How to Complete the Honors Thesis Requirement for students in fields using APA Style* In this packet, you will find the following: 1. Guidelines for preparing the thesis proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Theses and capstone projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 How to begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 How to write the proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Deadlines for completing steps in the thesis requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Sample proposal for your field or a related one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Form 4, Honors Thesis Proposal Submission Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. Form 5, Application for Undergraduate Research Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6. Instructions for writing the thesis and scheduling the defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Form 6, Honors Thesis Submission Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Instructions for preparing the final copy of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. Format requirements for all theses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. Sample pages from a thesis in your field or a related one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 *Recommended for students majoring in education, family science, linguistics, nursing, physical education, psychology, social work, sociology, statistics and other branches of the social sciences. 1 Guidelines for Preparing the Thesis Proposal Theses and Capstone Projects There are two ways to complete the honors thesis requirement. One is to write the traditional thesis; the other is to complete an honors capstone project. Preparing an honors thesis or honors capstone project is a way for you to demonstrate that you possess sufficient knowledge of the learning and methods of your discipline to create an original contribution, however small, to your field. Whether you choose to do a thesis or a capstone project depends largely on your major and your interests. The Honors Thesis A thesis is the most appropriate way to end a degree program in theoretical, historical, and scientific disciplines for which the end product of research or creative exploration is usually a text. For example, in art history, botany, chemistry, economics, English, French, history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, or zoology, a practitioner would write a text that presents the results of research done in the library, the laboratory, or the field. Essentially, the thesis is a presentation and interpretation of the research results. The Honors Capstone Project with accompanying documentation A capstone project is the most appropriate way to end a degree program in certain specialized disciplines for which the end product of research or creative exploration is usually a performance, exhibit, or object that you create. For example, in art, engineering, computer science, dance, education, music, or creative writing, a practitioner typically would create something for others to enjoy (such as an exhibit of paintings, a dance, a musical performance, or a short story) or to use (such as a software program, a medical device, or pedagogical materials). If you are majoring in one of these disciplines or a similar one, a capstone project is an acceptable alternative to a thesis. However, the performance or product you create should be aimed at a broader audience than BYU; it should have more than local applicability. In addition, you must document the experience of creating your project by writing a text that contains the following parts: • • • • • • the purpose of the project, why the project was a suitable culminating experience for your education, the procedures or methods you used to create the project, a log of the hours you spent, accompanying texts, sketches, diagrams, photos, or audiotape/videotape that help document the project, signature of the professor who supervised the project and can attest to its quality. Although these two ways of completing the thesis requirement differ, for convenience both will be referred to simply as a thesis. Completing either successfully depends on starting well. 2 How to Begin Completing an honors thesis is a long process that will stretch over at least two semesters. Planning your thesis is of great importance and always includes at least the first three of the following four steps: Step 1. Schedule a thesis orientation meeting. Go to 350 MSRB and ask for an appointment to discuss your thesis plans with the Associate Dean of Honors and General Education who supervises theses. The orientation meeting will help you (1) choose a thesis topic; (2) choose a thesis advisor; and (3) obtain funding, if you need it. Step 2. Choose a thesis advisor and narrow your topic to a manageable scope. During or after your thesis orientation meeting, you must choose a professor to direct the writing of your thesis or the completion of your project and a second professor to be the referee. Normally, they will be professors in your major or a closely related field. The advisor should be a full-time faculty member with a continuing appointment at BYU, not a part-time instructor or visiting professor. As you seek an advisor, it is best to start with a broad general interest rather than a specific topic for your thesis. Next, find out which faculty have expertise in the area of your general interest. (You’ll waste time if you focus on a narrow topic too soon only to learn there are no faculty on campus who have the expertise to advise you. It’s better if you make your project match faculty expertise rather than vice versa.) Then talk to these experts and let them help you focus on a specific topic that they are qualified to advise you about. Often in the sciences, a professor will assign you a research project to do that is part of a larger project the professor is engaged in. Step 3. Write a proposal for your thesis. Once you have chosen a topic and advisor, let your advisor and referee guide you in writing the proposal so that you can define a workable focus and scope for your thesis and establish a reasonable time line for completing it by established deadlines. (See proposal guidelines below; pay special attention to the deadlines on page 5.) Step 4. Obtain funding for your research, if necessary. If you need funding for your thesis, fill out and submit the Application for Undergraduate Research Funds in Support of Senior Honors Thesis (Form 5 in this packet). You should also consider submitting an application for a research scholarship offered by the Office for Research and Creative Activities (ORCA) in A-261 ASB. This scholarship consists of a $1,000 unrestricted grant. The deadline for submitting proposals for an ORCA scholarship is usually the middle of October. How to Write the Proposal Whether you write a thesis or do a capstone project, you must first write a proposal to be approved by (1) your thesis advisor, (2) the Honors Coordinator in your department, and (3) the dean or associate dean of the Honors Program, or a person designated by Honors to review the proposal. How you write the proposal will depend on what you have chosen to do. But in general, your proposal should be about 5 or 6 double-spaced pages and should have the following parts: 3 I. Purpose. In this section of the proposal tell what you aim to do. If you plan to conduct scientific research, state the hypothesis you will test, the problem you will solve, or the research question(s) you will answer. If you are planning a non-science thesis, state the question(s) you want to answer or the claim you plan to argue for. If you are planning a capstone project, tell what it will include. II. Background and Significance. In this section, explain the context of your proposed research. The context might be historical, social, cultural, political, and/or personal. Usually, a context is created by a brief review of related literature on your topic. This means that before you write your proposal, you will have to do library research to learn what others have already written about the question, problem, or topic your thesis will address. After establishing the background of your research, tell why the thesis or project should be done. You can do this by showing how your proposed work will add to, differ from, or relate to the work previously done. III. Methods or Procedures. What you include in this section will depend on what sort of research you plan to do. Regardless of the type, you should spell out the steps you will take to complete the thesis research or produce the objects or performance required for a capstone project. Here are three lists of possible items to include in this section, depending on the type of thesis or project you do: Scientific Thesis Materials Instruments Procedures Participants Data Analysis Non-scientific Thesis Texts to be used Theories to be applied Models to be followed Analytical tools to be used Categories of information sought Capstone Project Rehearsal schedule Production processes and schedule Needs assessment Usability tests Quality control procedures Please note that you must also obtain permission from the BYU Institutional Review Board (IRB) if you plan to do research that will involve human participants. For example, research methods that involve surveys, interviews, controlled observations, or experiments with human participants must be approved by the IRB or its representatives to ensure that participants are able to give their informed consent and will not suffer any harm or violations of their rights as a result of participating in your research. Getting IRB approval is not difficult if the research is well planned. However, it can add a month or more to the time needed to have your thesis or project proposal approved. To learn more about IRB requirements and the approval process, contact the Associate Director for Compliance in the office of Research and Creative Activities in A-261 ASB (378-3841). IV. Prospectus of Finished Text. In this section, provide a tentative outline of what your thesis or the documentation of your project will include. If you are writing a scientific thesis, it is very likely that the outline of your final text will simply be Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. If you are writing a non-scientific thesis, try to project the main divisions of your argument and show how your thesis will be organized. If you are documenting a capstone project, outline the contents of the narrative you will write to document what you did, including the purpose of the project, how it crowned your education, the process you went through, and the hours spent. (This narrative may be accompanied by sketches, diagrams, photos, or possibly even a videotape or audiotape to record the performance, the display, or the object created.) 4 V. Preliminary Bibliography. In this section, list the books, articles, and other sources you have read to review the literature related to your research. Use the documentation style that is standard for your discipline. VI. Qualifications of the Investigator. In this section, describe the courses you have taken and experiences you have had that qualify you to undertake the research or the project you are proposing. If your thesis or project requires particular skills with statistics, mathematics, foreign languages, computers, etc., be sure to explain that you possess the required skills and knowledge. VII. Qualifications of the Advisor. In this section, name your faculty advisor and describe his or her qualifications. In most cases, your advisor should be a professor who publishes in your area of interest, if you are writing a thesis. If you are doing a capstone project, it should be a professor who performs or creates art or products of the type you want to produce. VIII. Time line for completing your thesis or capstone project. In this section of your proposal, list the sub-tasks that will be required to complete your thesis and a date by which you will complete each sub-task so that you meet the Honors Program deadlines in the table below. IX. Budget (if needed). In this section, list all expenses (supplies, services, travel, etc.) required for your research or project and the dollar amount for each expense. Add the amounts of the line items for a total. If you have not already submitted Form 5, submit it with your proposal. Deadlines for Completing the Honors Thesis For graduation in April August December Thesis proposal approved by May 15 September 15 January 15 First draft of thesis submitted to advisor and referee by November 15 March 15 July 15 Final draft of thesis and portfolio submitted to Honors Program by February 1 June 1 October 1 Thesis defense scheduled by February 5 June 5 October 5 Thesis defense completed by March 1 July 1 November 1 Four final copies of thesis submitted to Honors Program by March 15 July 15 November 15 5 Sample Thesis Proposal Body Image Satisfaction Among LDS Versus Non-LDS College-Age Students by AnnMarie Carroll I. Purpose My objective is to determine whether LDS and non-LDS students differ in body satisfaction. If I find that Latter-day Saints are, in fact, more critical of their bodies, I will attempt to determine whether this is unique to BYU or if it extends to LDS students on other campuses. I will take a sample of both women and men to determine if this expected difference applies to men as well. From this, I hope to provide useful information for a unique LDS culture. If there is a significant difference between LDS and non-LDS students, it is important that we begin to make some changes. Awareness is the first step in initiating change. To promote awareness, I hope to dissiminate to the LDS community what I learn from this study by submitting a manuscript about my research to an appropriate publication such as the Journal of the Association of Mormon Counselors and Psychologists. II. Background and Significance Research during the last two decades demonstrates that preoccupation with weight and body image has increased to a level some term an obsession. Girls as young as eight years old report dissatisfaction with their weight and shape, and 50% of nine-year-olds and 80% of tenyear-olds have dieted in an effort to change their appearance (Council on Size & Weight Discrimination, 1996). Eating disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent as young women seek to obtain an almost unrealistic ideal of how their body should look. Although the research 6 is somewhat ambiguous concerning men, it appears men also have a tendency to view their bodies negatively, although in different ways. As body dissatisfaction is a major predictor of dieting behavior and eating disorders, it is crucial to understand the factors relating to body image and satisfaction. Another reason this study is vital is that research on body image within the LDS community is sparse. As Latter-day Saints, we are taught our bodies are a gift from God and that the Lord “looketh not on the outward appearance” but “looketh on the heart.” However, it is unknown whether these beliefs affect actual body image. Given these beliefs, we should expect to find higher satisfaction with body image among LDS young adults. Unfortunately, my experience tells me otherwise. We are commanded, “Be ye therefore perfect.” The quest for perfection leads many to be overly critical of themselves. Many seem to view their bodies as enemies which keep them from their goal of perfection. Also, there is a phenomenon entirely unique in the LDS culture, especially at BYU, where a great deal of pressure is put on LDS young adults to get married. In some preliminary research and interviewing, I have found that many young women feel that this pressure to get married causes them to almost abuse their bodies in order to fit the ideal body shape. They believe that to get married, they have to look their best. It is my hypothesis that these pressures cause LDS students to be more critical of their bodies and to have a more negative body image than non-LDS students. III. Methods and Procedures I will survey three groups of students between the ages of 18 and 25. The three groups will consist of LDS students at BYU, LDS students on other campuses, and non-LDS students. I will take my sample from Brigham Young University, the University of Utah, Cambridge University in Boston, and the University of California at Los Angeles. At each university I will 7 take a sample of 30 LDS and non-LDS men and 30 LDS and non-LDS women. Prior to data collection, I will receive approval for research with human subjects from the IRB. Each participant will be administered the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) which is a 69-item standardized, attitudinal assessment of body image composed of 10 reliable and valid subscales. Respondents rate their disagreement-agreement with statements on a 1 to 5 scale (Cash et al., 1997). This will be used in conjunction with the Body Figure Perception and Preference Questionnaire, an instrument comprised of nine black line drawings of human figures ranging in body shape from very thin to extremely obese. Respondents will be asked to indicate which figure most closely corresponds to their present body shape, their ideal body shape, and the body image they believe would be most attractive to the other gender (Fallon & Rozin, 1985). IV. Prospectus of Finished Text My thesis will contextualize and report my findings, and will probably take a form similar to what I've listed below. A. B. C. D. E. Introduction Methods and materials Results Discussion References V. Preliminary Bibliography Cash, T.F. (1997). Gender attitudes, feminist identity, and body image among college women. Sex Roles, 36, 433-447. Council On Size & Weight Discrimination. (1996). Facts and Figures. 8 Fallon, A.E., & Rozin, P. (1985). Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 102-105. VI. Qualifications of the Investigator I have taken Research Design and Analysis as well as an introductory course in statistics, two courses in which I learned to draw up research proposals and to determine the quality of research surveys. My interest in eating disorders, combined with previous research and reading on the topic, qualify me to perform this study. VII. Qualifications of the Thesis Advisor I have chosen Diane Spangler as my faculty advisor. I am currently working with her in the area of eating disorders, an area she specializes in. She has done a great deal of research in the field of psychology and I feel her resources and help will be invaluable. VIII. Schedule I will obtain data from the various universities during Winter Semester 1999. I will spend approximately four or five days at each university in order to obtain a sufficient sample. I will devote Spring Term 1999 to the analysis and report of the data. IX. Budget Airline tickets to Boston Airline tickets to Los Angeles Car Rental Hotel Supplies Miscellaneous Total $350 (round trip) $160 (round trip) $200 (5 days) $400+ (4 nights) $100 $100 $1310 9 FORM 4 form revised 10/99 HONORS THESIS PROPOSAL Name ___________________________________________________ Social Security Number _____________________ Local Address ______________________________________________________________________________________ City _____________________________________________________State ____________ Zip Code _______________ Local Telephone ( ______ ) _____________________ Permanent Telephone ( ______ ) _____________________________ Permanent Mailing Address ___________________________________________________________________________ City _____________________________________________________ State ____________ Zip Code _______________ Major(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Minor(s) _________________________________________________ Graduation Date __________________________ Thesis Title _______________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ If registered for thesis credit __________________________________________________________________________ Department Course Number Credit Hours Semester Taken Please print or type the following information for your advisor and faculty referee: Advisor: _____________________________________ Office _________________ Telephone ____________________ Referee: _____________________________________ Office _________________ Telephone ____________________ Please obtain the following signatures: Advisor: ________________________________________Office _____________________ Date ___________________ Department Honors Coordinator: _______________________________________ Office ___________________Date ___________________ To be answered by the Honors Coordinator in consultation with the Advisor: Do the proposed scope and contents of the thesis meet the standards expected of an Honors student? ____Yes ____ No Are the methods the student will use clearly explained and is the student capable of using the methods? ____Yes ____No Are the methods appropriate to answer the research questions? ____Yes ____No Comments ________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For Office Use Only Honors Approval ______________________________________________________ Date _________________ Comments ________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Funding requested? Yes or No 10 FORM 5 APPLICATION FOR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FUNDS Name___________________________________________________Social Security Number _____________________ Local Address ___________________________________________________________ Date ______________________ City _____________________________________________________State ____________ Zip Code _______________ Local Telephone ( ______ ) _________________________________ Major Department ________________________________________ College __________________________________ Thesis Title ________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Requested funding from your department for your thesis project? • Yes • No Applied for a Research and Creative Activities Scholarship? • Yes • No Thesis proposal • Accompanies this application. • Has been previously approved. Proposed funding period will begin and end _______________________________________________________________ Month/Year Month/Year In what form(s) will the results of your research be reported? ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Describe briefly the relationship of the proposed funding to the honors thesis. Include an itemized budget. Attach additional information, if necessary. Advisor’s Signature_______________________________________________________Date ______________________ Student’s Signature_______________________________________________________ Date ______________________ For Office Use Only Honors Program Recommendation (Other sources of funding?) _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Approval ___________________________________________ Amount of Honors Funding ________________________ Dean’s Signature 11 Instructions for Writing the Thesis and Scheduling the Defense After your proposal has been approved by your advisor, department honors coordinator, and a representative of the Honors Program, you are ready to begin carrying out your research and writing your thesis. Here are the steps to follow: Step 1. Conduct your research or complete your capstone project. Normally, you will do the research or the preparation for your project the semester before you write the thesis or accompanying documentation. Work closely with your advisor throughout the research phase to be sure you are gathering the right data or information. Keep a careful log of your research efforts and take notes about information that will likely become a part of the final document. Step 2. Write a first draft and as many intermediate drafts as your advisor requires. Show your draft in stages to your advisor as you complete each part. The advisor and, in most cases, the referee should see a complete first draft about two months before you plan to have your defense. Subsequent drafts are almost always necessary before you write a final draft. Do not expect to write and submit only one draft of your thesis, then hold your defense a few days later. Refer to the table on page 5 to remind yourself of deadlines you must meet. Step 3. Write a final draft. The final draft will be read by your advisor, referee, and a representative of the Honors Program prior to your defense. The final draft should conform to the Honors Program’s specifications for the final copy that is bound and submitted to the library. These specifications are explained and illustrated on the final pages of this packet. Since additional changes in the thesis may be necessary after the defense, the final draft may be printed on regular paper. Not less than one week prior to your defense, give your advisor and referee a copy of the final draft, and have your advisor sign Form 6, the Honors Thesis Submission form. Bring a copy of the final draft to 102A MSRB for the Honors Program representative who will chair your defense. Form 6 should be attached to the Honors Program copy. Step 4. Schedule your thesis defense. When your final draft is nearly ready, contact the Honors Advisement Center in 102A MSRB to find out who will chair your defense. Contact the chair, your advisor, and your referee to schedule a time (at least one hour) when all three can meet for the defense. It is also your responsibility to find a room for the defense. The department secretary in your major department can usually help you schedule a room; the Dean’s secretaries in 302 MSRB can also tell you about the availability of the Honors conference room. At your defense the three readers of your thesis will ask you questions about your research and the claims that you make in your thesis. Remember that you must complete the defense by the specified deadline in a given semester to be eligible for graduation with University Honors. Please refer to page 5 of this packet for the deadline you must meet. 12 FORM 6 HONORS THESIS SUBMISSION FORM Name___________________________________________________Social Security Number ____________________ Submission Date__________________________________________ Semester of Graduation ____________________ Major (s) ________________________________________________ Minor __________________________________ Thesis Title ______________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Faculty Advisor ___________________________________________________________________________________ Faculty Referee ___________________________________________________________________________________ Approximate Hours Spent on Thesis Research _______________________________ Writing ________________________________ The thesis will be submitted for publication in the following journal (not required): ________________________________________________________________________________________________ I submit my work for approval of the honors thesis requirement for graduation with University Honors. Student's Signature _________________________________________________________________________________ As the thesis faculty advisor, I certify that the attached thesis is in final form and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the honors thesis requirement. Advisor’s Signature _______________________________________________________________________________ For Office Use Only Great Works Pass or Fail Portfolio Pass or Fail Date of Thesis Defense ___________________________________ Place __________________ Time _______________ Thesis Defense Committee ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Recommendation of Committee _______________________________________________________________________ Comments ________________________________________________________________________________________ Rank of Thesis ____________________________________________________________________________________ (Superior/Excellent/Good/Satisfactory/Unacceptable) 13 Instructions for Preparing the Final Copy of the Thesis When you have passed your defense, the following steps will be necessary to complete the thesis requirement: Step 1. Correct and format your thesis. Make the final corrections in your thesis required by your thesis defense committee. Then format your thesis for printing. The next two pages outline the format that all theses must conform to. The pages at the end of this packet illustrate and explain format conventions that are peculiar to your discipline. Each of the model pages shows how to format a particular part of the thesis and what to include in it. The small red type in the left hand margin explains the details and the reasoning behind the format conventions. Step 2. Submit four unbound copies to the Honors Program. After you have formatted your thesis, prepare four unbound copies on acid free bond paper to submit to the Honors Program Office in 102A MSRB. Before submitting the copies, however, you must obtain your advisor’s signature on all four copies of the title/signature page. The Honors Program staff can usually get the signatures of the defense chair for you. 14 Format Requirements for All Theses Margins and Fonts Observe these guidelines: 1. Leave a margin of one and one-half inches on the left side of each page to allow for binding. 2. Leave one-inch margins on the top, bottom, and right side of each page. 3. Do not justify the right margin; doing so makes the text more difficult to read. 4. Use at least a 12-point font for the body of the thesis (footnotes and captions for tables and figures can be set in a smaller font.) 5. Use a serif font for the text of the paper; research shows it is easier to read. 6. You may use a sans serif font for titles and headings, if desired. This is an example of a serif font. This is an example of a sans serif font. Front matter The following pages should come before the text of the thesis in the order indicated. 1. Title/signature page 2. Acknowledgments page, if desired 3. Table of Contents 4. List of Tables and Figures, if any have been used in the thesis 5. Abstract (summary) of the thesis Body of the thesis Please observe the following conventions in organizing the body of the thesis. 1. Divide the body of the thesis into sections or chapters as indicated in the Table of Contents. 2. Give each section or chapter a heading that corresponds to headings used in the Table of Contents. 4. Number all pages of the body of the thesis sequentially with Arabic numerals. 5. Number tables, if any, sequentially, e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc. 6. Number figures, if used, sequentially, e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. Figures include drawings, graphs, photos, diagrams, maps–anything that is not a table. 7. Give each table or figure a descriptive caption that explains clearly what is presented in the table or figure. 8. Place tables and figures close to the relevant text, but not before a reader needs them. 15 Back Matter All theses will have the first of these, and many will have the second. 1. References, Selected Bibliography, Works Cited, or Works Consulted. The title you use will depend on the documentation style you have followed. These pages must contain full bibliographic citations for all documents, printed or electronic, you have consulted and cited in the thesis. 2. Appendix(es). Place in an appendix raw data (e.g., calculations, transcripts, tabulations, matrices, etc.) which your readers are likely to want to see but which are either peripheral to the argument or too bulky to put in the body of the thesis. Note: Most of the illustrative pages that follow have been taken directly from various honors theses submitted in the past; not all pages come from the same thesis. Some changes have been made in these pages in order to illustrate various conventions. All have been used with permission of the original author; alterations in the original have also been permitted by the authors. 16 The margins for the entire thesis should be set at 1" top, bottom, and right, with a 1.5" left margin to allow for binding. All information should be centered horizontally between the margins as shown and presented in the same 12-point font as the rest of the document. Locate the title 2" from the top edge of the page and capitalize all the letters, except where standard usage dictates otherwise. If the title is too long for one line (over 5"), it must be split and placed on two or more lines, with the first line the longest and subsequent lines shorter (inverted pyramid style). SAMPLE APA TITLE AND SIGNATURE PAGE %2'<,0$*(6$7,6)$&7,21,1/'6&203$5('72121/'6 &2//(*($*(678'(176 E\ $QQ0DULH&DUUROO Your name should be double-spaced below the word “by.” 6XEPLWWHGWR%ULJKDP<RXQJ8QLYHUVLW\LQSDUWLDOIXOILOOPHQW Type this statement exactly as shown here. RIJUDGXDWLRQUHTXLUHPHQWVIRU8QLYHUVLW\+RQRUV 'HSDUWPHQWRI3V\FKRORJ\ Identify your department and type the month and year of thesis submission. -XQH In the signature section, type the name of your thesis advisor and the Honors Dean presiding at the defense of the thesis. $GYLVRU'LDQH6SDQJOHU+RQRUV'HDQ.ULVWLQH+DQVHQ Skip a space and provide a signature line. 6LJQDWXUHBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB6LJQDWXUHBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB Make the signature line flush with the bottom 1" margin. The acknowledgments page is optional, Center the heading “Acknowledgments” 2" from the top of the page. Use block letters in the same font type and size. Start the text of the acknowledgment four lines below the heading. The acknowledgment page is used to express appreciation for committee members, family, or friends who provided assistance or support to the writer during the Thesis project. Acknowledgments should be brief, simple and in good taste. SAMPLE APA ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PAGE (optional) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Diane Spangler, for her continual guidance and support. She was very patient with me as I learned the research process, and she always treated my questions with respect. In addition, I appreciate the help of my research assistants for this project: Cara Jones, Damon Elliot, Helaina Escienca, and Jared Sellers. They did everything I asked of them and more. This project was generously funded by The Women’s Research Institute, by the Honors Program at Brigham Young University, and by a grant from the ORCA Scholarship Committee. Without this financial help, I could not have completed the work. Lastly, I am extremely grateful to my parents for their support and for the quiet space and time they provided in their home while I wrote this thesis. Flippant and sarcastic statements would be inappropriate. Sincere is better than cute. i The outline of your thesis becomes the table of contents. Center the heading 2" below the top of the page in a 12point font. Leave three blank spaces between the title and the start of the text. Use a 12-point font for the text. The table of contents is of importance because it enables readers see at once the entire content of your document and read selectively if they so desire. Show all the divisions or chapter titles in the thesis. There should be as many headings as divisions of the thesis. All headings should be substantive or functional to accurately signal the content of the section. SAMPLE APA TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 7$%/(2)&217(176 7LWOHDQGVLJQDWXUHSDJH L $FNQRZOHGJPHQWVRSWLRQDO LL 7DEOHRI&RQWHQWV LLL /LVWRI7DEOHVDQG)LJXUHVDVQHFHVVDU\ LY $EVWUDFWUHTXLUHG Y ,,QWURGXFWLRQ ,,0HWKRGVDQG0DWHULDOV ,,,5HVXOWV ,9'LVFXVVLRQ 95HIHUHQFHV Lower case roman numerals are used for page numbers of prefatory sections: title page, abstract, table of contents, etc.. Title page is number i, but the number should not appear on the page. Spaced dot "leaders" extend from each section entry to the page numbers in column at the right margin. The references section follows the text, LL Center the heading “List of Figures” or “List of Tables” two inches from the top of the page. Leave four blank spaces, then start the list. The list is doublespaced and printed in the same font size and type as the rest of the text. SAMPLE APA LIST OF TABLES/FIGURES PAGE /,672)7$%/(6 7DEOH79DOXHVDQG0HDQVE\*HQGHU 7DEOH/'60DOHYV1RQ/'60DOH 7DEOH/'6)HPDOHYV1RQ/'6)HPDOH LLL Center the heading “Abstract” 2" from the top of the page. Leave four blank spaces, then center the title as it appears on the title page. SAMPLE APA ABSTRACT PAGE ABSTRACT BODY IMAGE SATISFACTION IN LDS COMPARED TO NON-LDS The abstract is a concise summary of the Thesis or the Capstone Project. It must not exceed 250 words in length. It is double-spaced and printed in the same font size and type as the rest of the text. The abstract precedes the body of the thesis. COLLEGE-AGE STUDENTS A number of sociocultural factors have been shown to impact body image. The purpose of this study was to determine if the sociocultural variable of religion, specifically the LDS religion, affects body image in college-age students. Questionnaires assessing body image and beliefs about appearance were administered to male and female LDS and non-LDS students at Brigham Young University, the University of Utah, Boston University, and California State College, Fullerton. Results indicated that male students, regardless of religion or institution, were more satisfied with their bodies than their female counterparts. Within-gender comparisons indicated that male LDS students had higher body satisfaction on almost all subscales than non-LDS males. In contrast, female LDS students did not significantly differ from non-LDS females. By institution, male BYU students reported spending more time and effort on their appearance compared with two of the other institutions. Female BYU students indicated greater dissatisfaction with their overall appearance and reported investing more time and effort into their appearance compared with two of the other institutions. Possible explanations and implications of these results are discussed. iv SAMPLE APA CITATIONS IN THE TEXT OF THE PAPER APA Style is characterized by the frequent (but not exclusive) summarizing and paraphrasing of borrowed material followed by the parenthetical citation of the author’s name and date of publication. Introduction Body image is the perception and evaluation of body size as either positive or negative, i.e., the mental picture of one’s body. Body image is described as the product of conscious and unconscious perceptions, attitudes, and feelings (Lopez, Blix & Blix, 1995). Page numbers are given only with direct quotations, not with summarized material. Research during the last two decades demonstrates that concerns about body image and weight preoccupation have increased to a level some term an obsession (Rodin, 1993). Girls as young as eight years old report dissatisfaction with their weight, and 50% of nine-year-olds as well as 80% of ten-year-olds have dieted in an effort to change their appearance (Council on Size and Weight Discrimination, 1996). A study of girls ages 13 to 16 found that only 23% had never dieted, 40% were classified as “dieters,” and 16% were often or always dieting (Strong & Huon, 1998). This increase in body dissatisfaction and weight preoccupation parallels a rise in eating disorders. Indeed, many theorists suggest that negative self-evaluation and dissatisfaction with body size are prominent factors in the etiology of eating disorders (e.g., Monteath & McCabe, 1997). Eating disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent as young women seek to obtain an almost unrealistic ideal of how their body should look. As body dissatisfaction is a major predictor of dieting behavior and eating disorders (Stice, Shaw, & Secondary headings are underlined and aligned with the left margin. Tertiary headings are indented, underlined, and followed by a period. Sometimes, authors' names are integrated into the text of the paper through the use of introductory statements followed immediately by the parenthetical citation of the date of publication. Nemeroff, 1998), it is crucial to understand the factors related to body image (dis)satisfaction. Factors Related to Body Image Media effects. Hesse-Biber et al. (1987) found an indirect link between sociocultural values and eating disorders. One factor linked to sociocultural factors that influence body image is the media. . . . 8 Religion. Little to no research has been conducted on the effects of religion on body image. However, it is possible that religion affects body image because Western society has inherited many of its norms and practices from a religious past. Religion has taught that the body should be viewed as something ranging from carnal and devilish to holy and a temple of God. Religion often prescribes body rituals of what to wear and how to look; some religions have rules on how and what to eat. Thus, there are several avenues by which religion could impact body image, weight preoccupation, and eating patterns. Research on body image within the Latter-day Saint (LDS) community is especially sparse. LDS doctrine teaches that bodies are a gift from God and that the Lord “looketh not on the outward appearance” but “looketh on the heart” (1 Samuel 16:7, King James Version). However, LDS members are also commanded, “Be ye therefore perfect” (Matthew 5:48). The quest for perfection may lead many to be overly critical of themselves and their bodies. Young LDS adults, especially at BYU, also experience a great deal of pressure to get married. In a 1963 commencement address, Ernest L. Wilkinson, President of BYU, quoted Brigham Young as saying that any unmarried man over the age of 25 is a menace to society. Another leader of the LDS Church has said, “No man who is of marriageable age is living his religion who remains single” (quoted in Lee, 1973, p. 117). There is an attitude that anyone who graduates from college without first getting married is a failure. Thus, young LDS women, feeling pressure to attract a mate, may try to make their bodies fit the thin ideal. Berschied and Walster (1972) found in the general population “an unexpectedly high correlation between physical attractiveness and a woman’s social Page numbers must follow direct quotations. experience” (p. 42). 9 The References page is an alphabetized list of the books, journals, and other published works actually used in the paper. Pagination of the thesis continues from the text through the References section. Center the heading “References”” 2" from the top of the page. Leave three blank spaces, then start the works cited entries in APA Style. Use the same 12point font used in the rest of the thesis. Use hanging indentation, with the first line flush to the life margin and subsequent lines indented five spaces or tabbed once. Double-space References entries. SAMPLE APA STYLE REFERENCES PAGE 5()(5(1&(6 $QGHUVRQ$('L'RPHQLFR/'LHWYVVKDSHFRQWHQWRISRSXODUPDOHDQG IHPDOHPDJD]LQHV$GRVHUHVSRQVHUHODWLRQVKLSWRWKHLQFLGHQFHRIHDWLQJ GLVRUGHUV",QWHUQDWLRQDO-RXUQDORI(DWLQJ'LVRUGHUV Entry for a journal article. %HUVFKHLG(:DOVWHU(2FWREHU%HDXW\DQGWKHEHDVW3V\FKRORJ\7RGD\ Entry for a magazine. If the publication is paginated by the month, show the month with the year. &DVK7)8VHUV PDQXDOIRUWKH0XOWLGLPHQVLRQDO%RG\6HOI5HODWLRQV 4XHVWLRQQDLUH1RUIRON9$2OG'RPLQLRQ8QLYHUVLW\ Entry for a single author book. Note that only the author’s first name initials are given. &RXQFLO2Q6L]H:HLJKW'LVFULPLQDWLRQ)DFWVDQG)LJXUHV Publication with corporate author. /HH+%$GGUHVVWRWKH3ULHVWKRRG%UHWKUHQ5HSRUWRIWKHUG6HPLDQQXDO &RQIHUHQFHRIWKH&KXUFKRI-HVXV&KULVWRI/DWWHUGD\6DLQWVSS6DOW /DNH&LW\7KH&KXUFKRI-HVXV&KULVWRI/DWWHUGD\6DLQWV When cities are well known, such as New York or Los Angeles, the name of the state is omitted. Otherwise, use standard postal abbreviations to show states. 0F&DUUROO%LWWHO(7KHUHODWLRQVKLSRIERG\LPDJHZHLJKWGLHWLQJVWDWXVUDFH DQGDJHRIRQVHWRIREHVLW\WRUHVWUDLQHGHDWLQJSDWWHUQLQDGROHVFHQWZRPHQ 'LVVHUWDWLRQ$EVWUDFWV,QWHUQDWLRQDO% Entry for a dissertation abstract 0HOFKHUV*6RFLROLQJXLVWLFVDQGVHFRQGODQJXDJHDFTXLVLWLRQ,Q%.HWWHPDQQ ::LHGHQ(GV&XUUHQWLVVXHVLQ(XURSHDQVHFRQGODQJXDJHDFTXLVLWLRQ UHVHDUFKSS7XELQJHQ*HUPDQ\/DXSS*REHO1HKUHQ Entry for a chapter in an edited book. 6SDQJOHU'7KHEHOLHIVDERXWDSSHDUDQFHVFDOH8QSXEOLVKHG0DQXVFULSW Entry for an unpublished article.
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