
highest attainment
education
be reached
of a finished
can
only by means
most
He
art of teaching, and
a
perfect psychology.*"
cation;
the
of edunew
psychological
1, emphasized
purpose
2,
clarified
it; 3, formulated
in
Stoic
tradition;
experimentation
entirely new
spiritto
There
the
is
natural
the
a
method
new
4,
and
gave
of
an
class-room.
order
in
the
of
development*"
all educational
the
and
child's
mind,
activity should
of
that
based
be
guided by the knowledge
or
upon
for
sisted
inhonored
Pestalozzi
is to be
having
growth.
the
basis
the
as
necessity of this knowledge
on
it was
school-room
of
a
instruction;
application of
theories.
Lamarck's
At
Morf
any
thus
a
stage
the
summarized
or
result
should
Pestalozzi
sense-perception
be
symmetrical.^^
's methods^^:
is the
basis
of
servation
1, Ob-
instruction.
TEACHERS'
110
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
observation
should
always be linked with
Language
of an
for
time
object.*^
learning is not time
3, The
for judgment
and
criticism.
the easiest
4, Begin with
and
order.
connected
in
proceed
psychologically
time
for thorough5, Each
ness.
point to be given sufficient
aim
not
should
at development,
6, Teaching
teacher
should
exposition.
dogmatic
respect
7, The
the
is not
to
individuality of the pupil.
8, Education
crease
inand
talent, but to develop
impart
or
knowledge
the
of his intelligence.
must
9, Power
powers
be linked
and
skill
to knowledge,
cipline
to learning.
1 0, Disshould
be based
and ruled by love.
1 1, In*
upon,
2,
should
struction
be
subordinate
the
to
of
aim
higher
education.
teacher's
It is the
chastise*^*;
to
assign
to
favorite
one
"Socratize,"
to
duty
or,
tasks
to
Pestalozzian
catechizing
spiritual exercise.
indelibly impressed
and
A
and
warn
method
for
cultivation
well
arranged
produces
was
tellect
in-
of
clature
nomen-
in
progress
all
branches.***
The
that
fact
variously
elaborated
demonstrate
he
to
indeed
were:
fication
involved,
hold
to
means
of
human
nature.
wanted
the
through
like
the
arts
of
our
a
own
relation
things
of
observations
art.
by
bear
to
3, For
the
art
each
it
might
out
a
be
form
let
from
all
by
decided
nature.
to:
before
other,
and
origin of
very
another
they
and
needed,
with
so
clasd*
routine,
common
place^^ he advises
the
simple
complete
servations,
in graduated
steps of knowledge.
In
fluid
is confused
when
of
essence
been
creation, spring
find
to
that
instruction, and
of our
race
development
and
which
disregard
words
to
on
have
how
reject all
to
instruction,
Pestalozzi
methods
advises*^*
subjects,
of
methods
Pestalozzian
2,
and
1, Classify ob*
the
complex,
the
Reproduce
limit
the
phasis
em-
yourselH emphasize
important
of
proximity, opinioiis, con*
TEACHERS'
H2
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
highest philosophical and ethical
check
growing
proletarianism,
of
9, It would
thought.
and
mechanical
effect
industrialism.
Froebel
Everywhere
and
life which
must
finds
be
Froebel
Moreover,
thought
unity between
developed by education.
a
enunciated
the
mystical
ancient
principles that"*:
What
I,
All
2,
reveals
the
is found
that
if
even
lies in
in
in
slumbering
itself
his
in
whole, lies in its smallest
in the
is found
humanity
him
essential
an
as
part.
child
and
germ,
action.
smallest
Creation
therefore
not
or
proceeds
by ingraftinj;
and
education
inoculating, but by development;
is its
whose
is self-activity.
realization, the method
process
HERBART.
Herbart's
From
L
corollaries.
chief
1, The
of
its power
combined
thus
child's
1, Know
them.
materials
3,
pupil's powers.
pupil's experience and
to
processes
the
mind
the
basis
of
from
work
of
instruction
chief
character.
problem:
to
as
so
for
utilize
purposes
to
subject-matter
ing
teach4, Adapt
and
apprehension
Arrange
career.
quickest
of
education
then
is:
of
experiences.
presentations or
these
presentations to "complete
through
is
1,
ideas
desire, and
presentations.
and
motivation
2,
good
furnish
1, To
with
thought"
Motivation
interests
they
is the
teacher's
and
future
secure
processes,
mind
and
which
retention.
The
II.
is
mind
the
in
manner
the
states
and
longest
the
knowledge
Select
2,
of
two
its
higher mental
the
in shaping
force
Garmo"*
De
characteristic
also
and
into
determining
adduced
are
and
appreceptive
power;
which
determines
presentation the
assimilation,
which
2, education,
shall receive,
mind
are
psychology
2, On
the
circle
to
will
action.
springing
METHOD
III.
shaping
Formation
of
the
will, and
character,
is
character
of
is determined
all
determines
which
shapes
113
because:
the
educative
volition
our
1, Presentations
the
apperceptive
through
conduct,
presentations determine
Now
dependent
on
educative
by
struction
in-
and
fiable
modi-
are
These
2,
process.
hence
and
the
character.
is effected
instruction
by interest,
presentation of
for the
according to a general method
recitation.
a
subject or portion thereof"
or
any
The
of a logical recognition
consists
general method
of the
the
of the
interest
steps through which
concept
mind
of
character:
servatio
obinto many-sidedness
expands
which
demand
and
action;
expectation,
and
point out, connect, teach
philosophize; and which
in
matters
observing,
are
appertaining to sympathy
active
in
the
and
of
continuous,
elevating,
sphere
clearness, assoreality. The
ciation,
are
stages of instruction
and
method.
Ziller
first
divided
the
system
and
So
step into two:
preparation
presentation.
we
have:
METHOD.
HERBART.
Herbart's
"Instruction
the
first."
summary
will form
character.
"Virtue
of
his
the
circle
The
last
expresses
the
work
pedagogic
and
of thought,
is
nothing
whole
without
purpose
of
is"*:
cation
eduthe
edu-
TEACHERS'
114
PROBLEMS
cation"; it is "the
into
developed
an
an
evolutionary
"aesthetic"
develop
actuality
abiding
attitude
this
constitutes
chief
and
converse,
Moral
character
"
balance,
3,
benevolence
4, justice
system
"
of
system
then
is to
shall
stand
external
dations
or
rewards
five
into
corresponding
"experience,
moral
to
ships
relationsocial
a
one.
ideal
society; 2, efficiency, or perfection,
culture;
or
or
harmony"
-system
will
of
good
government;
^system
retribution
of law;
S, equity or
"
"
or
"which
character,
not
unmoved,
on
its moral
The
wages.
form
action, but
of
is
"aesthetic
the
through
analysed
each
freedom
1, Inner
proofless
education
of
instruction."
is
ideas,
or
aim
is called
individual"; this process
the
of
universe"
presentation
human
individual"
an
cumulative
of
the
in
in
has
which
preference for that which
into
"abiding actuality
an
of
freedom"
"inner
freedom
inner
of
product
The
judgments.
"
to
idea
SOLVED
in
through
firm
the
and
insight
of
work
and
the
education
battle
of
life
strength of its
enduring founda-
the
enlightened
wilL"
MONTESSORI.
Pestalozzi's
Applying
Montessori
methods
was
apparatus
and
sense-education
led
of
to
the
to
modern
ditions,
con-
specialize
apply the
psycho
physical faoorafor
the
purely
physical
and
devised
apparatus
tory; she
the
of
children; the social
development
training she
extensions
of
carried
out
existing social
activities,
by
direct
and
afforded
arts.*^
preparation for the school
She
applied the laboratory apparatus, following Bacand
Talamo.**"
She
celli. Hard,
S6guin,
carefully
noted
of the child*"
the
physical development
fied
; simplischool-room
There
furnishings."^
is
daily
a
schedule, "^
emphasizing
cleanliness, order, poise and
conversation.
exercises"^
"2
and
There
well
are
appfiratus
of
ten
systematized physical
frames.**
For
sense-
lis
METHOD
education
has
its
is also
is
there
particular
trained
"didactic
"didactic
a
list of
in
material"
The
objects.
lesson
a
system.""*^
of
silence.
Each
of
sense
""
There
sense
hearing
is also
intellectual
for
writing^"; and
reading and
The
in
childhood.
language
basis
of
as
Sergi"* is advised
ing
education"''; teachthe
of
development
chart
of
biographical
the
of the
knowledge
child.
Montessori
Individual
lessons
founded
the
on
activity.
The
lesson,
make
The
life.
how
teaches
This
or
must
must
S^guin"*
should
concise,
simple
ous
arousing spontaneinsist by repeating
observation,
teacher
the
first task
art
be
of
given. "^
and
tive,
objec-
lessons
must
child
the
and
not
feel
he
educator
has
is
be
made
to
the
scientific
accompany
three
periods of the lesson:
a
take.
mis-
stimulate
method.
tion
associasuggests
of sensory
the
perception with
recognition
name;
of the object corresponding
to the name;
remembering
the
This
to th"
is prename
corresponding
object.
ceded
tion.
normally
by sense-training through auto-educathree
in the
Childrens'
By
years'"'' novitiate
the
for
House,
prepared
schools,
pupils are
common
with
the
of
the
that
the
sentiment
on
parents
part
and
virtue
conduct
merit
through their own
they must
Montessori
the
wrote
son.
possession of an educated
in which
she
book
a
Pedagogical Anthropology,
on
cal
classed
pedagogy
criminological and medialong with
led as they are
in Italy by Lombroso,
anthropology,
mands
deGiovanni
and
De
Sergi.""
Progress of the school
in hygiene,
of
tendencies
modern
fusion
perimental
exand
psychology,
pedagogical anthropology.
GERMAN
Germany
Jena
schools
There
EDUCATION.
land
and
Herbart
the
methods;
have
jects.
perfected the presentation of subcandidates
for teaching positions, during
is the
of
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
116
their
SOLVED
outlines
period, must
ever
prepare
class-direction
the actual
before
undertaking
work;
of these
outlines
even
are
put in printed form,
of
some
probationary
criticised
and
the
in
modern
languages,
adopted,
with
the
inferior
is
a
tendency
in many
tradition.
with
The
the
specialist; that
do
to
of
fact
the
is laid
exist,
seminar.
method"
has
these
been
courses
with
away
but
German
that
however
are
it
the
seems
teaching
the
teacher
are
all
In
While
experimental
schools;
efficiency''"
on
"direct
American
to
the
of
practical modifications.
necessary
laboratories
scientific
There
conferences
tinctly
dis-
teaching.
written
hard
is
is
unified,
to
much
a
amination,
ex-
break
pendent
de-
trained
that
phasis
em-
the
that
preme
suoperations, and
end
is always
logical thinking.
The
of
in
the
method
"direct''
success
language
to be due
to the very
seems
Germany
early beginning;
and
to the
of the
discipline which
rigid thoroughness
the
mental
on
does
teacher
hesitate
not
to
enforce.
ing
considerably limited; accordPrussian
to the
it should
consist
"Lehrplan";
cipally
prinin
in rearranging
and
taken
notes
rewriting
material
class; memorizing
indispensable in class-work,
and
has
what
already
reviewing and fixing in the mind
Home
has
work
learned
been
in
been
class.
EDUCATION.
FRENCH
The
advised
and
the
would
Lamy
with
contended
Oratorians
use
intellectual
literature, history
and
freedom,
science.
it
study with
logic, combining
thus
practical comparipromoting
son,
linear
language field, took
shape as inter-
begin
mathematics;
which,
of
for
in
the
translation.
It is indeed
"direct
method"
schools
employ
fitting that French
for
in teaching
ever
languages,
the
since
METHOD
the
and
Jansenists
i 1 7
"Christian
and
Brothers,"
RoUin,
French
schools
have
been
haunted
by their suggestion
that
and
should
schools
begin with the mother-tongue,
For
another
only through it learn the Latin.
principle
of
the
Jansenists
only
taught
than
rather
of
their
had
what
form.
attempt
that
been
could
they
also
This
should
understand"
have
may
teach
to
children
content,
been
spelling
be
the
by
secret
the
phonic
method.
"Christian
The
writing, and have
in the chirography
The
Brothers"
thus
the
of
had
Oratorians
"Christian
left
themselves
introduced
foundation
a
to
monument
nation.
interlinears
Jansenists
Brothers,"
the
to
attention
much
paid
had
RoUin
the
sisted
in-
the
From
mother-tongue.
there
it was
comparative
only a step to Jacotot's
of text
translation
method
and
on
opposite pages.
the
Jacotot
methodreally was
greatest French
Herprobably might be called the French
ologist, and
the
bart.
At
most
lation
rate, he made
masterly correany
and
of
self-activity,
appeal to nature, interest
with
and
of
investigative methods.
elementary
"All
human
to
Nature:
1.
are
beings
Appeal
of
teach;
can
learning"; "every one
equally capable
on
and,
"
2.
can
moreover,
by
and
principles
teach
stimulating
Correlation:
of
of
and
;
does
not
self"
him-
know
self-activity.
"All
comparative
the
he
what
successive
is
in
all"
verification
by
"
learning,
^the three
stages of education.
(as, e.g., F6n61on's
peating,
re-
basic
T616Something
this
correlation
with
mastered;
thoroughly
maque)
interest.
self -activity arouses
of other
facts; which
do
the
child
Condillac''^
that
must
over
thought
has
done.
again all that the race
be
Diderot''"
taught in
thought that history should
inverted
from
recent
times, and
order, beginning
an
towards
antiquity.
going backwards,
3.
Method:
118
TEACHERS'
allows
the
to
within
for
them
his
analysis
his
in
Condorcet,
Estate
PROBLEMS
the
normal
scheme
of
teachers
an
body
politic,
schools.
of
the
the
rights ordains, shall
other
principle, which
shall
accorded
be
alone
danger
vices
'These
in
*ennui'
the
and
subject
of
been
the
15,
November
not
This
language.
"direct"
method
admixture
of
favorable
the
pupils,
The
on
one
the
others'
students
for
with
year,
some
language
a
the
then,
has
excellent
of
shown
takes
as
clubs, subscribing
and
"direct
the
trouble
certain
as
correct
advanced
six
There
to
self-
such
to
Assistants,"
from
its
newspapers.
best
and
the
favored,
are
tain
cer-
both
material,
postal cards,
"Foreign
periods varying
foreign school.
act
out
with-
given in the foreign
the
and
impossible;
out
by the judicious
be
Besides,
writing.
rights
tendencies.
aspects and
attain
hand,
fluency and
each
when
come
those
that, after
Since
pupil-correspondents
Foreign
edict
trial, and
aid
by the
confidence,
pictures, advertisements,
results
an
vernacular.
unfavorable
this
with
that, in the
of teaching
on
Leygues,
Minister
however,
on
equality of
ideas."
method
broadened
been
and
the
should
was,
ance
assur-
exercise
can
languages
France,
was
has
method"
need
modern
date, all instruction
the
give
psychologically
from
of escaping
in escaping
it
from
through
issued
1901,
morality.
Second,
prominent.
most
than
only
they
the
of
sublimer
the
that
leisure, and
of
schools
secondary
which
from
come
allow
and
can
Fourth
to
contradiction
prescribes
men
moments
It is in
in
society."
sensations
through
has
to
be
not
to
fails
he
justice which
of
principle
but
instruction
of
identity
tion,
educa-
of
system
independent
a
nothing is
But
First, politically; "Instruction
that
SOLVED
graduate
changed,
being ex-
months
are
to
also
periodicals, and
a
ern
modcussing
dis-
them.
There
method.
are,
however,''*
First, the
lack
of
certain
drawbacks
homogeneity
in the
to
this
classes.
TEACHERS'
120
the
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
text, characterized
same
*Vord
for
destined
word"
of
interlinear
speedy
to
"direct
extinction
but
it
and
is
in
progress
elementary
distinctive
genius
the
applied
industrial
still
vives;
sur-
and
exact
due
study,
to
are
yet
their
their
and
science.
EDUCATION.
the
whole,
American
noted
for
details
of
schools
has
Lincoln
manliness.
necessary
all that
and
a
was
log were
have
never
the
method;
essentials
the
and
obvious,
nature
On
to
ditional
tra-
methods
experimental
than
by the observance;
in
traininp;
for
The
essay-writing
great help to
is of
is
AMERICAN
holding
style.
is
points
stand-
the
method
by
which
science
careful
of
Lamy's
which
from
translation
supplemented
work
daily text-memory
knowledge.
In
science-teaching,
honored
more
by breach
French
and
of
mot)
a
both
method,"
vernacular
survival
by a
(mot
been
American
always
that
said
gift for
the
emphasized
Mark
Hopkins
to
necessary
constitute
a
real
has
a
Latterly, however,
attempt
very
made
needs
of the
to the
been
to
adjust instruction
WaddelF''
individual
student
brated
celeDr.
just as
was
differences
individual
for his regard for
among
of
fine
natural
him
his
pupils, attracting to
many
school.
"
ability.
This
of
insistence
the
on
influence
method
of
development
among
and
dignity
spirit.
Much
imported
pedagogy
and
misunderstood
misapplied.
gradual
was
an
attempt
to
rationalize
normal
the
a
was
natural
and
schools,
teachers
of
superficial;
was
Yet
underneath
effort
and
velopmen
dethe
sional
profesmuch
it all
criticism.
studied
has
been
by
thoroughly
Again, pedagogy
very
normal
of the
college presidents ; and, by the influence
college
secondary and
schools, it is penetrating both
METHOD
faculties; indeed,
in order
school
to
deal
more
has
college
normal
been
veloped
de-
ary
second-
particularly with
problems.
method
The
the
l2i
first
psychological and Herbart"adolescence"
to be a fad; all of which
ian; then
came
denoted
of consideration
an
encouraging
development
of the child himself
to
by adopting secondary education
creeds
his
and
Lately
of
has
at
was
abilities.
the
practical laboratory method
has
been
universally adopted,''" a
discovery, verification, and correction.
been
extended
to language
and
even
of
fine
covery
re-dis-
blending
This
method
jects.
sub-
history
Burnham''"
Dr.
to do this.
suggests six ways
the greatness
of the opportunity
1, By understanding
"the
period of functional
acquisition and
ment,
readjustchildren
when
to new
are
impressions with
open
almost
hypnotic
susceptibility. 2, It is the best time
for
self -revelation
selfinterest
and
many-sided
; for
assertion, and
increasing self-direction.
3, It is a time
for much
the school
activity, bodily and mental, which
should
turn
into
are
legitimate channels.
4, There
individual
variations
at this
ment;
great
stage of develophence
teacher,
teacher
the
and
give
him
needs
as
much
6, The
ordinary
narrow
a
test
This
It will
for
in
freedom.
5,
training
college
of
the
method
subjects
lain
demand
The
secondary
the
as
educated
an
elementary.
examination
entrance
manifoldness
is
acter.
char-
adolescent
of
too
covery
re-disof
method
practical laboratory
has
been
universally adopted, ''^ constituted
by
and
of
verification
tion.
correcblending
discovery,
fine
plea
should
the
Lately
a
schools
not
and
be
scientific
pointing
has
out
history.
of place to. notice
education.
out
extended
been
the
value
His
for
even
to
guage
lan-
Herbert
chief
Spencer's
significance has
education
of
scientific
122
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
material
and
method.
psychological
nature
SOLVED
For
of
the
he
man,
sciences
elements)
(first three
and
culture
subjects (for the
of
be
this
living can
each
of
sciences
knowledge
mathematics
Joseph
fifth).
of
the
(of
effected
nature,
practical
society,
philology.
in
the
steps of
the
truths
homely
and
Normal
and
cipal
prin-
California),
School,
besides,
was,
a
turer,
lec-
noted
object-lessons,
a
the
order
disciplinarian, on
of
Arnold.
Thomas
transl.
T
10.
i*
i"Ib.,
426.
427.
21
20
183.
5.
Tractate,
the
447.
ib..
68
67
61
lb..
6"Ib.,212.
246.
od
"Meth-
327.
71
ib.. 18.
ib..
234.
lb.. 20.
lb.. 20
28
lb..
77
lb.. 22.
80
lb.. 23.
81
lb.,
Middle
19.
26
21.
20
24.
82ib.,l7.
roe.
489-492.
30.
86
lb.. 28.
25.
89
Monroe.
84Mon-
88ib.J4.
85
88
82
7aCompayr6,
74
Farringdon.
76
lb.. 204.
of
78
227.
soMonroe.
lb.. 652.
lb..
Russell,
Making
Schools,
lb.,
lb.. 169.
70
lb., 225.^
Brown,
649
68
86
etc.
lb.. 161.
75
H).,
"oib"8().
lb.. 233.
lb., 326.
70Ib.,411.
Didactic.
Great
lb., 3.
73
313.
xxv.
lb.. 121.
87
"o
68
lb.. 73.
82
627-
Monroe.
lb., 145.
64
27
17.
Didactic.
60
lb.. 119.
26
24
66
441,
lb., il 58.
64
Montessori.
28-47.
Bilb..
T.C,
lb., 551.
147.
Great
lb., 617.
Gertrude
lb., iii. 66.
Monroe,
28
60
How
172.
18
22
Sciences."
52
628.
132.
175.
"lb..
198.
i"Ib.,
of
i*
6 6
Com-
Monroe.
4"Ib..
lb.. 169, 173.
535.
48ib..60O.
Monroe,
4"Ib..613.
620.
"*Ib.
"8Ib..l67.
45
47
445.
i^Deu-
Education,
Montaififne.
i"Ib..
lb.,
Com-
^^
11.18-2X).
teronomy.
457.
8
"MacEvoy.20.
payr^,
175.
Cbmpayre,
12.
MacEvoy.
payr^,6.
197.
8.
"
18.
*
*2Ib..75.
166,168.
Com-
32;
MacEvoy,
Painter,
de
Histoire
Tlnstruction,
Resolfi,
"
13.
^
de
et
by
payr6,
"
12.
Fainter.
TEducation
6.
York
New
Pestalozzian
organizer
*i
completeness
by a little
only
of
pl?in,
Cortlandt
of
promoter
^^
The
history, excluding
followed
(1807-1876)
Hoare
James
10.
J
fourth
education.
about
1
natural/
the
(for
and
Payne
in
writing
Mulcaster
advises
social
thw^
of
,
"
mind,
development
342.
88
our
ib.. 420.
8ilb.,
lb.. 627-8.
.
Theory
of
87
lb., 29.
521.
88
lb..
*oib.,522.
Education,
7^
74.
84
118.
88
lb., 639.
86
lb.. 55.
86
107Montessori.
87
lb.. 177,
lb,. 64.
THE
TEACHER
HIMSELF
CHAPTER
The
K
Teacher
PRIMITIVE
When
hushed
mother
the
first
him,
EDUCATION.
Next
successor,
shaman,
exorcist, medicine
tribe, there
assumed
father
oldest
leader
prophets
of
"school
of
curriculum,
to
the
leaders
the
teach
and
into
a
yet the
later
organized
administration
a
teaching
the
office
individual.
and
class, and
and
met,
well
called
then
the
emerged
a
pedagogy;
or,
ings,
teachof
body
there
a
a
EDUCATION.
of
The
the
teacher
is
is
distinguished
theoretically
profession
while
personally it is the
highly honored,
voluntary
on
being dependent
in having no
and
the most
burdensome;
from
"
work
organized
leader;
teaching
profession:
rather,
prophets";
an
study,
China
clans
familiar
Israel.
ORIENTAL
In
the
when
to
or
the
came
or
assumed
world
the
father,
Next
wizard,
first
the
while
the
tribe's
priestly functions,
became
active
only periodically, like the
the
emerged
man,
subordinate
a
these
When
what
Later,
the
came
friend.
leader, who
group
was
male
or
baby cried, and
into
emerged
her
to
father's
short, the
and
worship.
had
there
teacher.
in
Ifimself.
anthropoid
first
the
123
worst
munerated,
re-
tions,
contribu-
holidays^
TEACHERS'
124
The
amusement.
or
from
unsuccessful
candidates
recipients of
unfortunate
enough
Hindu
consider
he
but
trifles
considerable
the
amounts
honor,
than
the
whole
the
they
knowledge.
and
the
Chinese.
He
receives,
teachers
deserved
may
but,
"
were
this
stipulated
keen
very
literature
world";
Brahmin^
a
which
pupil,
and
The
receive
to
inconsiderable.
; and
been
of the
always a Brahmin,
scorned, in this holding a
Hindu
"
have
who
office.
no
is nevertheless
demands,
father
virtue
of
parents.
the Persians, the
even
the
was
from
are
and
Among
to
"of
was
the
degrees
disgraceful
gifts
gifts
receive
that
voluntary
even
to
never
it
remuneration,
or
lower
being recruited
degrees, or from
scorned,
for
the
teacher
highest caste, and
better
position than
would
is
teacher
those
The
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
on
is
about
only
mentioning
be
the
held
whole,
in
high
adulation
more
honored
next
by being models
of
had
who
soldiers
competent
retired
of fifty, became
of
at the
magi or teachers
age
studies
the
their
with
astrology and
alchemy,
young;
of the
Zend
lent
them
sacerdotal
Avesta,
dignity and
the
Among
Persians,
function.
both
important,^
as
magi
were
priests and
whom
the
philosophers, under
even
king had to study
the
to worship
principles of governing, and right ways
close
the
after
of
this
dared
deity; even
period, he
undertake
their
without
advice.
important
nothing
the
Their
fame
and
known
to
abroad,
spread
was
and
the
Greek
attracted
Hebrews,
opher.
philosPythagoras,
The
In
Egypt,
teacher*s
after
office
the
was
parents
assumed
had
by
done
the
their
part, the
priests.
These
hereditary nobility, so wealthy, that
of Egypt
to them.
one-third
formed,
belonged
They
and
ruled'
the
people, by establishing civil
guided
sacred
services, and
imparting
regulations, performing
formed
a
learned
THE
125
HIMSELF
TEACHER
religious instruction, to all but the outcast, who, strange
dead
the
chief
the
to relate, really performed
for
ligious
rerites in suitably disposing of the
mummy.
earlier
In the
Hebrew
the
father
periods, however,
himself
the
teacher, and
was
was
responsible for the
of his own
,children.*
Later, in the
religious education
first century, the teacher
called
the
"true
was
guardian
of the city."^
The
master
be
to
mature,
was
married;
old
like
parent:
latter
the
to
; and
wine
"help your
has
given you
has
former
teacher
the
for
listen
the
to
in
doctors,
advice
of the
of
matters
Everywhere,
teacher
enjoys
the
Hebrews,
which
is nowhere
inverse
dawn
shaman
medical
world
the
the
to
the
their
special
elective
was
; and
to
the
class.
throw
of
in
world,
China,
the
and
India
but
parent;
the
this
pupil,
the
aroused.
had
In
the
teachers
among
must
Among
races,
savage
united
priestly, educative
world
Oriental
the
tive
cura-
differentiated, leaving
priest or prophet, who
the
instructions
for
tion
perpetuabecome
hands
of
the
But
priestly
the
council
self-activity of
Greeks.
man
teaching
indeed
specialized their
of
is
Oriental
the
professionalism
somewhat
in
enjoys
to
compelled
EDUCATION.
functions.
the
teacher
supreme
or
above
yet fully
among
wise
or
had
in
even
ratio
of
for
sought
office
no
of
faith.
GREEK
The
sultan
the
high consideration;
in
and
life
also, the
Ulema,
therefore,
among
stands
the
the
come."
the
Mahometans,
Among
great consideration; Indeed,
be
life
you
the
than
more
father, for the
your
while
of this world,
before
only
secured
considered
be
to
was
first
among
class.
there
Greeks
Priestly functions
great triumphs of secular
education
on
a
class
of
men
was
were
tion
educa-
specially
126
devoted
first, the
lover
gogue."
Indeed,
of
then
the
as
intrusion
into
the
teaching
of
laws
the
forbade,
pain
on
but
any
the
master.^
school-
school-room
the
and
officials, pedagogues,
the
of
out)
peda-
slave
of
one
rarely carried
doubt
death,
where
Athens,
at
well
; as
legal recognition
first
was
the
wisdom
of
the
profession
Solon
(no
only gradually:
wise
sophists, philosopher,
occurred
This, however,
poets;
and
man,
it
to
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
by
of
family
PARENTS.
THE
in the absence
of a clearly
advantage
and
the
defined
teaching-class; that
parents, slaves
of their
friends
more
acutely conscious
were
unescapPlato"
able
actually
represents
parents
responsibilities.
the
from
and
child's education
tutor
quarrelling over
There
was
one
times
earliest
the
child's
the
of
self -consciousness.
In
for
and
trained
educated
this
was
Sparta, the mother"
her
in view; her career
children's
was
one
only purpose
for
them
limited
to this,
was
education; her affection
them
it
with
return
education
she
would
not
war,
their
shield
or
upon
of
that, in times
so
children
of
everybody's
was
being
duty to
carried
hesitate
it.
In
entirely
and
rebuke
to
in
instruct
bid
Sparta,
public,
every
child.
This
in Athens,
chief
the
responsibility was
the pedagogue
nurse
where
instead
caretaker
THE
One
which
the
of
with
of
Each
while
was
a
took
the
place of
affection,
inspirer" and
indeed
legally
competition
the
weaker
slave
or
became
mother.
INSPIRER.
and
sentiment
of
characteristic
most
them
"the
much
of
feeling
of
the
liable
of
our
Greelc
romantic
the
"hearer"
or
affection
the
other's
caused
ments
attach-
relation
was
for
customs,
no
tween
be-
"favorite."
behavior;
misunder-
TEACHERS'
128
parting
of
money
for
arise
their
claim
that
The
persons
the
was
how
immoral
of
and
to
argue
insolent
and
in
discussing
Pythagoras's
all things"
of
view.
measure
destruction
ably
inevit-
boastful,
appeared
point
the
of
the
ancient
ment
senti-
reverence.
sophists
destined
were
Isocrates,
which
teach
of
demand
would
became
seemed
"man
seemed
of
to
new
a
their
these
question
a
they
from
problems
teaching
probably
able
of
Also
and
Charlatans
them;
be
side
SOLVED
information,
instruction.
to
sordid.
under
definite
among
either
on
PROBLEMS
to
pass
393-338
B.C.),
rhetorical
schools,
(in
the
into
and
necessarily formal
superficial, and
which
a
produced
pleasing
logical
presentation,
and
hall-mark
the
of
thought,
good grammar
general
not
were
"
culture.
This
education,
be
may
the
production
THE
from
produces
contrast
a
a
real
universal
personality.
gentlemanly
PHILOSOPHER.
minimized
Socrates
in
of
first
the
to
selves
attempted
distinguish themand
lofty
sophists by a conservative
the
morality.
as
Plato
and
Socrates
taken
with
the
the
of
knowledge
life; while
virtuous
of
importance
Plato,
in
ments,
attainwhich
oneself
his
"Republic,"
lines
of regression
on
planned a great reform
This
moral
tinguishe
diselement
ideals.
to
Spartan
the
the
totle
Arissophist; and
philosopher from
thirst
for
edge,
knowladded
to this an
unquenchable
and
which
he, for the first time, organized
syninto
in his
thetized
sciences, and
analyzed
logic and
tinguishin
disthe
Personal
was
dignity therefore
metaphysics.
ferentiat
difof
characteristic
the
as
philosopher,
Their
is best
from
the
greatness
sophist.
theorized,
understood
and
by
this
period
and
limited
"
of
itself to
namely,
Greek
quoting
that
after
education
them.
them
added
the
mopolitan
cos-
nothing,
THE
TEACHER
HIMSELF
HISTORICAL
We
must
that
not
survived
SCHOOLS.
omit
mention
chief
"schools"
Plato's
philosophers..
while
Aristotle's
Academy,
followers
to
temples, remained
Epicurus taught in his
which
Athens,
529
in
these
strong.
the
Athenian
of
thronged
Theophrastus,
2,000
painted porch of one
under
school,
and
the
these
the
perpetuated
the
under
Lyceum,
Zeno's
129
known
the
as
the
of
"Stoics";
growth
outAn
private garden.
was
finally the university of
until
suppressed by Justinian
schools
continued
A.D.
MEDIAEVAL
The
ideal
Christian
himself,
"Pedagogue."
of
Next
the
and
reformed
the
The
later
the
who
in the
and
the
tian
Chris-
this
catechetic
this
to
his
and
sermons
continue
succeeded
in
out
minister,
schools,
still
bishops
pastoral letters, and
brings
by
catechetical
its founder
was
Christian
function
ministers
teaching.
teacher
Alexandria
was
pedagogic
catechumenic
the
of
Clement
as
assumed
EDUCATION.
function
by
and
by encyclicals
popes,
"bulls."
monastic
In
the
chief
license.
them
from
in
the
by
a
the
times,
license
abbot's
formed
appointment
ply was
Finally this mono
university's graduation,
to teach, if the
graduate
removed
which
sisted
con-
could
find
pupils.
in
As
other
who
Ab61ard,
doubt
it
was
hate
With
of
of
the
teacher,
paedagog.
there
times,
could
St.
Bernard
passing
the
thousands
draw
jealousy
of
of
born
were
this
of
the
that
such
teachers,
of
animated
and
pupils;
the
as
no
ous
venom-
Clairvaulx.
university
scientist,
and
rose
the
secondary
new
type
school
TEACHERS^
:i3o;
PROBLEMS
RENAISSANCE
the
to
discusses
Youth,"
German
life
school
of
PEDAGOGY.
leader, Wimpfeling,
Renaissance
The
SOLVED:
in his
"Guide
other
among
the
lems
prob-
teacher.^^
of
teachers.
qualifications
a
has
of
education
however,
no
more
period
the
on
greatness of the personalities of its
Sturm,
Colet, Lilly, Wimpfeling,
Erasmus,
Petrarch,
Dante,
Probably,
depended
these
when
Sylvius,
Aeneas
gerius,
Barzizza,
were
men
Vittorino
da
Reuchlin,
the
gone,
Ver-
Feltre,
Agricola,
movement
Hegius;
at
was
an
end.
PEDAGOGY.
REFORMATION
"
Luther^
strongly
position.
teacher's
"Where
were
if the
physicians
existence?
These
all flow.
I tell you,
of
his
never
can
as
are
in
preceptor, or
who
title,
faithfully
receive
an
adequate
any
trains
a
time
to
they were
profess
we
were
compelled
some
other
please
of
is the
all the
which
Yet
cannot
leave
most
I
than
am
off
I know
that
convinced
useful,
and
and
him
with
too, the
contempt,
all
the
part, if
my
and
to
that
schoolmaster,
the
money
and
office
that, next
boys,
no
; so,
preaching,
greatly
matter
teaches
For
one
no
they
no
whatever,
not
of
and
them
Christians.
be
and
had
which
person,
owe
account
jurists
diligent, devoted
a
reward,
you
treat
we
no
to
to
better
or
to
best
I
enter
would
teacher
preaching,
labor
in
sometimes
in doubt
and, in fact, I am
honorable.
For
the
positions is the more
old dog new
teach
tricks, and it is hard
an
world;
of
of
vocation,
For
boys.
this
you
me
debt
the
pay
of
the
of
rhetoric
out
that
Aristotle.
if
and
word,
is sufficient
pagan
preachers,
grammar
the fountain
school-teacher,
what
of
supply
your
arts
value
the
emphasized
TEACHER
THE
to
old
reform
undertake
HIMSELF
sinners, but
and
do"
to
our
this
131
is what
labor
by preaching
is often
train
and
it is easy
to
bend
young
in
the process
be broken.
haply
some
may
earth
find
nowhere
can
on
a
higher
you
but
displayed by the stranger, who
faithful
gives them
a
training
for
seldom
their
even
perform,
Melanchthon
was
and
the
time
He
his
and
of
must
his
as
the
drew
Sturm.
the
up
is
as
every
city
at
had
center
a
in
Germany.
teacher, for
position of a
fifty-six cities is still extant;
of the
leaders
Neander,
day
He
a
was
great text-book
the
"
Articles
Visitation
of
Saxony,
1S28.
The
and
affected
than
virtue
offspring."
about
education, it
of
many,"
Ger"Preceptor
Wittemberg
with
and
and
the
elevated
correspondence
his pupils were
writer,
was
death
have
own
much
from
friend,
My
and
children
your
labor
which
parents
a
written
who
who
Trotzendorff,
in
had
Luther
spent in vain;
trees, though
takes
"
While
we
teacher
Jesuit
of
was
his
order;
authority
to
inspire superstitious
fear
will, however,
little
further
we
price
he
for
paid
which
by all the
prestige
indeed, was
so
great
his
in
a
opponents;
supported
mention
the
ghastly
this.
MONTAIGNE
PEDAGOGY.
REALISTIC
AND
MONTAIGNE.
Montaigne's
of
has
the
reasons
seemed
to
of
ignorant
fault
The
essay
common
is
due
be
on
pedantry
begins by
on
the
as^*
tutor.
the
ation
consider-
since
Plutarch, a teacher
why, ever
of ^contempt,
despicable, worthy
and
insolent.
life, presumptuous,
of
method
to
teaching,
a
wrong
of
at the
stuffing the memory
expense
classical
The
example
understanding.
This
at by Socrates.
Hippias, mocked
serious
a
whole
success
of
and
conscience
of
a
is all
education
pedant
the
is
more
depends
132
TEACHERS'
families
better
SOLVED
education
such
Evidently
for
PROBLEMS
rich
would
only
possible
be
of
the
century, belongs
training of teachers, which
the
to
enough
tutor
a
engage
kind.
MULCASTER.
To
credit
of
realized
be
to
use
arguments
till the
should
the
nineteenth.
enforce
to
universities
of
sixteenth
the
the
foreseeing
not
that
in
Mulcaster,
law,
their
provide
did
only
education,
but
he
for
for
the
and
medicine,
Not
this
the
as
was
ministry.
he
held
fessions
pro-
^*^
BACON.
the
On
whole.
was
not
of
the
such
as
most
generation
pedagogy
teaching
into
a
LOCKE
AND
Locke
thinks
was
tutor
science,
of
of
In
other
as
Mulcaster
and
this
in
Itself,
he
words,
had
erected
allowed
was
of
made
for
in
PEDAGOGY.
pupil should
respect the tutor,
if worthy
of contempt;
for the
of the
The
pupil's imitation.^"
the
amiss
exemplar
that
but
House."^''
"Solomon's
that
study
's prevision
the
transfer
processes,
of
the
from
race
one
DISCIPLINARIAN
chosen
is the
social
trained,
be
object
possessions
profession;
outline
Bacon's
of
must
an
another.^"
a
tion
educa-
significance for
application of Mulcaster
be
important
to
chief
teachers
must
intellectual
the
who
that
only
education
as
theoretical
a
:
Bacon's
should
children's
governor
temperate,
tender, diligent;
be
a
discreet,
scholar,
sober,
wise,
and
gentleman,
cannot,
indeed, be
a
Such
a
man
teaching.
his
should
had
for
indeed,
ordinary salary;
an
pay,
be
should
He
questioned by the father.^"
never
even
tions,
neither
cost nor
regarding no recommendacare,
spare
indeed
oft n be found
in
seeking the fit,who
may
should
teacher
The
begin his work
a starving condition.
an
artist
in
THE
from
the
until
he
time
child
the
the
turn
can
HIMSELF
TEACHER
first
can
charge
133
talk,^^ and
his
to
over
continue
mistress,
a
girl."
AND
ROUSSEAU
The
five
the
on
seems,
twelve
to
whole,
twelve
PEDAGOGY.
tutor, from
fifth
fifteen
to
twentieth
to
From
quite meaningless.
body-training
directs
he
from
games;
influences
Emile's
of
position
year,
NATURALISTIC
he
childhood
and
keeps
outside
off
and
education,"
helps direct
"negative
child's
the
fifteen
to
curiosity by object-lessons; from
becomes
twenty,
suddenly -his influence
so
important
that
of the three
factors
other
it is one
two
being
(the
and
which
shall
the
with
contact
turn
history)
men,
child
from
selfishness
to altruism, morality, and
pathy
sym-
On
demand
the
be
could
in
for
the
the
whole,
poor.
the
is
task
personality whose
child's
Only
one
growth.
supply the need; a free man
too
high a salary.
a
and
would
interest
would
superhuman,
only
great
pedagog
enslaved
an
would
have
to
mand
de-
PEDAGOGY.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
FROEBEL.
teacher
The
than
in
the
is
Herbartian,
"occupations,"
are
planned,
is everywhere
the
skill
less
no
and
system.
however
of
All
on
sympathy
value
the
of
the
Froebelian,
"gifts'* and
may
their
unless
principle
the
the
skilfully they
little
based
in
important
of
have
been
enjoyment
unity, through
teacher.^^
MONTESSORI.
Montessori's
no
"teaching,"
teacher
but
must
is called
put
forth
"directress";
very
skilful
she
and
does
un-
TEACHERS'
134
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
must
She
watch, assist, inspire, suggest,
tiring effort.
contribute
to
guide, explain, correct, inhibit; she must
worlc
of upbuilding
science
of pedagogy.**
the
a
new
The
teacher
must
not
only be perfect in mechanism,
but be imbued
by the spirit of self-sacrifice, and display
the
interest
aroused
by an
expectation of revelations
from
nature^*
patient observations.*^
by long and
The
teacher
must
not
scold, punish, nor
repress.**
voice
in person,
her being attractive
Sfiguin emphasizes
and
her
manner.*''
She
observe
must
charges, so as
inhibit
without
to
repression.*"
EDUCATION.
GERMAN
Teaching
wars*"
has
become
a
it had
; but
and
Francke
profession
since
advocated
been
by
the
leonic
Napoand
Ratke
while
"seminary,"
began
a
in 1794
Frederick
the
Great
examinations;
appointed
In 1 779
all schools
were
subjected to state inspection.
school
and
Frederick
the
Great
by
separated church
In
to the
teaching of laymen.
committing
philosophy
and
the
established
1812
"gymnasia,"
were
many
Comenius;
their
graduation-examination;
to
prerequisite to entrance
for
examination
from
The
teacher's
religious
the
necessary
in
1834
it
was
university.
an
license
was
made
made
In
a
1810
separate
examination.
education
university study of
not
however,
being necessary;
course,
consists
three
years
then
the
in
a
gymnasial
the
Ph.D.,
up;
tion
examinastate
and
of pedagogy
knowledge
man
ethics; 2, Ger(psychology),
logic and
philosophy
and
with
literature; 3, acquaintance
language
doctrines
of his religion; teaching specialties, of which
of
three
There
he
must
are
grades
present four.
all
for
the
for
certificate
lower, for the middle, and
and
Of
the four
classes.
specialties, two
are
majors
and
both
minor
must
be
two
one
minors;
majors
which
tests
his
1,
136
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
FRENCH
SOLVED
EDUCATION,
French
of
teacher
is the
survival
"agr6g6"
or
examinations
that
he
is sure
of
competitive
so
many
far
product,**^ having
a
knowledge
being a refined
wider
than
his immediate
subject. His position is safe,
if slow; and
and
to a pension.
it leads
promotion
sure,
The
While
his
people
although the
of
most
and
is
income
he
small,
refined
enabled
is
He
taste.
in
graduate
is
letters
to
like
specialist,*^
a
teaches
live
Latin
French,
in history and
graduate
raphy
geogteaches
these
Individual
subjects only.
ences
prefersubordinated
the
is an
to
are
system.
Teaching
honorable
trade
a
profession, not
or
stepping-stone,
and
enlists
When
a
splendid lot of men.
once
a
man
has
become
he
receives
an
"agr6g6"
government
a
the
salary for life, whether
teaching or not; moreover,
fact
is an
he
him
that
to
mere
an
*'agr6g6" entitles
extra
francs.
This
is
salary .of five hundred
degree
the
didate
canpractically the equivalent of a doctor's, and
spends his second
military year as an officer.
while
Greek;
the
AMERICAN
The
position
and
variable
Ezekiel
School-boy."
grandson
founded
Waddell
There
he
of
Massachusetts.
Nathan
was
at
Wendell
Timothy
Edwards,
Jonathan
Tennent,**
Wm.
Phillips Exeter,
1810-
Phillips Andover,
followed
was
have
We
Hale.*"
Abbott
at
Oliver
by
President
1837-1871.
Aaron
and
Adams
celebrated
early colonies
Lowell,**
Benjamin
John
1788-1872;
in
John
have
we
in the
teacher
highest
was
Boucher,*'^
Later,
1833,
the
of
Cheever,*^
Jonathan
EDUCATION.
Holmes
by Samuel
Dwight
and
of
first
in
"The
Taylor,
Yale
cousin
was
of
later
and
phenomenal
memory;
There
Greenfield
Hill Academy.
Moses
was
in 1804,
later president
at Willington, S. C,
Burr;
he
had
a
the
of
Gould
a
Apthorp
it
half
for
on
century.
For
the
This
is
as
due
and
candidates,
the
profession of
partially to the
E.
poor
they
appointments
N.
the
to
Committee
A.
of
poor
and
to
hope
can
equal to the others.
of the
preparation
of
nature
temporary
rank
a
yet generally
is not
teaching
school
present,
recognized
a
carried
School
Latin
Boston
;i37
Benjamin
Georgia.
of
University
at the
HIMSELF
TEACHER
THE
Fifteen^''
achieve.
However,
has
suggested
Then
requirement.
lege
col-
a
the
preliminary
of sufficient
formation
of school-systems
permanence
lend
their
share
to
to
are
doing
provide a pension
leges
colof normal
dignity to the calling ; while the growth
school
itself
train
is of
teachers
to
secondary
of exterior
furnishing a standard
respectability.
degree
A
as
of
number
others,
S.
Horace
as
all, the
After
Hart
Knowlton
Cyrus
such
schoolmasters
modern
John
reputation:
Gardner,
a
achieved
has
of
Philadelphia,'"
of
Cincinnati'"
Francis
and
many
Mann.
of
is
teachers
important
should
studies.
that
of
than
They
possess**^ real
of loyalty to righteousness; second,
warmth
gracious
a
morals;
third, a living intellect; fourth,
bearing, with
fifth, a
a
disposition and
aptitude of communication;
readiness
and
with
to improve
co-operate
others; sixth,
realization
that
a
teaching is an art, and not a science.
Last, he
1
34..
payre,
8
1
must
18.
Painter,
9.
lb., 87.
lib., 84.
discovered
2ib.,2S.
11.18-20..
^* Deut.
"
be
question
Monroe.
9
lb.. 82.
56.
10
well
made.
as
23
652.
8Ib.,
"
"^
as
more
lb., 81.
24
27
81
80
lb., 377.
82
119.
86
88Ib..430.
84
lb.. 23.
29
sell.
Rus-
384.
Farringrdon.
Brown,
Makinia:
110.
Schools,
Middle
our
lb.. 115.
26
lb., 227.
352,
of
38
lb., 11.
28
lb., 37.
lb.. 78.
isib,.
i2Monroe.378.
1*
Education,
414.
Montaigne,
467.
174. 16
i6Ib..472.
Monroe.
is
17
175.
N.
Locke.
A.,
Bacon,
i"
Th.
lb.. 90. 91.
Ed.. 88. 89.
22
20
21
Monlb.. 216.
lb.. 90.
25
lb., 9.
xxxvi.
Montessori.
roe.
Com-
lb., 117.
lb.. 122.
89Ib..431.
87
86
lb.,
lb.. 429.
40ib..444.
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
138
SOLVED
CHAPTER
X.
Condiuioii*
OF
INTERPRETATION
1.
the
followed
Having
teacher
down
present
day,
the
the
may
national
of
be
some
aspects
of
educational
India:
Social
Egypt:
Preparation
Israel:
Rehabilitation
to
education.
state.
for
life.
future
of
the
nation.
ARE
IDEALS
WESTERN
INDIVIDUAL:
Athens.
Efficiency:
Discipline:
Rome.
Middle
Gentlemanliness
:
Ages, humanists,
Locke.
Montaigne,
Knowledge:
Comenius,
Naturalness:
Rousseau.
Development:
Bacon,
Pestalozzi,
Herbart
Spencer, Huxley.
Citizenship; Sociologists.
Science:
review
supremacy.
the
Service
Character:
of
to
EDUCATION.
Persia:
FroebeL
gether
to-
tions
defini-
thinkers.
organization.
ACTIVE
Culture:
the
success.
Commercial
Phoenicia:
gather
EDUCATION.
PASSIVE
Family
in
first
interest, however,
till the
to
education
interpretations
ideals
might be :
national
China:
interest
racial
or
endeavor
human
of
be
various
supplied by
It
of
of the
problems
important
more
stream
it may
various
EDUCATION.
and
Locke.
others.
the
ental
Ori-
139
CONCLUSION
2.
Next
DEFINITIONS
in order
Agettlaos:
do
when
what
they
ought
achievement
soul
the
of
of
according
to
is to
Education
moral
Bacon:
produce culture
practical efficiency, to
and
purpose
literature.
is
Education
a
to
happiness
virtue
in
a
social
and
be
virtue,
gained
by
just and legitEducation
things.
of
and
a
control
the
over
young,
to all
extending
of
of the
of
extant
society such
knowledge
be deemed
most
It is an
as
important.
may
the
the
to
continuity and
secure
preserve
members
world
to
effort
of
cultivation
mind
familiarity between
of
highest form
direction
the
education.
life.
Asdham:
is the
learn
to
is the
Education
energizing
fortunate
mate
of
definitions
men.
the
and
ought
Boys
Aristotle:
by
individual
are
EDUCATION.
OF
them;
a
for
system
of common
advanced
It is the most
tradition.
growth
method
of the
It is
phase and
evolutionary
process.
for
to
preparation
citizenship, adjustment
society,
a
for life in institutions, and
preparation
acquisition of
racial
inheritances.
Bagley:
future
Education
action
every
human
Brooks:
teaches
Education
self;
one's
make
that
experiences
efficient.
more
Baldwiii:
of
furnishes
it is
how
development,
make
to
by
the
the
most
evolution
of
power.
Education
the
promotes
perfection
of
the
individual.
Bmnnbaugh:
impress
is
Education
its ideals
upon
the
the
effort
thought
and
of
society to
activity of the
young.
Boiler:
individual
Education
is the
adaptation
inheritances
of
SCientifiCi literary, aesthetic, institutional
and
to
the
five-fold
gradual
the
of
the
race:
religious.
Comeniiis:
whole
Education
is
Education
is
SOLVED
the
the
of
development
man.
Compasnre:
efforts
the
which
by
of
aid
we
his
the
and
in
the
reflective
development
the
faculties
moral
his
perfection,
of
sum
nature
intellectual
physical,
view
in
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
140
and
happiness,
of
of
man,
his
social
destination.
Davidson:
Denzd:
the
Education
is the
Education
Dewey:
individual
control
which
race,
a
The
race.
and
living,
his
not
Emerson:
Fichte:
of
leave
only
implanted
hence
is
It
a
realization
the
in
work
of
a
Greek:
development
and
to
as
so
fulfil
its
It
spontaneity.
faithful, pure,
inviolate,
and
attainment
is the
Education
in
results
and
pupil
good,
and
observe
and
culture:
thetic
aes-
to
is
of
moral
power,
social
excellence.
going
and
in itself irksome.
to
how
correctly.
Education
Hamilton:
learn
is to
enjoyment,
political freedom,
the
pediment,
all im-
away
power.
culture.
liberty
intellectual
of
train
natures,
of
It is
living.
proportionate
a
our
Education
Gray:
distinguish things
exertion
is to
the
life.
holy
Asa
is
of
ends.
future
for
pure
is moral
aim
Education
germs
destiny.
is
preparation
life in
resources
social
of
life
community
for
powers
Education's
Froebel:
of
ing
increas-
social
the
inherited
the
end
to
It is the
in
form
a
Education's
and
perience,
exremaking
value
creased
inthrough
by giving the individual
powers.
is
own
a
of
individual
the
shares
uses
and
of
own
school
child
the
more
his
over
faculties.
process
socialized
experience,
participation
the
a
of
development
moral
is the
it
giving
evolution.
harmonious
and
intellectual
physical,
better
is conscious
Education
self-activity.
even
ality,
person-
a
through
course
agreeable, but
It is the
determination
of
mediately
im-
CONCLUSION
Harris:
Education
lifts
Herbart:
Education
character
by
Hewitt:
all the
whose
powers
Education
for
is the
leading
germs
the
consists
reciprocal union
of
and
out
child
the
the
to
man
development
and
many-sided
well-balanced
a
mind
the
is
Education
Home:
individual
the
individual
the
species, and prepares
with
society.
141
moral
of
interest.
at birth.
possesses
self-
in which
ways
of
training
its
It is the
growth.
superior
of
and
a
physical
adjustment
mentally developed
scious
conhuman
and
being to his intellectual, emotional,
volitional
environment.
It is self -development
through
and
social
service.
self-activity for selfhood
active
works
Huzley:
That
who
has
is the
ready
pleasure all
whose
of;
order;
ready,
the
of
of
knowledge
and
nature,
Such
the
as
them
laws
to
of
all
and
for
harmony
The
the
chief
as
not.
his
body
does
with
ease
and
a
of
he
with
no
her
of
life
and
to
respect
as
completely
as
a
whose
has
who
nature
has
of
vigorous
a
of
or
others
other, 1 conceive
is,
by
conscience;
of
a
who,
one
fire, but
heel
whether
with
truths
operations;
tender
to
is stored
fundamental
come
a
and
mind
and
as
had
man
art,
himself.
liberal
a
be,
can
nature.
to be
advantage
ability to do things when
be
to
done,
they ought
or
that
and
whose
beauty,
vileness,
one,
education;
in
great
love
all
an
the
servant
to
hate
a
youth
it is capable
mechanism,
clear, cold, logic engine^ with
mind;
trained
are
will, the
to
will,
ascetic, is full
passions
learned
the
of
stunted
no
is
in
tion,
educa-
liberal
a
in smooth
equal strength, and
working
like a steam
to any
engine, to be turned
and
well
as
spin the gossamers,
forge
as
work,
anchors
his
that,
intellect
parts of
of
of
work
I think
trained
so
servant
the
had,
has
man
been
all the
kind
out
gained
they
whether
by an
ought
you
education
to
want
be
is
done,
to
do,
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
142
SOLVED
Edu*
only metaphysical animal.
him
cation
influences
in order
to
to lead
man
by man,
himself
his
efforts.
actualize
It is the
own
through
will
of acquired
habits
of action
such
as
organization
social
and
ment.
environfit the
individual
his physical
to
school
is a place
of training ; and
It is a course
James:
the
where
is the
Man
mental
expanded,
fibres
Joly: Education
is to
correct
of
his
does
he
the
different
is the
his
which
become
of
sum
man
Education
perfection
the
to
he
man;
trained,
exercised,
strengthened.
is the
give
use
Kant:
and
developed
be
to
are
the
efforts, whose
complete
pose
pur-
and
possession
faculties.
in
development
nature
permits.
is
all
only
Thus
education
what
only
of
man
makes
him.
of
Education
Kant:
is nurture
for
for
scholars,
infants, discipline for
and
culture.
children,
teaching
education
creet,
disdisciplined, cultured, made
moral.
Through
discipline, the unruliness
of
is subjected to reason
the culture
; through
is
and
instruction
developed
ability;
and
of
nature
information
through
and
be
must
man
discretion,
Through
oneself
conducts
one
with
education
one
through moral
only good aims; this is education's
refinement;
choose
to
propriety
is trained
highest
end.
Keith:
of
one's
The
mental
Livingston:
for
the
in
change
the
sequence
or
the
character
activities.
The
different
use
of
education
employments
to call
please God
and
understandings,
them.
of
Tis
infuse
to
is to
qualify
life, which
improve
their
men
it may
hearts
love
public spirit and
the
with
of their
to inspire them
country;
principles of
zeal
and
for liberty, and
honor
probity; with a fervent
for
and
benevolence
in a word,
diffusive
mankind;
a
them
serviceable
the
make
to
to
extensively
more
commonwealth.
to
a
144
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
Mulcaster:
Education
Niemeyer:
Education
of
the
SOLVED
is to
help
is at
nature
the
once
her
to
and
art
fection.
per-
science
in a condition,
putting them
of emulation
by the aid of instruction, through the power
and
good example, to attain the triple end assigned
destination.
to man
by his religious, social and national
Orciitt:
Education
is not
the
storing of knowledge,
but the development
of power.
Education
is a leading forth
Page:
development.
or
but
It is not
or
memorizing,
growth
merely instruction
assimilation
wholesome
aliment.
It
of
this
by healthy
is inspiration, discipline and
selfarousing to promote
activity in observing, remembering,
bining.
reflecting and comof
all the
into
faculties
It is a
calling forth
guiding
and
young
action.
harmonious
Parker:
Education's
possibilitiesof
is the
end
human
realization
and
growth
all the
of
in
development
munity
com-
life.
Payne:
Education
human
the
operate
on
faculties
to
action, forming
which
and
character,
Education
and
systematized
of
powers
the
habits
the
art
must
mind
Plato:
are
to
to
he
is.
natural,
progressive,
of
development
is the
organization
of
being becomes
standpoint
the
his
all
of
of
the
quired
ac-
It is
behavior.
a
the
It
man.
ing
develop-
child.
A
good
soul
from
his
tendencies
or
his
stimulating
habits, moulding
the
It
human
a
a
all
is that
education
the
beauty
capable.
Education
of
way
love
that
amusement,
provide
nature.
action,
by
which,
child
of
of
and
body
they
individual.
considered
be
is
influences
the
being,
what
harmonious
which
by
him
making
Pestalozzi:
all
comprehends
citizens
which
with
and
is
is to
a
gives to the
perfection of which
skilful
discipline
very
which
leads
make
employments
the
mind
of
it finished.
fit
for
the
It is
their
CONCLUSION
Raab:
Education
mental
is
full, perfect disciplineof physical,
a
moral
and
powers.
Roaric:
Right education
individual, in physical,
will
as
from
their
here
use,
Roman:
of
Rosenkranz:
and
with
self
intellectual
is
influencing of
himself
through
only develop
can
Routseaa:
Ruddn:
of
Scott:
is
earnest
Simon:
efforts.
own
it
create;
life.
hidden
the
It cannot
is the
art
of
bringing
dren
chil-
up
men.
is advancement
is
the
in
gradual
life.
of
unfoldment
powers.
Education
the
By
heart
Spencer:
for
preparations
the
is the
present
to
the
education
another
Education
the
past.
is
mind
one
of
comprehension
acquiring
application, and gaining
afid
the
concentrating
investigations,
directing
one
his
Education
assiduous
and
of
sum
life
for
preparation
tion
identificaIt is self-estrangement
and
the foreign ideals
of moral,
religious
It
of
and
education.
method,
history
him
to actualize
to lead
man
by man,
Education
soul's
relation
the
life.
Education
Santayana:
for
is
forming
Salisbury:
capacities,
highest enjoyment
the
secure
moral
hereafter.
Education
of
and
all the
and
and
the
of
preparation
a
intellectual
Education
institutions.
of
is such
to
Education
practical duties
in
him
enable
145
habits
the
art
powers
forms
of
of
of
firm
and
controling,
the
another
mind
mind,
heart.
is the
preparation
of knowledge
for
complete
that
is best
living; first, in acquisition
social
and
of individual
adapted for the development
of the
to
life; and secondly in the development
power
life are
The
of human
this knowledge.
activities
use
direct
self-preservation, the
self-preservation, indirect
and
citizenship, and
rearing of children, social demands
miscellaneous
activities
fillingthe leisure part of life.
146
TEACHERS'
Stein:
PROBLEMS
Education
of
the
the
is the
human
SOLVED
harmonious
and
faculties, by
for
mind,
of
a
equable
lution
evo-
founded
method
all the
developing
of the soul, for stirring up
faculties
and
nourishing all
the
one-sided
all
principles of life, while
shunning
which
of the sentiments
culture, and taking account
on
the strength and
of men
worth
depend.
upon
nature
the
cation
Sully: By social stimulus, guidance and control, eduof the
child, so as
develops the natural
powers
him
able
and
render
to
disposed to lead a hearty, happy,
and
morally worthy life.
Education's
is to
end
mental
the
Thiry:
develop
mould
and
faculties, to communicate
to
knowledge
character.
Thomdike:
in
Education
and
body
nature
and
action,
a
behavior,
effects
information
mind,
multitude
of
and
of
ideals
to
about
give
the
health
of
world
and
knowledge
habits
and
thought, feeling and
efficiency, honor, duty, love and
interests
worthy
men,
changes
in
service.
Tompkfau:
Education
and
thought
is that
emotion
which
and
power
elevate
life
versatilityof
into
and
truth
emotion.
Tacker:
find
to
Education
himself,
and
and
knowledge
Uncertain:
is
a
to
process
make
sure
whereby
of
a
learns
man
himself
by
self-
self-reliance.
Education
vidual
indiof the
adjustment
of thought
into a perfect scheme
and
action
in
which
he
his individuality; and
loses
finds
expression
the
institutionalized
whole.
only through
Ward:
of
Education
Education
knowledge,
Woodrow
comes
an
means
the
is any
process
universal
distribution
knowledge.
extant
White:
in
is
by
or
power,
Wilson:
the
intimate
or
or
act
which
results
skill.
Education
daily
is not
contact
instruction,
or
meeting
but
of
CONCLUSION
minds
immature
cnced,
MacEvoy
of
find
men
the
those
of
Butler,
definition
experi*
themselves.
as
combines
significant definitions
Harris, Home,
Dewey,
most
and
Spencer,
Monroe,
and
mature
more
selects
education
Maxwell,
minds
with
whereby
147
Wilson.
of
many
The
ing
follow-
points:
their
achievement
of
ness,
wholeunfolding
and creativesanity, wisdom
sense,
poise,common
selfof
m
harmoniously
happy
a
co-operation
individualism
and
intelligent socialization.
sically
Phyof
it yields the
health, some
cheery pleasures
Education
ness
active
is
the
and
the
achieve
force
to
prowess,
in the
moral
and
service
spiritual purposes,
with
the
movements.
Mentally, it endows
athletic
esthetic, including
the
some
expertries
and
self-denial
habits, accumulating
virtuous
well
lated
accumu-
race,
impulses, prejudice, and
the
discipline of self-control
and
social
scientific, literary and
hobby; eliminating unregulated
insularity. Morally, it trains by
of
inheritances
mental,
of
in
used
fund
a
fruitful
automatic
of
and
adequate
an
to
specialized
develops
chivalry and
body politic. By
capable of self-defense, honor,
a character
Aesthetically, it refines, furnishes
hero-worship.
some
creation
invites
distinctive
or
expertry in judgment
; and
delicacies.
niceties
and
Socially, it makes
capable
one
of chumship,
friendship, partnership, family relations,
ity's
loyalty, patriotism, ideals, and self-sacrifice for humansake.
communion
with
the
Religiouslv, it opens
emotional
unseen
by
just
conversion,
experiences,
restitution, zeal, and
progressiveness, looking forward
of
member
to
better
3.
conscience
the
conditions
GENETIC
for
the
birth
of
CATALOGUE
OF
the
it
future.
CHARACTER
TRAITS.
The
the
skilful
subject
in
teacher
hand
will
to
the
adapt
the
traits
method
of
predominating
teaching
at
the
148
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
SOLVED
his
of
of puberty
that the age
pupil ; remembering
earlier
than
begins with
girls one
boys,
year
among
that
remain
and
until
they will,
consequently
majority,
if not two.
ahead
of their brothers
ical
Pedagogone
year,
line are
of course
suggestions at the right of each
trations.
illusonly general and tentative; but they will serve
as
valuable
A
biographic chart
(to which
very
is the
the
one
following lists are
partially indebted)
age
and
treating of Youth
John,
Pilgrim Press,
twenty-five
Adolescence,
such
on
a
of
example
Psychology
child
of
dislike
things;
and
conditions
these
drawn:
are
be
diverted
be
short;
into
3, the
5, the
1, this
child
should
commencement
child
should
the
educational
should
should
and
It posesses
Garlick's
for
1, spontaneous
colors
3, delight
8, strong
following
tive
imagina-
verbal
weak
moral
than
rather
6, marked
10,
of
catalogue
application;
power;
11, weak
reasoning;
cation
intelligent edu-
psychological
sympathy;
some
OGY
PSYCHOL-
Dexter
powers;
discriminative
9, weak
in
liking
4,
imitative
7,
powers;
From
find
continued
of
of
dependence
the
lists, we
5, marked
judgment
than
more
EDUCATION.
(page 194) a
kindergarten age.
activity; 2,
in handling
form;
no
OF
CORRELATION
AND
an
costing
Boston,
St.
P.
cents.
KINDERGARTEN
As
Edward
by
ory;
mem-
powers
of
sense.
educational
ductions
de-
spontaneous
activity must
should
channels;
2, lessons
handle
be
made
imitate
the
the
"gifts'*; 4, the
with
colored
objects;
the
teacher; 6,
ation
imaginmade
in
forms
naming
in
employed
cultivated
should
be
paper-folding, etc.; 7, sympathy
be
usefully
chiefly through
pity; 8, the memory
may
in memorizing
9, the differences
employed
songs;
sented
pre-
to
the
be
child's
notice
should
be
large.
149
CONCLUSION
CATALOGUES.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
Psychological
principle. But
authorities
education
the
education,
it has
is
much
not
so
psychology),
child
psychology).
to-day only
and
or
as
and
at
yet
the
(genetic
Education,
states.
basis
which
on
therefore,
mould
to
its
has
practices,
well
to get along
as
as
compelled
of
psychological
temporary
catalogues
it is therefore
with
which
the
and
facts
these
a
educational
of
raised.
1.
EARLY
of
always
that
the
future
structure
education
will
TRAITS
the
Rood
is the
Examine
activity
Short,
perception
ones.
exemplar.
causes.
varied
lessons.
Object -teaching.
Used
Timidity
Kindness,
instinct
of
It is
PRIMARY.
Mischievousness
Playing
here.
CHARACTERISTICS.
sickness
Unconsciousness
some
KINDERGARTEN;
Teacher
PHYSICAL
Sense
adapted.
and
as
they
access,
of
of
understanding
of
Praise
Imitation
which
to
be
must
3-6;
CHILDHOOD;
6-8,
3-6, Impulses
Restlessness,
education
easy
and
ages,
basis
suggestive
shall
problems,
we
give
BASIC
Fretfulness,
certain
very
them
be
at
appear
methods
not
are
furnish
6-8,
of
that
we
are
acknowledge
of experimental
ogy,
psycholof
unconscious,
psychology
adequate
solid
no
(formal
adult
an
also
may
threshold
the
an
to
is needed
what
instructed
be
to
same
development
the
as
is
who
semi-conscious
elements
out
speak,
We
of
possible
As
to
of
the
psychology
that
cross-section
a
youth
applying
evident
become
so
and
in
psychological
make
or
in
day,
the
won
two
no
terms,
same
Further,
classifications.
finally
is that
trouble
the
use
has
of
sex
for
experiment
and
possible.
Coeducation
Instruction
reverence.
to
be
acted
out.
TEACHERS'
iSO
CHARACTERISTICS.
MENTAL
Imitates
teachers
(3-6),
parents
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
Who
(6-8)
Curiosity
To
Imagination
Use
myths
Literalness
Lades
time-sense
Teach
Likes
childhood,
Likes
action
Stories
Like$
nature
Use
of
conscience
Frankness,
No
of
of
sense
2.
self
AND
Appeal
to
Appeal
to
time-sense
Reading
and
through
stamps,
friendships.
etc
the
Give
Give
valuable
historical
standard
Propose
tricks
Use
Manual
friends
Direct
^
,
subjects.
biographies,
Group
age
and
interest.
Propose
Constructiveness
Groups
education.
CHARACTERISTICS.
Hero-worship
Puzzle
traits.
lessons.
Gruide
fighting
reality
Desire
Better
desirable
tions
collec-
recepitive
for
(BOYS);
order.
Increase
Teach
Memory
sharing.
8-13
to
Longer
body
Truancy
MENTAL
modestv.
practical
Separate
emulation,
reason.
CHARACTERISTICS.
sex
hoarding,
affections.
for
Cultivate
PHYSICAL
Rivalry,
religion.
sincerity.
Applied
beginning
Acquisitiveness,
and
TRAITS
Imitation
of
children.
alive.
teaching
GIRLHOOD;
(Girls).
BASIC
to
lang^uage.
other
be
must
for
Preserve
8-12
Repulsion
Quieting
of
care
Teach
ownership
BOYHOOD
Habit
words.
new
hyperbolic
cize.
criti-
regulari^.
Careful
faith, trust
Unconsciousness
; but
CHARACTERISTICS.
Selfishness
Lack
of
careful
Develop
MORAL
fables
and
simply, explain
Be
dolls
good
exemplars.
for imparting
mation.
infor-
used
be
Speak
small
Vocabulary
be
must
the
for
nature.
events.
novel-series.
best
scientific
training.
choice.
exemplars.
progress.
TEACHERS'
152
PROBLEMS
MENTAL
Cynicism
and
CHARACTERISTICS.
criticalness
Poetry-age
and
"Storm
stress"
Transpose
it
Friendly,
helpful
ment
self-improve-
to
criticism.
"on
age;
hill"
Fool's
SOLVED
History-interest
Sjrmpathetic
control.
Insure
thoroughness
its
and
universality.
MORAL
Day-dreams,
castle-building.
of
Appreciation
Conscience
beauty,
S.
life-work
19-25
YOUTH,
Personalitjl
and
Serious
study.
Careful
balance.
it;
it.
it.
respect
CHARACTERISTICS.
Limited,
perfected.
yet
intentions, "engagement"
Keep
criticism,
their
confidence.
CHARACTERISTICS.
MENTAL
literature,
Give
home.
at
opportunity
direction.
Sympathetic
of thought
all schools
Analyze
art
of
doubts
Age
Abstracting
Sy"tematization
Philosophy
Social
of
utilization
Perfect
fashion
Aesthetic
(Girls),
17"^-22
Business
begun
love
Careful
TRAITS
achieved
PHYSICAL
Style
informed.
it well
(Boys);
BASIC
Specialization
direction.
Keep
ritual
for
confidence.
their
..Keep
style... Wise
clear
of
Choice
Love
CHARACTERISTICS.
out
adopted
Conceit
Apply
religion
Direct
study.
Encourage
saloon
of
Study
Dee")ening
fraternity,
group,
differing
repentance
after
system.
them.
merit.
club,
Direct
societies
Sympathetic
religions
first
to
CHARACTERISTICS.
MORAL
Organization,
attainments.
their
,.
interest
Politics
their
Organize
.Write
sins
and
Consolation.
guidance.
CONCLUSION
TYPES
4.
The
OF
teacher
is
characters,
and
them.
that
All
HISTORIC
CHARACTERS.
into
brought
is
153
compelled
learn
to
individual
with
contact
how
to
manage
and
far
have
psychology
pedagogy
so
have
offered
are
only the
vaguest
generalities that
therefore
been
useless
practically.
Galen
had
four
taught
temperaments,
sanguine,
These
melancholy,
choleric, phlegmatic.
rewere
add
and
would
to them
adopted
by Wundt,
Hoffding
the
dark
the
since
other
then
bright and
; and
many
"emotive"
"volitional"
been
or
types have
suggested.
But
this
of
the
with
individual
teacher
none
helps
cases.
He
needs
taken
his
from
of
here
study,
confidence
that
We
have
had
furnished
who
studies
rules
how
Then
be
important.
the
to
the
definite
classes
will
are
be
the
alike, and
prevailing type of
character
difficult
is received
teacher
first
that
of
system
on
to
in
we
it is the
the
cause
with
have
hitherto
a
acknowledge
the
to
"personal
such
this
work
the
girl.
work
On
to
say,
management
of
up
instance,
for
individual
outlines
furnished.
draw
class
If this
majority.
teacher
"Washington"
a
with
gives
acters.
char-
The
character,
general
with
psychology
then
may
or
deal
plan
to
field, although
He
until
character.
of
boy,
suit
be
of
usually
individual
treat
impossible
definite
some
neglected
pedagogy
type
able
favor,
least
two
each
treat
may
that
to
result
useful.
furnished
"Jefferson"
pedagogy"
prove
types
here
The
tentatively
least
course
those
also
and
cases,
the
type of the
no
of
proposed
how
standard
will
sufficient
at
above,
was
to
he
it will
classify
may
temperaments.
is the
fortuitous, and
it is
directions
This
a
that
so
teacher
character
actual
is not
said
detailed
no
these
of
types
the
Then
to
made
long
distinctive
life.
actual
pupils according
selection
at
of
number
a
of
component
most
that
this
is
viduals.
indi-
154
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
TRAITS
OF
Possessing
1,
3" Disposed
6" Graceful
OF
4, Feeling
rhythmic.
7, Loving
OF
GRANT
TYPE.
2,
Feeling
intensely
the
death.
planning
4, Possessing
OF
PETER
THE
OF
TRAITS
energetic.
or
1,
Dignified
and
4" Resilient,
determined.
cise, irritable.
5,
self-justifying.
TYPE.
2, Critical
and
artistic.
ous.
Gener-
TYPE.
NELSON
2, Reckless.
3, Melancholy.
affectionate.
Dependent,
3,
6" Dietetic
5, Nature-loving.
OF
TRAITS
7.
4" Collectivistic
cowardly,
TAFT
OF
formal.
1, Just, honorable.
TYPE.
6, Mean,
TRAITS
e.
cious.
Loqua-
matic,
diplopound-fooHsh.
3, Philosophic.
2, Ingenious.
4"
3, Indefatigable,
tactless,
NAPOLEON
OF
curiosity.
TYPE.
2, Travel-loving.
penny-wise.
4, Changeable,
and
artistic.
eloquent
Brilliantly
5"
5" Fitfully lazy
GREAT.
CAESAR
1, Home-loving.
5.
ability.
6, Kindly.
individual.
TRAITS
4.
steadily.
guessing
disposition.
by
2, Led
rule
of
thumb.
unsystematically
by
and
home.
memory.
dual
a
5" Artistic
1, Amative.
and
wonderful
ability. 6, Possessing
TRAITS
3, Progressing
spacious
sunny
TRAITS
to
Possessing
a
sensation.
9.
8.
in
discernment
2, Intuitive
natural
nobility. 5. Friendly.
lead.
to
5, Possessing
TYPE.
JEFFERSON
intelligence.
and
1, Enjoying
8, Determined
1,
CHARACTER-TYPES^
TRAITS
1-
SOLVED
4, Unpre-
Symbolically
6,
intuitive.
TRAITS
8.
of
nature.
formal.
6^ Disposed
to
9.
1,
TRAITS
OF
11.
disposition.
8, Possessing
consummate
6| Dependent,
kindly.
2,
tact.
7, Feeling
OF
a
4,
good
judge
Brilliant.
kinship
WASHINGTON
organize.
cere.
5" Sin-
TYPE.
LINCOLN
2, Being
to
ruin.
with
of character.
5, Adaptable.
nature.
TYPE.
4, Inde*
3, Materialistic.
2, Intellectual.
"jt^'^^^oXft^^^^fi^^v^awv
6, Rcal\w%,
5, Chivalric.
Laborious,
pendent
methods.
OF
ing
Scold-
TYPE.
2, Disposed
rule or
Disposed
to
4,
and
artistic.
original
TRAITS
TRAITS
4.
3, Frank.
of insight
prophetic
FRANKLIN
OF
TRAITS
6, Religious,
12.
TYPE.
TYPE.
BUNYAN
2,
and
5, Rash
to wholesale
1, Disposed
in management.
3, Able
social
L
Faithful.
muscular.
combative.
10.
1, Of
CHARLES
of the
ness
productivepassionate.
2, Fond
cratic,
BureauIntuitionally
diplomatic.
4,
3,
socialization
and
to
reform.
5, Disposed
sting. 7, Disloyal.
Laborious,
and
OF
and
1, Magnetic
ISS
CONCLUSION
(Consult
Bolton's
said
often
the
of wealth, and
poverty
and
At William
latter.
the
professors.
ment
minea
to
founded
could
He
had
needs.
British
see
instinct
He
wrote
drafted
and
Love
system.
monetary
of
Jefferson's ability
As
continuously.
Later
twice
No
who
one
with
was
He
condescended
He
of
retention
introduced
He
foresaw
Louisiana.
our
the
Lead.
itself early and
diplomatist.
skilful
a
later
Ambassador
and
France,
to
Nobility.
Natural
Feeling
fail
could
him
a
certain
natural
be
to
nobility.
Friendly.
Monticello
at
great
passions, and
three
Graceful
lover
a
was
he
in
Parisian
welcomed
was
Jefferson temperament
him.
reigned around
7"
He
was
so
day
one
was
one
planned,
the
iM
large.
was
his
activities
political
Harmony
in
married
the
his
he
state
tatight.
6.
He
After
disputes.
to
circle
practiced and
family
was
our
made
Becca
Mftfcl
pendence,
inde-
SUtes.
5.
He
of
the
over
was
Virginia;
of
Risrhts
Independence.
manifested
he
clients*
his
Miss
Patrick
friendships, with
Henry,
strong:
his
Carr.
His
sister
and
Dabney
Burwell,
Jane,
lations
reHe
Martha
beautiful.
to his daughter
were
never
very
He
he
of
in contact
with
came
individuality of character,
his
basis
the
to
leadership
lawyer
a
4.
imprcsMd
for
the
he
primogeniture;
his ruling
passion.
from
bought
France,
Disposed
of
Governor
of the United
became
President
he
end
to
truth
8.
of
impendinj?
Hamilton.
difficulties with
Cffm""g
of
View
Rave
card-playingf.
or
intuition
Declaration
sought
He
Virginia.
in
and
first
the
He
advantage.
financial
own
horse-racing
"Summary
catastrophe
the
foresaw
in
which
the
Discernment.
research
of
the
his
choose
of
friendship
he
deterLegislature,
the
to
of
manapre-
would
he
earned
he
Mary
benefit
no
the
between
education,
IntuiJtive in
America,"
slavery
with
elected
When
choose
to
keep political activities clear
of Virginia.
the University
2.
He
Intelligence.
if forced
that
Statesmen,'^
American
Famous
Possessing
1.
He
TRAITS.
JEFFERSON'S
1.
in
nature.
married
all music
impatient
knelt
of
as
and
Sunny
ft
of
close
Music
capable
a
circles,
Levins
Rhythmic
and
was
one
musician.
fitting: them
simshine;
Spacious
hannony
of
He
well.
and
his
was
The
serenity
Home*
confinement
at
school
that
ture
Architecdismissal.
expedite
He
of his three
had
always
serenity.
passions.
Monticello
"^WOc^
his
built and
Vvotcv^"
kept up
prayer
to
passion of hit Ufa, whet"
great
the tni
Almott
nriaed
kirn.
bft VCQVQM4
V^
teBii\Mk
^ks^^Xn^
156
TEACHERS'
PROBLEMS
GRANrS
".
{Consult Bolton's
was
self-control.
listen
to
It
It
a
is
even
in
which
child
a
forms
and
end
he
of
was
facts
of
love
that his
the
him
rational
and
by
all
over-indulgence
the
keen
natural
of
of
sports
delight.
and
Intensely
Steadily.
and
followed
impulsive,
very
His
hastened
was
allowed
a
Feeling
2.
As
took
he
the
opportunity
achievement
in that
he
in spite of his
succeeded
Lincoln
this, when
he
saw
refused
him
Grant
degrade
when
to
eral.
gen-
wished
who
face
to
the
greatness
possible that his
his
youth
parents
his
country-life,
him
indulgences;
prohibitionist
to
In
cigars.
his
shows
Statesmen,'^
Sensations.
Grant
on
afford
to
one
unwise
of
enjoyment
American
Famous
reflection
no
disposition
native
of
surely
IS
TRAITS.
Enjoying:
1.
It
SOLVED
ferent
dif-
many
with
experience
Julia Dent
tiful
beauwas
most
and
fervid.
His
his wife
devotion
to
was
steady to the last, in spite
of
all the
"Wherever
Grant
struggles of distasteful
occupations.
is, things
said
Lincoln.
could
He
endure
the
move/'
not
sight of pain and
was
siderate
conthe
and
Lee
to
his
unfortunate,
He
especially to
army.
was
his
life-work
essentially kindly, an(} closed
saying, "Let
have
us
peace."
He
and
He
gentle, tender
was
delighted in compassion.
confiding.
sport.
Determined
8.
Although
regretful
his
earned
unflinching
gallantry
Civil
War.
inflexibility during
the
he
answered
asked
there
when
that
he
War
was
once
his
^
after
the
second
War
time.
world
the
coolly
said
that
Vicksburg^
Chattanooga.
He
planned
West
has
his
soldiers
would
wisest.
the
planned
campaigns
Point
Halleck
to
like
had
wrote
campaigns
chess-games,
the
Possessing
he
have
a
summer."
The
of
He
was
of
"cool
persistence
of a bull-dog.
When
his
Memory*.
West
tion,
examina-
Point
He
lesson
rarely read
a
the
of
his
Civil
writing
of
his
around
journey
his
of
of
"His
life.
libraries
mental
world,
the
and
Ability.
him.
acknowledged
Lincoln
but
ness
Wilder-
the
off.
hoped
He
Point
cut
themselves
that
like
Grant's
praise
against
at
which
been
have
Belmont
at
out,
as
for
the
and
was
Ability.
Guessing
he should
presentiment
so
he
they had
taking
for
plan
Richmond
he
become
to
would
and
surrounded
When
war.
At
all
When
know,
not
years.
grip
him
Planning
at
war,
indomitable.
the
the
to
West
did
he
it takes
treasures
easy
Mexican
the
6.
At
he
shake
can
mathematics
He
his
if
passed
very
for
in.
was
line
Wonderful
Possessing
of
professor
themselves
cut
thirty
picture-galleries
were
were
but
and
wonderful
the
5.
appointed,
this
him
Mexican
the
displayed
same
armistice
by Buckner,
surrender.
said
he
home.
at
preparation
world
After
his trip around
the
and
for
the
"Century"
magazine,
Mathematics
assistant
it took
on
excited,
nothing
imagination
thought."
treasured
for
asked
unconditional
but
doubtful
exhibited
and
memory
of
very
experiences
out
Possessing
surprise he
own
but
When
the
He
his
will
because
was
Lincoln
steel.
appreciated
of
4.
To
fi^htit
is not
easily
his teeth
in,
Surpose.
gets
if
there
in
promotion.
chiefly
nerve
He
e
"to
his
Vicksburg,
enter
to
stay
won
and
will
iron
to
enlisted
terms
no
expected
expected
proposed
he
Civil
he
were
tibe Death.
to
having
at
battle
at
Atlanta.
good.
some
day
At
Winficld
Scott.
burg,
Vicksreviewing
officer, General
teries,
battheir
the
before
fleet had
when
the
completed
gun-boat
passage
it
Hazardous
felt relieved
the
he
won.
as
victory was
as
though
After
Richmond.
of the James
River, behind
he moved
south
his army
was,
the
that
stood
the
on
country
he
ventured
prophecy
writing his memoirs
adaptation
wat
and
pTo"v"*^Vj. Hia
of harmony
thresliold
of an
the
era
t\\e ke^tveslt, tW^,
He
not
but
vaa
\""i*^ SM^
ficklen^sB,
insight.
\"
t* ^^m^
c"l \iwa"
%*
aix^Q.
as
^eie
He
the
that
servers.
realized
enemy
be
in
the
place
of
the
.157
CONCLUSION
THE
PETER
8.
K,
(Consult
As
a
boy
WalissewsHs
Possessing
1.
Biography.)
Disposition.
Dual
a
all kinds
enjoyed
he
TRAITS.
GREAT'S
practical
of
When
jarames.
and
capable
infrom
home
he
dignity, quite
danger
ran
awa^
bombs
initiative.
One
of taking
throwing
day he was
personal
any
He
the
and
was
next,
carousing.
singing in church;
climbing
masts;
next,
He
and
in
death
bed
the
of his mother,
three
at
days revelling.
weeping
and
diversified
but
the
most
comprehensive
not
complete,
was
a
great
man,
had
den
sudhe
Yet
of a great
appeared.
ever
personification
people that had
violence
shifts
of
fits ox
depression,
melancholy,
or
gloomy
temper;
result of all this was
and
The
restless
disturbing.
a
genial but wayward,
crowded
with
surprises.
future
threatened
with
^
Led
8.
As
child, Peter
a
founded
interested
was
instinct
his
on
Curiosity.
by
details, really
in all small
whatever
touch
to
was
His
new.
Progressing
3.
As
child
a
UnsystematicaUy
Peter
in all small
interested
was
old
boat,
im"
and
strango
a
Thumb.**
of
"Rule
by
great
was
attracted
to an
astrolabe, and to an
By curiosity he was
curiosity.
curious
their
Hc!t was
did
understand
he
not
use.
ever
though
When
commanded
he
visiting in Pomerania
patient to learn.
lady to halt, so as to be able to investigate her watch.
around
details
soldier.
His
than
rather
bourgeois,
a
of
thumb."
in
education
not
orderly, but
chaotic, by "rule
was
progress
and
and
He
turning,
proficient in various
trades, such
dentistry
was
as
learned
in
Holland.
which
later
he
His
victory at Poltava
ship-building,
of his
the
ultimately
outcome
drilling his grooms.
appointing
Though
was
admiral
others
remain
he
captain, no
preferred
to
or
general
private and
would
he
thus
be actually doing
because
something.
doubt
him,
that
so
he
looked
was
on
as
Loquacious.
4.
From
his
days
earliest
a
he
given
was
carousing
to
with
boon
and
of the
Sloboda
casino
there
end
to talk.
companions,
at the
was
no
his
table
of
of
Mitau
the
he
Forgetting
at
the Duke
incognito,
surprised
his
entertainers
and
by the unexpectedness of his remarks,
by his jokes
the
laws
of his own
At
on
Liban,
habits^prejudices and barbarous
country.
with
in
sailors
of
drank
and
the
the
be
joked.
the
"Wemkeller,**
port,
often
beside
As
he
there
is no
of the
amount
question
himself,
OS
was
he
indulged.
irresponsible language in which
Artistic
5.
As
His
a
child
early
his
and
navy
actual
even
adopted
these
ill.
he
the
war
He
of
accomplishments
His
attempt
shipwright's
on
Dutch
than
in
Azof
tools, with
charmed
was
the
flag.
seal
the
self-taught.
was
was
motto,
to
be
"My
a
of
the
of
an
young
rank
is
interested
more
country,
in
which
apprentice's
carpenter
that of
and
civilization
Dutch
far
was
government
in the
nature
piece."
"master-
by
surrounded
a
all
fared
scholar*
and
it
masters."
6.
He
with
He
the
was
Mihailof's
curiosity, and
by
went
games
colors
much
and
real
into
trades,
curiosity developed
and
the
length of a shipyard
fortress, and
a
begun
bloodshed.
Peter
need
displayed
experiments
IndividuaL
and
was
over-democratic
a
convivial
in
Kindly.
comrade,
He
and
attracted
heavy
by femaUe
drinker;
he
'was
society and
early he
married
Eudoxia
Ivan
he
To
showed
but
kindness^
Lapouhin.
nothing
and
Catherine
him
found
a
twqX
^^
passionate lover, a frletvd, ^ W^^xA^
solutely without
indeed,
but trusty
"aii
reproach
d""oX"i
CktKs^l ^"3MSa"ift%
"
il not
over-re"ned, nor
impeccably f aithtuU
taste.
was
158
PROBLEMS
JEACHERS'
CAESAR'S
4.
TRAITS.
{Consult Fowler^s
set
ancestry,
also
that
of
the
efforts
for
and
government
methods
The
bill
agrarian
his
traveled
in
the
a
of
work
Britain.
Then
he
in
When
in
the
Nile.
visited
in
quaestor
solution
86j
them
Before
the
his
further
that
claiming
five
^hen
he
up
to
in
far
as
even
refused
he
and
His
in
of
Alexander
in
Molo
teous.
He
of
hi"
hi"
work
liter Ary
with
and
later
efforts
Not
Great,
wientific
by
as
practical
Italy.
where
Every-
in
a
in
the
his
remained
home,
his
did
his
dolence
in-
debts
enormous
Pompeia,
He
of
On
them.
generaL
wife
way
ing
sav-
Mithridates'
he
lamented
he
65-68,
undertake
to
for
entertained
he
crucified
Gades,
at
hesitate
pirates
back
years,
suddenly,
hesitate
not
election
as
to
consul,
insulted
He
studied
are
second
and
laid
durinc
VAiefi
\ie
mtelUgenct,
and
hit
i"M
used
still
near
oratory
bis diction
pure,
orator
Artistic.
or
self-made,
which
was
even
fkiff.
made
Laberius
him
by commanding
unheard-of
accepted many
honors,
for
life, though
accepted the dictatorship
He
an
duties
crown"
"civic
beat
three
he
calendar,
the
mentaries''
"Com-
his
his
Pound-foolish.
and
stood
He
considered
was
visiting
discover
the
the
kinglets.
to
all
out
He
the
army
"Commentaries,"
reformed
merely
not
enjoyed
and
industrv.
captured
and
captured
plays.
style
against
Spain.
Further
was
he
carried
Spain,
practically
His
in
he
81,
served
it
himself,
Brilliantly Eloquent
was
in
Pemiy-wise.
his
divorced
He
be above
suspicion.
own
have
may
he
78,
then
He
and
the
power
his
logical computations.
did
an
to
information.
Rhodes.
he
When
this
absolute
his
writing
had
when
education
social
administrator.
freed,
deification.
title of king.
as
the
His
death,
quaestor
to
received
when
gathered
wife
one
style and
for
he
he
5.
it
in
show;
Tactless,
political
his
of
machinery
Gnipho,
everywhere;
of
capable
career.
achieved
perform
became
tact
troubles
and
triumph
his
the
Sulla's
travel,
was.
For
resigned
suddenly.
He
did not
intriguing.
and
plotting
to
with
fellow-soldier.
a
statue
and
he
Changeable,
of
great
he
When
administration.
Until
chiefly due-
Spain
oratorically
responsibility
own
and
studious
Mytilene,
at
return
made
veterans.
excursion
an
planned
Syria, visiting
through
Spain.
even
Africa
was
wise
a
life
the
he
economic
the
was
Marian
After
He
reconstruct
teacher
He
returned
He
how
4.
In
his
of
country.
for
longing
coast.
Egypt,
Further
for
he
and
lived
he
his
away
home.
to
Indefatigable, Diplomatic,
show
life
exiled.
at
efficient
is known
68-66"
his
Commentaries
as
education
His
that
Gaul,
again
3.
his
put
to
and
homes
to
of
Tears
Travel-Lovins.
Still
conquest,
of
source
in
Cilician
the
on
it
new
divine
and
political prominence,
retired
^ve
to
a
nationality
work
great
descent
reasonable.
interest
East.
the
pirates
His
more
recent
used
he
power
establish
to
Gallic
noble
lived
he
2.
initiated
his
For
eig^ht ^ears,
equally
were
on
family's
his
first
the
forty
command,
Refusing^, at Sulla's
of his
estate
deprived
was
an
pass
absolute
to
acceded
value
on
mother.
he
east,
to
as
his
quietly at home.
wife
Cornelia,
from
high
a
well
as
Biography.)
Home-Lovins*
L
He
SOLVEQ
onlv
the
objectified
he
in
the
class-room
later
and
Cicero,
lucid, his manner
In
Cicero.
his
to
basia
of
campaigns
tiitaX^^iibA^
in
vgl
all
and
^
ficate
ponti-
chrons-
exact
Gaul
v^wtx
with
cour-
Britaia
Qccauised
160
TEACHERS'
TAFT'S
(Consult
Difi^nified and Formal.
all an
organizer, and establisher
1.
form
of
this
is above
good
accomplished
dignity of
for
approval,
he
allowed
never
would
He
above
was
appointment
U.
in
S., judge
He
is
of
this
career
artistic.
well
as
art
to
of
General
the
offered
thrice
was
rogatives.
pre-
testifies
them
Solicitor
to
its
continual
his
in
he
limit
to
and
success
President
"riders,"
pointment
ap-
widest
had
the
to
having
opportunities
the
his
world,
charm
trip around
personal
him
friends
favorite
a
has
He
by accepting
the
Governor
of
Kent
he
wherever
his
of law
is
style
remained
He
tivate
culand
social
His
went.
and
banquets,
at
winning
ways.
professorship
both
faithful
to
Yale.
at
Generous.
8.
While
his
as
by
Bench.
taste.
and
to
in
judge
Ohio,
Federal
District, and
his
During
made
artistic
appreciation
made
him
accomplishments
polished
in
was
Supreme
critic
good
a
his
infringed
which
it was
sought
public office.
get
%
As
respect.
be
to
Critical and Artistic.
judge,
discriminating
Sixth
the
their
earn
2.
He
the
on
to
crawl
all a
positions,
such
to
as
introduce
to
office
proper
seftled
in
do
Cuba.
To
of
a
new
system
and
Panama,
of
establish
to
not
characterization.
this
so
his
the
him
to
sent
He
enabled
thereby
was
in the
government
Philippines, in
had
and
the
conciliatd
natives,
to
he
bills
He
feeling.
laws, all of which
he
TRAITS.
by R, Patterson, G. G, Wilson, L. L. Dunn.)
Books
Mr. Taft
dignity, with
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
the
he
Philippines
offered
thrice
was
which
he ^desired, but
refused
in
Bench,
He
order
his
is big of
finish
the
heart
service
and
to
Filipinos.
to
pathetic.
symHe
the
enforced
principle of Canadian
reciprocity, with
dignity
His
and
effect.
his
unaffected
kindness,
simplicity and
genial
face, the
and
make
him
of
combine
the
to
charity
magnanimity
exceedingly
man,
"our
called
beloved
If anything
likable.
He
he
president."
was
too
was
with
of
tolerant
lack
with
insubordination,
of
long-suffering
too
delay,
the
appointments
to
discipline and
energy.
Supreme
Resilient
4.
exhibited
always
has
He
or
Determined.
power.
will-
and
independence
strong
follow
his
of lawyer,
he
to
career
Wishing
resip^nedthe far better
defended
Collector
While
in Ohio.
judge, he
position of Revenue
paying
been
of a
Having
the
railroad, while
conciliating the employes.
operation
those
fluences
inand
foil
locum
he
the
in
as
Presidency
same
a
tenens,
gave
put
in
such
of
their
lives
the
to
recognize
refusing
surprise
any
and
brave
No
less
derogatory treatment,
a
making
fight for his position.
in dieting, by which
he
reduced
will is his success
significant of his strong
several
of diet extending
His
himself
over
successfully by a course
^ears.
with
which
he took
nature
good
by the genial and
resiliency is indicated
for re-election.
his defeat
5"
His
of
love
of
golf, which
has
Nature
Lovins:.
by
exemplified
is best
nature
him
enabled
to
most
spend
Philippines,
out-doors.
His
in
the
sojourns
around
and
his
continued
the
world,
journey
full field to his enjoyment
States have
given
6.
Mr.
and
effective
and
norma]
of
so
incidental
that
exercise,
sarv
whose
Taft
their
courses
condition.
training
as
object if
to
to
devoted
social
of
dieting
for
in
Cuba,
game
recreation
Panama;
around
travels
of
favorite
time
his
United
the
nature*
Dietetic.
himself
obligation^,
it became
in
his
his
of
which
so
for
necessary
duties
the
to
with
little
him
to
successfully
he
has
then
Since
so
to
bd
willing
appe"t
and
sdenU"c
promote
interested
amoxv^
tB.Wou"\
of
undertake
reduced
himself
offices,
his
opportunity
for
neces-
intelligent
him
in
to
this
\"ci^ ^vt^tlor*
of
a
^"^je!eka vtvdixt:^
a
more
course
WOOttJ
CONCLUSION
161
NELSON'S
7.
TRAirS.
(Consult Biography
Just, Honorable.
1-
As
child, honor
a
led
him
to
his
brother
wished
school, though
him.
He
gain ever
chose
swayed
than
Canada
beckoned
for
him
to
his
all
back.
West
It
No
the
He
appeal
India
was
life.
through-
persevere
turn
the
prize-money.
onward
T. Mahan.)
by A.
for
post
his
lost
child, he
a
because
merely
character
His
He
be
was
cool
recklessness
in
Admiral's
and
Indies,
under
led
had
had
Wellington
and
vain
were
should
To
Mrs.
mortified
He
received
but
his
was
incidental
He
had
in
Hughes
expressed
to
in
allowance
nature,
profound.
went
the
he
wrote
"Even
was
one
succession
hinted
him
the
education,
suicide
at
to
enforced
rests
was
recover
disfavor
he
depression.
great
did
noij
he
drews.
An-
all
to
During
in
if
Miss
marry
drooped;"
trees
of
time
one
forebodings
When
Patagonia.
to
he
enable
to
choly.
melan-
at
Gloomy
sea
love,
his
was
double
a
and
first
scanty
a
pilot.
ance.
persever-
to
even
affairs.
and
unfortunate
love
poisonings,
and
he was
and
At
later
Malta
dejected.
Irritable*
4.
Unprecise,
uremic
from
was
and
obe3ring orders.
Possibly this
duties.
early semi-detached
his
When
lip.
life
whole
had
determinateness
that
Nelson
Moutray
His
melancholy.
by
to
sensible
his
pout
sufHcient
receive
not
his
another
which
would
he
agitated,
pear-tree,
fearless
a
indifference
He
Naples.
due
observed
at
vaporous,
under
those
a
the
Melancholy.
with
contrast
strong
became
showed
fleet
a
was
teacher's
Re
positive insubordination.
early in his life, under
at
lost
3.
In
of
to
both
Keith
responsibility
of
lieutenants
single-mindedness,
He
danger.
order
Keith
that
fearlessness
indomitable
This
his
on
afraid.
were
called
ever
the
disregarded
climb
a
boys
other
might
consequences.
the
West
observation
hazarded
the
of
Reckless.
2,
As
command
the
of
feelings
honor,
to
that
"Fox"
the
on
or
rather
honor"
life
the
He
had
nice
of
drowning
sailors.
save
sense
love
of truth.
At
refused
he
propriety, and
Trafalgar
vacant
frigate to Blackwood,
the
not
to
deprive
so
as
clanger
honor,
called
"thing
almost
to
snow
to
he
by
after
which
of grammar
style, and
even
from
His
letters
result
such
were
to
uni"olished,
early neglect.
are
apt
He
and
bad
awkward
English.
was
disfigured
by
expression
incorrect,
child
His
both
and
often
manner
as
irritable, his health
man.
being poor
of wearing^ his
dress
He
clean
irritable.
was
always
English
was
negligent.
application
in
Fear
remedy
him
Parker.
career
corresponded
he
to
of
charms
great
difHcultv
his
of
which
him
of
an
Calder.
with
end.
It
In
his
whole
the
his
wife,
idealize
he
important
Lady
child
a
beckoned
of
his
end.
the
from
of
It
out
the
never
b*ttJe.
is
of
mast
foreboding
unusual
wrote
he
in
done
diary
prophecy
baring
it
a
saw
He
did
He
also
so
swayed
admiration
none
deprive
to
him.
Intuitive.
by
premonitions
vague
engraved
name
which
suspended
orb
seized
was
his
Moutray
feelings.
his
and
in
attachments,
allowed
radiant
a
ordered
he
by Collingwood.
all he
possessing
approached,
explains
sympathy
womanly
on
the
coffin
made
need
This
it on
his
return.
might
On
Sept. IS, 1805. he
writings also.
of his
death;
anticipation
on
leavi)X|L Vk!^ w^^u^
he
the
Orient,
as
in his
is evident
his
gypsy
wound
than
est
kind-
the
say
by
whom
with
followed
successive
He
objects.
renown.'*
to
said
on
various
appreciation
"ever
onward
me
his
Symbolically
6.
As
and
this later
Locher.
to
always
captain,
was
of
esteem
dependence
rather
ship
he
His
Hamilton's
his
inclination
his
and
Sucklingf,
to
career
their
to
repugnance
Affectionate.
by
was
and
love
manner.
with
did
the
by
mastered
action
lasting attachment
a
thing possible.
easily enlisted
He
in
was
shaped
was
formed
He
but
out,
in
trifles.
petulant
5.
Dependent,
was
early
His
died
never
He
disgrace.
of
eccentricities
the
before
codicil
the
that
be
to
now
hia
his
book
knelt
wiU
of life "W^a
and
prayed
tisQcd
oy
c\o"^d,
^\
XVib
BV^ck^iood.
TV^ax^
V".
"d"^
^^
^"^
\iripT^iftSt^%
Samuel
(Consult
anxious
very
with
seeing
her
she
to
the
He
fainted.
was
He
collected
a
He
refused
civilians.
billeted
on
were
of
Commons.
before
the House
appear
Charles
carried
and
in England,
met
frightening her so
her.
that
he
resigned
soon
Fond
gaieties and
in the
Isle of
performances
fled
he
the
to
For
eleven
where
wall,
imposed
Soldiers
officers
house
custom
to
parliament
single-handed.
yeara
no
the
government
and
Prynne.
to
opposed
as
without
parliament.
help from
on
wars
he
regrime of dances,
a
defend
to
encroachments
have
dramatic
in trouble
When
nature's
he enjoyed
on
enough
nature
Milton's
as
to
Comus.
Carisbrooke
at
Nature.
of
began
tried
He
loved
air, such
open
Wight,
by
loan
the
Productiveness
the
of all kinds.
He
fines.
pleasures
let
to
established
was
fay levving
forests
on
of
he
as
forced
tent
con-
garden
conditions
violence.
the
at
not
the
over
angrv
so
and
Infanta,
jumped
drama,
the
bishops'
Scottish
both
2.
As
patronized
and
admired
Charles
carried
He
on
History.)
Passionate.
marry
occasions,
state
on
TRAITS.
Gardiner's
R.
Bfiagnetic and
1.
was
I/s
CHARLES
8.
He
SOLVED
PROBLEMS
TEACHERS'
162
castle
surrotmdingi.
was
imposed
In
yielding
very
declaration
a
of
and
he fled
He
enforced
When
Whitehall.
from
He
fond
of
to
lands
military
dress,
and
III.
James
He
in persisting
When
pomp.
nothing
Socializationi
to
who
outward
dignity, and
admirable
it
obstinate
was
of
owners
Disposed
5.
He
all
was
with
leaving of
the
all parties
be
to
had
neglected
Charles
advised
insist
of
Laud
to
ritual, and
uniformity
on
the
He
tish
Scotmetro-political visitation.
through
reappointed
even
behaved
as
in
in
others
Formal.
4.
Bureaucratic,
his
father,
dignified than
more
was
fines
on
knighted.
worship,
bishops.
he
He
of detail.
matters
16S8.
discord
in
religious
on
between
who
compromised
Laud,
papacy
failed against the five members,
1642
his blow
to
silence
followed
he
religious matters
protestantism.
Diplomatic
Intuitionally
8.
H"
became
and
in lines
his
captured*
life
so
well
Reform.
of
conduct
he
self
him-
fines
those
who
had
He
levied
encroached
old
on
on
He
raised
from
of the
in
forests.
different
towns
ship-money,
with
started
with
His
Parliament
his realization
of
England.
controversy
and
of national
the
international
which
geoisie"
"bourissues,
the
necessity
to
entirely indifferent.
were
had
boundaries
chosen.
Disposed
6.
He
and
tried
himself
to
led
solaiers
to
five members
impeach
Sting.
of i)arliament
of
treason,
take
had
Five
been
Knights
imprisoned
in
for
1687,
forced
refused
to
refusing
He
give up his power
to
trial.
He
imprison without
each
other,
successively called to arms,
against
the
and
He
Irish, Scotch
decided
of
himself
to
tions
muniEnglish.
a
possess
at
led to setting up
magazine
his standard
Hull, which
at
Nottingham.
them.
loans.
to
7.
Although
Strafford
had
DisloyaL
been
his
great
supporter,
and
had
been
Charles
his bill of attainder,
promised
and
allowed
signed
imounity,
him
executed.
As
would
to be
him
be
took
benevolence,
no
grant
one
any
the
he did
intend
advice
to
loan.
forced
borrow,
not
though
a
to repay,
as
He
not
would
was
willing to make
to
civilians, but
promise
imprison
any
He
not
give up the right to do so.
freedom
ready to grant
was
parliament
of counsel,
of control.
When
but
not
withdrew
he
the
opposed
Scottish
Charles
should
be dissolved
pnyerbook,
promised the parliament
withnot
biM
out
He
the
oafy^
consent.
called
EngliBb.
to
b"
the
Ireland
on
w""w""ff^.
English
was
He
to
cow
continuaWy
had
pUnned
^"r"!N!^ \a
the
Sco\a, ".tA oti ^"
"ow
\ietta.y t^.
\-"m""Js"^;"^ vi(v"siw^
vi^
\axx""3ms%.
^t^aOa.
\o ixnv"tt
"!63
CONCLUSION
TRAITS.
BUNYAN'S
9.
{Consult Biography
He
as
brought up as
apprentice in that trade.
was
while
he
made
tags
had
character
become
for
a
they
as
honesty
had
also
wife, and
falsely of
to
against
him
bailed
felt he
of
promise
where
bound
was
he
in
necessary,
himself
drunk
in the
a
of
all
was
refused
He
to
lawdid so
was
he
not
Frank.
sins
almost
He
When
Pilgrim's Progress.
not
general promise
he
cusing
acwas
spiritual
in
offered
freedom
he
refused
the
roundly,
his
preach,
to
was
self-abhorrence,"
of
Nevertheless
sins.
revealed
his own
of
manner
than
earnestly
more
language
unchaste.
nor
his
out
was
again.
preaching
obey law actively,
could
his
he
warrant
it.
to
accused
He
not
''passionate
face
to
on
faithful
When
confessed
for
themselves
very
was
witness
on
Bunyan
return
He
loose
he
His
brazier.
a
prided
Bunyans
laboriousness.
3.
career
a
became
worker.
even
jail he
in
became
abiding, and
passively.
neither
been
avocation
Even
respectable.
regular and
he
called
heaven
to
living,
his wife.
that a
warned
Though
faithful
be
his
out
FaitfafuL
the
were,
and
he
bound
was
preacher.
Later
2.
their
continued
He
boot-laces.
He
tinker.
poor
famous
a
"Christian**
Poor
Muscular.
Laborious,
1.
Proude.y
by Jos, A,
evasion.
He
was
tongue
saints
violent, passionate
a
bitter.
was
deeply
jailed
not
he
would
5.
His
lying.
forward
In
not
continuously
was
his
House,
inventive
He
had
to
the
book,
and
preach, which
He
his
"brisk
a
the
talker."
authorities
and
faculty
fearful
Day
there
in the
led to
his
soldier;
a
and
many
arrest.
martial
so
of
was
convicted
was
vindictive,
let him
to
fervid
and
but
out;
cause
behe
condemned.
of Insight
itself
showed
he
chance
be
Prophetic
Delectable
He
were
a
to
dreams,
of Judgment,
are
be
to
swore
imagination,
give them
struggling
Rash,
boy, who
drawn
was
impressed
and
because
temperament,
Combative.
and
Scolding
4.
in
childhood
dreadful
and
visions
Mouiitam%"
to
in
by
even
visions, looking
soul-temptations.
the
Interpreter's
'S.^
t^"c\.^^
v^
TEACHERS'
164
PROBLEMS
Bolton's
Disposed
printer, he
a
American
Famous
1.
Reared
TRAITS.
FRANKLINS
la
(Consult
SOLVED
did
Statesmen.^
Metiiods.
Wholesale
to
remain
not
that
showing:
one,
the limit of his career,
not
honorably
labor, thoush
performed, was
than
retail
which
rather
activities.
in his
Working
tended
to
wholesale,
to
with
father's
Keimer
At
he
hated.
making
eighteen, working
shop at candle
the
of becoming
Later
he started
master-printer.
a
printer,he had visions
he
the
At
sold his
to
''Pennsylvania Gazette."
printing-business
forty-two
for
the
In
just
adhe
to
to
went
England
1767
state,
investigate electricity.
relations
with
the
in
1766
cause
pleaded his country's
royalty, and
before
from
the
House
of Commons,
ten
home
Finally
being away
irears.
he
Ambassador
of Pennsylvania.
and
Governor
became
to
France,
manual
^
Disposed
orfranized
8.
At
he
twenty-one
Organuce.
study-club
to
a
for
mechanics,
He
library.
always
suDscription
lending
was
the
Then
for instance*
Gazette."
"Pennsylvania
starting new
as
papers,
in
started
Richard's
he
1782.
His
December,
Almanac,
appointment
poor
the
the
better
to
obtaining
to
opened
police
deputy postmastership,
way
of
fire
At
and
he
the
thirty-seven
regulations,
organization
a
company.
become
of
the
the
that
University
was
to
Pennsylvania.
organized
Academy
aided
in Georgia.
He
He
Whitfield's
made
plan of union
a
orphan-house
His
for
Americans.
"We
the
the
gether,
tostruggling
saying,
hang
was
must
of age
At
he
shall
81
was
delegate
or
we
hang separately."
years
and
Constitutional
of representation
the bases
the
suggested
to
convention,
House
in
of Representatives.
and
Senate
called
the
with
Junto,
a
Ability
8.
Management.
in
ballads
fifteen
few
at
Writing
a
the
streets
selling printed copies of them.
of
years
age.
would
He
wheel
he went
on
his paper-stock
clerk
elected
of
He
nnd
to
street
at
buyers.
thirty
was
a
his
For
sixteen
abilities.
to
testimony
Assembly,
a
years
with
for
of
he
Hunter,
appointed
Philadelphia
postmaster
was,
postmaster
his
excellent
his judgment,
the
conciliatory
so
colonies, and
was
manners,
and
with
executive
ability
he
tireless
that
splendid
enemies,
rarely made
He
he
Committees.
In
the
continental
ten
Congress
was
on
put
energy.
he
Later
ambassador
sent
made
to France.
Postmaster-general.
as
was
was
Ruin.
4.
Disposed
to Rule
or
barrow
a
on
in
General
the
He
run
hated
so
to
away
brother
with
this
two
as
one
too,
he
ran
he
away
enable
to
him
wanted
later,
and
to
that
shop
for
pay
is
honesty
loan
the
given
was
father's
was
printer.
a
he
apprenticed
cutler, and
to
a
When
him
brought
disagreements
from
to
Philadelphia.
Boston,
Sincere.
5.
his
at
he
sincerity
When
men
Then
James
Franklin's
trait.
working
sea.
of
the
his
hundred
two
opportunity
into
to
his
to
conflict
prominent
most
and
of
fifty dollars
by
starting in business,
his
and
of
Franknn
remembered
repaid them,
character,
security
of
Poor
his
dav.
Richard's
them
The
dying
kindly until
helpful maxims
both
His
his
and
Almanac
to
taste
ability.
"sincerity
were
a
testimony
for
had
confidence
of
and
him
At
his country."
"the
84
won
honesty"
his
him
testimonial
to
benevolence,
wrote
ism,
patriota
years old Washington
and
His
chief
"To
ward
straight forrule was
friendship.
philanthropy
go
in
to
be right, leaving
the
to
doing what
me
consequences
appears
the
on
to
Providence."
Religious, Original
6.
From
only
the start
apprentice,
an
Progress.
poetry
as
for
Italian,
a
and
relations
His
the
invented
tkOridty
and
read
he
only
by
to
his
wife
to
Franklin
the
At
"Courant."
learned
he
best
wrote
lifhtniiig.
Artistic.
books,
a
pleading
few
of
beginning
ballads,
his
and
father.
artistic.
with
was
He
In
Franky,
were
electricity he
son
Though
Bunyan's
deterred
wrote
he
twenty-seven
began
French,
the
on
harp, guitar, violin and
plav
and his
stove.
and
religious and
was
the
fifteen
At
career
the
mind
his
grim's
Pilfrom
tions
contribu-
and
violoncello.
of the most
sacred.
He
discovered
the
tdentity of
Spanish
CONCLUSION
LINCOLirS
11.
'(Consult E,
L.
possessed
TRAITS.
Dances
Of
1.
Lincoln
.165
Social
Disposition.
and
charm
a
He
had
hand
clasp, and
h"arty
a
drew
crowds
and
the
to
quickly,
His
life with
house
speeches.
Mary
of America,^
Makers
few
power
store
easily
as
nre
Todd
resist.
made
his
to
as
end,
the
to
was,
could
He
voice.
sympathetic
a
one
friends
campaign
of singular
beauty.
Being
2.
The
why
reason
that
was
took
he
client, giving
a
Judi^e of Character.
his cases
generally
won
he
but
none
up
Good
a
good
the
in
case
could
and
ones,
middle
of an
stood
as
tell the
where
argument
him
in
lawyer,
a
honesty
the
the
his debate
ot
he
saw
stead
characters
in
good
ability to judge
forced
of making
whom
into
he
the position
Douglas
an
answer
which
His
the
him
lost
him
the
choice
but
senatorship,
presidency.
won
vindicated
had
of a cabinet
later
win
he
several
members.
to
itself, though
the
of the
His
of generals
choice
of the final success
was
reason
war.
in Management.
3.
Diplomatic
His
wrong.
with
into
Forced
fight
a
Hawk
in
war
name
lawyer,
Stanton,
brought
1832.
bull^ of
the
Armstrong,
the
liking
tiie
Black
nidc-
won
in
the
won
"
Abe**
"Honest
he
won
Jack
with
thrashed
he
him, but was
so
generous
of
who
him
volunteers
elected
captain
Later
clerk
^where
he
pilot, and
as
as
Lincoln
New
Salem,
of the
rough
gang
as
friendly
as
as
postmaster,
deputy surveyor,
His
of Seward
and
treatment
liking of all he met.
who
scorned
and
the
at
beginning
abused
him, and
finally
were
Even
had
he
to
whom
him, is well known.
Douglas,
respect
posed,
opfor
latter
the
died.
making
Lincoln, when
campaign
speeches
was
Brilliant.
4.
"
the
and
little political
verses,
make
would
impromptu
speeches,
He
showed
drew
crowds.
of rough
with
that
fine, commonplace
a
and
and
fun
His
fondness
sadness.
and
tenderness,
ideal, great
strength
stead
and
anecdotes
stood
for
stories
him
in good
in his home,
in the court*
House.
in
White
the
electioneering
trips, and
house,
on
when
Even
child
a
that
reflections
he
He
mixture
Adaptable.
5.
Lincoln,
When
attended
a
captain,
"lend
to
the
got
ever
sympathetic
chance.
Lincoln
and
I
be
pious
to
owe
When
the
his
from
on
dependence
family
read^
was
his
and
ways,
his
and
opened
slavery
tions,
occupa-
always
mained
re-
ever
soldiers.
common
Kindly.
mother
for
start
to
in
the
Illinois
I
and
am
with
he
ing,
train-
religious
early
an
"All
remained
Providence.
mother."
This
sainted
mv
in
to
blue,"
in
Dependent,
6.
received
work.
house-
one
democratic
was
"boys
the
to
the
in
Louisiana,
1888,
determined
hit
he
to
He
himself
adapted
easily to all
He
official.
law, surveyor,
was
His
postmaster,
He
books
trip
with
used
the
shingles
in the
neighborhood
he
on,
the
second
a
on
hand."
a
all
in
could.
he
and
world,
clerk,
ready
trials
the
new
if he
hard,
himself
Sarah
sister
write
to
paper
no
interested
all
him
to
had
he
He
cabin.
his
child, helped
as
witty
wrote
published.
were
all
him
I
hope
his
all
discovered
was
to
life.
ing
weep-
Willie, he said
to
"I
mother's
remember
the
clung
they have
me
to
my
nurse,
prayers,
He
time."
it in good
life."
"This
He
will win
is God*s
all my
fight, and
death
for
of a soldier
condemned
on
the
to
sleeping
post,
signed
reprieve
his
of
in this remembering
the
the
farm,
the grounds
boy's habits
on
on
all."
for
towards
malice
and
"With
charity
none
experiences.
own
with
Nature.
7.
Feeling Kinship
on
her
When
grave.
Lincoln's
hard
work
took
nature,
.suffering, once
to
see
he
stopped
lawyer
a
and
hirda.
and
he
once
of
a
only
vie;
did
the
at
he
road
while
the
early
enjoying
kill
to
it
wild
a
alleviate
President
of
death
farm
the
on
holiday
every
on
grief
m
\"
his
son
him
acquainted
with
further.
could
bear
not
He
'^^VtS^A.
while
turkey
b""^Ts3b"
tSafc
Vi^vA
waSLexm^
^
ic"\
"A
^-^^
\:"^
'^S'S^
vjasw^^w^^*^
TEACHERS'
166
PROBLEMS
WASHINGTON'S
15L
Bolton's
XConsult
Duringr
before
dawn,
Ohio
Valley,
details.
He
of
vcars
TRAITS.
American
Famous
StatesmenJi
Laborious.
1.
his
SOLVED
domesticity
at
Mount
Vernon
he
rose
his work.
His
painstaking
m
from
return
the
other
and
early military efficiency testifies to his activity in
drilled
militia
the
for
and
in
Cambridge
months,
one
night
At
had
fortress
built.
Dorchester
the
he
likewise
Valley
Forge
kept the
drilled
Continental
it.
together, and
army
%.
IntellectuaL
He
ana
learned
desirous
of
Continental
most
was
rudiments
the
them
he
Congress
his
second
During
would
knowing
be
might
it
all his
indeed
as
his
surveying
a
and
He
was
very
a
boy
he
he
shamfights
a
praised
records
his
solicitous
for
his
and
ment.
judg-
France
who
with
war
the
at
sound
of
new
land,
Eng-
integri^.
his
and
neat
were
exact,
leader
a
organized.
he
"Rules
wrote
in
welfare.
was
parades
the
among:
made
command
of the
major
in
of
and
ginia^
Virpedition,
ex-
Virnnia
military.
He
Congress.
Continental
President.
of
and
courtesy
decent
conversation."
him.
declined
He
company
who
shot
the
Ohio
the
Chivalric,
5.
thirteen
material
Independent.
always
was
soldiers'
he
At nmeteen
militia.
He
undertake
compelled
was
to
and
commander-in-chief
appointedl
was
Re
of
the
was
one
Vir^nia delegates to the
Commander-in-chief
became
of the
and
Army
At
in
so
that
Materialistic.
work
4.
While
information
partisans
those
country
sexton,
a
He
allowed
correspondence
so
long as he lived.
never
devotion,
his
chivalry,
intellectuality to divert
view
or
even
of
the
which
basis
all
material
appreciation
on
events
are
sane
founded.
the
from
Washington
of
his
all
was
religion,
from
solid
Jefferson
fataL
8.
In
in
resisted
he
plunge
to
said
Henry
supreme
term
hesitated
have
not
was
education
of
Patrick
he.
was
the
life
of
He
spared
of
command
Ohio
the
addressed
"honored
as
always
havior
betraitor
the
Indian
at
expedition
of
favor
His
mother
madam."
he
Fry.
When
elected
member
of the
modest
he
he
could
Virginia Assembly
so
was
not
speak. On the field of battle he had no leniency toward
cowards.
in
Restless.
6.
As
child
a
sham-fiights and
the
see
before
due
to
Trenton
he
fond
was
parades.
world.
At
of
military
fourteen
undertook
he
wanted
things,
to
enter
He
surveying.
was
dawn.
In
all
his
his
undertakings
military
success
his quick
restless
at
action, and
as
forging ahead;
victory,
he
Next
land
was
success
in
devoted
navy
and
riser,
was
largely
the
unexpected
early
an
Devoted.
7*
He
org^anizing
the
his
her
to
attributin"r all his
mother,
his
he
had
At
the
to
heart
girl.
given
a
he
and
fell in
met
with
Pamunkey
his future
all his
love
wife, forgetting
for
the
her
fore
bebeautiful
day, and
letter
wrote
engagements
a
engagement
in
action.
For
he
Mount
Vernon
lived
going
in
seventeen
at
years
After
hastened
he
hand
in
his
Yorktown
happy domesticity.
at
success
to
and
home.
He
return
the
refused
resignation,
of those
who
suggestions
would
have
him
At
end
king than
the
of his
preferred to see
president.
first term
third
be wished
to
and
return
term
home;
he refused.
a
life.
to
fifteen
At
8.
He
dock's
acknowledged
the
defeat.
life
"Agnosticism
army
Through
had
repressing
actively relying
sUl
divisiona
of
no
charms
on
he
for
At
swearing.
the
Religious.
of
protection
the
help
army
to
oi
loved
him."
and
He
Valley
wrote
Forge
Providence.
hold
^vi"e
Providence
believed
an
he
M\."t
aernsAv
the
order
Brad-
at
Christian
religion.
to
the
New
persisted
in
his
Yvtktnwn
he
York
cause,
ordered
TEACHERS'
168
I.
APRIL,
PROBLEMS
1, Cicero, Seneca;
2, Demosthenes;
and
WRITERS
of
the
Month
by
Represented
SOLVED
DRAMATISTS.
SHAKESPEARE.
and
CICERO
16, Kalidasa;
16, Aeschylns,
8. Cenrantes;
9, Manzoni;
28, Flaubert;
23, Madach;
Comeille:
3, Lessing;
10, Balzac;
17, Sophocles,
Racine:
24, Ibsen;
4, Montaigne;
11. Dickens;
18, Euripides,
26, Goldoni;
12, Heyse;
Hugo;
19, Aristophanes.
26, de
6, Maeterlinck;
Vega,
Moliere:
the
II.
MAY,
Represented
bv
Month
SOLDIERS.
of
of
and
JOAN
16, Theodoric;
CAESAR
8, Miltiades;
1, Cherdolaomer;
Calderon:
27, Wilbrandt;
%^, Goethe.
20, OUanta;
%\,DanU,
18, Tolstoi;
li,Har'tB,Stowi.
6, Ruskin;
7" Emerson.
ARC.
22, Richard
Coeur
de
8, Hyksos;
8, Rameses;
4.
Sennacherib;
6, Nebuchadnez-
9, Leonidas;
10, Hannibal;
11, Scipio;
18, Belisarius;
16. Genghis
Khan;
17, Boadicea:
18, CharlesMartel;
19, Gustavus
18, Attila;
14, Charlemagne.
20, Cromwell;
III.
Barbarossa;
IX;
24, Louis
26, Cortez;
the Great;
26, Peter
27, R. E. Lee;
Adolphus:
zar;
6, Cyrus;
7, Alexander,
JUNE,
the
81, Napoleon,
Month
of
Lion:
23, Frederick
88, Grant,
WEALTHY.
the
and
MORGAN.
by CROESUS
16, Robert
Morris;
8, T.A.A.Roehss;
16, Alex. Hamilton;
0, Ini^o Jones;
Rhodes;
17, J. J. Astor;
10, Cecil
11, Fouqu6:
18, Vs
12, Madero;
19, P. T. Barnum;
13, Fugger;
20, A. T. Stewart;
21, Wanamaker,
li, Rothschild,
Represented
1, Aurungzebe;
8, Aristobulos;
3, Divitiacus;
rpalos;
6,
Alcibiades;
6, Atticus;
1, Maecenas,
IV.
Represented
by
the
JULY,
COLUMBUS
1, Xenophon;
8, Sir
8, Nearchus;
9, Sir
Month
and
Walter
4,
Polo;
VascodeGama;
6, Peter
the
Hermit;
6, FrancisXavier;
7, Abraham,
Drake:
Chaillu;
10, Du
11, Champollion;
12, Livingston;
13, Magellan;
Tasman,
li,Cookt
AUGUST,
V.
Francis
the
Month
Sage;
Fiela:
24,1. W.Mackay;
26, T. 7. Hill;
87, E.R.Harriman;
28, Rockefeller,
PIONEERS.
FRANCES
Raleigh;
3, Marco
of
88, Russell
83, C. W.
WRIGHT
16, Pizarro;
de
16, Ponce
17, Hernando
Leon;
de
Soto;
18, Seigneur
d'Iberville;
19, Henry Hudson;
de
80, Samuel
d'ARUSMONT.
22, Adm.
Perry;
and
23, Lewis
Clark;
24, Pearv:
85, Shackleton;
416, Booker
Washington;
Willard;
87, Miss
Champlain;
21, Cortes,
of
2B,NealDow,
PHILOSOPHERS.
and
HYPATIA.
by PLATO
Aquinas;
16, Hegel, Green;
8, Thos.
.16, Schopenhauer;
9"Grotius;
17, Nietzsche;
10, Spinoza;
Krause;
11, Descartes;
18, Christ.
12, Leibnitz:
19, Bostroem;
Mill;
20, Berkeley;
13, Hume,
Represented
1,
8,
3,
4,
6,
6,
Pythagoras;
Epicurus;
Zeno;
Plutarch;
M.
Aurelius;
Lucretius;
7,Plotinos,
VI.
lit Bacon,
SEPTEMBER,
Represented
by RAPHAEL
1, Praxiteles;
S.Rubens;
9, Velasquez;
2, Apelles;
Reni;
10, Corot;
3, Guido
11, Turner;
4, Correggio;
12, Muncaksy;
6, Titian;
Angelico;
6, Fra
18, Hoffman;
da
tVom,
7, Leonardo
14, Hunt,
Find,
21, Kant,
the
Month
and
15,
16,
17,
18,
19,
of
28, Condillac;
23, Comte;
24, Bergson;
25, Darwin;
86, Spencer;
Pearson;
87, Karl
James,
28, IVilliam
ART.
BEETHOVEN.
Bach;
Mozart;
Mendelssohn:
Schubert;
Chopin;
20,BtalLms;
n.Wognsr^
Verdi;
Gounod;
Liszt;
Rubinstein;
Grieg;
Tchaikowaky;
^%,U"cdQ""(C
82,
23,
24,
26,
26,
97,
CONCLUSION
OCTOBER,
VII.
6,
8,
0.
10,
11,
12,
13,
Vaucanson;
6, Montgolfier;
7* Fahrgnheit,
14, Elias
How",
NOVEMBER,
VIII.
Month
the
the
21, Horace
Month
by GEORGE
Represented
8.
0,
10.
11,
Crittenton;
6, F.
6, Mrs.
Fry;
7" St. Elizabeth,
13, Peter
Cooper:
14, Carnegie,
the
8,
9,
10,
4, TheDionysiaca:
11,
Eddas:
Kalevala:
Month
of
by HOMER
Lusiad;
Roland;
Jerusalem
Delivered:
Stagnelius's
12, Arany's
13, Mistral's
Virgil*sAeneid,
EPICS
and
the
86, Tegner;
Poems;
Month
by MOSES
al
S, Haroun
86, Carducd;
87, Tennyson;
Hymns;
Psafms.
2S, Longfellow,
STATESMEN.
of
ELIZABETH.
QUEEN
and
POETS.
88, Compoamor;
88, Heine;
84, Hugo;
80, Nahuatl
21, The
Mather;
Dwight;
McCosh;
Porter;
86, Horace
Mann;
87, Mark
Hopkins:
W.
88. Chas.
Eliot,
18, Horace;
10. Japanese
Toldi;
Represented
1, Confudtts;
86, Noah
16, Pentaur;
17, Pindar;
li, Milton^Vondel,
JANUARY,
X.
88, Cotton
88. Tim.
84, Tames
and
JELULADIN.
Hymns;
116, Vedic
Mir6io;
7,
Marconi.
SOCRATES.
16, Origen;
17, Jerome:
18, Ab61ara;
19, Petrarch;
80, Comenius;
Arnold,
81, Thomas
Blenda;
6, The
6, The
and
16, Diogenes;
F.
Represented
1, Ramayana;
Edison;
Lumieres:
Mergenthaler;
Holland;
Zeppelin;
The
Wrights:
The
PHILANTHROPISTS.
of
Nightingale;
Dorothea
Dix;
Addams;
Jane
Harvard;
Bergh;
12, Henry
Nameh;
8, Shah
8, Bidasari;
88,
88,
84,
86,
86,
87,
2S,
Wells.
MUELLER
l,W.L.Garnson:
8, Geo.
Peabody;
8, T. Oglethorpe;
4, Montefiore;
DECEMBER,
CURIE.
TEACHERS.
and
IX.
INVENTORS.
of
BACON
and
Mme.
by ROGER
Gutenberg;
16, Morse
;
16, Reis.
Fulton;
Bell;
Hatch.
Watt;
17, McCormidc;
Palissy;
18, Eads;
Whitney;
10, Metchnikoff;
Goodyear;
80,Burbank:
Represented
1, Archimedes;
2, Daedalus;
8, Daguerre;
4, Tacquard;
169
16, Richelieu;
88, Diaz;
16, Kossuth;
88, Washington;
84, Franklin;
86, Jefferson;
86, JeffersonDavis:
87.Pres.
Wilson:
88, Lincoln.
Raschid;
9, Justinian;
V;
10, Charles
11, Philip II;
XIV;
12, Louis
13, Henry
VIII;
8, Manu;
8, Sargon;
4, Menes;
6, Solon;
6, Lycurgus;
7, Pericles,
XI.
III,
14, Innocent
FEBRUARY,
the
Month
Represented
1, Mencius;
8,
9,
10,
11,
12,
2. Gautama;
3, Zoroaster:
4. Mahomet:
6, Isaiah;
6.
Tamehameha;
18,
St.
by
Teresa:
Mme.
Guyon;
F6n6Ion;
Boehme:
XII.
81, Garibaldi,
of
RELIGIOUS
St.
Francis;
17. St. Bernard;
18, Loyola;
16.
19, H6Ioise;
Tauler;
80, Calvin:
81, Luther,
MARCH,
the
Month
of
by (iOPERNICUS
16.
8, Vol ta, Ampere:
9, Cuvier;
16,
10. Lavoisier;
17.
11, Harvey;
18,
Represented
1.
8.
3,
4,
6,
6,
7,
Euclid;
Brake:
Tycho
Newton;
Herschel;
Laplace;
Kepler;
Galileo,
18. Boerhave:
18, Leeuwenhoeck;
14, Linneus,
INTERCALARY
1, Aspasia;
8, Cornelia;
and
6, Margaret
4, Mme
VuUtt
of
de
88, Swedenborg;
Penn;
88, Fox,
84, Ann
Lee;
86. Ballington
Booth:
86, Mrs.
Eddy;
87, Felix
Adler;
88, Wesley.
SCIENTISTS.
HUMBOLDT.
Helmholtz;
Asa
Gray;
Audubon;
Lyell;
19. Agassiz;
80, Darwin;
81, Oliver Lodge.
DAYS,
8, Monica;
LEADERS.
and
PAUL.
JESUS
16, St. Augustine:
Theologia
Germanica:
U,Thos.A'Kempis,
7. Numa,
17, Kosciusco;
18, Savanarola;
19, Francia;
Bolivar:
20, Simon
88. Huxley;
83, Averroes;
84, Hippocrates;
86, Tenner;
86, Koch:
87, Coke:
88, BlackstoHg,
WOMEN.
Stad;
Omq!\\"
I^^BjixtSkX.""ax^Sami"^
TEACHERS'
170
6.
STORY
has
value
and
stories
the
yet
in
high
subserved
of
it
if
be
systematically.
a
double
by
parent
scheme
of
in
translation
English
in
accessible
otherwise;
Hercules,"
and
type
"Pilgrim's
and
student.
which
The
the
topic
each
book
welcome
suited
the
contains
can
"Picture"
of
to
pupils.
term*
The
of
are
tiquity
an-
not
of
evidently
was
in
has
famous
his
tage,
advan-
the
in
intellectual
conveniently
the
an
"Choice
followed
a
by
enough,
This
also
among
classics
undenominational
to
book
teacher
day
being
of
however,
religion,
This
practical
followed
Prodicus'
Bunyan
Progress."
and
strangely
"Picture."
story
home,
simple
namely,
coherent
a
in
is
by
emergency
course
and
two
which,
Kebes'
moral
of
the
of
field,
this
at
illustrated,
is
It
an
presenting
story
issued
has
adapted;
at
also
also
but
writer
Folks,"'
class-room,
the
companions.
the
Young
weeks'
efficiently
most
objectively,
object
and
twenty
be
consultation
teacher,
a
will
vision
pro-
chief
the
ethics,
taught
for
rapid
to
or
pupil-ethics
the
this
"Stories
index,
class-room
only
not
definite
made
not
teacher,
the
For
called
book
have
its
must
so
unquestioned,
is
points
primary
and
child,
the
impressing
Practical
ETHICS.
kindergarten
centre
schools
interest
IN
the
its
as
therefor.
practical
in
adopted
of
SOLVED,
CX)URSE
methods
Objective
school
PROBLEMS
practical
of
quest
careful
discuss
illustrations
scheme
a
the
by
different
make
the
intones; for l^oung :foVksi^
i^tiort
TiieN4$, aid eiergyniM*
PareNti,Ceacfters,
aia for tMr
Oitb tlK 6mk
pnsiiM'f
Froamt,
nA
illustrated by Katherlne
Handsomely
Harvard;
Cboice "f mraiKt,
m
^
Brauer" and Meta
Pre4iatt"
Spreen
Reimetl)Sylvai entftiie,
By
A*M.,
"v Ke^
PIi^D*, Tulane;
M.D*"
Medico-Chlrtirglcal,Phlla*
object of this compilation is not to form a
in moral
ish
positive course
inspiration,but to furnthe child,the parent and the teacher
with
an
accessible
jective
treasury of apposite, well-selected obillustrations for the frequent,but unexpected
moral
a
urgencies when
point needs to be enforced
in a convincing and memorable,
and
therefore, in
an
alluring manner.
The
The
stories have been selected not onlyfrom
ition,
tradbut also from
The
life.
phy
biogracontemporary
of Lincoln
has furnished
unusual
lessons.
many
Complete indexes
the teacher
or
parent
of the 125 stories at
from
chosen
Being
they
not
cover
also the tUl
urgencies, such
but
and by subjectenable
to locate the most
applicable
bv
now
name
glance.
a
a
practical teacher's
point,
stand-
only
moral
common-places,
definite
school-room
neglected
bitingof nails,caricaturing,hazing,
of property, shamming sick,borrowing,
straight back home, etc.
as
miful destruction
going
not
who
desire a Story Course in Social Ethics,
has been grouped into 80 graded lessons,
the matter
^0
for the usual term
of
4 a week
weeks.
or
those
For
It makes
Prof
Tonr
Max
the
em
A
is
book
splendid gift for
Greenstein,
B,
idea
I feel the
a
good,
and
will
be an
improyement
practice and
is well
all
boys
and
Washington Irving High, N,Y.Cf
carried
out.
Both
as
parent
and
O.
says
teacher,
Its basic
inspiration and help to me.
principle
the story, follows
through
accepted modi
of character
theory.
printed and bound, post-paid, net,
ttractively
p.
girls.
BOX
75, GRAKrN001",
'^.
$1.10
A".
tJbtSpliittial
message of DteraMre,
Manual
A
With
of G"mpaf
for Study, and
Outlines
Ph.D*"
Hafvardi
A
Tulane;
fascinating GUIDE
Suitable
for
It forms
Books*
Lists of Important
ReMnetl) Sylvaa eitlNle,
By
A.M*t
LheratufCy
ative
for every
Reading
TO
Phlla.
Medico-Chirurglcal,
M.D*,
Reader,
Literary Clubs, Institutes,Schools, Collies.
an
liberal education
unusually
Literature.
in
best lyric poetry.
It gives the spiritual gist of the world's
where
the greatest thinkers
It shows
agreed or difiered.
It enables
to
you
It directs
form
efforts
your
literary judgments.
mature
the
to
fruitful fields.
most
ClK Racial CoiinibiitiMi to tDe OlorM'i TaeaU
Hindu,
Persian, Muhammadan,
gathered from
Zoroastrian, Greek,
Egyptian, Babylonian,
and
Sources.
Icelandic
Slav,
Malagasy,
are
golian,
Monican,
Mex-
ClK Great Cegctiai of tiM OlorM
studied
in their elaborations
by Aeschylos, Plato,
are
Dante, Calderon, Goethe, Shelley, Quinet
Kschemisvara,
and
others.
Moody,
Tennyson,
Longfellow,
Hardy,
-
ClK
of Salvatioii
Great OlorM-Draiiiai
Byron,
Ibsen,
Spenser,
Bunyan,
by Kebes, Augustine,
and
Wilbrandt
Tolstoi, Krasinsky,
Madach,
Hugo,
and others
explained in simple words.
are
Campoamor
by Vice-Chancellor
Recommended
Dr.
carefully
I have
of Philadelphia,
the manuscript
Woods,
Matthew
over
gone
of Sewanee.
Hall,
writes
of Dr
of
it:
Guthrie^s
exceedingly interesting book^ and have found in it^ combined
ious
with much
original thought^ the learning of a stud"il
mal^
life* It cannot
to
profound impression*
a
Net
Each
price, 350
Copy
on
pages,
is inscribed
this sheet,
by
tear
the
it
Author:
off, and
to
get
forward
a
write
copy,
it, with
the
Cbe Comparative tWttmtt
p.
O.
BOX
$ 1.60
bound, post-paid,
cloth
75, GRANTWOOD,
.
name
to
money,
and
address
him,
Prm,
N.
J.
^errontk tfie^tmple=|ieatteb
A
Breton
after
Legend,
Souvestre, by
iletmetli^plban
This
legend is, by the experts,
of the chief bases
the
Kerglas,
reproduced
The
is of
story
minds
mature
of them
one
It is
forms
for birth- days
cents,
of
the
by its
It has
of groups
contact
holiday
The
seasons.
by
failed
never
of
more
to
people.
bound,
presentation booklet, suitable
or
has
is held
young
attractively printed and
handsome
of
Guthrie
The
all.
to
refreshed
the interest
but
simply,
a
and
the interest
hold
and
arouse
interest
telling of the story.
skill of the
for
castle
sketches, and
some
absorbing
while
nature,
legends,
of effort. Dr.
years
one
frontispiece.
as
charmed
are
be
to
Grail
Holy
locating it, made
in
considered
definite location, the
a
After
Vannes.
near
succeeded
the
other
of the
that it claims
reason
with
^ntitxit.
as
and
gift
price is 55
net
paid.
postage
APPRECIATIONS
'It is
a
The
way*
style
is
be entitled to
and
old
story
am
of
to
hear
Perronik; for due
it will be
of such
glad
very
enjoyed by both
old
charming
to
that
Net
child
should
Quick, London.
Veerare
you
and
High
publish the
veiled
old* We
for readers
price, post-paid, 55
to
and
its action
Jane Havent
ated
it is calcul-
legend/
der
young
legends
fascinating
a
Every
young*
van
in
original that
this beautiful
peruse
Florence
^
related
tale
breezy and
so
both
charm
to
charming
most
moral
need
more
to-day**
School
Principal
cents.
Wbt Comparattbe Utterature $tes("?
p.
O.
BOX
75, GRANTWOOD,
K.
1,..
tiieSupreme
an
ttPdeorp of ^^gretfiBEibeiHoraUtp.
a
or,
By
It discusses
3dtiies3draiMe Siiiitft.
the present-day
the
from
problems
educational
ethics, education,
marriage,
GENETIC
L
of
Love
and
stand-point, and
application of the genetic
complete
life
of
Atffool
the
is
A
to
love, and
sociology.
ogy,
psychol-
PSYCHOLOGY
PROGRESSIVE
Genetic
this
the
of ethics
forces Ethics
IV-
and
EDUCATIONAL
Matrimonial
Present
to
Education,
Continuous
SSarriage, Child-Training
in
become
Genetic,
which
culm^ates
MARRIAGE
Evils*
Elimination
of
of
Elimination
"
The
Family
"
V*
as
a
Celibacy*
Republic, no
Matrimonial
"
A
Prof*
of
The
J^. J^. floritt of New
seem
Net
to
have
hold
of
price, cloth bound,
York
a
Roles
Etox
anny*
Tyr-
of Disciplinary
Consolmg
COMPANY,
^^
age,
marriones.
writes
constructive
post-paid,
4, LamoWt
Love"
of existing
University
very
BOOK
EMPFIELD
a
render
Self-Sur-
thinking of contracting
of help for the reorganization
and
You
Assimilation
of ideals for those
book
longer
"
"
"
Educational
LOVE
Marriage*
Indissolubilityof Educational
The
Dramatic
of Uniting Love*
Love*
"
Organised
Suggestions*
EDUCATIONAL
The
so
Bereavement.
"
Ignorance*
Divorce*
tween
be-
controyefsy
EDUCATION
Psychology
involves
age-long
Theorks
BIOGRAPHIC
nL
As
of
rival
the
Individ-
MORALITY
soltition
genetic
new
first
principle
Tritine:
Consciousness^ the total
Psychology
as
ualfty^ and Biographfc Development.
IL
riage
Mar-
$1.10
idea.
-
L
'""
"h
one
rit
"
WM
"I'ti
^li
rwn
.mi
{,
"uii
nirti.
at
UKl
SnMm
lt"l
(he
"
"nil
IV
lieta*
tl
da
An
(i|rnolbcd.
rig
Vkoa
traiUu",.u
l-^ea:
FtnoBl.
'c
b
Mk
pa^U
LoVMfdO
U
A
J50
i,
fliol
adut
^
I
,m
T
N
"",
rho
pittun
mlh
of
2"d
pp,
in
Vliid.
KENNEt:
PLATOmSr
W^rtaru"
VM
$1.00
ptKonrj
.^ii_(j
5
vol.
PTLGR!
WorAa
'"HcaJ
Worts
Hf
Prm,
Yoito..
A".,
.di,io,.
IVoz-fa.
TTING
JZJM
Romance
fltajrighliu,
Handbook
Pictare,
S
PIRITUAL
English.
Gatbas).
ppiiii.osopii
Complete
_|
JER.
Safe
uispersal
"?^.,7,*9
Ef.^,S
Bni!..!:].
PAGAN
i.-ie
Creek
Si
of
Soufces
Anxeh
OA
cr
`