How to deal with students’ vulnerability in adult education? report

How to deal with students’
vulnerability in adult education?
In search of strategies, tools and good practices to deal
with adults having a low proficiency in literacy,
numeracy and problem-solving skills
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At the beginning of the school year 2012-2013, the Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid (CVLZ) (Consortium of Centres for Adult Education SouthLimburg) requested us – teachers as well as hands-on experts - to investigate the
vulnerability and the skills of the students in our adult education.
We considered these aspects as familiar ground and the issue certainly as recognizable. From our experience, we have worked hard and with fun on this research
during the school year 2012-2013. Finally, we may conclude it was a challenging
and instructive process.
Our investigation is reflected in this research report and was made possible
thanks to the valuable support of many concerned people. We would like to
thank them all and very explicitly the steering committee, the centres that participated as well as the many interviewees.
We hope this research report will meet the expectations and will contribute to
the improvement process on how to deal with ‘vulnerable’ students in adult education.
Karolien Colson
Tanya Daniëls
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Expression of gratitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Table of contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Research question. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Kind of research and justification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Practically-oriented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Qualitative/In-depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Research process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Desk research – Literature study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Field research – Interview/inquiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Principals/school management, coordinators, care guides and
(face to face). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Inquiry of teachers (focus groups). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Survey and questioning of the students (class groups) . . . . 15
3Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Hindering factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Cognitive/Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Psychological/Socio-emotional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Social/Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Structural/Social . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Medically. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Financial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Educational. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Language/Values and standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Fields of action to support the vulnerable student . . . . . . . 22
Private situation – confidential advisor/counsellor. . . . . . 22
Teaching practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
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Financial aspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Warm welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Training and exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Extra support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Collaboration with authorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Orientation - screening – referral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Recommandations for additional research . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Recommandations for the policy level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Recommandations for cooperating organizations . . . . . . . . 32
Recommandations at centre level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Reception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Communication and information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Social services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5Epilogue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Glossary of items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6ANNEXES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
ANNEX - Collaborating partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
ANNEX - Inquiry of school boards, coordinators, route counsellors
and care guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
ANNEX - Inquiry of teachers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
ANNEX - Face-to-face interview of students. . . . . . . . . . . 55
ANNEX - Survey of students by mail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
ANNEX - Invitation Grundtvig Workshop. . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
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The Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid (CVLZ) (Consortium of
Centres for Adult Education South-Limburg) started in 2012-2013 a qualitative
research concerning ‘vulnerability and skills’ in adult education. The research
resulted from working around progression and possible flow of students into the
continuation courses – and more specifically – from Adult Basic Education (CBE)
into the Adult Education Centres (CVO). When trying to formulate a regional
policy regarding promoting and stimulating this flow and progression the same
question manifested itself over and over again: What factors are important in
whether or not a student persists and might successfully complete a training in
adult education?
Finally, the discussion resulted in the following research question: Are vulnerable
students sufficiently supported in adult education nowadays during their intake,
in maintaining and persisting during their learning path and finally in completing
successfully their courses?
Four centres within CVLZ were prepared to participate in this research: CVO
STEP, CVO VSPW-Hasselt, CVO13 Zuid-Limburg and Basiseducatie Limburg-Zuid.
Each of the partners were questioned extensively, both on staff and teacher level
as on student level, in order to point out what the indicators of vulnerability are
and how one should handle them.
Students phrased their needs regarding support during their learning process as
well as strategies and tools that already gave them the required support.
Teachers and principals gave access to their good practices but also in the areas
of improvement of their policies in and around the classroom practice.
During a day seminar titled “how to deal with students’ vulnerability in adult
education?” on May 29. 2013, the preliminary results of the investigation research were presented and discussed by teachers, principals and students as well
as by representatives of related organizations and relevant partners.
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This workshop really was a refreshing exchange of experiences from everybody’s
point of view and expertise, and was a successful contribution to adjust our view
on vulnerable students as well as on our approach of their needs in daily teaching practice. The results of the research, the speeches of the seminar, and the
reports and reactions have been brought together in this report.
It is obvious that opportunities are certainly available in the Limbourg province as
well as on a Flemish level to pursue the challenges stated in this report in order
to find support for the necessary guidance and coaching of our vulnerable adult
Following aspects that arose both during the research as during the workshop,
are worth mentioning. A first result can be found in the exchange of methodology, material, vision,… and in the deepening and continuation of what already
came out of the mounted research. A second important conclusion is the outspoken need to set up a network of stakeholders for consultation on a regular basis
beyond the traditional networks and regional borders. On top of that the development of a solid Open Learning Centre came to the fore for the exchange of
expertise, professional knowledge, material and didactics by means of an overarching forum. Finally orientation, intake, guidance and referral play an important
part in the research. Students who want to continue their studies should in the
very near future be screened and followed-up via these tools and instruments
and could then be referred into an appropriate training or learning path.
This project will proceed in the further activities of the so called “Steering Committee Vulnerable Target Groups CVLZ” and will be treated in the Grundtvig
workshop “Literacy”. This Grundtvig workshop will take place from 16 to 23
March 2014 in Hasselt.
A brief description of this Grundtvig project is displayed in annex.
We hope that this written reflection of our findings will be a source of inspiration.
31st August 2013
Steering Committee Vulnerable Target Groups CVLZ
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1.1 Research question
The general research question was phrased as follows:
“Are in present adult education vulnerable students sufficiently supported in
the intake, guidance, persistence and successful completing of their learning
The steering committee Vulnerable Target Groups CVLZ, the initiator of this research, presented a number of items requiring special attention: the guidance of
students towards adult education, “keeping the students” and their progression
to continue education.
First of all the question was raised from which perspective the different training
centres look at students in general and vulnerable students in particular.
The phase in the students’ process to be focussed on represents the phase going
from the moment of enrolment till his/her dropout or outflow. This phase includes students that already lost courage one time, maybe even quitted and came
back. They are vulnerable and might thus make a valuable contribution to the
question what hinders and helps these students during their learning process.
Potential students and ex-students were not included in this research.
To know what the main reasons are for course participants to drop out during
their studies, it would be very interesting to figure what the specific reasons are
why they got disappointed and stopped studying.
But in view of the time-consuming aspect of such investigation, the group of former students was not involved in this research.
Neither is the promotion of the enrolment and inflow of vulnerable student’s
part of this research. The promotion of adult education in itself is indeed outside
the issue of this research.
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The group to which the research focuses can therefore be described as the current student in adult education and the most applied data collection method
consisted of enquiries and surveys by means of qualitative interviews.
Synthesis and descriptive methods were mainly used for the analysis. A SWOTanalysis was used in the training centres. By means of this method, strengths and
weaknesses in working with vulnerable students were mapped out and the opportunities and threats are described, based on the practice of the four centres
1.2 Kind of research and justification
The research, as carried out by the project managers, can be characterized as
qualitative, in-depth and practically-oriented. The paragraphs below will explain
these terms in detail.
Although this report reflects the whole research project and develops a theoretical framework, it was opted to focus on practice. Indeed the needs and requirements of working with vulnerable students are mainly sensed from the practice,
and it is obvious that there is a need for workable methodologies.
From this point of view was created the already mentioned study day as well in
which practical tips on how to deal with vulnerable students were exchanged.
Qualitative research can be defined as research focussing on grasping the world
of experience of the target group in a certain situation. As the in-depth aspect is
important when questioning students, an e-mail survey was excluded, otherwise
the opportunity to continue asking questions would be inexistent.
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Several respectable quantitative researches focussing on vulnerable groups have
already been carried out, such as
• “Factors influencing drop-out in adult education in Flanders” (Boden, 2010)
• “Adult education in Limburg: needs research, a quantitative research into the
profile, the bottlenecks and levers and the training needs of students” (Lembrechts, 2011)
• “Effects in the area of social, professional and educational self-reliance after
participation in second-chance education in Flanders” (Raes, 2008)
• “Shortcomings and needs of socially vulnerable students in the subject personal care and coordination with possible kinds of support” (Spillebeen,
Moreover a further in-depth approach was applied by focussing on only the staff
of the 4 centres involved, namely in the three subgroups: school boards, teachers
and students. Thanks to this delimitation, the feasibility of the research process
became practically realizable.
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Research process
2.1 Desk research – Literature study
A first phase of the research process consisted mainly out of desk research. An
overview of the consulted works can be found in the literature listed on page 38.
The consulted sources provided information to orient the problem and to carry
out the research in a thorough and standard way. The information gathered in
the orientation phase was especially an important support to create the interview items and questionnaires for the field research.
2.2 Field research – Interview/inquiry
2.2.1Principals/school management, coordinators, care guides
and coaches (face to face)
The method of individual face-to-face interviews was applied to inquire the
school boards, coordinators, care guides as well as route counsellors. You can
find the used questionnaire in ANNEX 6.4: Face-to-face interviews of students.
Altogether, 16 people were interviewed.
The interview was based on questions regarding vision on and experience with
vulnerability. Besides that, the number of vulnerable students in the centre was
estimated as well as the fulfilment of their needs and questions about care,
guidance and counselling. Moreover, the communication between teachers as
well as care guides and route counsellors was investigated, the presence and
functioning of an open learning centre was reviewed as well as their experiences
with possible bottlenecks on the intake and flow from other centres.
At first “Vulnerability” was interpreted and applied in a very broad way, however,
to avoid insufficient in-depth, some items were not integrated in this research.
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In this way the intake was not studied in detail because it would lead us into
promotion. Moreover, the flow was not taken into account, because on the one
hand, the Dutch Language House already is in the process of developing a progression policy, although only within the area of NT2, and, on the other hand,
it provides sufficient matter for study to create a specialized focus group on this
issue in the next year.
2.2.2Inquiry of teachers (focus groups)
Focus groups were chosen in order to interview/question teachers. The focus
groups were composed per centre and the selection occurred on a voluntary basis.
The focus group research is an aimed kind of research concentrating on one specific subject in which the participants with specific expertise reflect on subjects
based on their experience to deal with vulnerable students. The statements/
opinions of the members of the focus group were inventoried and described (6.3
ANNEX: Inquiry of teachers). We opted for focus groups of teachers, because the
reactions of other participants and respondents might remind of certain things
that otherwise would not could be treated.
A focus group was composed per centre. Altogether 29 teachers were interviewed. The group discussion was held, based on a list of subjects (see 6.3 ANNEX:
Inquiry of teachers) and led by one of the two scholars/researchers. The list of
discussion items consisted of three fixed subjects:
• The definition of the vulnerability of students;
• The strengths and weaknesses within their centre in different areas, such as
welcome and intake, class preparation, teaching activities, care support and
• Their contact with other organisations such as VDAB, OCMW, Dutch Language House, RVA, family allowances fund, welcome office, etc.
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2.2.3Survey and questioning of the students (class groups)
For students, a personal survey was organized per class group. The used questionnaire can be found under 6.4 ANNEX: Face-to-face interview of students and
6.5 ANNEX: Survey of students by mail. Altogether, 83 students were questioned.
Because of the fact that the subject vulnerability might be a sensitive issue, is opted for a personal consultation, by doing so the researcher can first win the trust
and can thus leave the surveyed student say what for him or her is further deeper than the superficial . Previous researches, such as ”Quantitative research and
vulnerable groups: Towards representative enclosure of hidden groups or groups
difficult to reach” (by Mariën and Courtois, 2011), prove that finding the right
way of surveying vulnerable target groups is crucial. In their research Mariën and
Courtois (2011) state that the most perfect way to reach these groups is by collaborating with comprehensive gatekeepers, being intermediary organisations that
have developed balanced and durable relationships based on trust with vulnerable individuals1. The relationship of trust is crucial to reach vulnerable groups.
During the students’ enquiry, the students were asked two questions. These
questions treated the same subjects as applied in the focus groups of the teachers.
The students’ enquiry used visual techniques in order to guarantee the workability and comprehension. In this way, green tables were used for what helps them
and red tables were used for what is blocking them or has stopped them in their
study process.
As personal interviews were impossible for practical reasons, the enquiry was
carried out by means of the electronic learning platform on the internet. The
students were asked then to provide an answer by mail without allowing access
to the teachers. About ten percent of all respondents answered in this way.
1 Examples of Comprehensive Gatekeepers are for instance organizations being part of the Flemish Network of Associations where the Poor take the floor
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3.1 Hindering factors
Based on the surveys, carried out among the students of the four involved training centres, we were able to reveal different factors that possibly influence their
These factors can be divided in eight large domains: cognitive/skills, psychological/socio-emotional, social/public, structural/social, medical, financial, educational and language/values and standards.
It is of course possible that students meet one or more indicators, in which case
we speak of multiple problems. On the other hand, a student meeting one or
several indicators is not always obviously vulnerable. If a student feels vulnerable, one or more of the listed indicators will generally speaking be the reason or
The interviews reveal that one indicator often reinforces the other, in which case
situations often become unbearable to combine study and training with everyday
For this reason, we can recognize vulnerable students as people for whom the
workload often exceeds their capabilities.
The workload vulnerable students can experience is situated in one or more
areas, as listed below.
This indicator aims at all possible difficulties students can experience in the cognitive area and in the field of skills:
• Certain learning disorders (dyslexia, dyscalculia, NLD, …),
• Concentration problems,
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• Reading and writing problems or illiteracy,
• Knowledge and skills they apply, are socially not recognized,
• A (more) limited learning capability,
• A slower learning rhythm.
In the psychological/socio-emotional area, we can identify the following possible
risk factors:
• Certain behavioural disturbances and development disorders (ADD, ADHD,
ASS, …);
• Psychological problems (excoriation, eating disorder, depression…);
• Personality disorders (borderline, psychotic…);
• Fear of failure;
• A (seriously) hurt inside;
• A low self-esteem;
• A traumatic past (or present);
• Having no or little intrinsic motivation (e.g. study under constraint by authorities e.g. VDAB, OCMW, … or by the home front).
This group of hindering factors includes following possible issues that might encourage vulnerability:
• Being a single parent;
• (ex-)convicts;
• Over 45 (in the area of flow/progression to the labour market);
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• Over 70 (in the field of memory and speed);
• Being retired;
• Dealing with social exclusion;
• Partner or roommates do not support the training;
• Due to disadvantage or generation poverty;
• Having or having had personal, domestic or family problems (drugs past,
divorce, domestic violence, illness of partner, home-based counselling of a
family member, physically or mentally disabled family member, …);
• Being socially isolated and or having a limited or non-existent network (so
finding little or no support);
• Being hindered by their environment to attend courses or training;
• Not having a clear short-term and/or long-term goal.
On top of social-public indicators, a number of structural indicators might influence a students’ vulnerability, such as:
• People to whom the socially organized structures are not or insufficiently accessible (and have problems with the authorities because of it, e.g. residence
permit, RVA, OCMW, …);
• People struggling with administration and organization;
• People who find it hard to combine classes, household and possibly a job.
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Likewise, regarding health, a number of different factors can make a student vulnerable:
• Physical or mental disability;
• Chronic disease;
• An addiction problem (past or present).
One of the most obvious indicators of students’ vulnerability is to be found in the
financial field:
• A low income, a replacement income or being without any income;
• Living on the poverty threshold or below the poverty line;
• Being limited in mobility due to financial problems.
An important indicator to be noticed in this research is to be found on the educational level:
• Low-skilled people;
• Having no or an inadequate learning attitude;
• Experiencing a gap between willing/perseverance and ability to study;
• Experiencing too big a step to study into the next educational level
• Schooling and schooling skills are no longer up to date: it has been a long
time since (or the first time) they had to use schooling skills;
• Ex-students of adult basic education;
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• Having no secondary diploma;
• Having had a negative (school) experience in any way;
• Failure experience, with no or little success experience;
• Procrastination (inability to plan);
• People with a limited ICT-knowledge, or no/limited internet access;
• Having no clear short-term and/or long-term educational goal;
• Having other expectations of the chosen lesson or training package;
• People with a messed up self-image overestimating or underestimating
themselves from an educational point of view.
3.1.8Language/Values and standards
In the cultural sphere, a number of factors might cause a vulnerability risk;
• People belonging to ethnical minorities;
• People using another mother tongue than Dutch (or Flemish sign language);
• People having a language deficiency;
• People with language and/or cultural problems (both ethnic minorities as
people from other social classes);
• People with standards and values different from those used in the educational system.
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3.2 Fields of action to support the vulnerable student
The research results proved to be pretty extensive. To keep an overview, the reporting covers only the most cited points, being the major concerns, the highest
needs and the most important tips out of good practices in dealing with vulnerable students.
Striking is the fact that the main subjects often treat obvious things, that people
in the field know very well, but do not always focus on, just because it often
seems so obvious.
However, the students consider these issues as very important and necessary in
order to persist in and finish their learning process (with a good and safe feeling).
In spite of the fact that the financial aspect is the most recognizable, it is not the
most named in the surveys.
According to the questioned students it is rather about the way they are dealt
with, viewing certain subjects differently and flexibility in arrangements that
would make the difference.
It is also striking that not all recommendations and needs have to do with the
financial aspect (better infrastructure, better material, more staff…), but with a
certain vision and mentality within each centre.
The most often stated topics are listed at random below being subdivided into
the following themes: private situation/confidential advisor, class practice, financial aspect, warm welcome, infrastructure, training and exchange, extra support,
collaboration with authorities and orientation/screening/referral.
3.2.1Private situation – confidential advisor/counsellor
The research shows a great need for a confidential advisor or counsellor, because
the balance between the workload and the capabilities of vulnerable students is
often unbalanced. The confidential counsellor is required to enable a right combination of the student’s private situation with his schooling. On the other hand
vulnerable students often only have a small social network, which means they
also need a confidential advisor within their training.
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The confidential advisor might at the same time be a link and contact with a certain teacher, a mentor or a care guide. When teachers act as confidential advisor,
it has to be made clear to whom the student can appeal and for what. A clear
information leaflet is an important tool in this respect.
Within Adult Basic Education and the training Experience expert in Poverty and
Social Exclusion (EDAS), only one person is always at the same time teacher/
counsellor and taking on the care guidance.
The aspect to be heard and understood scores very high for the students in the
survey, but also important is the fact that the teachers, care guidance and school
board members stated this point to be very important.
Remarkable is the fact that, especially with long-term trainings, such as the twoyear training in second-chance education, the three-year training remedial education and the four-year training EDAS, the students clearly stated the need for a
counsellor. While as in shorter-term trainings, such as a module Italian, students
need less care guidance and mostly it is not available, except for the daily care by
the teacher.
3.2.2Teaching practice
In the methodical sphere, “tailor-made differentiation” is the strongest trump
card, as reflected by the research results.
Respecting the pace of students, getting time and space to practice, fail, adjust
and grow based on success experiences, … are supporting action lines that were
frequently mentioned during the interviews. Working in a power-oriented way is
also a trump card: examples based on cooperative learning, TGI (subject-oriented
interaction), working with commitments, focus on group dynamics, … represent
good practices that were mentioned in the focus groups of teachers.
A bottleneck to both teachers and students are the large class groups (20 or
more) and the always changing composition of the groups based on modular
working. Because the more vulnerable the student, the greater the need for
small, safely composed groups.
The great task load was frequently mentioned in the diploma-based trainings.
Students are often overburdened (combination home and school) and do not
exactly know the requirements of each training.
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The focus group brought some tips to the fore. First of all more explanation is asked when giving a task to a student and the possibility to ask for more clearness.
Moreover, a task spread is asked. On top of that the students indicated that
working on cross-subject integrated tasks, so that different goals of different modules can be integrated into one task, might be a possible tool. Likewise, it was
indicated that distance learning, ICT-use for an assignment, open learning centre
without guidance are not evident to a lot of students.
Tests or exams often seem to be a big stress factor for students, based on a work
load, but also based on negative experiences from their earlier school life.
Different kinds of evaluations are greatly appreciated: variation between oral and
written questioning, permanent evaluation, self-evaluation, peer assessment, …
A tailor-made working approach of course within the context of school conventions will help: for instance, you may use handwriting, if the PC is not your cup of
Clearly stating at the beginning of a module what and how will be evaluated is
another important element that arose from the focus group.
3.2.3Financial aspect
That the training is free of charge is of course a big trump card for the Centres of
Basic Adult Education and the EDAS-training that is also a big help in other trainings with intervention of the VDAB. Training is very expensive without financial
The possibility of a school fee payment plan within the centres was also considered as an important issue by the students, but also by the teachers, receptionists
and the school management. Likewise, claiming the payment at the beginning or
half of the month will help instead of claiming payment at the end of the month,
when a lot of people are very short of cash.
The respondents also stated that the lack of an encouragement bonus or scholarship for low incomes is a big loss. In this way, there is e.g. an example initiative of
the Limburg student loan for trainings as of level 5. Following this idea, a financial
arrangement for all levels in the whole of adult education is very much required.
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Moreover, the teaching staff needs extra training and schooling regarding the
outside of poverty, in order to learn to look further than the end of their nose
and see more than what people show in that situation and how poverty manifests itself.
3.2.4Warm welcome
Often it is said and thought: “This is a centre of adult education, so our students
should know this and be able to do that …”
This does not correspond with daily practice, where we all work with adults that
want to be treated equally as adults, but who, due to different circumstances, do
not master a number of skills or master them insufficiently in order to function at
the expected level in the present educational context.
A basic attitude of ‘feel free to ask’ (and there are no stupid questions) should
become our second nature!
The reception – often the first acquaintance with the future school – needs to
adopt an open, respectful, communicative and clear attitude.
One of the big issues in the interviews seemed the lack of staff in the secretariats, where the students are welcomed. The present staff teams are understaffed
and overburdened, which does not always result in patiently listening and answering questions.
A second focus point concerns the background and training the employees need
to be able to see certain bottlenecks in the students and to do the necessary follow-up. Not only their secretarial and reception skills are required, but their ability as well to see also the human person behind the may be vulnerable student.
Clear communication, that is asking at the end of an explanation whether all was
clear and feasible, is presented several times.
Uniform communication on to-and- absences, financial requirements and possibilities, medical examination, the exemption policy, ICT-knowledge and the use of
it, occurs clearly from the survey as all very essential.
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Also the information about who is responsible and accountable for what and
who is the contact person, is very important. The interviews show obviously that
a warm, caring school policy for all students is desirable and moreover is necessary for the most vulnerable students!
The setting and lay-out of a classroom is important to all parties of the three
questioned levels. On the one hand, the embellishment of older school buildings
was quoted in order to feel welcome and worthy in their school environment.
On the other hand seems hygiene a problematic point, certainly not implying
an expectation of big luxury. Only clean toilets and a hygienic clean cafeteria are
relevant here.
During the advancement of this project, we visited as project collaborators each
other’s training centres. By then it was confirmed what de respondents stated:
the signposting is not always clear. Often, upon arrival in a centre, you do not
know whether you are right, where the entrance is, the secretariat, where the
school management is housing, as well as care guidance, where the canteen is
or even the way to the different classrooms. This is all very relevant to familiarize
students and have them come in.
Also clarity is clarity needed on the sign and information boards. Do not take it
for granted that the students will understand what you mean, if you hang out
information. Simplicity is here the message.
Moreover, the set-up of a relax room for individual conversations (with the care
coordinator, teacher, mentor or route counsellor) and a nice recreational area for
the students are at the centre to make students feel at ease.
3.2.6Training and exchange
Besides the fact that training about vulnerability for teaching staff is certainly
required, teachers as well as school management also have stated that methodology and material exchange might make a big difference.
Internally the exchange of methodology and material is possible by means of
study groups, but thanks to a relevant partnership, exchange should be possible
throughout the different trainings and centres.
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A good example could be that a maths teacher of a CVO and a coach in figures
and counting of Adult Basic Education gather regularly. Or, in this way, educational staff of certain care trainings could develop and exchange training courses
To improve the possible progression, it might be recommendable to put their
curricula together and to adjust their training to one another as much as possible.
The creation of a joint databank might be a breakthrough in order to provide teachers sufficient working material for this vulnerable group of students.
3.2.7Extra support
In addition to focus and attention in the group, individual support might be beneficial. A short talk before or after the class can suffice for that purpose.
Sometimes, you need more than that and an internal or external referral might
From an internal point of view, a need for extra ICT-assistance, extra language
practices (spelling, creating reports,…), an offer “to learn how to study”, a training for fear of failure, coaching and an assertiveness training are required. Part
of the above support could be organized in an OLC, but this will only be effective
WITH assistance/counselling.
Sometimes, an extra referral is required. A good collaboration with relevant services (OCMW, CAW, and CGG) plays a crucial part.
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3.2.8Collaboration with authorities
Our students often have to deal with (lots of) different services, where they are
already in counselling. E.g. VDAB, RVA, OCMW, debt mediators, Family Allowances Fund, …
Again, the indispensable clear communication and transparency are applicable:
what are the rules, the expectations, what is allowed and what is not allowed?
The spirit of the times in which sanctioning seems more logical should be reversed into stimulation and encouragement. Stimulation to follow training and to
finish it successfully, encouragement to take opportunities and to move forward.
A good cooperation with these services might be beneficial to the students’ learning and growing process.
3.2.9Orientation - screening – referral
Same striking feature here is to see that lots of items seem very useful to some
centres or trainings and are again not applicable for others.
A great need for study orientation to choose a training or to change training
seems to arise, and is relevant within the centre itself by means of care counselling for instance. Likewise cross-centres, for instance at a provincial level, it might
be useful to guide students throughout the maze of the many training possibilities and of their own possibilities by means of a learning and orientation centre,
a kind of CLB could be very essential in adult education.
Upon screening at the beginning of a training, it is essential to be able to apply
more specific tools during the intake.
As regards orientation, we notice that (certainly in case of long-term trainings) it
is essential to be able to communicate always the right expectations to the student. If a student knows where he/she stands at the beginning of the training,
less people would drop out during the school year.
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According to the research into TKO drop-outs of the University of Antwerp2 , one
of the principal reasons for the drop-out effect in second-chance education is not
meeting certain expectations – because they do not correspond with the method
and organization. Therefore it is crucial to keep the student’s expectations realistic.
2 From the research of Eveline Boden, Factors influencing the drop-out in adult education in
Flanders: a quantitative research, thesis, promoter: Prof. dr. Mahieu, Paul , University of Antwerp,
Institute of Education and Information Sciences, Academic year 2009-2010, May 2010
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This research project has provided quite some workable material. For this reason,
a number of recommendations are given for an additional research and moreover, recommendations are provided for the field. These recommendations aim
more specifically at the policy level, the cooperating organisations and the centres of adult education.
4.1 Recommandations for additional research
• Extension to other centres and areas;
• Intake;
• Progression;
• Drop-outs;
• Compare care policy of different centres regarding the effect of it on chances
of success and drop-out percentages (such was also a recommendation for
additional research into “Shortages and needs of socially vulnerable students
in the study area personal care and adjustment with possible kinds of support’ of Lieselot Spillebeen, see bibliography);
• Individual interviews with students instead of focus groups?
4.2 Recommandations for the policy level
• Premium or scholarship for studying adults struggling with financial difficulties (with low income and without compensation by other systems such as
VDAB, training vouchers, …).
• Enabling centres to use several and more receptionists, because the work
load is too high and teachers are often being asked to replace them, resulting
in limited class hours.
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4.3 Recommandations for cooperating organizations
The organizations with which we cooperate are RVA and VDAB.
• Eliminating degressivity of students’ allowances during their training.
• Clear communication about “request for exemption to follow a training, a
traineeship or certain studies”.
• Clarity about acceptance conditions.
• Equal treatment by individual RVA-offices.
• Clarity about the function of putting a VDAB route counsellor at disposal.
Who will qualify and who not?
• Award of an incentive to several groups (e.g. financial vulnerable people,
handicapped people, retired people). The smoother recognition of a training
as training allowing to the person involved to benefit within the context of
his/her route to employment.
4.4 Recommandations at centre level
The recommendations at centre level can be grouped into the following categories : reception, communication and information, infrastructure, social services,
• Further training on customer friendliness for reception staff.
• Use of reception staff out of target group of students, teaching staff or fellow
students during info session.
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• At the first contact with the student, focus should be on: clear communication (no assumptions), student’s safety (not depending of the mood of the
receptionist), and good inventory of training needs and feasibility of practical
• Individual treatment at reception is essential, particularly in the financial
area. No classical treatment.
• Establishing a fractioned payment plan with the student.
• During intake, clear communication about advancing and down-payments of
medical research and entrance fee. Do not assume that somebody can immediately pay a large sum or at the end of the month. Best period: beginning
of the month or when someone receives his integration income.
• Giving also information on note (next to informative mail via Smartschool)
will help a lot of vulnerable students.
• Better centralization, simplification and update of general information.
• Adjusting opening hours of secretariat to breaks of students.
• Giving info for care of route counselling in time, regarding an overview of the
passed modules and exemptions of the student.
4.4.2Communication and information
• Upon intake and enrolment clear communication regarding the expectations
of the training: pc, internet, printer, computer knowledge required for training? You cannot just assume this.
• Simplification in administrative enrolment: scanning identity card, check of
residence permit, students’ rules and regulations, examination rules, enrolment both digitally as on paper, double out print, …
• Availability of a mail system (completion form) on website where one can request information, or be transferred directly to the concerned school board
or coordinator.
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• Better centralization, simplification and update of general information (as
regards media and competences).
• Possibly start-up of a students’ forum (centralized or per department), so
students can help each other.
• Need for better communication between secretariat and teachers : establish
already in June with the teacher team the information regarding new trainings and subjects for August and September.
• Better communication with students: Sending a letter (not only mails) at the
end of August to students to start the last day in August with new students.
• Handing out updated leaflet to all students at the beginning of the school
• Giving sufficient information on financial systems.
• Customer friendly up-to-date website with one administrator as the contactperson.
• Creating a calm feeling by table, chairs and seats at the reception instead of a
cool reception desk.
• Eliminate dark, creepy secondary school feeling by embellishing the old building and by creating openness and accessibility.
• Clear sign-posting to secretariat, school board, classes, OLC, care counsellor.
4.4.4Social services
• Mobilize the social assistants, possibly by combining hours together with
other centres? Goals: to help solve social problems with VDAB, RVA, family
allowance, payment plan.
• Use of social funds as a scholarship fund?
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• Organize at least three times a year an info moment (4x in case of modular)
to inform also late intake students sufficiently.
• An updated and clear website should be available with simple and complete
• Think of support within the centre by letting the students use borrowed laptops, having the students call the administration and teachers, cheaper outhouse activities, etc.
• A good and clear EVC-EVK-policy.
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The interviews with students revealed that what students say, show, express –
(outside) if you do not know them thoroughly or long enough – is often socially
desirable behaviour. Teachers or administrative staff will even experience it sometimes as socially unadjusted behaviour.
Moreover, these messages are not always in harmony with what they really
think, feel and want to say (inside).
This research makes us clear again that empathy by “listening” to the student
and acting on this empathy will always play a crucial part. The research shows
again that this is not only an issue for counsellors, but for all parties involved.
We hope this research contributes to the sensitization of everyone playing an
(in)direct part in the students’ counselling and training.
So at the end it is necessary to do a warm and passionate plea to all parties involved to guide and coach behind that façade in an open and respectful way,
without judging.
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Boden, Eveline, Factoren die de drop-out in het Tweedekansonderwijs in Vlaanderen beïnvloeden : een kwantitatief onderzoek, thesis, promoter: Prof. dr.
Mahieu, Paul , University of Antwerp, Institute of Education and Information
Science, Academic year 2009-2010, May 2010
De Grève, Rita, Course optional subject: maatschappelijke kwetsbaarheid, Department graduate in remedial education, VSPW - Hasselt CVO, Campus De Lazarij. 2011-2012
De Link vzw: visie op armoede
Script students’ counselling basic trainings CVO VSPW-Kortrijk
Jacobs, Roger, van Doorslaer, Jef, Het pomphuis van de 21ste eeuw – Educatie in
de actieve welvaartstaat, EPO: Berchem (Antwerp). 2000
Kuppens, Theo, Visietekst ‘Onthaalbeleid’, COB, GO, KOOGO, VCOV.
Lembrechts, Lieve, Volwasseneneducatie in Limburg: behoefteonderzoek,
een kwantitatief onderzoek naar het profiel, de knelpunten en hefbomen en
de opleidingsbehoeftes van cursisten, promoter dr. Lenaers, Steven, prof. dr.
Zanoni,Patrizia, University of Hasselt for vzw Provoli. February 2011.
Dr. Lenaers, Steven, Volwasseneneducatie in Limburg: behoefteonderzoek. Literature study, promoter prof. dr. Zanoni, Patrizia, University of for vzw Provoli. June
Mariën, Ilse; Courtois, Cédric, Kwantitatief onderzoek en kwetsbare groepen:
Naar het representatief insluiten van verborgen of moeilijk bereikbare groepen,
IBBT – SMIT, IBBT-MICT, Twenty four hours of Communication Sciences 2012, 9th
& 10th February 2012.
Raes, Annelies, Effecten op het gebied van sociale, professionele en educatieve
redzaamheid na deelname aan het Tweedekansonderwijs in Vlaanderen: een
kwantitatief onderzoek. Thesis, Van Damme, Prof. Dr. D: University of Ghent.
Smolders, Gwenny, Open leren in gesloten context. Een onderzoek binnen verscheidene Vlaamse gevangenissen naar knelpunten rond het open leercentrum
en mogelijke oplossingen. KUL, Leuvens Institute of Criminology, Faculty of Jurisprudence. 2011-2012
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Spillebeen, Lieselot, Tekorten en noden bij maatschappelijk kwetsbare cursisten
in het studiegebied personenzorg en afstemming met mogelijke ondersteuningsvormen. In opdracht van het Consortium volwassenenonderwijs Antwerpen VOLANT,TNA, September 2009 – January 2011.
Van Bunderen, Gert, Het secundair volwassenenonderwijs opstap naar meer?
Een longitudinale studie, promotor: Mahieu, Prof. dr. Paul, University of Antwerp,
Institute of Educational and Information Sciences, academic year 2011-2012, resit.
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Centre for Adult Basic Education : this branch of adult
education wants to contribute to the literacy of lowerskilled people by means of education and training. More
info on
Adult Education Centre: in these centres, people can
follow secondary adult education, higher professional
education or the specific teacher training. More info on
Training: Experience expert in poverty and social exclusion, icw. de Link , Sint Katelijnestraat 16-18, 1000 Brussels
Dutch Language House: will help foreign speakers who
want to follow Dutch language classes. From a concrete
point of view: a counsellor of the Dutch Language House
will talk with the candidate-student and will have him/
her take some tests. In consultation with the foreign
speaker, he will look for the most appropriate training.
More info on
Open Learning centre: an area with specific learning
tools, where students can work and practise autonomously in their own pace and at their own level.
Second-chance Education, training where adult can obtain their secondary education diploma. More info on
Theme-oriented interaction, a methodology to balance
with groups between the assignment, the individual student and the group: Ruth Cohn
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6.1 ANNEX - Collaborating partners
The vision of this centre reveals: CVO-STEP wants
to react efficiently and consciously to the different
needs of training of adults by developing a very
large range of trainings in the social, technical,
economic and pedagogical area. This range of trainings includes both basic as professional trainings
as training courses aimed at lifelong and life wide
learning. The modular training offer will be realized in continuous consultation with the field and
Available courses
SECONDARY ADULT EDUCATION: Dutch Second Language, Information application software, carpentry renovation techniques, outdoor carpenter, indoor carpenter, hairdresser ladies and gentlemen, beauty specialist salon management,
clothing & accessories, household/domestic cooking, masseur, specialized pedicure.
HIGHER PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION: Informatics, option network management,
building and wood construction, electro mechanics, remedial education, Hotel;
Specific Teacher Training, Second Chance Education: AAV, web designer, computer operator, network technician, human sciences.
Sites: 3 sites in Hasselt and 1 in Herk-de-Stad, Sint-Truiden and Zonhoven.
Number of students in period 2012-2013: 2 342.
3 extract from the vision of CVO-STEP
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The vision of this centre reveals: The adult education is to develop a broad range
of trainings, aimed at adults wanting to follow these trainings in terms of employment, further training, personal development or broader social goals. Adult
education is to focus in particular on individual students’ counselling as from the
intake till deliverance of the proof of studies.4
Available courses
SECONDARY ADULT EDUCATION: Photography, Cooking, Clothing, Beauty care:
facial care and make-up, nail care, about twenty information courses, languages:
English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish, Dutch Second Language, creative with
art: ceramics, creativity training, aquarelle-drawing-painting, hairdresser.
Sites: sites in Sint-Truiden, Brustem, Lanaken, Bilzen and in Tongeren and Borgloon.
Number of students in period 2012-2013: 2 167.
4 extract from the vision of CVO13
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Available courses and sites
The courses can focus on the exercise of a profession or the exercise and perfecting of a hobby. The centre consists of 3 campuses with each their own accent:
Campus Lazarij Hasselt – Social-pedagogical trainings:
HIGHER VOCATIONAL TRAINING: Social work, Remedial education
SECONDARY ADULT EDUCATION : Assistant-animator elderly people, Intercultural
collaborator, Youth care and care for the disabled, Childhood trainer, Out-ofschool childcare trainer, Baby Minder Academy, Experience expert in Poverty and
Social Exclusion, Childcare – adapted learning paths, Logistic assistant/Carer/Care
provider, Flemish sign language and Supplementary general education
Campus TIHH in Hasselt: Technical, information and language courses
Campus Sint-Martinus in Herk-de-Stad: Catering colleges and bakery
Number of students in period 2012- 2013: 2 141.
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Centre of Basic Adult Education Limburg South (also: Open School Limburg South)
Available courses 2012-2013: Better reading and writing, Dutch refreshment
course, General Education (Budgeting, defend yourself, to obtain theoretical driving licence B, art & culture, current events & history, health), better calculating,
Dutch for foreign speakers, French and English beginners’ level.
Sites: Hasselt, Sint-Truiden, Tongeren and Bilzen
Number of students in period 2012-2013: 1.555.
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6.2 ANNEX - Inquiry of school boards, coordinators,
route counsellors and care guides
Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid
Samen ontplooien
Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid vzw
(CVLZ vzw)
Universiteitslaan 3
3500 Hasselt
Network Project “Students’ vulnerability in adult education”
Coordinator questionnaire
How is the reception phased in this centre?
Who belongs to the vulnerable groups according to you?
What is the relationship in percentage of students being part of that
vulnerable group per department in your centre?
What does the school board do for his group?
What are the typical problems this student struggles with?
How can you as school management (a principal) /a coordinator still
adjust your policy for his target group?
How can you as school management (a principal)/a coordinator
have your teachers and counsellors help that target group in a better way?
What do you as school management take for granted, but others
maybe do not?
How do you try to help your insecure, apparently unprepared students or students with financial problems during the enrolment?
The students are reassured upon intake? Is there a warm welcome
for them?
According to you: what more can be done upon enrolment to reassure these people?
How does your centre give guidance to starting students?
What more can be done for starting students with problems?
How can you as a principal/coordinator increase the intake in the
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Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid
Samen ontplooien
Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid vzw
(CVLZ vzw)
Universiteitslaan 3
3500 Hasselt
Network Project “Students’ vulnerability in adult education”
Coordinator questionnaire
To which authorities/people can the students be referred in case of
What do you do when you notice one of the students faces a difficult family of personal situation?
What is done in case of financial difficulties? A student cannot pay,
can he start the training?
How can you as a principal/coordinator increase the progression to
the CBE or CVO?
Do you have route counsellors and care coordinators in your centre? (per department)
How can the communication between principal/coordinator and
route counsellors/care coordinators continue to improve?
How can your school management team contribute to a better
counselling of this target group?
What do the students need most?
Why is there sometimes not enough time?
Why is there sometimes not enough counselling?
Why is there sometimes not enough money?
How can the authorities contribute to better counselling?
What are the other bottlenecks in the intake of this target group in
this centre?
What are the other bottlenecks in the counselling of this target
group in this centre?
How can you as a principal/coordinator keep the students and meet
their needs in order to avoid drop-out?
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Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid
Samen ontplooien
Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid vzw
(CVLZ vzw)
Universiteitslaan 3
3500 Hasselt
Network Project “Students’ vulnerability in adult education”
Coordinator questionnaire
Does your school have an Open Learning Centre? How, when, goal,
target group, means, staff, used options, unused opportunities, …
What can be improved regarding the OLC ?
Is there more contact required with other centres?
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Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid
Samen ontplooien
Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid vzw
(CVLZ vzw)
Universiteitslaan 3
3500 Hasselt
Network Projects “Students’ vulnerability in adult education”
Questionnaire care coordination
How is the welcoming/reception phased in this centre?
According to you, who belongs to the vulnerable groups?
What is the ratio/the percentage vulnerable group - care?
How is the care counselling phased in this centre?
Which one of the care counselling aspects is still subject to improvement?
Is there a need for progression from CBE to CVO?
How can the care policy increase the intake into CBE or CVO?
How can the care policy increase or stimulate the progression
from CBE to CVO?
How can you keep students and meet their needs by means of
your care policy in order to avoid drop-out?
How does the cooperation between teachers and route counsellors go?
How could the cooperation between teachers and route counsellors improve even more to the benefit of the target group?
How is the contact with referral centres?
Is there an option for referral to e.g. CGG, CLB, CAD, …?
What is the success formula?
What is often of great help to students?
What is recommendable?
What are the other care policy bottlenecks in this centre?
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Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid
Samen ontplooien
Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid vzw
(CVLZ vzw)
Universiteitslaan 3
3500 Hasselt
Network Projects “Students’ vulnerability in adult education”
Questionnaire care coordination
Do you have an Open Learning Centre in this school? How, when,
goal, target group, means, staff, used options, unused opportunities, …
How can the school board/authorities contribute to a better care
What do the students need most?
Why is there sometimes not enough time?
For what aspect is there sometimes not enough counselling?
For what aspect is there sometimes not enough money?
Do you have an idea on how the care policy works in other centres?
Can we get any good tips out of it or are there any pitfalls we have
to avoid?
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6.3 ANNEX - Inquiry of teachers
Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid
Samen ontplooien
Consortium Volwassenenonderwijs Limburg Zuid vzw
(CVLZ vzw)
Universiteitslaan 3
3500 Hasselt
Network Projects “Students’ vulnerability in adult education”
Inquiry of teachers : Students’ vulnerability in CBE and CVO
1 Do you recognize the vulnerability indicators from your own
teaching practice? Which one are missing?
2 What are the 3 main reasons for vulnerable students to drop
out, according to you?
3 What is your top 3 of factors that see to it that vulnerable students feel supported?
4 Complete the table below how the care of vulnerable students
is realized in your centre:
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In your centre in the area of :
Which good practices are present?
Which elements can
be improved + what
is required for this
• Reception policy
- structure
- info session
- enrolment
- administrative support
- financial understanding
- emotional understanding
• Own class/teaching activities
• General organization
• Care provision (by yourself or
other (s))
• referral
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In your centre in the area of :
Which good practices are present?
Which elements can
be improved + what
is required for this
• contact with VDAB, OCMW,
RVA, HvN, Welcome Office, …
• extra support
• ...
Thank you very much for your input!
Karolien Colson and Tanya Daniëls
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6.4 ANNEX - Face-to-face interview of students
This helped me:
This stopped me:
me and my private life
Support of environment
Personal issues
No/little support of environment
Personal issues
Support paperwork/administration
Clear explanation
System VDAB -OCMW- family allowance is clear
VDAB-OCMW-family allowance
No support paperwork/administration
Not knowing where to go for what
reception / welcome
Time and pace
Clear agreements
Friendly reception
Unclear where what
Unclear communication
VDAB contract
Training expenses
Family allowance
Spread payments
No budget for pc + internet
Costs of training material
Transport costs
Use of laptops
Parking facilities
Good location
No own classroom
group / class
Unsafe feeling
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This helped me:
Fellow students’ support
Substantial help
This stopped me:
No recognition
Group too big
teacher / counselling
Time and space
Personalized/tailor-made lessons
Good communication
Too little time/patience/attention
Expectations too high
Bad communication
Support in phases/further steps
Letting go is assisted
Feels finished
The unknown
How to apply
No goodbye
Contact with counselling
Understanding for difficulties
Communication by Smartschool
No or too much care
Unknown classroom
Unknown person/is no teacher
Communication via Smartschool
subject matter/assignments
Extra explanation
Functional classes
Level of subject matter/material is ok
Task load
Fear of failure
Material/subject matter too difficult
3 principal positive aspects
3 principal negative aspects
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6.5 ANNEX - Survey of students by mail
Dear student
We do a research why students drop out and which kind of support
makes them persist in their training.
Could you answer both questions and help us finish our research?
Question 1: which aspects help/have helped you to persist in your training?
Question 2: Which obstacles do/did you experience while following the
Thanks for your feedback!
Karolien Colson and Tanya Daniëls
Project CVLZ
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3 Within two weeks you will receive an answer
stating whether you have been selected or not to
participate in the workshop.
2 The deadline for submitting the application form
is : November 15th, 2013.
1 Send an application with your coordinates by
e-mail to [email protected] She is the
project coordinator and will provide you an application form for participants, which you must, duly
completed and signed, send back to the Workshop
If you want to apply to participate in this Workshop, please proceed as follows
Registration and application form
Travel and subsistence costs, directly related to
the participation, will be paid by Grundtvig. This
also includes full board and accommodation
How much?
Venue of the Workshop:
The Provincial House, Universiteitslaan 3, B-3500
Hasselt. During the workshop several places of
formal and non-formal adult education will be
visited in the neighbourhood.
The Workshop will last 8 days from Sunday
March 16th till Sunday March 23rd, 2014
and will be organised as a residential
seminar taking place in the city of Hasselt, in
CVLZ vzw
Universiteitslaan 3 (lokaal H5.27)
B-3500 Hasselt
Tel. +32 11 30 59 10
Fax +32 11 30 59 09
[email protected]
office Hasselt, Belgium
project coordinator
[email protected]
Tel. +32 11 30 59 10
For further information please contact:
Further Information
New and innovative
initiatives to care for
the vulnerable group
of illiterate people
March 16th until
March 23rd, 2014
Belgium - Hasselt
Grundtvig workshop
6.6 ANNEX: Invitation Grundtvig Workshop
3/12/2014 10:15:22 AM
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If I ask you to listen to me
and you start giving me advice
then you do not do what I ask you to.
If I ask you to listen to me
and you start telling me why
I should not feel something the way I feel it,
then you do not take my feelings seriously.
If I ask you to listen to me
and you think you should do something
to solve my problems,
then you leave me in the lurch
however odd it might seem.
So, please, just listen to me and
try to understand me.
And if you want to talk, just wait a second and
I promise I will listen to you in my turn.
- Leo Buscaglia -
A publication of the steering committee Vulnerable Groups
V.U. CVLZ vzw, Christiane Vanvinckenroye, Universiteitslaan 3 (H5.27), 3500 Hasselt [email protected] -
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