How to create the best possible environment

How to create the
best possible
environment
Prof. Kari Larjava, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Finland - land of sustainable technology
• First in the environmental comparison by the World Economic Forum
• At the same time one of the most competitive countries in the world
Better environment through sustainable technology
Emissions in Finland for SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 , VOC
700
600
500
SO2
400
NOx
kt
NH3
300
VOC
200
100
Year
04
20
02
20
00
20
98
19
96
19
94
19
92
19
90
19
88
19
86
19
84
19
82
19
80
0
19
• Environmental load
strongly reduced thanks to
• early introduction of
national environmental
legislation
• broad networking and
well-functioning
cooperation between
authorities, industries
and research institutes
• good education system
FECC - The Finnish Environmental Cluster for China
• FECC is a governmentally funded venture between Finland and China.
• Established in 2006 by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry
• Supported by other governmental agencies, research institutions and
internationally oriented companies.
• The FECC’s mission is to promote and enhance co-operation in the area
of environmental protection and sustainable development between
Finland and China.
• FECC operates under the trademark “Cleantech Finland” and represents
Finnish environmental operators
• The Finnish high-tech EcoCity is the leading project under FECC
Finnish technologies for the best possible environment
• Energy and material efficient technologies for forest,
metal, mining and energy industry
• Energy and material efficient buildings
Phosphorous discharges
• Utilisation of automatic control technology
to improve environmental efficiency
• Innovative technologies for waste collection,
recycling and treatment
• Optimal water treatment solutions
from rural areas to recycling of industrial
waters
Finnish Environment Institute
• Monitoring technologies for better
environment
1000
Other industries
800
Pulp and paper
t/a
600
400
200
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2003
2005
Energy systems in Finland
diversity and distributed production
• The best word to define the Finnish energy system is diversity: the base
electricity load is produced by:
Ø Four nuclear power plants (a fifth is under construction)
Ø Condensing coal combustion along the coast line
Ø Gas turbines in the Southern part of the country
Ø Hydropower
• Different forms of CHP (combined heat and power) production units,
mostly based on biomass and co-combustion are used
• Electricity, district heat or steam production
Energy generation: combined heat and power
• Example: Grate-fired biomass power plant (CHP) by Wärtsilä
Steam turbine
Main process diagram
Process water
Feed water
Hot water
Steam
Air
Flue gas
Ash
Fuel
Optional
To process
Multicyclone/
ESP*
From process
Water
treatment
Feed water tank
Fuel storage
Ash storage
Courtesy of Wärtsilä
Medium and large-scale CHP production:
circulating fluidised bed combustion (Foster Wheeler Energia Oy)
Kymin Voima Oy,
Kuusankoski, Kymi paper
mill, Finland
107 kg/s, 114 bar / 541°C.
Thermal power 269 MWth.
Power plant produces 80 MW of
electricity, 120 MW of process
heat and 70 MW for district
heating. Fuel is 75% wood-based,
peat is used as the co-fuel.
Supplier: Metso Power Oy
The Role of Black Liquor: The Recovery Boiler
The role of the Kraft Recovery
Boiler:
• Recovery of valuable pulping
chemicals
• Clean and efficient
combustion of organic
material
• Heat recovery
• Supplier: Andritz
Future Trends: CO2 Reduction by Efficiency Increase
and Co-Combustion
Boiler performance improvement by OTSC technology
1000
CO2 emission, kg/MWh (electricity)
Pulverised fuel
PF
Circulating fluidised-bed
CFB
OTSC Once-through supercritical steam cycle
100% coal
900
CFB
800
PF
OTSC CFB
OTSC PF
700
CFB
80% coal
20% biomass
600
OTSC CFB
500
35
40
Efficiency, %
45
50
Energy efficient buildings → 50-85% lower heating
energy consumption
• The biggest decisions to save energy are made early in the design
phase
2
Space heating demand (kWh/m )
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
China new building code
Low energy no heat recovery
in ventilation
Low energy
From elevators, electricity back to the grid
KONE EcoDisc ®
Counterweight
Elevator Car
Excessive
“potential energy“
• Energy Recovery (Regeneration)
• Converts excessive “potential energy“ into
electricity for re-use
• Saves up to 20% of the total energy consumed
Motor Output
Current
KONE Modulate Line
Bridge (MLB)
• MLB output
- High quality power
- Re-usable in or
outside the building
Technologies for efficient waste management and
recycling
• Finnish waste management expertise is based on
• High waste recycling rates and long experience in
working recycling system
• In sparsely inhabited country with long distances cost-effective
methods are needed for waste collection and source separation
• Investment in research and development
• Strong expertise and advanced technologies in:
• Waste collection and source separation
• Waste recycling
• Waste-to-energy solutions
• Landfill technologies
Recycling and treatment of waste
• Metso Power Oy and Foster Wheeler
Energy ltd significant suppliers of Fluidised
bed combustion (FBC) technology.
• Flexible, energy-efficient technology
• Possible to combust a wide range of fuels
• Production of fuel from waste and
bale wrapping solutions by eg
BMH Enviro and Cross Wrap Oy
• Kuusakoski Recycling one of the largest
suppliers and refiners of recycled metals
in the world.
Waste FBC plant in Stockholm, by
Foster Wheeler
Water resources management
• Finland has the most sustainable water management level in the world
(ranked by the UN water poverty index)
• Successful water resources management based on
• Advanced, innovative and diversified water technologies
• Co-operatives and self-governed solutions in the water sector
• High level of education and research
• Finnish firms have optimised their water use, especially in the pulp and
paper, steel and chemical industry
Water treatment technologies
• Chemical solutions for water treatment. World leader in this field is
Kemira Water.
Kemicond technology
for sludge dewatering
Chemical pre-treatment followed by microscreening for stormwater treatment
Waste water treatment solutions for rural areas
• New innovative solutions for municipal wastewater treatment in rural
areas. Uponor, Biolan Oy and Green Rock provide various types of mini
treatment plant products.
Batch wastewater treatment plant
for rural areas
The Biolan Greywater Filter
for treating grey wastewater
Biostone biological
treatment system
Focus areas in monitoring techniques
• Top expertise especially in measuring air quality and emissions, such as:
• gaseous components and particulates
• environmental conditions
• remote sensing and environmental data management
• Gasmet Technologies Ltd
• continuous emission monitoring of gaseous components
• continuous emission monitoring of mercury
• Dekati Ltd
• real-time measurement of fine particle concentrations and size
distribution with ELPI
• Vaisala Group
• environmental measurement, especially weather measurements
and corresponding industrial measurements
ITS - Intelligent transport and
traffic systems and services
• Finland is at the forefront of applications of
information and communications
technologies (ITS) in the transport
environment
• Intelligent planning tools, software and ITsystems for efficient operation of transport
activities
• Reduced congestion, improved safety
and more efficient use of the transport
network
• Reduced environmental impact
Second generation biofuels
• Advanced processes are called for in the production of
“biomass-to-liquid” (BTL) fuels
• Processes for production of ethanol from wood-based
ligno-cellulosic feedstoks developed by VTT
• Gasification of wood biomass opens new resources for
liquid fuel production.
• Production of high-quality feedgas for synthetic diesel
fuel production based on Fisher-Trophs (FT) method.
• Development by VTT and Finnish forest industry
corporations
• Municipal waste residues (MWR) could also be used as
liquid biofuel feedstock via gasification
Second generation biofuels
• Low-grade plant oils and animal fats turned into
high-quality synthetic diesel fuel (NExBTL by
Neste Oil)
• Characteristics:
• Excellent cold-use properties
• Mixes flawlessly with mineral oil diesel
• Superior qualities that help, e.g. lower
harmful exhaust emissions
• First commercial-scale plants start in 2007
• Licences for the technology sold to other
companies in Europe
Finnish R&D in figures
• Finland ranks among the OECD top countries in terms of R&D
investments. In 2005 R&D expenditure represented 3.5% of the GDP
• The number of R&D personnel has doubled in the last ten years. This
makes over 2% of the overall labour force, which is the highest figure
among all the OECD countries.
VTT - Creating business from technology
VTT IS:
• The biggest multidisciplinary research organization in Northern
Europe
• An essential part of the Finnish innovation system
VTT HAS:
• Polytechnic R&D covering different fields of technology from
electronics to building technology
• Clients and partners: industrial and business enterprises,
organisations, universities and research institutes
VTT CREATES:
• New technology and science-based innovations in
co-operation with domestic and foreign partners
Public decision makers, financiers and R&D performers
Parliament
Parliament of
of Finland
Finland
Council
Council of
of State
State
Science and
Technology
Policy Council
of Finland
Ministry
Ministry
of
of Education
Education
Ministry
Ministry
of
of Trade
Trade
and
and Industry
Industry
Other
Other
ministries
ministries
Academy of
Finland
The Finnish Funding
Agency for Technology
and Innovation
The Finnish National
Fund for Research
and Development
VTT
Other
Other research
research
institutes
institutes
Universities
Universities
TE-Centres
TE-Centres
VTT profile in 2007
2 780 employees
217 M€ turnover
7 Knowledge Clusters:
§ Digital Information Systems
§ Telecommunications
§ Microtechnologies and Sensors
§ Materials and Building
§ Industrial Systems
§ Biotechnology
§ Energy and Pulp&Paper
46 Knowledge Centres
9 Key Customer Sectors:
§ Biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries
§ Electronics
§ Energy
§ ICT
§ Real estate and construction
§ Machines and vehicles
§ Transport and logistics
§ Forest industry
§ Process industry and environment
VTT’s status as a performer of R&D work
Basic
research
Applied
research
Development
work
S
E
I
SIT
R
IVE
N
U
VTT
IN
DU
ST
RY
VTT's Environmental research
• The biggest multidisciplinary research organization in Northern Europe
• Main know-how offerings in environmental research include:
• Emission control
• Prevention of climate change
• Waste and waste technology
• Water technologies
• Sludge and sediment
• Environmental monitoring technologies
• Environmental risk management
• Clean products and processes
• Environmental applications of ICT
• Sustainable energy systems
Finnish High-Tech EcoCity concept
• Completely new combinations of technological competencies and their
resulting products will be utilised in the construction project
• Innovative ecological planning and
design
• Low energy, low waste living
• Closed water systems
• Integrated telecommunication
• Zero emission low-energy traffic system
• Efficient waste management and total
recycling
• Local electricity production with
zero emissions
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