WHERE, WHEN, AND HOW TO TEACH KEYBOARDING by BETTE JOAN GRACE B.Ed. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (1975) THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (EDUCATION) in the Faculty of Education @ Bette Joan Grace 1989 SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY April 1989 All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced in whole or in part, by photocopy or other means, without permission of the author. APPRDVAL Name: Bette Joan Grace Degree: Master of Arts (Education) Title of Thesis: Where, When, and How to Teach Keyboarding Examining Committee: Chair: Thomas J. O'Shea A.J. (S$;ldy) Dawson Senior Supervisor tierri Sinclair Adjunct Professor ? Evelyn ~ s s i s t bProfessdc Faculty of Education External Examiner Date Approved qh7bG PARTIAL COPYRIGHT LICENSE I hereby g r a n t t o Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y t h e r i g h t t o l e n d my t h e s i s , p r o j e c t o r extended essay ( t h e t i t l e o f w h i c h i s shown below) t o u s e r s o f t h e Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , and t o make p a r t i a l o r s i n g l e c o p i e s o n l y f o r such u s e r s o r i n response t o a r e q u e s t f r o m t h e l i b r a r y o f any o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y , o r o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , on i t s own b e h a l f o r f o r one o f i t s u s e r s . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r m u l t i p l e c o p y i n g o f t h i s work f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by me o r t h e Dean o f Graduate S t u d i e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s work f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . T i t l e o f Thesis/Project/Extended Essay Where, When, and How t o Teach Keyboarding. Author: (signature) B e t t e Joan GRACE (name) (date) , ABSTRACT Many schools are faced with having microcomputers in the classroom and finding an efficient way them. Before used, the human the computer the microcomputer can be user must be able without keyboard must be too much used frustration. with efficiency to make adequate use as to the best The the keyboard. some degree of of the many features a microcomputer can offer children much debate effectively to communicate with standard interface with the computer is The to use and adults. time to introduce formal keyboarding instruction to children so that better utilize the microcomputer. There is they can This thesis examined this question. The research was carried out in a Fraser Valley school district which development of keyboarding valuable opportunity might be best to lower mainland, had a focus on the skills. This provided a to research the question when it introduce formal instruction in keyboarding skills. Students from grade one to a pretest and posttest on ten were examined using speed and accuracy. The sample size ~angedfrom 20 students in grade ten to 100 students in grade eight. iii The pretest was conducted before any posttest formal was keyboarding instruction. administered after twelve The hours of instruction. After the instruction period, students were tested and the results of both the pretest subjected to two tailed t-tests were statistically explanation of concludes to see if the results significant. summary A the results are presented. that students to and posttest were it is possible keyboard, but that for all some grade and The author levels of levels are able to acquire the necessary skills much more readily. The author suggests that a keyboarding instruction program in the schools could grade five level. to eight that profitably begin It is in the range the greatest increase in from grade five the proficient use of keyboarding skills could be developed. is an 'ideal' grade at which to at the If there introduce children to the use of the keyboard, it would be grade six. TABLE OF CONTENTS . Paqe ................... LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LISTOFTABLES CHAPTER 1 . ... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM . 2 . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . KEYBOARDING RESEARCH . SUMMARY . . . . . . . 3 . METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . RESEARCH SAMPLE . . . TEACHER PREPARATION . DEFINITION OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . ....... . 4 . ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . GRADE LEVEL AND POPULATION RESULTS . TREATMENT TIME AND MODE SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE PRETEST/POSTTEST METHOD OF ANALYSIS SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUMMARY OF GRADE LEVEL POPULATION RESULTS 5. .. CONCLUSIONS . . RECOMMENDATIONS LIMITATIONS . . SUMMARYOFRESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . I11 WORKSHOPOUTLINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I1 PRETEST/POSTTEST RESULTS vi vii LIST -OF TABLES Table I Paqe Summary of population results 31 IIa Changes in Speed and Accuracy in Keyboarding 36 IIb Study Findings for Changes in Speed and Accuracy 36 I LIST -OF FIGURES Paqe I I1 Pretest and Posttest Speed Comparisons 39 Pretest and Posttest Accuracy Comparisons 39 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION STATEMENT It has PROBLEM been predicted computer with a North AND THE keyboard in American homes by that there will be at least 1990. 80 percent The schools, it a of is therefore argued, need to teach keyboarding as soon as practical so that communication students can utilize the tool throughout their skill as a educational experience and professional lives. (Hedley, 1985) It is imperative that instruction on how to whether it schools effectively use these computers, be for home use, educational use, related use. The provide question is when is to introduce instruction, how long or job the "bestw time it should be taught and where it should be introduced. Many school districts have implemented a keyboarding instruction program from Kindergarten up to grade seven. In most cases the appropriate level at which to make the introduction is based on the opinion of experts and not does not appear to support the firmly based on research. There to be a great deal of recent research introduction of formal keyboarding instruction at any one particular level, so the experts base their opinions on what they believe can happen. Most students from kindergarten to senior grades can learn to keyboprd, although it is somewhat more know their difficult for students who alphabet nor run into a do not do they know how to read. number of difficulties as Children may they learn to keyboard. For the younger children the size of the keyboard may present some difficulties. Some students may experience difficulty is assimulating information. When keyboarding, students can utilize the skill to use a computer as a tool so they are able to transfer the written word or character from a page or screen into a keystroke on the computer. Younger children are slower at this transition only because they are not as familiar with reading as the older students. If these problems create difficulties in teaching students to keyboard, then it influence the is important to find out if they keyboarding instruction already being implemented in the elementary classroom. A number discussion. instruction be How of questions long from this the keyboarding in order for students to learn enough keyboarding skills to have should arise some degree of proficiency? Should instruction be limited to the secondary level or should it be taught at the elementary level as well? At what begin? grade level Is there a should keyboarding instruction best,grade level for keyboarding instruction? This study was designed to give some direction in answering the question of teach keyboarding. the Fraser Valley where, when, and how to A number of elementary schools in had sufficient computers to teach children to keyboard, and the teachers in these schools were willing to pilot a keyboarding project for purposes of this study. students perform a the The study was designed to have speed beginning of the study, and and accuracy test at the to also perform a posttest using the same material at the end of the study. From the data collected the scores on each of the tests were compared in order to determine for each grade level the degree of proficiency students were able to reach. tests also provided that was best information as to the suited instruction program. served period as an for The length indicator of should individuals, the be. introducing a With how long the the keyboarding instruction exception of in the not trained for teaching keyboarding. students. grade level of the program also teachers involved fully qualified taught The two study were The two who were the grade eight, nine, and ten As a Business Education teacher the debate whether keyboarding could,be profitably taught in the elementary school was a concern. With this concern in the forefront ,the purpose of the study was 1. to determine "when" to begin keyboarding instruction, the "bestw grade level to begin formal instruction so that students would develop a degree of proficiency at the keyboard 2. to determine "how" long a keyboarding instruction program should be in order to be effective and have an element of skill and knowledge that would continue to be developed 3. to provide some guidelines for teachers when implementing a keyboarding program within the schools The review of the literature in Chapter Two discusses the research that has been conducted using keyboard instruction as its basis. As the amount of research in this area is limited, the discussion also includes background information on keyboarding instruction. The teachers involved in this study did not want any possibility of being identified, therefore demographic data has not been included as part of this study . Chapter Three provides a keyboarding program in this Chapter description of used in the study. is the the Also included description of the research methodology. Chapter Four provides an collected from the pretest data is examined using analysis of the data and posttest means, scores. The standard deviation, variances and t-tests for each grade level. A summary of the study Five. The chapter includes is provided in Chapter finding, recommendations, limitations and suggestions for further research. DEFINITION TERMS The following definitions are terms which are used throughout this study. Elementarv School: a school offering studies in a variety of subjects from Kindergarten to Grade Seven. Secondarv School: a school offering studies in a variety of subject from Grade Eight to Grade Twelve Kevboardinq: The action of using a keyboard to type information into a computer. Speed : The rate at which from the a person enters characters keyboard into the computer. Speed is calculated in words per minute. considered consist This of to be strokes, the any character study uses which no 5 or gross words strokes special key. per minute penalties are taken from for errors. A word is in the score The definitions are the standrad ones used by typing teachers. 5. Accuracy (errors): The number of errors,committed during a timed test when keyboarding. An error is committed if the material being copied is not an exact duplicate. Standard error rules are followed in this study. There is only one error counted per literal word, punctuation errors are counted as part of the an indentation error is the word following. definitions drawn preceeding word, counted as These are from business part of standard education programs. 6. Level Based of Proficiency on programs a review of available for the literature and typing speed of 10 words a minute is courses, a considered to be a minimum level of proficiency. CHAPTER REVIEW OF 2 THE LITERATURE INTRODUCTION There are keyboarding, when keyboarding, why many is articles the best written time keyboarding should be to about introduce introduced and how keyboarding should be implemented. Many of these articles are based on opinions of the writer and not on actual research. It is not value unusual to find comments of keyboarding in many about the different journals publications. For example (Hoot 1986) primary device for enabling students to states and "the interact with computers is currently the keyboard." Luehrmann (1984) suggests that keyboarding should be a prerequisite before a student enters a computer class because time at the computer is wasted if keys on the that is keyboard. it is spent hunting for Jenkins (1987) also is becoming increasingly important observes .. . for people of all ages to acquire basic keyboarding skills. It is important for students to use computers more efficiently through the use of keyboarding instruction, Wetzel (1985) states "students who hard time using the word processorw. can't type have a review of A evidence of the research involving the introduce keyboarding schools are level. literature provides to "bestw time students, to a survey done to although many introducing keyboarding at According little the elementary by John Stoecker (1987) teachers in the United States felt the third and fourth grade levels were the ideal time to teach keyboarding. Hoot (1986) indicates that research that we can it is only through determine a mistake. Surveys give keyboarding indeed a must ... us opinions of what is instruction with younger children is or if considered the "best" situation, whereas research is a better indicator of the real (1988) tells us instruction at students with that possibilities. Balajthy "the purpose of the elementary level is keyboard layout and keyboarding to familiarize provide at least a minimal level of proficiency in touch typing". This is important so that students do not pick up hunt and peck habits at introduced an early stage before keyboarding is . KEYBOARDING RESEARCH Keyboarding instruction has become an important issue with the introduction of computers to the elementary classrooms. At times there are not enough computers to adequately teach keyboarding skills and to determine whether students can learn to touch type at an early age. several options for keyboarding elementary school. as a continuing University. help Dacus and Dacus (1983) reviewed instruction in The keyboarding course was offered education program at New Mexico State The main students with reading skills. objective of this course was to the acquisition two hours. of language and The grade levels involved in the study were from grade four to grade eight. six weeks the with classes meeting The course lasted two nights a week for The two-hour class length was determined to be too long and subsequent classes were taught for one hour four days per week. Frankeberger (1985) also offered instruction to volunteer fourth and basis. fifth grade There were volunteered to take the course. keyboarding students on a sixteen students who The students attended one-half hour classes for eight weeks in order to learn keyboarding skills. teach touch The emphasis in this course was to typing. The students learned their keyboarding skills on a typewriter and as a reward were permitted to use the micro-computers. An experimental class for a summer enrichment program was developed by Kaake (1983) to teach students keyboarding skills. This program enrolled 26 students in two classes, which met,one hour per per week for eleven weeks. day, four days Electric typewriters were used for the keyboarding instruction. All of the keys were introduced by the and after fourteenth day the fifth week of instruction the students were composing their own materials. Hedley (1985) taught 24 children aged five to eight years classes met day. the touch method for nineteen days Six of the five and the predetermined goals of keyboarding. for twenty minutes per six year old and The girls reached were somewhat stressed, while the six five and six year old boys did not reach the predetermined goals and were quite frustrated. The remaining twelve children exceeded the predetermined goals and exhibited a high degree of self-motivation. Based on this limited experience, it was concluded that children progressed more readily with touch keyboarding after they had learned the alphabet, numbers, and learned to read, a result that is hardly surprising! Students keyboard at different levels generally increase with the levels, these age of the student. Wetzel (1985) concluded that students who can type ten gross words computer per minute can make for tasks requiring adequate use of the significant amounts of keyboard entry. For grades Kindergarten three, twenty words a minute with to grade accuracy could be considered adequate for software use, while grades four to six, twenty-five words with accuracy for input of complete sentences would be efficient (Kisner, 1984). Kaser's kindergarten to fifteen words (1984) research grade two per minute; reported classes typed grade three that the eight to students typed fifteen to twenty-five words per minute; and grade four to grade six students typed twenty to minute accurately in a six-week time forty words per frame. (Cowles, Hedley, and Robinson, 1983), in a study determined that five to eight year old children, after nineteen days of instruction were able gross words per minute. to keyboard at a rate of ten SUMMARY In all of the studies reviewed, children from kindergarten to high school were able to keyboard. The minimum words per minute a student was able to type was ten words per minute. This level of proficiency, according to the literature, was fast enough to use the computer effectively. Most of the studies indicated that students in the intermediate level were able to keyboard at a quicker pace than the primary grades. was evident that students from the grade It three level and higher were used in most of the studies conducted, little evidence was found to support introduction at the kindergarten, grade one and two levels. CHAPTER 3 METHOD INTRODUCTION This study use a pre-posttest design in order to examine the hypothesis that students from Grade 1 to Grade 10 could be taught the mechanics of keyboarding. This chapter begins with a description of the research sample and a brief description of the variables used in the study. The chapter closes with a description of the methods used in analyzing the data. RESEARCH SAMPLE Data was collected from children in eight schools in a Fraser Valley School District. different The school locations were chosen on a volunteer basis, as were the classroom teachers. be willing to Teachers were asked if they would participate in the study volunteering were used. The background and only those of each of the teachers involved was not a determing factor in their selection to be part of the project. Indeed, demographic data on each o,f the teachers was collected after the experimental period before the data analysis was completed. A total of four hundred students were given both the and forty-seven pretest and the posttest. These tests gave a measure of speed and accuracy. Appendix XX for the pretest quota was set as to the (see and posttest results). No number of classes that could participate in the study. The sample was separated by grade and age level if more than one grade was instructed as a segregating students posttest class unit. in this manner, the results could be analyzed as By pretest and to the grade level of the students involved. Keyboarding was being elementary curriculum introduced as in a number of a part of the schools in the district, and hence students saw this study as a normal part of their classroom this study was activities. given the pretest and recorded without the use of names. not be identified in any manner. Each student in the results were The students could without The test result9 were sent to the name of the the researcher school or the teacher attached in order to name of the preserve the anonymity of the students and teachers involved. The results were identified by grade level only. No attempt was teachers taught the keyboarding unit. may be the case that the the teaching made to control or direct how Therefore, it test results were affected by experience and expertise of the instructors. However, no data was available to confirm or deny this conjecture. The background of each teacher was after the results were submitted. involved were volunteers enthusiastic about and each of the of the teachers had Education and keyboarding to had experience students. Most of the involved were teaching keyboarding although one All of the teachers teachers was teaching children the manual skill of keyboarding. Two in Business recorded of the teachers previously taught keyboarding. a background in teaching other teachers for the first time, in the primary area had GROUP DESCRIPTION The groups of students were broken down as follows: Grade Number of Students Number of Classes 1 37 2 2 43 2 TEACHER PREPARATION As noted earlier, all but involved did not keyboarding to Computer experience in Several of the on tips and techniques The workshops Studies district. any students. attended workshops keyboarding. have two of the teachers Helping were teachers of teaching provided Teacher The workshop provided teaching for by the the school the teachers involved with methods of introducing homerow and subsequent keys to the students. with the If any of the teachers had difficulty keyboarding instruction, they had the Helping Teacher at access to An outline all times. of the workshops is provided in Appendix 111. Each of were instructed assumed the classes by the same. particular school same teacher. that the method school was consistent for a of since Hence, it may instructing within the instructor was However, the instruction varied from school because of the differences each the school to in the background of the teachers involved. All teachers placed an emphasis on good typing techniques and habits. TREATMENT TIME AND MODE At the start of the treatment period, teachers administered the pretest. the They then embarked on the keyboarding unit which covered all grades, which was designed to be twelve,class hours of instruction. The amount of instruction time remained consistent but the number of weeks from the beginning to the the study was not consistent. Some the pretest and posttest in took three months. end of schools completed four weeks, while others The posttest was administered after the twelve hours of instruction was completed. The amount of practice between instructional sessions was not controlled. to computers at home Some students had access and could practice keyboarding skills, but the majority of only had school. access to the the students computers provided Practice time was their at the provided in some classrooms using cardboard keyboards as an alternative to typing on the computer equipment. cardboard keyboard until The classes it was their turn used the to use the computer. SOFTWARE The keyboarding A&N curriculum materials instruction was schools. The textbook used KEYBOARD the (Dulmage 1984). author was a HARDWARE used consistent for across the the was entitled MASTERING THE This book was chosen because noted expert in the area of keyboarding who has given numerous workshops throughout North America. A tutor program and peck textboqk was chosen over a because tutors tended to techniques. typing encourage hunt Although students could work at their own pace with the tutor, it was more difficult to introduce new keys as a group. introduced in the same order Keys were not always from one program to the next and the cost of the tutors over the textbook could not be justified. Other materials which were used varied school to school, and in particular a processing programs FREDWRITER. Another The grade eight APPLEWORKS. SLATE. were used. school used variety of word One school used BANK STREET WRITER. to grade ten program Other from was taught using schools used TYPING TUTOR or MAGIC All of the schools taught the keyboarding unit on Apple or Apple compatible equipment. The type of software selected depended upon its availability to the school. Most of the schools had already purchased word processing software. the use of Since students were not learning the word processing software but were only to learn how to keyboard, software selection was left up to the discretion of the teacher. The situation fcr equipment was not ideal. The secondary classrooms had instructional labs where every student had access to elementary schools, students computer. Those computer. In had to take turns students not using the instructed using cardboard was mainly a keyboards. Apple IIe computers and the on the computer were The equipment some Apple I1 GS computers. The Dulmage. pretest used It was materials, and keyboarding. was included as part gives a measure Kathleen of her curriculum of student skill when The test consists of simple three to five letter words. The words do structure in the first lines. real words found not developed by not form a The words themselves are in the English dictionary. nonsense words so reading the material. sentence the student has The last two lines They are difficulty of the test are complete sentences. The same test was used as the posttest so that a valid comparison of the data could be made. (A copy of the pretest/posttest is provided in Appendix I.) The pretest was given keyboarding instruction began. were instructed when to begin students before All of the typing timed for a duration of one minute. the students and then were At the end of the one minute time s t o p typing. period, s t u d e n t s were instructed The number , o f s t r o k e s t h e y typed to were recorded a s w e l l a s t h e number o f e r r o r s t h e y had made. This test was repeated two more times s o that a t o t a l o f t h r e e s c o r e s w e r e recorded f o r t h e p r e t e s t . The scores w e r e t h e n averaged. p r e t e s t w e r e then The final results recordqd u s i n g t h e average of t h e from t h e t h r e e scores. After t h e twelve hours completed, t h e s t u d e n t s t h e n t o o k same test. Once again t h e s t a r t typing when t o The s c o r e s w e r e a p o s t t e s t using t h e students w e r e and t h e n timed f o r r e c o r d e d f o r b o t h speed instructed one minute. and accuracy. T h i s t e s t was a l s o r e p e a t e d two more times. w e r e averaged and were of i n s t r u c t i o n t h e r e s u l t s using t h e The s c o r e s average s c o r e f o r b o t h speed and a c c u r a c y w e r e recorded. The r e s u l t s p l a c e d on s h e e t s n o t recorded Only t h e sheet. of paper where o n l y w e r e shown. and a c c u r a c y were of t h e p r e t e s t and of t h e students t h e name of t h e teacher. n o r was researcher test r e s u l t s v i a school s c o r e s f o r speed The names g r a d e l e v e l was i n d i c a t e d The posttest were a t the top w e r e then mail so of t h e submitted t o that the name of the the s c h o o l was unknown. The p r e t e s t to t h e number l i m i t set out and p o s t t e s t were b o t h of s t r o k e s completed by t h e i n s t r u c t o r . The scored a s within the a c t u a l speed i n words p e r minute was determined by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . number of s t r o k e s was d i v i d e d time The by t h e average number of strokes per word (the average number word by used the Curr;iculum Guide Education is five strokes per word). net words per minute completed by of strokes per typed. for Business The result is the These calculations were the researcher after the results of the pretest and posttest were submitted. The pretest and posttest used did not have any norm references. this test was this Any comparison not possible. particular study can to other groups using Only those be groups within compared using this particular pretest/posttest. METHOD ANALYSIS data was transferred into speed and accuracy by grade that data the Powerstat, a collected level. could program This was be developed Engineering Corporation. categories for Appendix done so analyzed by XX using Analytical details the coding system utilized for the use of this program. Powerstat allows the data into any of the well, frequencies to determine whether areas analyzed statistics deviation the researcher to transform can be such as show a marked trend. the mean determined or not through and the As standard use of Powerstat to provide the basis for analyzing were any statistically the various significant differences between study attributes. Finally, the Powerstat program allows the researcher to particular traits, such determine whether or if there as focus on a group with age or grade not they indicate a level, to difference between the speed and accuracy from the total group. SUMMARY Chapter Three presented the research design and data collection methods utilized in the study, and indicated which of the controlled. variables in the study that could be CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION In this chapter the results of the statistical analysis of the data are presented. with an overview of the entire those population results. statistical statistical results of the and the conclusions reached Next analysis level, according to accuracy. The chapter begins is a further on results the overview of segmented two variables, The chapter then closes with a the information obtained from from by grade speed and summary of the statistical analysis and graphic representations of the data. GRADE LEVEL POPULATION RESULTS In order to there would be of given to all one for the subjects. errors per measurements were Education The accuracy was two components, net words per speed in the and minute, and number the of accuracy scored according to the Ministry of guidelines typewriting. speed and accuracy, measured minute. grade levels, a The tests had speed, measured in that speed and accuracy comparing various posttest for both other for study hypothesis a difference in the students when pretest and test the for scoring timed tests for TABLE I summarizes the the speed and accuracy and includes results obtained for (errors), Pretest and Posttest, further information on the breakdown for each component for every grade level tested. Speed and Errors indicate the results were from the Pretest while Pspeed and Perrors indicate the Posttest. In order to scores were determine whether or statistically significant difference exists speed and perrors, a pspeed as well, as t-test was from the not between for the errors conducted yielding a and the p-value for the means between pretest and posttest scores. The results of the t-tests are in TABLE I under the p-value column. each comparison For of pretest and posttest results, the p-value was considered significant at the 0.01 level. The N each grade levels of the value is to significantly large allow for use of for this statistic. The null hypothesis for each grade level comparison was 'the mean of the result for either speed or errors was equal to the mean of the result for pspeed or perrors'. The alternative hypothesis for each grade level comparison was 'the mean of the speed or error pretest was perror not equal posttest at to the mean of t h e ,p-value of the pspeed or level of 0.01 significance. With reference to TABLE results of the results, it is grade I, which provides the level pretest in keyboarding speed between the pretest and the posttest there was posttest shown that in the grade ten level that not a significant difference there was and a significant difference scores but in keyboarding accuracy (errors) between the pretest and the posttest. The null hypothesis therefore was not rejected. The null hypothesis was rejected for the errors/perrors comparison at the 0.01 level of significance. There is a significant difference between the means for errors and perrors at the grade ten level. The null hypothesis for speed and pspeed comparisons on the pretest and posttest was rejected at the grade grade nine, grade eight, grade seven, grade six, five, grade four, grade three, and grade one levels at the 0.01 level of significance. At the grade two level the 0.01 level null hypothesis was not of comparisons. grade two and significance That is to for speed say, it can ten levels, there was rejected at the and pspeed be seen at the not a statistical change in the speed at which students typed. The null hypothesis for errors and comparisons on the pretest and posttest rejected at the grade nine, grade eight, perrors was not grade seven, grade five, and grade three levels at the 0.01 level of significance. grade one At the grade ten, levels the null six, four, hypothesis was two, and rejected at the 0.01 level of significance. A close students did not increase in errors dropped grade ten speed but the number of 1.7 to a mean from a mean of The increase in mean in I shows the look at TABLE accuracy is a possible keyboarding speed did increase. The students had in keyboarding speed while the extra reason why the not show a significant possibly reached a plateau accuracy was increased with practice over the twelve hour period. mean speed score for keyboarding speed and the all the highest for of 0.25. grade shows an indication that speed level of the student. The The pspeed was levels tested. improves with This the age grade nine speeds, on the other hand, show that the mean decreased in value but the number of concentration explain the appears to on errors remained the same. The accuracy rather than speed could difference in the speed play an important scores. Accuracy part in the keyboarding in the higher grade levels. teaching of The grade eight group increased their speed far more significantly than those students in grade ten and there was not a significant change in the number of errors. level of the Although their speed did the grade ten group, grade nine 's unchanged at . not reach the mean it did surpass that of The mean number of the grade eight level errors was as well as at the grade nine level, though the reduction of the number of errors was not signifcantly different. The size of N (100) for the grade eight level is much higher than the size of N (22) for the grade nine level, which could affect the results on the pretest and posttest scores, though the t-test is quite robust. Grade keyboarding seven also speed, but increased slightly. showed the mean an increase number of The difference between in errors the means for errors was not significant but the increase in the keyboarding speed was significant. be able to increase the changing the Students appear to speed in keyboarding without mean number of errors. The accuracy at this level did not show any improvement and it also did not increase even though the speed increased. Students at the grade improved their errors. This seven level speed without learned keyboarding and affecting the number of indicates that these students were able to learn keyboarding effectively. TABLE I GRADE I TEST MEAN I Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors STANDARD DEVI AT1 ON 24.2500 24.6500 1.7000 0.2500 9.1816 8.7556 2.2266 0.4443 Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors 22 20.3182 18.1818 1.2727 0.5000 7.0737 5.9252 2.0043 1.0118 Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors 100 17.6500 21.0200 2.2300 1.6400 7.7790 8.3218 3.1135 2.4101 Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors 60 Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors Speed Pspeed Errors Perrors I Speed Pspeed Errors Fcrrors P VALUE SIGNIFICANl NON-SIG The greatest increase in speed is at the grade six level. the This group showed the greatest increase in number decrease level of words per minute in the mean number appears to be of the and the errors. greatest This grade to teach ideal place keyboarding as the greatest changes between the pretest and posttest scores occur at able to this level. Students were learn keyboarding, improve their significantly and also improve the significant level. This situation for teaching speed rate of errors at a situation is the keyboarding skills. ideal Students improved their mean speed over 100% from the pretest to the posttest. None of the their speed by this other grade levels increased amount nor did any of the other groups decrease their mean number of errors by such a significant number. The grade five group in keyboarding but the mean but not significantly. also increased the speed number of errors increased The grade five group was also able to learn the keys, increase the mean speed without changing the mean the number of errors as is grade seven group. This the case for group increased their speed by 45% while the grade seven group only increased their mean speed by 25%. five level seems to The situation at be more ideally suited keyboarding than the grade seven level. the grade to begin The grade in the four group also showed number of words per the number of errors. to be an increase minute and an increase in Both of these differences proved 0.01 level for significant at the the p-value. Even though the speed in keyboarding increased and the level was significant, the number of words per minute did not clearly show that the grade four students could keyboard as efficiently as those students in the higher grade levels. fast speed Eight words but the number increased may per minute of hours of contribute to a is not a very instruction if greater increase in keyboarding speed and accuracy. The grade three group in the speed and a increase in the number The change in speed is significant while in the number of errors is level. also showed an increase four group. the grade three close to the mean scores The the increase not significant at the 0.01 The mean scores for speed are very grade three group and the grade four fit together when looking scores grade threes errors as much as the grade number of errors on the group but the mean errors did group in for the grade group appear to but the of errors. at the mean not increase their four group. pretest was Their mean higher score on the for this posttest fell within the range of the grade one to grade four group. speed signficantly but the increase errors was significant. The that the speed in the grade two level indicates stayed almost the same and with introduction of more keys, the number increased. Other group such as the number of factors may have ability to reach the of errors was influenced this all of the keys. The same appears to be true for the grade one level. Although the grade one speed increased at a significant level the mean number of errors also increased at a significant level. TABLE I also shows a natural break between grade five and grade four for the increase in keyboarding speed. Grade five and up reached between 15 and minutes the achieved while only 4 grade one to 8 words to grade per minute 24 words per four group on the mean scores. All of the groups fell within the 0 to 2 range for mean that scores on accuracy. accuracy was This seems to indicate stressed when instruction was given. The pretest the keyboarding scores showed greater mean for errors as the range was from 0 to 5 . a The keyboarding instruction and keyboarding practice helped to improve the accuracy of the students involved in the study. Each grade level showed some type of change. IIa shows all the possible from the possible pretest and situations importance in learning situation would be situations that could arise posttest are TABLE ranked to comparisons. These according their keyboard. to The ideal to have the speed up a significant number and the numbers of errors decreasing, the worst possible situation is to have the speed decreasing and the errors increasing. The actual situation according to the p-values are recorded in ranked according appears to be TABLE IIb. to the Each situation is 'possible situation'. three distinct groups within then There the chart. The first group consists of students at the grade nine and second grade ten level. The group consists of students at the grade five, grade six, grade seven, and grade eight level. The third group consists students at the grade one, grade two, and level. grade three level The of grade four does not appear to fit within these groupings and appears to be anomalous. If ~Ai3Lb I is referenced at this point, the mean score for typing speed shows the grade two level does actually TABLE IIa I CHANGES IN SPEED AND ACCURACY IN KEYBOARDING RANKING OF POSSIBLE SITUATIONS Situation ---Number- Errors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TABLE IIb STUDY FINDINGS FOR CHANGES IN SPEED AND ACCURACY - - RANK I NG ACTUAL SITUATION SPEED ACCURACY - - - - t - t - t - t - t + t --- - t t + fit within the number grade one, two and of errors also within this group, the pretest as did the the only difference was for the mean number of though it did increased four grouping. The errors the change errors was not significant even increase. The mean number of errors in was the highest, and the mean number of errors was the lowest within this grouping. It would appear grade tens may have from reached a difficult to increase and the the expense of occurred at the and the grade the A different unchanged. seven, and the errors It would situation ranking introducing level where grade nine level, the six, grade decreased. results that the grade In grade five, eight, the keyboarding occurs speed unchanged or appear that from the the situation speed went down either remained that speed was accuracy was improved at speed. accuracy remained improved and the t-tests and optimal setting for at the grade five to grade eight, levels. The lower grades, grade four, grade two, and grade one, the speed increased or remained the same and the errors increased. significant difference group, there was number of errors. Even in the though there typing speeds was for this also a significant difference This may a in the indicate that the students were trying to increase their producing more errors. of grade three level, showed in speed but also change in the number of appear to fit with the There is the risk , The last group, the an increase speed at showed no errors. significant This group does not grade levels above and below. no logical explanation as to why this group should be different from the other groups in the number of errors. The group does fit, however, with the increase in typing speed. FIGURE I summarizes the differences for speed and pspeed by grade level. shows that as the grade The chart clearly level speed (speed) and the posttest (pspeed). Grade seven, and increase in show an speed. for increases, keyboarding six, grade increases both grade eight Grade the to pretest greatest grade four be the five, grade show the three and increase which appears in means also significant. Grade two and grade nine show a decrease in keyboarding speed while grade one shows speed and grade ten shows TABLE I only the grade groups to keyboarding speed. a moderate increase an insignificant gain. ten and grade not have a in From two levels were the significant gain in The largest gain in speed occurs at the grade six level suggesting that this group is the FIGURE I FIGURE I1 G r a d e Leuel ERRORS PERRORS + + + - ideal group to begin keyboarding instruction. grade five and grade seven gains in typing speed and levels to level also show significant therefore would also be good begin keyboarding instruction. students also show a significant gain speed but the increase is not five, grade six and grade to be a grade four division levels. is the the and Grade eight in keyboarding as great as at the grade seven levels. natural dividing line keyboarding speed. There appears for the increase in The first division is between the grade is between five levels the grade and eight the group with the greatest while increase group, the change appear from TABLE second division keyboarding speed. grade nine and significant grade ten levels in keyboarding speed. I11 that the optimal to four shows the The last showed no It would group to begin keyboarding instruction is the middle group. the students nine lowest keyboarding speed after the in second and grade The first division group, grades one posttest The in the lower grades in the Although first group, grade one, three and four did increase their speed, the graph shows that their speed is not warrant introducing instruction on the graph does keyboard indicate that these but it is providing instruction. not the high enough keyboard. students did ideal to The learn to situation for for errors level. (pretest) and The table errors on perrors (posttest) by grade shows,that the the pretest for each slight increase starting at the grade six level showed an errors but in the posttest grade level showed a grade five level. unusually The large mean for the mean dropped well below the other grade levels with ten level. average number of the exception of the grade Grade one, grade two, grade three, grade four, grade five and grade seven showed an increase in the number the pretest results to the of errors from posttest results. Grade six, grade eight, grade nine, and grade ten showed a decrease in the number of errors. FIGURE I1 also shows between the means for grade seven, grade eight, and that the differences three, grade five, grade grade nine are not as great (not significant) as the differences at the other grade levels. These significant when Grade six differences looking at showed reduction of the errors begins at idea that the shown the p-value greatest errors with greatest improvement. are not to be in TABLE I. improvement grade ten Improvement in in showing the the mean the next number the grade six level, reinforcing the grade six level appears to be the ideal level to begin keyboarding instruction. The grade five level does not show a great (significant) increase for t h e mean level to number o f errors and s t a r t keyboarding l e v e l s below grade f i v e show mean number of errors and could then instruction. a l s o be The a grade a greater increase i n t h e would not be i d e a l p l a c e t o begin i n s t r u c t i o n . considered an SUMMARY GRADE LEVEL POPULATION RESULTS T-tests were was a used to determine whether there significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores for each grade level. representations also provided and determining the posttest scores. comparisons of differences The posttests for both speed Visual graphic groups between pretest results of the pretest and and and accuracy (errors) confirm - the importance of appropriate level. begin teaching keyboarding at It was found that the ideal time to keyboarding instruction was level but the grade this group. The the at the grade five level would also grade levels below grade an increase in typing speed but six fall into five showed it was much lower than that achieved by the grade five level and higher. CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS SUMMARY So little research has been done on the use of typing tutorials, that studies such as those which indicate the optimum age level at which to begin teaching keyboarding skill and/or word processing would contribute to that base of knowledge. (Gerlach, 1987) Following on Gerlachfs statement, a keyboarding was undertaken level to to determine the introduce keyboarding, keyboarding and where study of to teach how it. optimal to The teach study was intended to add to the base of knowledge about children and keyboarding skills. From the all of the students were able to Some of than involved in within the grades. The grade lower group, nor did indicate they reach a levels, plus two although able distinct anomolous to keyboard, deal of speed or accuracy level of proficiency learning keyboarding was grade levels. higher level There were three did not perform with a great study of efficiency. the grade levels performed at a levels. clear that this research keyboard with some degree other grade groups results obtained, it is that would optimal for Wetzel (1985) concluded that these students wkdd can type ten words per minute can make adequate use of the computer for tasks requiring significant mounts of keyboard entry. This, lowest group did not reach that level. The middle level grades appear to be best suited for beginning keyboarding instruction as their speed and accuracy improved more than the other groups. The last group, the grade the grade ten accuracy decrease in of keyboarding their typing showed they speed and rather than speed The grade nine level showed a significant accuracy did not change level ten levels, level tended to concentrate more on the aspect improvement. nine and grade speed while their level of significantly. The grade nine had more difficulty in accuracy with the increasing introduction of new keys throughout the study. Students improved their typing speed over the course of the study from a range of 2.9189 words per minute at the beginning of range of 4.0270 to 24.65 at accuracy 4.7143 beginning 1.7561 at the end of the an overall the ranged of the study. study was from 0.4615 study to 0.2500 The to to Even though there was improvement for all grade focus of this the study to a the end of the study. also improved which at the to 24.25 levels together, to determine when formally teach keyboarding skills. to From the results of the pretest and the posttest, there is a linear trend for speed to improve withltheincrease in grade level. The mean number of errors tended to decrease as the grade level increased with the exception of the primary grades and grade four, where the mean number of errors increased on the posttest from the pretest results. The grade two and grade nine level provided the only exception to these results, the mean number of errors did not increase significantly even though there was some apparent increase. This group did not follow the norms set by the surrounding grade levels. CONCLUSIONS There was support for the hypothesis students could be formally trained at any one of that to use the keyboard the grade levels tested. It was also supported that students above the grade four level were best suited for learning keyboarding skills at a fairly proficient rate of speed and accuracy. Students in the grade one to grade four group did not progress to a level that would make optimal use of the computer. of the keys and speed over They did however learn were able the twelve hour the location to improve their rate of period. Accuracy did not improve over the same period of time, and in most cases deteriorated. and Students had learned more key locations that may have affected the number of errors committed. The grade nine and ten levels improved their accuracy at the expense of increasing their speed. speeds obtained by the grade nine group the grade ten group only not a The decreased and increased slightly but it was significant increase. sufficient at these levels Keyboarding speeds were and keyboarding instruction would not pose any difficulties. RECOMMENDATIONS From the results of this study, a formal keyboarding instructional program should begin around the grade five manipulate level. the Students would be keys with well able to some proficiency. With continued practice, students should continue to improve their speed and accuracy. should not end with just but should be Keyboarding instruction the introduction of the keys, used throughout the curriculum to reinforce the skill. in order If keyboarding instruction is discontinued at this point the ability to keyboard with some proficiency will reintroduced. deteriorate and will have to be LIMITATIONS This study had limitations. of hours First, the number used for keyboarding instruction was fairly short and could be increased to twenty hours or more. Second, the method used to teach the keyboarding was by teacher/textbook. Other methods are typing tutor type programmes students to become Third, no the alphabetic were used. which may have more proficient emphasis was put on keys, only available such as It was not at the the use of keys, and helped keyboard. the numeric the delete recommended to use keys the delete key but it was difficult to determine whether a student used the key without the instructional materials designed for teaching knowledge of the teacher. The used in this typing and not study were for teaching computer keyboarding. Other research studies that this study include could emerge from a replication of this longer period of time. A study over a greater emphasis on practice between instructional sessions and a follow up on the uses of the computer after keyboarding instruction has been completed. computers when instruction. Do they students have had make better formal use of keyboarding APPENDIX Instructions: Please use the following speed and accuracy test for timing students for both the pretest and the posttest. , Students are to be timed for one minute. Please signal to the students when they are to begin typing and after one minute have the students stop. Please administer this test for three consecutive tries and record the average raw score (total number of strokes divided by three) for each student on the form enclosed. Do not identify the students, but simply write down the scores in any order. Upon completion of the twelve hours of instruction, please administer the same test and record the scores in the second column. Once both the pretest and posttest have been administered, please forward the completed forms to Fort Langley Junior Secondary School. Do not indicate the school or teacher on the score sheets or on the envelope. to it is in by of he so do on we if or a the and for has she now can how why that when what gone with from well some quite I type very well when I do my best work. skill grows as I do my best each day. KEYBOARD1 N G RECORDS I GRADE DATE HOURS OF KEYBOARDING APPENDIX I PRETEST/POSTTEST RESULTS SPEED ERRORS GRADE 'id PSPEED PERRORS PGRADE PRETEST/POSTTEST SCORES BY GRADE SPEED ERRORS GRADE PSPEED PERRORS PGRADE 21 23 22 22 26 35 32 31 51 42 36 27 26 26 31 30 29 17 17 17 18 18 18 17 16 16 17 17 17 19 21 20 20 21 21 21 20 19 19 20 20 20 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 3 0 9 6 5 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 10 9 0 0 2 11 10 8 7 0 0 0 4 3 5 0 0 1 0 6 2 0 0 0 0 5 3 1 1 0 4 6 15 3 0 1 2 0 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 26 29 27 27 30 39 37 36 45 44 41 34 34 33 35 35 34 21 21 21 23 23 22 20 19 19 21 21 21 23 25 25 24 26 25 25 23 23 23 24 23 23 15 16 16 15 14 14 15 16 4 4 4 1 14 6 2 5 1 1 8 2 2 1 6 6 6 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1 3 0 3 1 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 0 0 0 4 8 0 0 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 55 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 SPEED ERRORS GRADE PSPEED PERRORS PGRADE APPENDIX III WORKSHOP OUTLINES WORKSHOP I The objectives of this first workshop are: 1. To familiarize you with computer hardware 2. To show you how to load your software 3. To show you how to save your documents 4. To help you feel comfortable with other housekeeping tasks such as printing documents 5. To introduce you to the new keyboarding program WORKSHOP II The objectives of this second workshop are: 1. how to begin teaching keyboarding 2. techniques that are important - posture finger positions body position 3. why monitoring students is important 4. evaluation of keyboarding skills LIST -OF REFERENCES ~, Arts, and the Balajthy, Ernest. ~ e ~ b o a r d i nLanguage Elementary School Child, The Computinq Teacher, February 1988, 40-43. Cowles, M., Hedley, M., Robinson, M.C. Analysis of Younq Children Learnina Kevboardina Skills, University of Alabama, School of Education, 1983. Dacus, J, Dacus, D.M. Time Bomb in Educational Computing: Teaching Keyboarding to Children, Educational Computinq, October 1983, 50-51. Dulmage, Kathleen. Mastering the Kevboard, Skyline Publishing, Burnaby, B.C., 1984. Frankeberger, L. Keyboarding: Success in Elementary Grades, Balance Sheet, 66 (1985), 41-43. Gerlach, Gail J. The Effect of Tvpina Skill on Usinq g Word Processor for Research References for Kevboardina Instruction, American Educational Research Association, Annual Meeting Washington DC, April 1987. Hall, C.S. Keyboardinq in a Self-contained 4th-5th Grade Classroom, North Carolina Educational Microcomputer Conference, 1985 Hall, G.E. Issues Related to the Implementation of Computers in Classrooms, Journal of Computers in Mathematics Science, October 1981, 14-19. Headley, P.O. Keyboarding Instruction in the Elementary School, Business Education Forum, 38 (1983), 18-19. Hedley, M.K. Once More: The Keyboarding Debate, Business Exchanae, 8 (1985), 18-19. Hoot, James L. Keyboarding Instruction in the Early Grades, Must or Mistake, Childhood Education, December 1986, 95, 181. Jenkins, Lois Kevboardinq: What to Teach, When to Teach, To Whom to Teach, Gage, New York, May 1987, 62. Kaake, D.M. Teaching Elementary Age Children Touch Typing as an Aid to Language Arts Instruction, The Readina Teacher, March 1983, 640-644. Kaser, K.J. Keyboarding Course for K-6, Business Education Forum, 2 (19841, 16, 19. Kisner, E. Keyboarding --,A Must for Tomorrow's World, The Com~utinuTeacher, 11 (1984), 21-22. Leuhrmann, A. The Beat Way to Teach Computer Literacy, Electronic ~earninq,April 1984, 41. Robinson, J.W. Elementary Keyboarding: Some Factors to Consider, Centurv 21 Reporter, Spring 1985, 2-3. Schmidt, B. June Kevboardinq: State of the Art, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1983. Sonnunen, C. Inservice Workshops: One answer to the Issue of Elementary School Keyboarding, Journal of - Business Education, 60 (1984), 14-17. Warwood, B. Research Studv to Determine Effects Earlv Kevboard Use, Bozeman, Montana State University, 1985. of Warwood, Hartman, Hauwiller and Taylor, A Research Studv to Determine the Effects of Earlv Keyboard Use - Upon Student Development in Occupational Kevboardinq, Montana State University, 1985. Wetzel, Keith Keyboarding Skills: Elementary My Dear Teacher, The Computinq Teacher, June 1985, 15.
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