BREAKTHROUGH STRATEGIES: SETTING EXPECTATIONS JANUARY 2011 VOL. 80 NO. 1 | www.ohsonline.com HAND PROTECTION: Put a Stop to Chemical Burns 14 FALL PROTECTION: Protection for Wood Pole Climbers 18 INCENTIVES: A Winning Wellness Program in Action 21 COMBUSTIBLE DUST: Paying Attention to Fire Hazards 28 CONSTRUCTION SAFETY: Preparing for OSHA’s Noise Exposure Rule 32 Noise Control: How to Plan for OSHA’s New Interpretation 0111ohs_c1_v3.indd 1 12/14/10 12:41 PM FORCEFLEX™ Not Bulletproof, but Damn Close! This in your face gear combines a patented molding of the lens within a flexible frame. This allows the frame to flex and fit pin heads to fat heads. All ForceFlex™ styles exceed the military ballistic and ANSI Z87+ impact standards. See the complete ForceFlex™ arsenal at our website. We are MCR Safety. Just try to outwork us. www.mcrsafety.com 800-955-6887 Ad Code: ohs1101 CIRCLE 4 ON CARD EH&S Training Experts since 1981 Environmental, Health & Safety Training www.safetyontheweb.com I 800.842.0466 8LI4VIQMIV6IWSYVGIJSV)RZMVSRQIRXEP ,IEPXLERH7EJIX]8VEMRMRK7SPYXMSRW Training Solutions: Summit Trainingweb® Online Online OSHA 10&30 Hour Training Summit Streaming Video DVD & Video Courses Summit Elements Summit Support Materials & Guides Over 600 EH&S training programs are available in multiple formats and languages to help you protect employees, property and the environment with speed, efﬁciency and economy. CIRCLE 21 ON CARD FROM THE EDITOR Eighty Years in Safety Y ou’re reading No. 1, Vol. 80 of this to emergency preparedness and response, magazine, the latter a startling num- at www.ohsonline.com/virtualevent. ■ Your challenges are extreme these ber of years for any magazine to be alive. Having met several octoge- days: Staffs and budgets are smaller, new regnarians, I can testify that we realistically can ulations and revised standards are coming at hope to be healthy, intelligent, and charming you constantly, and enforcement penalties at that age and beyond. are sky high. You have little As the editor of Occuparoom for error, which makes tional Health & Safety for 15+ OH&S and other information years, about 19 percent of its sources highly valuable. existence, I believe it is more Our January 2007 issue useful and relevant than ever. summarized the magazine’s Why is this? first 75 years in an article writ■ The Internet era has us ten by Managing Editor Ronnie Rittenberry. His summareaching out to our audience tion included this: “Revisiting in every way we can online. You have little the earliest of the volumes, More and more professionals room for error, reading firsthand the words of from all over the United States making sources Cloud, Jones, Sappington, and and abroad get their news and all the contributors, it is strikcompliance guidance in this such as OH&S ing to see that so many of the way; many more resources are highly valuable. topics that were concerning ready and waiting for them. ■ OH&S is still provided free to most them are still of concern today. Many of the readers. Our free webinars and free virtual headlines placed over articles that appeared events are very popular. If you haven’t at- in 1932 — ‘Eye Injuries and the Use of Safety tended an OH&S webinar, I can’t imagine Goggles,’ ‘Skin in Industry,’ ‘Carbon Tetrawhy because they are a first-class learning chloride: A Non-Technical Discussion of Its experience about important subjects such Toxicity,’ ‘Dust, Fumes, Vapors and Gases’ as fall protection standards, controlling — could easily fit atop stories now, in 2007.” combustible dusts, arc flash and the NFPA Technology, he pointed out, had brought us 70E standard, H1N1 influenza, preventing far since OH&S began but had not yet solved hearing loss, and managing a gas detec- the biggest industrial safety concerns. tion program to prevent fatal mistakes. You can find out more about our second virtual JERRY LAWS event, a Feb. 16, 2011, all-day event devoted [email protected] www.ohsonline.com VOLUME 80 NUMBER 1 EDITORIAL STAFF EDITOR Jerry Laws PRINT MANAGING EDITOR Ronnie Rittenberry WEB MANAGING EDITOR Sherleen Mahoney CONTENT DEVELOPMENT TEAM Lisa Williams Laura Swift Cindy Horbrook ART STAFF ART DIRECTOR Dale Chinn PRODUCTION STAFF DIRECTOR, PRINT PRODUCTION Jenny Hernandez-Asandas PRODUCTION MANAGER Rose Johnson SALES STAFF WEST COAST, SOUTH, & CENTRAL Barbara Blake DISTRICT SALES MANAGER 972-687-6718 NORTHEAST & SOUTHEAST Matt Hart DISTRICT SALES MANAGER 678-982-6764 MID-ATLANTIC DISTRICT Rick Neigher SALES MANAGER/ 818-597-9029 ONLINE SALES DIRECTOR CLASSIFIED SALES Stan Pruitt 972-687-6738 SECURITY, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION GROUP GROUP PUBLISHER Kevin O’Grady GROUP CIRCULATION DIRECTOR Margaret Perry GROUP MARKETING MANAGER Susan May PRESIDENT & Neal Vitale CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT & Richard Vitale CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT Michael J. Valenti SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, Abraham M. Langer AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT & DIGITAL MEDIA VICE PRESIDENT, Christopher M. Coates FINANCE & ADMINISTRATION VICE PRESIDENT, Erik A. Lindgren INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT VICE PRESIDENT, Carmel McDonagh ATTENDEE MARKETING VICE PRESIDENT, David F. Myers EVENT OPERATIONS Occupational Health & Safety (ISSN 0362-4064) is published monthly by 1105 Media, Inc., 9201 Oakdale Avenue, Ste. 101, Chatsworth, CA 91311. Periodicals postage paid at Chatsworth, CA 91311-9998, and at additional mailing offices. Complimentary subscriptions are sent to qualifying subscribers. Annual subscription rates payable in U.S. funds for non-qualified subscribers are: U.S. $79.00, International $149.00. Subscription inquiries, back issue requests, and address changes: Mail to: Occupational Health & Safety, P.O. Box 2166, Skokie, IL 60076-7866, email [email protected] or call 847-763-9688. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Occupational Health & Safety, P.O. Box 2166, Skokie, IL 60076-7866. Canada Publications Mail Agreement No: 40612608. Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to Circulation Dept. or Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2. “Permissions Editor,” c/o Occupational Health & Safety, 14901 Quorum Dr., Ste. 425, Dallas, TX 75254. The information in this magazine has not undergone any formal testing by 1105 Media, Inc. and is distributed without any warranty expressed or implied. Implementation or use of any information contained herein is the reader’s sole responsibility. While the information has been reviewed for accuracy, there is no guarantee that the same or similar results may be achieved in all environments. Technical inaccuracies may result from printing errors and/or new developments in the industry. Corporate Headquarters: 1105 Media 9201 Oakdale Ave. Ste. 101 Chatsworth, CA 91311 www.1105media.com © Copyright 2011 by 1105 Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Reproductions in whole or part prohibited except by written permission. Mail requests to 4 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_004_EdNote_v3.indd 4 Direct your Media Kit requests to: Lynda Brown Ph: 972-687-6710 (phone) Fx: 972-687-6750 (fax) E-mail: [email protected] For single article reprints (in minimum quantities of 250-500), e-prints, plaques and posters contact: PARS International Ph: 212-221-9595 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.magreprints.com/QuickQuote.asp This publication’s subscriber list, as well as other lists from 1105 Media, Inc., is available for rental. For more information, please contact our list manager: Merit Direct Ph: 914-368-1000 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.meritdirect.com/1105 CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD Jeffrey S. Klein REACHING THE STAFF Editors can be reached via e-mail, fax, telephone, or mail. A list of editors and contact information is at www.ohsonline.com. Email: To e-mail any member of the staff please use the following form: [email protected] Dallas Office: (weekdays, 8:30 a.m. – 5:30 p.m. CT) Telephone: 972-687-6700; Fax: 972-687-6799 14901 Quorum Drive, Suite 425, Dallas, TX 75254 Corporate Office: (weekdays, 8:30 a.m. – 5:30 p.m. PT) Telephone: 818-814-5200; Fax: 818-734-1522 9201 Oakdale Avenue, Suite 101, Chatsworth, CA 91311 www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:32 PM DURABILITY Garment Finishing From wider seam allowances, to no exposed raw fabric edges, to our PerfectPress™ autoclave process, Workrite delivers long-lasting, quality garments that stand up to industrial use. Stronger, More Durable Seams Extensive use of double- and triple-feld seams, as well as five-thread overlock, contributes to stronger, long-lasting seams. Not All FR Is Created Equal Workrite constructs our flame-resistant garments for maximum durability and extended wear life. © 2010 Workrite Uniform Company What separates our quality flame-resistant (FR) garments from other FR garments? The difference is in the details. Workrite utilizes special construction techniques to improve garment durability, which in turn lowers long-term costs because they require replacement less frequently. These differentiating techniques often go “unseen,” so we wanted to show you some of the ways Workrite builds a better flame-resistant garment. Reinforced Pockets We reinforce many pockets by adding fabric and/or double stitching the pockets twice— inside out and right side out. Inside Out Pocket RightSide Out Pocket Stitch 1 Stitch 2 Added Fabric More Bar Tacks High-stress areas (pockets, zippers, crotch seam, belt loops, etc.) are strengthened with more high-stitch bar tacks. We also reinforce our snaps with extra fabric so they don’t pull through. Seam Construction: Higher Stitch Per Inch We strengthen our garments at the most basic level: the seams. Our stitch-per-inch count is higher than industry trends. 800/521-1888 | www.workrite.com CIRCLE 13 ON CARD TABLE OF CONTENTS JANUARY 2011 | Volume 80, Number 1 | www.ohsonline.com INCENTIVES 21 Encouraging Wellness for Fun & Profit Anderson Performance Improvement runs its own wellness incentive program as well as programs for clients. The benefits are obvious for all concerned, CEO and President Louise Anderson says. by Jerry Laws DEFIBRILLATORS & CPR 24 Push Harder The AHA’s new 2010 Guidelines focus on chest compressions. Research shows that more than anything else, what can improve survival from cardiac arrest is chest compressions, especially ones that are “high quality.” by Hank Constantine 27 Survivor Spreads the Word on AEDs Detective Gerald Elliott of the Durham, N.C., Police Department was saved with an automated external defibrillator in August 2009. One year later, he and others used one to start someone else’s heart. by Jerry Laws COMBUSTIBLE DUST 28 Better Identification of Fire Hazards Needed Stakeholders seeking control measures to minimize the probability and severity of these incidents should work more closely with the fire service. by John Astad CONSTRUCTION SAFETY 32 Noise Control: How to Plan for OSHA’s New Interpretation Designing to achieve the desired reduction in noise without excessive capital cost and negative operational impact is often a delicate balance. by Mike Taubitz 32 HAND PROTECTION 14 Putting the Lid on Chemical Burns Knowledge and protection can prevent serious injury. by Nelson Schlatter 6 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_006_008_TOC_v3.indd 6 DISASTER PREPAREDNESS 36 Building In-House Capability It’s time to look in the mirror and take stock. By just providing what the laws and regulations require, we are by default deciding we will do the least we can do. by Tom Lindtveit departments 14 CAPITAL SAFETY FALL PROTECTION 18 Fall Protection for Wood Pole Climbing With the right equipment and a combination of three basic methods, it’s a cinch. by Clifford Petty ANSELL LIMITED features 4 10 38 40 41 41 42 From the Editor News & Trends New Products Classifieds Literature Library Advertiser Index Breakthrough Strategies by Robert Pater Find OHS on: 18 Twitter http://twitter.com/OccHealthSafety Facebook http://facebook.com/OHSMagazine Safety Community http://www.safetycommunity.com/profile/ OHSMagazine www.ohsonline.com 12/15/10 12:23 PM ® Max is all about staying power. The power to stay at the top of the list in the hearing protection category. To stay recognizable across industries around the world. And to stay comfortably ﬁt in millions of ears everyday. What can we say? From its distinctive coral color to its unmistakable shape, Max is the standard for comfort and protection. After 25 years, Max is ready for its close-up. ® X X X Ultra-soft open-cell polyurethane foam adjusts to the ear canal to ensure a ﬁt with maximum attenuation and long-wearing comfort. NRR 33 means maximum attenuation in maximum noise environments. Designed from the ear up, Max was the ﬁrst ergonomically-shaped earplug for increased personal comfort and enhanced protection. CIRCLE 3 ON CARD TABLE OF CONTENTS JANUARY 2011 | Volume 80, Number 1 | www.ohsonline.com www.ohsonline.com Are You Gambling with Safety? Despite decades of reduction in on-the-job deaths and injuries, catastrophic accidents appear to be rising. That may be because many are companies are safe by accident: They focus too heavily on incident rates and don’t take a scientific approach to managing safe and at-risk behavior, experts Dr. Judy Agnew and Dr. Aubrey Daniels say. What Color Are Your MSDSs? You can leverage MSDS data and tools to create greener, safer products and workplaces. While greener does not necessarily translate to more expensive, your considerations need to stretch beyond unit price, notes Kami Blake, a solutions engineer with 3E Company. Meet the New Boss(es) U.S. Rep. John Kline, R-Minn., has the chairman’s gavel in the new 112th Congress on the U.S. House of Representatives Education and Labor Committee, which is the House oversight panel for OSHA and MSHA. Find out more about him and also what voters in an OH&S online poll want most from the committee’s shift to Republican control. Recordkeeping violations are being cited at a higher rate with tougher penalties. Keller-Soft® OSHA 300 Recordkeeper helps you determine what’s recordable — then walks you through filling out Forms 300, 301, and 300A. • Keeps you from recording too much or too little. AD-260-KS-R3 • Saves you valuable time. • Gives you the information you need to improve safety and reduce risk. Go online to download a FREE 30-day trial! ONLY $199 PC 33607 ORDER TODAY! Call 800-327-6868 or visit us online at jjkeller.com/33607 Circle 20 on card. 8 800.999.2645 1.971.224.2188 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_006_008_TOC_v3.indd 8 Circle 24 on card. www.ohsonline.com 12/15/10 12:23 PM Hard to Wear. ©Sun Media Corporation Easy to Wear. Let’s face it...some respirators are as comfortable as a beard of bees! But now, with the new 7000 half mask and 9000 full face series, respiratory protection has never felt so easy. Unlike others, the 7000/9000 feature lighter weight, fewer parts, less maintenance, wider field of vision, easier cartridge attachment, and are completely PVC-Free and metal-free. All this at an economical price. Compliance just got a whole lot easier. Sleek, simple, comfortable protection that’s just plain EASY TO WEAR. To see what the buzz is all about, visit www.moldex.com or call (800) 421-0668. CIRCLE 6 ON CARD NEWSLINE On a Roll Herman Knight and Steve Rowan, Prime Inc. drivers who both have reached 3 million miles of safe driving, each received a $5,000 check, a 3-million-mile leather jacket, a truck decal, and a plaque bearing his name and likeness on the Springfield, Mo.-based company’s wall of fame Prime Inc. drivers Herman Knight and Steve Rowan were honored at an employee dinner for reaching 3 million miles of safe driving apiece. . . . Eugene, Ore.-based Health & Safety Institute announced GotoAID, which produces emergency care instructions for download to smartphones and other electronic devices, has joined its family of brands . . . . GOJO Industries, which was founded in 1946 and invented PURELL® Instant Hand Sanitizer in 1988, reacquired the PURELL brand from Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products Company. GOJO President Mark Lerner said the purchase “enables GOJO to expand the PURELL product line to include effective hand hygiene solutions for every setting — at home, at work, and on the go.” . . . R. Davis Layne, executive director of the Voluntary Protection Programs Participants’ Association, received ISEA’s 2010 Robert B. Hurley Distinguished Service Award . . . . Russell M. Olmsted, MPH, CIC, an epidemiologist at St. Joseph Mercy Health System in Ann Arbor, Mich., begins a one-year term as president of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology this month, and Michelle R. Farber, RN, CIC, of Mercy Community Hospital in Coon Rapids, Minn., begins her term as 10 president-elect. . . . After its third quarter 2010 profit rose by 96 percent partly on higher sales of large mining machines, Caterpillar Inc. announced it is buying Bucyrus International Inc. for $8.6 billion to grow its mining equipment business even more. The transaction is expected to close in mid-2011. Caterpillar’s Wuxi R&D Center in Jiangsu Province, China, recently was awarded Gold certification for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in the new construction category (LEED-NC). . . . Waste Control Specialists LLC expected to begin construction on Dec. 1, 2010, of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Andrews County, Texas, and to complete the work in about nine months. . . . PPE laundering/recycling company Bates Enterprises, Inc. of Childersburg, Ala. joined the AFFLINK/ SafetyLink group on Nov. 1. . . . Lincoln Electric Director of Marketing Phillip Wittke is chairing the Image of Welding Committee for the American Welding Society’s Welding Equipment PHILLIP WITTKE Manufacturers Committee (WEMCO) and also serving on the WEMCO executive board. He promised to work on the issues affecting the availability of skilled workers in the welding industry. Incoming Chairman Takes Aim at IST The Republican congressman set to chair the U.S. House Homeland Security Committee beginning in January 2011 said he’ll offer a CFATS reauthorization bill that does not require covered facilities to use inherently safer technologies (IST). This would please chemical manufacturers and differs from H.R. 2868, the reauthorization bill that passed the U.S. House of Representatives a year ago, which would have required facilities to evaluate IST and would have given DHS the authority to impose IST on high-risk facilities. The bill also would have extended CFATS standards to drinking water and wastewater facilities. The incoming chairman is U.S. Rep. Peter King, R-N.Y., the committee’s ranking member in the last Congress. ICIS news, an online news service for the chemical industry, and Security Director News reported Nov. 8 that King said he does not favor imposing IST in the reauthorization bill his Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_010_012_Newsline_v3.indd 10 www.ohsonline.com ADVISORY BOARD Joe E. Beck Professor, Environmental Health Science Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, Ky. Shirley A. Conibear, M.D., CIH Carnow, Conibear & Associates Ltd. Chicago, Ill. Scott Lawson The Scott Lawson Companies Concord, N.H. Angelo Pinheiro, CSP, CRSP, CPEA Senior HES Professional Marathon Oil Company Houston, Texas William H. Weems, DrPH, CIH Director, Environmental & Industrial Programs University of Alabama College of Continuing Studies Tuscaloosa, Ala. Barry R. Weissman, REM, CSP, CHMM, CHS-V, CIPS Union, N.J. committee will take up in 2011. He listed these priorities that day in a statement on the Republican committee members’ site: ■ Conduct effective oversight of DHS operations and ways to give the intelligence community and law enforcement agencies the tools they need to identify and combat domestic radicalization. ■ Stop the Obama Administration’s plans to transfer Guantanamo detainees, like admitted 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheik Mohammed and his co-conspirators, to the U.S. and put them on trial in civilian courts, and holding hearings on the president’s plans to close Guantanamo. ■ Hold hearings on the attack at Fort Hood. ■ Work with the Department of Homeland Security to improve cargo security on passenger planes and on cargo-only planes. ■ Enact additional border security legislation to curb illegal immigration. ■ Strengthen the Securing the Cities Initiative to protect more Americans from radiological and nuclear devices. ■ Bolster national cybersecurity by fortifying the defenses of federal networks and promoting partnerships with the private sector to protect against cyberattack. ■ Pass a comprehensive Department www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:33 PM CIRCLE 2 ON CARD NEWSLINE of Homeland Security authorization bill to provide DHS with necessary guidance, tools, and resources to help protect our homeland from terrorist attack. http://chs-republicans.house.gov/11-5-10%20 King%20statement%20on%20112th.pdf Calendar Jan. 1, 4: Worker’s compensation insurance premiums rise 12 percent on average Jan. 1 under a Washington state Department of Labor & Industries emergency rule effective for 120 days. Officials cited the weak economy’s impact on Washington’s State Fund. Public hearings on the proposed rates are set for Jan. 4 in Spokane and Takoma. http://www.lni.wa.gov/ News/2010/101108rates.asp JAN 1,4 Jan. 11: Oral argument before the U.S. Supreme Court in Goodyear Luxembourg Tires, S.A. et al. v. Brown, No. 1076, where the court will decide whether European corporations may be sued in a North Carolina state court in connection with a 2004 bus wreck outside Paris, France in which two North Carolina teenagers died. The plaintiffs allege a tire’s failure caused the wreck. http://www. supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/ docketfiles/10-76.htm JAN 11 Jan. 23-29: ASSE’s SeminarFest 2011 at the Flamingo JAN Las Vegas Hotel features cer23-29 tification preparation workshops, certificates and executive program in safety management, and 46 additional seminars on various topics, including risk management, industrial hygiene, construction safety, incident investigation, coaching, slip-and-fall prevention, sustainability, fire prevention, lockout/tagout, prevention through design, combustible dust, and more. http://www.asse.org/ education/seminarfest11/index.php Jan. 31: This is the XIX World Congress on Safety and Health at Work 8th International Film and Multimedia Festival’s deadline for entries. http://www.issa.int/8thIFMF The festival will take place Sept. 11-15, 2011, in Istanbul. Any production about safety and JAN 31 12 health at work (including films, drama, news, documentary, animation, spots, social media, multimedia, web or computerbased training, and virtual reality applications) made since January 2007 is eligible. USW Seeks Consensus on CT-based Lung Cancer Screening The United Steelworkers union and its international president, Leo Gerard, on Nov. 9 called on industrial unions and health organizations to collaborate on a strategy for large-scale occupational lung cancer screening. Gerard said a strategy meeting was necessary after results of a 10-year national trial of screening methods to reduce lung cancer deaths were released a week earlier by the National Cancer Institute. The study involved more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers and found annual screening with a low dose helical chest computed tomography (CT) scan lowered mortality due to lung cancer by 20 percent. “We are now presented with an enormous opportunity to save workers from dying from lung cancer,” Gerard said. “Millions of workers have been exposed to asbestos, silica, chromium, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, nickel, and combustion products, and all of these exposures are firmly established as causes of human lung cancer.” The union sponsors a CT scan-based Early Lung Cancer Detection Program (cosponsored by Queens College (City University of New York) and the Atomic Trades & Labor Council), which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and screened more than 10,000 nuclear weapons workers in three states between 2000 and 2010. “Union health and safety leaders and others need to meet in the very near future in Washington, D.C. to devise a strategy for assuring that high-risk workers are among the first to obtain the benefits of this new screening method,” said Gerard. According to the union, topics for discussion at such a meeting would include identifying and notifying workers at high risk of lung cancer; revising OSHA’s medical surveillance standards to include lung cancer screening; encouraging NIOSH to use its educational and research mechanisms to promote and apply the science of lung cancer screening; engaging professional organizations, government agencies, and health insurers to ensure high-risk Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_010_012_Newsline_v3.indd 12 workers are a priority for screening programs; and securing funding for CT-based lung cancer screening. Owner, Company Await Sentencing in Rochester Asbestos Case A Rochester, N.Y., asbestos abatement company and its owner have been convicted of eight counts of knowingly violating Clean Air Act asbestos work practice standards, and the owner was convicted of lying to an OSHA inspector to hide the violations, the U.S. Justice Department announced. Sentencing is set for Feb. 25, 2011, before U.S. District Judge Charles J. Siragusa in Rochester. The owner, Keith Gordon-Smith, was aware that asbestos was inside the west wing of the Genesee Hospital complex in Rochester when his company began pre-demolition work in early 2007, but he did not inform his workers of this, provide protective equipment, or ensure the asbestos was properly handled and disposed, according to the indictment in the case. Gordon-Smith and the company also were convicted of six counts of failing to notify EPA before begin asbestos abatement work at six additional sites in the Rochester area. Gordon-Smith had a contract with the site owner giving him 50 percent of the salvage value of all copper pipe and scrap metal from the six-story building, which contained more than 70,000 square feet of asbestos, according to the Justice Department. He ordered the workers to tear out copper pipes, ceiling tiles, and scrap metal, which caused asbestos-containing material to fall on the workers “like snow,” the jury was told during the three-week trial. The workers wore no protective clothing and often wore asbestos-contaminated clothing back to their homes after work, according to the department’s account of the case. The jury also convicted Gordon-Smith and his company of causing workers to illegally remove and dispose of asbestos during the actual asbestos abatement at the west wing from May 2007 until February 2009. The U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Western District of New York warned that anyone who was present in the west wing of the former Genesee Hospital from Jan. 1, 2007, to the present may have been exposed to the asbestos. www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:33 PM Safety: with a strong foundation Our heritage is as strong as our products, demonstrated by over 60 years of industrial support system installations. With over 16 branches, Unistrut Fall Protection Systems is the only nationwide installer of engineered fall protection systems. Turn to the Fall Protection Experts! • Turnkey, Engineered Systems Installation • OSHA and ANSI Inspections and Certifications • Training • Systems Design Consulting 905-683-8131 | www.unistrutfallprotection.com CIRCLE 11 ON CARD HAND PROTECTION Putting the Lid on Chemical Burns Knowledge and protection can prevent serious injury. BY NELSON SCHLATTER ANSELL LIMITED W e did not wear safety gloves back in the days when I was a student conducting experiments in our high school chemistry laboratory. Fortunately, when I splashed sulfuric acid on my forehead, I had the presence of mind to use water to immediately wash the chemical from my skin, thereby preventing a serious chemical burn. Unfortunately, individuals working with chemicals in labs, processing plants, or during cleanup and maintenance may not be so lucky because chemical burns are not always obvious, and the individual’s reaction to a substance may be delayed. Chemical burns (depending on the substance involved and the severity of the injury) can cause severe pain and suffering and can result in disfigurement, long-term disability, and even death. Chemical burns are very different from heat burns in that they generally produce no heat, although the worker is likely to experience a burning sensation. The severity of a chemical burn will depend on the concentration of the substance to which the worker is exposed and his or her length of exposure. Symptoms of workplace chemical burns include itching or skin irritation, pain or numbness, blisters, and/or bleached, reddened, or darkened skin. In more severe cases, victims may suffer from tissue necrosis. Exposure to corrosive vapors can cause victims to cough up blood or have difficulty breathing. Treating a chemical burn is a race with time because the longer the substance remains on the skin, the deeper the burn. Chemicals That Burn Safety personnel who select protective apparel and gloves should know not only the name of the chemical to which workers are exposed, but also other important details, such as the possible length of exposure and the chemical’s concentration. 14 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_014_016_schlatter_v4.indd 14 Chemical burns often result from exposure to strong acids and bases that are caustic and can cause significant tissue damage during even brief exposure. Bases typically result in more severe tissue damage than acids because they are more persistent during contact with the skin. A relatively quick rinse often can remove acids, but bases require a sustained body flush for as long as 20 minutes to prevent further harm. The chemical groups that follow are often used in industry and can cause chemical burns: Strong acids: ■ Sulfuric acid — found in drain and metal cleaners, automobile battery fluid, munitions and fertilizer manufacturing, and many other products. ■ Muriatic or hydrochloric acid — used in products employed to clean brick and metal, etch concrete, www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:34 PM Wiley X occupational safety rated eyewear is built for anything the workplace throws its way. Wiley X provides total eye protection with high-velocity certiﬁed lenses and patented technologies like Facial Cavity™ seals that block dust and debris. The same Wiley X protection has been proven and tested for years by US troops in the ﬁeld. Rugged protection in a stylish package workers want to wear – don’t wait for an injury before switching to Wiley X. Removable Facial Cavity™ seals block dust, dust debris and peripheral light. Optional LA™ Light Adjusting lenses darken tint as brightness dictates. Exceeds ANSI Z87.1-2003 high velocity impact safety and optical standards. Most frames can be ﬁlled with a prescription safety lens. WILEYX.COM // 1.800.776.7842 CIRCLE 12 ON CARD WILEY X, the WILEY X Eyewear Logo, WX, the WX Eyewear Logo and the WX WILEY X Logo are trademarks of Wiley X, Inc., registered (marca registrada) or pending registration in the U.S. and numerous other countries and jurisdictions. Logos © 2007 – 2009 Wiley X, Inc. 2007 – 2009 All rights reserved. HAND PROTECTION and maintain pools. This is one of the most corrosive acids. ■ Hydrofluoric acid — found in rust removers and various cleaners; also used in refrigerant and fertilizer manufacturing and petroleum refining. This acid is extremely toxic. ■ Nitric acid — used in the production of numerous chemicals. This is a very strong acid. ■ Phosphoric acid — utilized for metal cleaning and refining, fertilizer manufacturing and rust proofing. It is also found in disinfectants and detergents. Common bases or caustics: ■ Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide — used in drain and oven cleaners. ■ Sodium and calcium hypochlorite — used in bleaches and swimming pool chlorinating solutions. Sodium and calcium hypochlorite are not only bases, but also oxidizing agents and can cause burns by more than one chemical mechanism. ■ Ammonia — used in many cleaners and detergents. Gaseous anhydrous ammonia may be found in various industrial applications, including fertilizer manufacturing. Protecting Against Dangerous Chemicals Gloves that provide protection against chemicals are generally categorized according to the materials used and whether they are supported or unsupported. In general, I recommend vinyl supported or neoprene supported gloves to protect workers against many of the substances mentioned in this article that can cause chemical burns. The best way to prevent serious burns is to avoid contact with dangerous chemicals. If contact does occur, workers should be wearing the proper protection, including apparel, gloves, goggles, and masks. Supported gloves are made by dipping a knitted or woven cloth liner into a glove compound, such as nitrile. The liner fabric then “supports” the compound and adds strength. Some supported styles have continuous coatings to ensure protection from chemicals. Supported gloves without continuous coatings, however, typically do not NEW TEMPLATE TO IMPROVE CUT PROTECTION TESTING Jeff Moreland, Ansell technology solutions scout in Pendleton, S.C., worked out a new template for testing cutresistant gloves that will clarify the test method specified in ANSI/ISEA 105-2005 American National Standard for Hand Protection Selection Criteria (www.safetyequipment.org/c/ std105-2005.cfm). This ISEA standard ranks gloves’ cut resistance from 0 to 5. Manufacturers self-certify their own products, Moreland said. However, ASTM oversees the test method (ASTM F1790 - 05 Standard Test Method for Measuring Cut Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing, www.astm.org/Standards/F1790.htm) that is referenced in ISEA’s specifications. Moreland is subcommittee chairman for the ASTM committee that addresses the test method. He said manufacturers currently use an Excel spreadsheet and input their data into it to get their ratings; the question was why ASTM had not provided a spreadsheet for this. “I think it was no one wanted to put all the effort into doing it,” he added. ISEA and ASTM were not in sync on their revision schedules for this issue, Moreland explained. ISEA until now was referencing an old ASTM method, which caused confusion 16 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_014_016_schlatter_v4.indd 16 provide the high level of protection needed for applications with highly concentrated chemicals. These gloves are usually designed to improve grip and protect against cuts, abrasion, and other non-chemical hazards. Unsupported gloves achieve their gloveshape by dipping hand forms directly into a glove compound without a supporting liner or fabric. These gloves offer a broad spectrum of chemical resistance based on the materials used to manufacture the product. Below are specific materials that will protect against chemicals that could burn the skin: ■ Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) — often available in heavy supported styles; protects against strong acids and strong bases. Many PVC and vinyl gloves also protect against cuts and abrasion. ■ Neoprene — available in disposable, medium weight unsupported, medium weight supported, and heavy weight supported styles. These gloves are medium cost and protect against common oxidizing acids (nitric and sulfuric) and many other chemicals. ■ Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) — used for medium weight supported gloves that as new entrants used newer ASTM methods. With ISEA interested in issuing its own, Moreland developed the spreadsheet and also devised some suggested changes to the ASTM method to ensure everyone tests the same way. The ISEA draft document was at the final approval stage when the 2010 National Safety Congress & Expo took place in October. Moreland said the new template allows manufacturers to test products to the old method and the new one, which will be good for five years. This is important, he said, because companies such as Ansell have a lot of historical data from the old method. Those who want to test using the old method still can. The spreadsheet will clarify and simplify reporting, and its format makes it easy for a user to know a glove’s protection level. “We’re providing this essentially as a service to the industry,” he said. “Somebody had to step up and say, ‘I’m going to do this.’” He said it is based on a template he’d created internally but is more user friendly than the internal version and is set up for three samples. The spreadsheet will be available to download and use from ISEA’s site as the test method for 105 for cut protection. The new method under-reports cut protection capability a bit, he said. It will be more economical for manufacturers, said Moreland. www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:34 PM HAND PROTECTION samples of highly concentrated chemicals for testing at a fabricating plant. Phosphoric acid is an excellent example because it is a hazardous chemical in concentrated form. When it is greatly diluted, it serves as an important ingredient in cola drinks. The diluted form is obviously much less toxic than the concentrated form. Many manufacturers and universities offer chemical resistance guides to help laboratories and manufacturing plants select gloves and clothing that provide the level of protection required against specific substances. Ansell’s SpecWare® application, available free at www.ansellpro.com, is an example of a widely used chemical resistance guide. The Race for Treatment Prevention should be the first line of defense against chemical burns. Plant workers and supervisors should know which chemicals are being used within their facilities and at what concentrations. They should also familiarize themselves with the Material are highly resistant to many organic chemicals. PVA gloves are in- Safety Data Sheets for specific chemicals and the recommendations effective against the acids and bases mentioned in this article. But for personal protective equipment. Treatment and antidotes must they are very effective against organic chemicals, such as chlori- be readily available to workers. nated solvents and aromatic compounds, some of which can cause Any chemical burn, no matter what the size, should be conskin burns. sidered serious because the extent ■ Sealed-Film (Laminate) — Sealed-Film (Laminate) gloves are excellent of the burn often depends on how represents one of the most chemlong the chemical remains on the for hazmat applications in which the ical-resistant materials available skin. Every second counts. and protects against almost anyMost industrial sites are chemicals present may be in question. thing. These gloves are excellent equipped with emergency showers. for hazmat applications in which the chemicals present may be in Workers should know the showers’ location and be able to reach question. Laminate gloves fail to provide a close fit, a good grip, or a site within seconds. They should remove contaminated clothing strong physical properties. Fortunately, laminate gloves are quite and remain in the shower for at least 20 minutes. An appropriate thin and are commonly worn as liners under other gloves that can neutralizing agent (if available) should be applied to the skin. protect in ways that laminate gloves cannot. Burn victims should seek medical attention as soon as the burn Aprons, overalls, coveralls and jackets are available that are has been completely flushed and all contaminated clothing remade of vinyl and other fabrics, such as CPC® polyester and No- moved. A quick response followed by the proper medical treatment mex® Trilaminate, which is made with chemical-resistant fluo- could keep a chemical splash from becoming a serious, disfiguring ropolymer film and polyester or Nomex. These garments protect burn. the arms and torso against chemical splash. Silver nitrate, lye, and lime also can cause chemical burns. Nelson Schlatter, a Technical Applications Chemist with Ansell Limited, holds a degree in chemistry from the University of Delaware and has worked in the PPE industry for more than 30 years. His current An Ounce of Prevention The old adage “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” position and technical background center on protective garments certainly applies to chemical burns. The best way to prevent serious worn to prevent employee exposure to hazardous materials. He also burns is to avoid contact with dangerous chemicals. If contact does focuses on the effectiveness of specific garments and their component occur, workers should be wearing the proper protection, including materials to resist and otherwise prevent penetration by hazardous chemicals. He has served on ASTM Committee F23 on Protective apparel, gloves, goggles, and masks. Because many chemical burns occur on the hands and arms, Clothing during most of his career, is active in the ISEA Hand Protecwearing protective gloves and apparel is a primary line of defense. tion and Protective Clothing Groups, and has written several papers Safety personnel who select protective apparel and gloves should in this area. He addressed related topics at meetings of the American know not only the name of the chemical to which workers are ex- Industrial Hygiene Association and the American Chemical Society. posed, but also other important details, such as the possible length For more information about chemical burns and how to prevent them, refer to “Ask the Experts” at www.ansellpro.com. of exposure and the chemical’s concentration. CPC® and SpecWare® are trademarks owned by Ansell LimCompanies sometimes over-specify gloves that protect against chemicals, which can be expensive. A worker who is exposed to ited or one of its affiliates. ©2010 Ansell Limited. All Rights a diluted chemical for a short period of time, for example, will Reserved. Nomex® is a registered trademark of E.I. DuPont de require less protection than an individual charged with pulling Nemours & Company. Many chemical burns occur on the hands and arms, which is why protective gloves and apparel are essential as a primary line of defense. www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_014_016_schlatter_v4.indd 17 JANUARY 2011 | Occupational Health & Safety 17 12/14/10 12:34 PM FALL PROTECTION Fall Protection for Wood Pole Climbing With the right equipment and a combination of three basic methods, it’s a cinch. BY CLIFFORD PETTY CAPITAL SAFETY W hen considering overhead work such as pole climbing, it’s apparent fall hazards are present at all times. However, these hazards are often overlooked and underestimated as experienced climbers become too complacent up in the air. Employers can help protect 18 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_018_020_petty_v3.indd 18 workers by addressing these hazards and providing means to prevent accidents. While bucket trucks are often used to work on utility poles without climbing, sometimes climbing is the only way to get the job done. Climbing a wood pole requires skill that takes a person time to develop; www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:35 PM FALL PROTECTION Fall restrict uses the climber’s body weight to mechanically cinch a device around a pole to stop the fall in the event of a cut-out (when a worker loses contact with the pole). however, regardless of skill level, all climbers are susceptible to falls. Fall protection systems used on wood poles can add a degree of difficulty to an already challenging task, although recent improvements are making these systems easier to use, while new options make wood pole fall protection more practical in the field. A combination of three basic methods can be used to help prevent fall accidents when climbing and working on wood poles: work positioning, fall arrest, and fall restrict. ■ Work positioning allows the climber to work hands free by securing a positioning strap around a pole. This system requires the strap to be placed over an object that is capable of supporting the climber’s weight during a fall. Work positioning systems must limit the fall distance to 2 feet or less. ■ Fall arrest is now an option for wood poles. On poles with significant obstructions, such as vines, foliage, or equipment where linemen need more mobility, vertical lifeline systems allow the worker to free climb without a second positioning strap. A wood pole fall arrest system works by securing a rope positioning tube and dielectric lifeline at the top of a pole. The worker raises the tube from the ground and drops it over a suitable anchorage point near the top of the pole using an extendable hot stick tool inserted into one end of the tube in order to manipulate it into position. While the hot stick is still extended, it is used to capture an eye in the lifeline, which is then retracted to the ground. A carabiner is used to choke the lifeline back at the top of the pole. A rope grab with an integrated shock-absorbing lanyard is connected to the dorsal D-ring of a full-body harness and lifeline, allowing the climber to move safely into position around virtually any obstruction. This fall arrest system provides easy, fast climbing without requiring connections, disconnections, and adjustments each time a lineman passes an obstacle on the pole. Most linemen still use body belts when climbing poles, but full-body harnesses with integrated tool belts are becoming more popular. Harnesses provide an advantage by better supporting the weight of a climber’s tools, and they also make wood pole rescue much safer. ■ Fall restrict uses the climber’s body weight to mechanically cinch a device around a pole to stop the fall in the event of a cut-out (when a worker loses contact with the pole). When used correctly, these systems are effective and offer the highest degree of versatility for the climber. Fall restrict systems consist of two pieces: an exterior strap and an interior strap. The exterior strap makes contact with the pole as it is raised or lowered into position using a “hitchhiking” motion. This strap also contains the adjustable hardware and points that connect to the interior strap. The in- &OTVSF:PVS'VUVSFT4BGFUZ Earn Your Degree Online WHY CSU? t#FHJO$PVSTFTBU Anytime t"òPSEBCMF5VJUJPO t.BYJNVN5SBOTGFS$SFEJU t#$413FDPHOJ[FT CSU Degrees t5FYUCPPLTBU/P$PTU t'FEFSBM'JOBODJBM"JE t5"%"/5&4BOE 7"#FOFöUT t/P"$54"5PS(3& required Columbia Southern University offers completely online degree programs, open enrollment and a flexible learning style designed to accommodate your life. t0DDVQBUJPOBM4BGFUZBOE)FBMUI t$FSUJöDBUFT t&NFSHFODZ4FSWJDFT.BOBHFNFOU Undergraduate and Graduate t0UIFS%FHSFFTBOE$FSUJöDBUFT t&OWJSPONFOUBM.BOBHFNFOU Call or visit us online to learn more! www.ColumbiaSouthern.edu/info/oshmag | 877.845.7780 Superior Service. Flexible Programs. Extraordinary Value. 21982 University Lane | Orange Beach, Alabama www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_018_020_petty_v3.indd 19 Circle 15 on card. 19 12/14/10 12:35 PM FALL PROTECTION terior strap pulls the exterior strap together to create the cinching action. It is also the portion that connects to the climber’s body belt and provides additional adjustment for the climber to control his distance from the pole. To maintain 100 percent fall protection, fall restrict systems require a second positioning strap when transferring over or under obstructions. Fall Restrict Selection Criteria When selecting a fall restrict system, consider the following: ■ Ease of use. Lack of adjustability is the most frequent complaint from fall restrict users. Many belts require long periods to “break in” before the material is soft enough for the hardware to slide along the strap. This problem is often compounded by a secondary loss of adjustability after the material becomes softened. ■ Ergonomics. Watch out for belts that require extra movements when transferring over obstructions. Taking the belt out of adjustment and having to readjust it every time it is transferred adds additional movement and time to the transfer. ■ Simplicity. Fewer mechanical pieces mean contending with fewer problems and less weight. ■ Function. Not all fall restricting belts are created equal. Some systems may not meet the stringent CSA-Z259.14-01 standard for this type of equipment. This certification should be a pre- requisite when considering a fall restricting belt. ■ Strength. Look for ANSI Z359.1-07 stamped on the connectors; such gates are rated for 3,600 pounds in every direction. This should be a consideration because these systems require multiple connections, and gate loading could become an issue if connections are inferior. ■ Versatility. The newest fall restrict systems offer the ability to change the size of the exterior strap, which allows the worker to climb large-diameter transmission poles without having to purchase a separate pole climbing system. The optional transmission strap rolls up and takes up very little space for storage. Effective fall protection equipment for workers who climb wood poles has been one of the most difficult challenges facing the electrical utility industry. Because of the latest equipment advances, the feasibility of protecting these workers has become a reality and should be considered a priority. After all, it is the employer’s responsibility to be aware of potential hazards workers face and provide the proper equipment to protect them. Clifford Petty is the electrical utility specialist for the Americas with Capital Safety, a leading designer and manufacturer of fall protection and rescue products including the DBI-SALA and PROTECTA brands. For more information, visit www.capitalsafety.com. Circle 16 on card. 20 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_018_020_petty_v3.indd 20 www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:35 PM INCENTIVES Encouraging Wellness for Fun & Profit Anderson Performance Improvement runs its own wellness incentive program as well as programs for clients. The benefits are obvious for all concerned, CEO and President Louise Anderson says. BY JERRY LAWS www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_021_022_incentives_v3.indd 21 T aking a fun, team-oriented approach to wellness among its own employees proved to be a winning strategy for Anderson Performance Improvement, a 16-year-old incentive company that won a 2010 Circle of Excellence Award from the Incentive Marketing Association for its 2009 program. The program focused on healthy diet and exercise as a way to address weight loss, smoking, and health risk factors such as hypertension, said Louise Anderson, CEO and president of the Hastings, Minn.based company, which has about 100 employees. She said the company submits one or two entries annually in this award program and won one in 2005; Anderson Performance Improvement initially submitted client cases but wanted to be as proactive as its clients, so the decision was made to enter its own program results, too, she explained. The 2010 award is significant because this award program had not recognized anyone for a wellness incentive until then, Anderson said. The team concept is essential to the success achieved thus far, and individual results are not being shared, she said. “It’s not so much about weight loss, it’s about doing the right things every day. It’s awareness and focus, being aware of the foods you’re putting in your body,” she added. “You would not believe how many pounds our team lost, cumulatively. We’ve lost a lot of inches because we’re walking more, we’re exercising more. It’s interesting; different things motivate different people. By having the awards, having them see how good people look, it’s been really fun to see the changes and see who jumped on the bandwagon, so to speak.” Wellness incentives are highly popular these days. Three Anderson Performance Improvement clients currently offer them as part of their rewards and recognition corporate programs, she said. All three have thousands of employees; one of the clients is an online brokerage firm, another is a manufacturer, and the third is an insurance underwriting firm. The underwriting firm is using a traditional formula and started by taking a “snapshot” of its current costs for diabetes and hypertension, which caused leaders of the firm to strongly consider a weight reduction program. But because a small focus group of employees showed the workforce would be reluctant, the firm at this point is inviting employees to participate voluntarily, Anderson said. The manufacturing client operates 14 locations. At the locations where champions are actively engaging co-workers and groups to take part, its program is working well. “They perceive that it’s impacting their safety metrics. They know it’s impacting their back injuries. It’s really interesting to see,” said Anderson. This client awards points to all employees for healthy behaviors, using the Anderson Enterprise Incentive Solution online rewards platform that clients have been using since 1997. First used to boost sales productivity, this tool was expanded in 2000 with behavior-based incentives and employee recognition elements. Anderson said her company’s mission is using technology to ease customers’ ability to deploy incentives and to use rewards and recognition for targeted behavior. “That’s really what drove me to start the business,” she said, “because if you can reward and recognize for the behaviors, you’re definitely going to hit your end goals. Technology’s made it a lot easier to track what’s happening and easier for everybody to reward and recognize for behavior, if that’s what the organization wants to do. It fits right in with wellness, as well.” Going Back to the Playground Helping Anderson Performance Improvement and its employees to get the most out their wellness program is a Carlsbad, Calif.-based company named Sonic Boom Wellness Inc. that basically tries to make wellness viral among the employees of its clients. Participants take part in walking meetings, where they conduct a meeting while the group walks around the building. Sitting against the wall in a meeting or conducting a standing meeting with exercises included will earn points. “Or parking furthest away, which I challenge everyone to do, and then I periodically walk JANUARY 2011 | Occupational Health & Safety 21 12/14/10 7:58 PM INCENTIVES around and put scratch-and-win cards on the windshields,” Anderson said. She said employees’ swimming, running, walking, and other activities show up in the tracking charts. They also earn points through the Challenge-of-the-Day and other contests, including Weight-Loss Warriors for teams or individuals. Sonic Striding equips participants with small pedometers that wirelessly upload their activity constantly — steps taken, distance covered, calories burned — to receivers placed throughout the company’s facilities, including remote locations. A participant earns points for being recognized by someone else for doing something healthy. Global contests are offered for entire companies, but a new program from Sonic Boom Wellness named Joust will allow participants to create their own automated contests, said Danna Korn, the enthusiastic CEO and co-founder of Sonic Boom Wellness, which has been in business for about three years. Korn said using Sonic Boom’s programs is like being back on a school playground again: Participants work with their buddies, friendly rivalries develop, and social networking moves into high gear. “Wacky wellness works. We have them thinking like kids again,” Korn said. “We make it fun so it’s sticky, it’s engaging. It’s a perfect wellness program.” Anderson Performance Improvement runs six-month heats that are individual, group, or family challenges, having started its wellness program in September 2007. Anderson said employees have redeemed their points for rewards such as a treadmill incorporating a workstation, gourmet coffee machines, living room furniture, jewelry (one chose diamond earrings, another a pearl necklace), large-screen TVs, and home electronics. The company offered a family golf outing in addition to the prizes. She said her company has not calculated its return on investment in terms of dollars and cents saved. Instead, they see it as a way to reduce the use of paid sick days and know it pays for itself. “We have a client that doesn’t do ROI on its recognition/wellness program on which they spend hundreds of thousands of dollars,” she said. “They just know they’re benefiting from have satisfied, healthy employees. We looked at all the indicators and decided we wouldn’t put a dollar value to them. They were all more positive.” “Due to the awareness, we don’t have ice cream and cake any more for birthday parties. We don’t have doughnuts for our weekly meetings,” she explained. “We have yogurt, and fruit, and granola. Instead of having a basket full of candy at Halloween, we had a nice variety of fruit.” Jerry Laws is editor of Occupational Health & Safety. FOR MORE INFORMATION Anderson Performance Improvement www.andersonperformance.com Sonic Boom Wellness Inc. www.sonicboomwellness.com/ Incentive Marketing Association 2010 Circle of Excellence Awards www.incentivemarketing.org/associations/2592/files/IMA%202010%20circle%20 of%20excellence%20release.pdf Free to attend! Join us February 16 for another virtual event! Join OH&S Editor Jerry Laws, our sponsors, and leading experts on preparing and responding to emergencies of all kinds for a full day of live presentations, real-time dialogue with product suppliers and other professionals in your ﬁeld, and a chance to win valuable prizes. KA-BOOM! Your Plant Just Blew Up. Now, Deal With It! presented by Barry R. Weissman, president of Weissman Consultants, LLC What You Should Be Doing Until the Fire Department Arrives presented by Craig Schroll, CSP, SFPE, president of FIRECON Plus more! Visit ohsonline.com/virtualevent for more information and to register. For sponsorship information, contact Rick Neigher, Online Sales Director sRNEIGHER MEDIACOM 22 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_021_022_incentives_v3.indd 22 Sponsors include: www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 7:58 PM THE “CAN’T STOP SMILING” REWARD No fees. No expiration dates. Just happiness.™ Reward your employees for creating a safer workplace with Best Buy® Gift Cards. They’ll get the fun of choosing rewards that enhance their lives and connect them with family and friends. Learn more by calling 877-370-1234. Email: [email protected] Or order online at CorporateGiftCards.BestBuy.com. BEST BUY, the BEST BUY logo and the tag design are trademarks of BBY Solutions, Inc. © 2010 Best Buy. All Rights Reserved. BBY1103015 CIRCLE 1 ON CARD Gift Card Incentives DEFIBRILLATORS & CPR Push Harder The AHA’s new 2010 Guidelines focus on chest compressions. E BY HANK CONSTANTINE very five years, the American Heart Association (AHA) updates the “Guidelines for Emergency Cardiac Care.” This time around, the changes are slight but very focused on CPR chest compressions. In the past, effects on rescue protocols and the workings of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have called for more obvious changes. The regular reassessment and improvement of resuscitation therapies for the immediate treatment of cardiac arrest victims actually takes place globally through an organization called the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, or ILCOR. AHA is one of eight regional bodies that participate in ILCOR’s process of revising Emergency Cardiac Care therapies and protocols by arriving at an international consensus in which 365 researchers from 29 countries have sifted through and reviewed all of the latest research to determine what it all must mean. The latest result, published in October, constitutes evidence-based medicine at its best. The changes introduced back in 2005 brought new emphasis to the importance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when resuscitating a victim of cardiac arrest. They doubled the chest-compressionto-rescue-breathing ratio from 15-to-2 to 30-to-2. They doubled the CPR interval between heart analyses from one minute to two, and they got rid of “three stacked shock” technology in favor of a single shock (with no further analysis to see if a second, or even a third, shock might be needed). These changes caused all AEDs to undergo some level of modification to accommodate the new changes. The New 2010 Guidelines In its latest round, AHA has adjusted the protocols in areas that will not affect many AEDs. Clearly, however, AHA intends to change significantly the behavior of rescuers by calling on them to start chest compressions sooner, do more of them, and, most important, push harder with every compression. Ever since 1992, AHA has said CPR chest compressions should be 1.5 to 2 inches deep. I was once asked by a scientist well versed in the evidence on which the Guidelines rest if I knew how the compression depth of 1.5 to 2 inches was arrived at. I admitted I did not know. “Well, let me tell you,” he responded. 24 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_024_026_constantine_v3.indd 24 “They were pulled out of thin air. Good research may one day prove us right or wrong, but we had to start somewhere. Rescuers need protocols, and they can’t always wait on the evidence. People’s lives are at stake.” Well, the evidence has now begun to present itself. In its Executive Summary, AHA presents what it considers the key changes for lay-rescuer Basic Life Support.1 First, when presented with an unresponsive adult who is not breathing normally (where gasping should not be considered normal), rescuers should begin CPR immediately without making any attempt to “look, listen, and feel” or clear the airway before starting chest compressions. The reason: Inconsistent performance by rescuers and loss of early chest compressions reduces the quality and quantity of chest compressions. Second, “hands only” CPR (compression only without any rescue breathing) should be encouraged among untrained rescuers. The reason: Research shows that survival improves when untrained, or unsure, rescuers are encouraged to do only chest compressions without any rescue breathing. Third, whenever CPR is performed, chest compressions should always precede clearing the airway, checking breathing, and delivering rescue breath. The “A-B-C” rescue (Airway-Breathing-Compression) has now become the “C-A-B” rescue. The reason: Chest compressions are more important than rescue breathing and need to be started as soon as possible. Fourth, “there is an increased focus on methods to ensure that high-quality CPR is performed. . . . The recommended depth of compressions for adult victims has increased from a depth of 1½ to 2 inches to a depth of at least 2 inches.” The reason: Research shows survival improves when rescuers compress 2 inches or more, compared with those who compress only more than 1.5 inches. What a difference a half inch makes. Further, AHA also cites as a key point of continued emphasis that rescuers should “minimize interruptions in effective chest compressions” because “any unnecessary interruptions in chest compressions . . . decreases CPR effectiveness.” The overall thrust of these recommendations is clear: Research shows that more than anything else, what can improve survival from cardiac arrest is chest compressions, especially ones that are “high quality.” If you want to, forget about rescue breaths. Don’t waste time checking circulation or taking a pulse. Start compressions immediately. If you try to open the airway and check breathing, do so only after completing at least 30 all-important chest compressions. But the most important new element in these recommendations is the move to deeper chest compressions “at a depth of at least two inches.” The evidence has begun to show that compressions at 2 inches and beyond lead to significantly better outcomes than those that reach only an inch and a half. Some animal studies show that this difference of only one half inch www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:36 PM DEFIBRILLATORS & CPR can literally make the difference between life and death. As the scientist I referred to above said, ILCOR and AHA “had to start somewhere” when they came up with their original protocol in 1992, but now we know more. Henceforth, all rescuers should achieve compressions of at least 2 inches on every compression. The key, major, most important, number one Guideline change for 2010 is therefore simple: Do as many chest compressions as possible, and push harder! This change applies even when using an AED. Indeed, in the chapter on “Electrical Therapies” in a section headlined “Defibrillation Plus CPR: A Critical Combination,” the Guidelines note that: “In the 1990s, some predicted that CPR could be rendered obsolete by the widespread development of AED programs. However, as . . . more first responders were equipped with AEDs, survival rates from Sudden Cardiac Arrest unexpectedly fell. This decline was attributed to reduced emphasis on CPR, and there is growing evidence to support this view.”2 [Emphasis added.] The new 2010 Guidelines make it very clear that what saves lives is the combination of CPR with the use of an AED, that the most important part of CPR is chest compressions, and that chest compressions need to be at least 2 inches deep. In short: Push harder. Automated External Defibrillator Compliance But what about AED compliance? Will AEDs have to be modified to comply with the latest 2010 Guidelines? Philips announced in November 2010 that its AEDs are al- ready compliant without any changes to what it offers currently. Its Advanced Life Support (ALS) defibrillator — the MRx used by medical professionals — will, Philips indicates on its website, need some minor modifications to become compliant. All of Zoll’s defibrillators — the E Series® and R Series® for Advanced Life Support professionals and the AED Pro® and AED Plus® for EMTs and lay rescuers — also will need to be modified to comply fully with the 2010 Guidelines. These defibrillators need modification because they can detect chest compression depth. Unlike other AEDs, these defibrillators let users see the quality of their CPR by indicating visually, in real time on the display screen, the depth of every compression and by audio prompting for adjusting the rate and depth of their chest compressions. (Actually, rescuers using one of these defibrillators can today adjust their compression depth to be more than 2 inches, and therefore be 2010 compliant, merely by watching the compression depth gauge present on the display screen.) Clearly, compared to what occurred in 2005, the changes for 2010 are rather slight, although the move to compressions that at least 2 inches deep is radical — particularly if you happen to be the rescuer called on to perform them. Less clear is whether other AED manufacturers will follow Philips’ lead or not by announcing that what they offer today is already compliant. It seems likely most will, since they do not provide real-time feedback on the depth of compressions. Some other AEDs, though they cannot detect chest compression depth, do provide rhythmic audio prompting to help Your employees should be able to save a colleague’s life. Easy-to-use for rescuers of all skill levels Give your workforce the ability to respond quickly to someone in distress. Last year, more than 425,000 people in the U.S. died of Sudden Cardiac Arrest, with time being the victim’s greatest enemy. Prepare your facilities and staff with HeartSine’s unique enterprise solution. For more information call 1-866-478-7463, ext. 112. More compact than other deﬁbrillators Tough enough for challenging environments Circle 19 on card. www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_024_026_constantine_v3.indd 25 25 12/14/10 12:36 PM DEFIBRILLATORS & CPR Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized. rescuers with their rate of chest compressions. For depth, however, they provide only a prompt that notes how deep to push. These prompts may need to be modified very slightly. The 2010 changes will change things somewhat, particularly in the area of training (where the rules for clearing the airway and checking breathing have been simplified and rearranged). The 2010 Guidelines will not, however, rock the world of AEDs. Most of those in place today will need no modification to comply. Those that do require modification will undergo changes that focus on chest compression depth. Moreover, the modification process can, for most manufacturers, be accomplished in a few minutes using a PC or memory card at the user’s site. Naturally, users who are concerned about the accuracy and effectiveness of their training and their equipment will want to comply as fully as possible and as soon as possible. However, no one should expect an immediate transformation. Manufacturers may need several months to introduce changed products. Based on the experience of 2005, in many cases upgrades will be easily applied to AEDs purchased prior to the recent changes. Those who already have AEDs in place should visit their manufacturer’s website. The American Heart Association itself has announced that training materials required for compliant training will not be available until the April-June 2011 timeframe. In the meantime, its website cautions there is nothing “wrong” about following the previous 2005 Guidelines: “The recommendations in the 2010 AHA Guidelines for CPR & ECC confirm the safety and effectiveness of many existing approaches, acknowledge that some may not be optimal, and introduce new treatments that have undergone intensive evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier Guidelines is either unsafe or ineffective. . . . People should continue to perform CPR just as they were last trained and follow the prompts of the AED that they are using.” No one should hesitate to establish or extend an AED Program because newly issued Guidelines may not yet have been incorporated. No one should postpone training in CPR and Emergency Cardiac Care until the very latest version is available from the AHA. A victim of cardiac arrest needs the same defibrillating shock today that was needed yesterday. Acquiring the ability to deliver that shock, and to perform the best possible CPR, is much less dangerous than waiting for the “perfection” provided by the new 2010 Guidelines. Note: For more information about the AHA’s 2010 Guidelines, visit its website at www.heart.org and select the link for Learn more about the new CPR guidelines. Hank Constantine is Director of Marketing for AEDs at ZOLL Medical Corporation. He can be reached at [email protected] REFERENCES 1. 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for CPR and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010;122;S643. 2. Ibid. S706. When performance matters, insist on the diamond. For maximum conﬁdence, be sure the products you rely on carry the Dyneema® diamond. There is a difference among high-performance materials. That is why it is always worth making sure you are using genuine Dyneema®—“the world’s strongest ﬁber™”. The Dyneema® trademark and “diamond logo” may only be used under license by authorized companies who have demonstrated a commitment to quality and excellence in creating innovative products using our lightweight, ultra-strong UHMWPE material. These partners represent the top names in their industries — from safety gloves to orthopedic devices — lifting ropes to ballistic vests. To learn more about the many places you’ll ﬁnd Dyneema®, visit www.dyneema.com With you when it matters Circle 17 on card. 26 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_024_026_constantine_v3.indd 26 www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:36 PM DEFIBRILLATORS & CPR Survivor Spreads the Word on AEDs BY JERRY LAWS B eing saved with an AED is a life-changing experience. No surprise, the survivors typically become the devices’ most fervent evangelists. Gerald Elliott, who retired as a detective in May 2010 with the Durham Police Department, was saved with an AED in the early evening of Aug. 15, 2009, as he directed gametime traffic outside the Durham Bulls’ downtown stadium. Elliott, 43 years old and off duty at the time, was very fortunate. “All of a sudden, everything just went bright white, like somebody turned a spotlight on right in my face. That’s the last thing I can remember. At that point, I fell just like a tree being cut down.” A Bulls worker who saw Elliott falling dived and cradled his head before it struck the pavement. When Elliott hit the ground, the impact knocked his gun from his holster and his police radio popped off his belt. The worker grabbed them and then turned Elliott over. “He noticed that I already had turned blue,” Elliott recalled. “My skin had turned bluish-gray and my eyes were wide open, fixed. He said my lips had turned dark blue, and that scared him to death. He grabbed my police radio and got on it, said ‘I need help.’” EMTs on duty at the park initially went to another part of the stadium in response to the call, but soon they reached Elliott’s side and used an AED to revive him. He said he’s been told that about six minutes elapsed between his collapse and the AED shocks that restored his heart’s rhythm. Three weeks earlier, he had undergone his third back surgery. When he was hooked up to a heart monitor that day, an anesthesiologist advised him he had a slight heart murmur and suggested he have it checked by a physician. He can laugh about it now. “Well, I had it checked out,” he said. Elliott said he has had no health issues since the August 2009 incident. Story Inspires Other Officers Officers in the Durham PD receive in-service training annually on cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and their training has included AED operation for the past three years, said Elliott. “The instructor told us these are idiot-proof, you just listen to the instructions and look at the pictures and follow what they say,” he said. “Good thing, too.” Almost one year to the day after his own event, Elwww.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_027_gelliott_v4.indd 27 liott himself used an AED to help someone who had collapsed at another Bulls baseball game. “We started CPR on the guy, and we yelled for the EMT to bring the defibrillator down. And we got that guy’s heart started. Unfortunately, he didn’t make it, but he had had several open heart surgeries and had a pacemaker installed.” Malls throughout the Durham area have installed AEDs, and both security personnel and store employees in the malls have been trained, he said. He now checks routinely when he’s visiting a building to see whether AEDs are present on site. “There are a lot more places that need them, I know that for sure,” he said. Because of his event, the department required Elliott to retire in May 2010. But his story has been recounted many times to the department’s officers — it has about 500 sworn officers — and has turned them into believers, he said. Sgt. Dale Gunter of the Durham PD said the department currently has 16 AEDs in service — two in each supervisor’s car and two in the department’s training division. The funding for them, roughly $25,000, came from asset forfeiture. “There’s a little poetic justice in there — blood money that was used to kill people originally is now used to save people,” Gunter said. “Eventually, we would love to put one in every vehicle,” he added, saying that would mean placing an AED in each of about 60 patrol cars. “Doing that would increase our response to cardiac arrest or any emergency call exponentially,” Gunter said. It’s a question of money during an era of tight budgets. “If you can save one life,” said Gunter, “the thing has paid for itself.” Planning for the Future Elliott, now 45, retired after 23 years of service. He said he had worked previously for the Durham County Sheriff ’s Office and hopes to rejoin it. He also hopes to see automated external defibrillators much more widely deployed. “I’ve told my wife that if I ever won the lottery, honest to goodness, one of the things I’d do if I ever won a bunch of money was to make sure these things were everywhere — in schools, churches, all over the place,” he said. “I think that would be an awesome project to undertake.” Jerry Laws is editor of Occupational Health & Safety. JANUARY 2011 | Occupational Health & Safety 27 12/14/10 12:36 PM COMBUSTIBLE DUST Better Identification of Fire Hazards Needed Stakeholders seeking control measures to minimize the probability and severity of these incidents should work more closely with the fire service. BY JOHN ASTAD 28 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_028_031_astad_v3.indd 28 C ombustible dust-related fires occur with alarming regularity throughout the manufacturing, non-manufacturing, and utility sectors. In 2008 following the tragic Imperial Sugar Refinery dust explosion, the Combustible Dust Policy Institute discovered through researching media accounts that more than 80 percent of combustible dust incidents were fires. The majority of these fire incidents sustained minor property damage with no fatalities and minimal injuries. www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:37 PM COMBUSTIBLE DUST Normalization of Deviation A troubling situation arises when nothing catastrophic follows recurring combustible dust-related fires. Illuminating histories of catastrophic dust explosions investigated by the U.S. Chemical Safety Board (CSB) during the past eight years indicated that, prior to deadly dust explosions, facilities experienced numerous nonthreatening combustible dust-related fires. Fire service professionals, facility owners, occupational safety managers, and workers misinterpret that the manufacturing process is safe following a minor combustible dust-related fire, especially when, in most instances, the small fire is suppressed by the workforce with fire extinguishers and a fire department response is not required. This is a false interpretation that all is okay following these nonconsequential fires. The notion that through random luck a catastrophic dust explosion hasn’t happened yet further reinforces this false interpretation. This train of thought is referred to as “normalization of deviation,” such as in the repeatable combustible dustrelated fires that seem a normal part of the process. National Fire Incident Reporting System On a much larger scale, the problem is not being thoroughly recognized at the national, state, and local fire service organizational levels. In contrast, fire department personnel are the first to respond to combustible dust-related fires. When fire department personnel return to the local fire station following response to fires, they voluntarily report the incidents either manually or electronically to the State Incident Reporting Authority, which in many cases is the state fire marshal, utilizing the automated National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS 5.0). The State Reporting Authority then forwards the incident data to the National Fire Data Center administered by USFA, the U.S. Fire Administration. A problem arises in this national reporting system where there are no data elements specifically identifying manufacturing process equipment involved in ignition of combustible dust. If process condition fire hazards can’t be identified, then how can they be controlled through administrative and best engineering practices? An endless, frustrating cycle continues and, as time goes by, the fire department returns to suppress yet another repeatable, dustrelated fire where there are no injuries and minimal or no property damage in most instances. Now, there is normalization of deviation among all stakeholders concerning the lack of comprehensive combustible dust fire prevention and control measures. But let’s not forget that all big fires or catastrophic dust explosions started out as small fires. Circle 18 on card. www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_028_031_astad_v3.indd 29 JANUARY 2011 | Occupational Health & Safety 29 12/14/10 12:37 PM COMBUSTIBLE DUST Confined Structure Fires Many combustible dust incidents are similar to confined structure fires such as in a flue, commercial compactor, incinerator overload/malfunction, contained trash, cooking, and fuel burner/boiler fires. Confined structure fires are fires in noncombustible containers that rarely result in serious injury and have no property losses due to flame damage, which is illustrated in the loss/1,000 confined fires according to NFIRS data.. In 2009, NFPA Fire Analysis and Research compiled data from the NFIRS 5.0 database in addition to NFPA fire surveys and reported in “Structure Fires in Industrial and Manufacturing Properties” that 23 percent of equipment involved in ignition (EII) were confined structure fires. Prior to enhanced reporting measures of NFIRS 5.0, many confined structure fires were considered smoke scares by the fire service and not reported or were underreported. Manufacturing process equipment such as pneumatic ductwork and dust collectors also are non-combustible containers. The NFIRS 5.0 system of USFA does not include many types of manufacturing equipment involved in ignition (EII) of combustible dust-related fires. One has to wonder whether incidents such as in the above process equipment are also considered smoke scares by local fire departments. Equipment Involved In Ignition The helpful NPFA report on fires at manufacturing facilities also identified that 23 percent, or $107 million, of direct property damage occurred at industrial and manufacturing facilities where the equipment involved in ignition (EII) was unclassified. This fact reaffirms that if equipment involved in ignition isn’t identified (unclassified) in incident reports, then corrective control measures cannot be appropriately implemented. Manufacturing fires are under the heading of nonresidential fires, which also includes storage in structures, public assembly, stores, offices, educational, and institutional facilities. USFA NFIRS structure fire data for 2003-2006 indicated manufacturing fires accounted for: ■ 1.4 percent of structure fires ■ 0.2 percent of structure fatalities ■ 1.7 percent of structure fire injuries 30 ■ 4.2 percent of direct property loss of structures While it is good news that the fatality and injury count is minimal following manufacturing fires, it should not deviate from continued proactive fire prevention and control measures so as to prevent future catastrophic events. Reinforcing the idea that combustible dust-related fires are a subset of all fires and not a separate entity that has entirely different heat sources than the ignition of flammable gases, liquids, and vapors is absolutely essential. Most importantly, the only difference between these flammable products and combustible dust is vast differences in ignition sensitivity, such as minimum ignition energy (MIE) and flashpoint/minimum ignition temperature. The CSB Dust Hazard Study In 2006, CSB released its “Combustible Dust Hazard Study” findings and proposed recommendations to OSHA, manufacturing sector stakeholders, and the public. This report was the direct result of the three catastrophic combustible dust explosions that occurred in 2003 in which CSB was the lead federal investigation team seeking root causes. The board noted in the report: “… no federal or state agency keeps specific statistics on combustible dust incidents, nor does any single data source provide a comprehensive collection of all these incidents.” Process Fire Descriptors NFIRS 5.0 reporting includes manufacturing fires that are classified as nonresidential structures. Combustible dustrelated fires in manufacturing facilities would not be excluded from a NFIRS incident report. Quality of fire incident data is continually improved through input of state fire marshals via the National Fire Information Council (NFIC). A brief review of the “NFIRS 5.0 Complete Reference Guide” Fire Module provides excellent fire descriptors concerning heat source and factors contributing to ignition in regard to all fires, including combustible dustrelated fires. The list in Table 1 organizes the numerous fire descriptors from the Fire Module into three main sections. This offers insight into identifying combustible dust ignition hazards concerning process materials, process conditions (equipment), and process situations (ignition factors). TABLE 1 Process Materials C-1 On-Site Material or Product Codes (food, wood, paper, fibers, etc) D-3 Item First Ignited Codes (dust, fiber, lint, including sawdust, excelsior) D-4 Type of Material First Ignited Codes (wood, paper, textiles, plastic, etc) Process Conditions (equipment) D-1 Area of Fire Origin Codes (processing/manufacturing area, assembly area) E-2 Factors Contributing to Ignition Codes (mech, elec. failure, operational, etc) E-3 Human Factors Contributing to Ignition Codes (asleep, unattended person) F-1 Equipment Involved in Ignition Codes (shop tools & industrial equip.) Process Situations (ignition factors) D-2 Heat Source Codes (powered equipment, hot/smoldering object, etc) E-1 Cause of Ignition Codes (unintentional, failure of equip or heat source) Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_028_031_astad_v3.indd 30 Readers of the study might be confused by the above statement, especially because the USFA National Fire Data Center collects specific statistics on all fires through NFIRS 5.0. Leading causes of manufacturing fires include equipment misoperation and failure. This reporting system was initiated in 1976 when six states piloted an incident reporting system that is now referred to as NFIRS. www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:37 PM COMBUSTIBLE DUST The NFPA 901 Standard NFPA has done a superb job for many decades with dedicated technical committees diligently drafting combustible dust industry standards that provide workplace protection with fire/explosion mitigation and prevention measures. One standard of which many stakeholders might not be aware is NFPA 901 Standard Classifications for Incident Reporting and Fire Protection Data. This standard provides USFA, state fire marshals, and fire departments with numerous fire descriptor and data elements utilized in NFIRS. The primary importance of NFPA 901 is that it assists in identifying fire/explosion hazards through incident-reporting methodology. The NFPA technical committee on incident reporting that incorporates fire data descriptors was formed in 1963, more than a decade prior to formal NFIRS reporting. In contrast, the NFPA combustible dust standards are specific to control measures. A problem arises in identifying combustible dust hazards because NFPA 901 does not provide a specific data element on item first ignited of combustible particulate solids such as combustible dust. Instead, NFIRS utilizes the general fire descriptor data elements of dusts, fiber, lint, sawdust, and excelsior. The problem is exacerbated when NFIRS 5.0 does not require entering the data element of type of item ignited when the above, item first ignited such as dust, is submitted in the NFIRS reporting form. Yet it is extremely important to identify the type of combustible dust, whether it is wood, chemical, plastic, paper, metal, food, etc., especially when all of these combustible dusts possess varying fire and explosion properties. How does one evaluate and control the hazard if identifying the type of combustible dust has been omitted? Conclusion A vision for the future is for all stakeholders who seek control measures to minimize the probability and reduce the severity of combustible dust incidents to work more closely with the fire service. Begin by inviting the local fire department to conduct a pre-fire inspection of your manufacturing process that notes the process material, conditions, and situations. Initially, the combustible dust problem is a local fire prevention and control issue of maintaining life safety. It is secondarily an occupational safety issue. Good housekeeping will remove the fuel load for a catastrophic dust incident from secondary explosions. However, combustible dustrelated fires and primary explosions will continue because of the inherent nature of the manufacturing process with materials, operating equipment, and ignition sources omnipresent. Only the probability and severity can be continually minimized. A good start in the hazard analysis is identifying the hazard. NFIRS 5.0 provides an excellent resource in this area. It will take much needed input from all stakeholders for improvements in combustible dust-related fire incident reporting, and perhaps this article will provide a basic roadmap. John Astad is Director and Research Analyst of the Combustible Dust Policy Institute of Santa Fe, Texas. To contact him, visit www. combustibledust.com. 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SMART TOOLS FOR REAL TRAINING CALL US AT 1-888-4BULLEX • VIEW DEMO VIDEOS ONLINE AT WWW.BULLEXSAFETY.COM www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_028_031_astad_v3.indd 31 Circle 14 on card. 31 12/14/10 12:37 PM CONSTRUCTION SAFETY Noise Control: How to Plan for OSHA’s New Interpretation Designing to achieve the desired reduction in noise without excessive capital cost and negative operational impact is often a delicate balance. BY MIKE TAUBITZ O SHA is making noise about noise and industrial employers need to be thinking about how they might retrofit plants as a result. Industry has had nearly three decades of relative peace and quiet with its noise control programs. Since 1983, OSHA has typically not cited employers who deployed personal protective equipment and a hearing conservation program to address noise, rather than using engineering and administrative controls. The exceptions were for noise so loud that it borders on 100 dBA when the most effective hearing protection is used or in cases where the controls cost less than an effective hearing conservation program. In practice, controls are usually more expensive, so citations for failure to use them have been rare. However, that could change. Employers in construction and general industry are likely to have a new category of expenses — and potential OSHA citations — to worry about if the agency’s “proposed interpretation” on noise regulations goes into effect. That’s because OSHA now proposes to interpret 29 CFR 1910.95(b)(1) and 1926.52(b) as written. These sections of the two noise standards are almost identical. They say, “When employees are subjected to sound exceeding those listed [in tables within the standard], feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of the tables, personal protective equipment . . . shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table.” The agency said administrative or engineering controls would be considered economically feasible “if they will not threaten the employer’s ability to remain in business or if the threat to viability results from the employer’s having failed to keep up with industry safety and health standards.” Lessons from the Past Old-timers who started their careers in the ‘70s will remember that OSHA and state agencies were particularly aggressive on noise control. Noise was a new challenge for industry with few easy solutions. Industries such as automotive that frequently used 32 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_032_035_taubitz_v3.indd 32 www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:39 PM SMART SOLUTIONS FOR FALL PROTECTION • ALL-IN-ONE DESIGN Retractable with 7.5-ft. (2.3 m) working capacity and anchorage connector • MEETS ANSI Z359.1 The only self-retractable designed to tie-back anywhere along the lifeline that meets the Standard Featuring Fea ea atur t ing th turing the he Miller Mil ler e 5K K® Sn Snap ap a p Hook Ho Hoo ook GET CONNECTED: CIRCLE 5 ON CARD If you have a smartphone, scan this QR code to get connected to learn more about Miller Turbo T-BAK Tie-Back PFL. CONSTRUCTION SAFETY new machines and processes due to ongoing model changes had the opportunity to apply the hierarchy of controls on new machines. This opportunity often afforded feasible and significant improvements. When companies had engineers include requirements for noise reduction in bid specifications, it opened the door to get the “biggest bang for the buck.” Notice the term “noise reduction” and compare it with “noise control.” Reduction includes elimination or substitution, which is typically feasible only in the concept and design stages of procurement. If the opportunity to try new tooling or processes is missed, all work done after the order is placed becomes extra cost and retrofit. For many, the integration of noise along with other hazard eliminations and controls in the design and procurement process was the seed for the ideas of safety through design that began in the 1980s and continued in the ‘90s. These concepts are consistent with the current NIOSH PtD, Prevention through Design, effort. Design Tips for Dealing with Noise During concept and design, engineers, working with the supplier, should first focus on the concepts of elimination and substitution. Typically, however, there is residual unwanted sound, and noise enclosures can be added where necessary as part of the integrated design. Some tips: ■ Where feasible, such enclosures might only cover the noise source, thus allowing access to other parts of the machine for planned — or unplanned — maintenance. ■ Full machine enclosures require more floor space and other considerations, such as: If the opportunity to try new tooling or processes is missed, all work done after the order is placed becomes extra cost and retrofit. - Access by employees for tool change, troubleshooting, and maintenance - Lighting for employees to see the machine - Ventilation for air contaminants - Finding suitable materials for noise abatement that did not pose a fire hazard or maintenance problem due to materials’ absorbing air contaminates, such as oil mist Designing to achieve the desired reduction in noise without excessive capital cost 2011 WORLD OF CONCRETE HIGHLIGHTS The educational program for World of Concrete 2011 this month at the Las Vegas Convention Center features sessions on trenching and excavation, preoperations planning for risk management, responsibility for safety on the job site, and scaffold users’ safety awareness, as well as leadership and motivation strategies. World of Concrete is one of the world’s largest construction conferences, held annually inside and outside the convention center, with hundreds of exhibitors showcasing their products. More than 80,000 attendees have come to the show in previous years. Many of the safety exhibitors at this year’s Jan. 17-21 conference (visit http://twitter.com/worldofconcrete for information) will be displaying fall protection PPE and equipment, including harnesses, lifelines, anchorages, scaffolding, hoists, work cages, and barriers. Others will offer eyewear, gloves, hard hats, high-visibility and cooling apparel, hearing protection, and respirators. One exhibitor offers in-vehicle safety cameras to help drivers avoid collisions and backing accidents. Conference organizers say World of Concrete is the most comprehensive commercial concrete and masonry event offered. Its agenda includes industryspecific certifications and exams, interactive demonstrations and competitions, the sixth annual Women in Concrete Luncheon & Forum on Jan. 19, and a Greensite section in the Central Hall highlighting green products. 34 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_032_035_taubitz_v3.indd 34 and negative operational impact is often a delicate balance. Let us assume that the cost of an enclosure and the needed floor space meet the test of feasibility. However, the enclosure must also allow work to be done. The more frequently employees must go inside the enclosure, the bigger the challenge. If employees view opening and closing the access doors as interfering with their work, it may be a battle to have the doors adequately closed and secured each time the task is concluded. As with all mechanical devices, the door or access point may get out of adjustment and not allow fast and easy securing after a number of years. Remember that any little crack will allow the noise energy to escape. It’s easy to talk about maintenance, but noise enclosures require special consideration for making sure sound does not escape. The Challenges of Retrofitting Though challenging, applying the hierarchy of controls for new processes to new machines is a cakewalk compared to tackling existing machinery and equipment. Some of the additional challenges and constraints include: ■ The opportunity of elimination or substitution is no longer an option. ■ The footprint of space allocated for a machine or process did not consider the space necessary to add an enclosure. ■ All of the problems discussed above are magnified when dealing with existing machinery. ■ Costs of retrofitting are often much higher than if included in design. ■ The efficiency of the control may not be as good as when “designed in.” Noise Measurement: Compounding the Problem First, noise is waste energy and travels in any direction. Decibels are a logarithmic measurement with equipment that requires careful calibration. For those not familiar with noise measurement, it is easy to misjudge the effort it takes to make small improvements. A 3 dbA (decibels using A scale) reduction is a 50 percent decrease in sound power. That is a huge improvement with little to show in the way of measurement. Establishing the eight-hour TWA (time-weighted average) for an employee is www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:39 PM CONSTRUCTION SAFETY It’s easy to talk about maintenance, but noise enclosures require special consideration for making sure sound does not escape. made simpler with today’s dosimetry technology, but identification of the noise source(s) may not be so easy. Multiply how sound levels “add” due to multiple noise sources, and the problem begins to compound. The sound power (noise) affecting an employee may be coming from many different sources. Using accurate measurement is key to prioritizing and developing feasible controls. Recommendations for Industry Make sure that you have an accurate “map” of all areas. - The map should identify sound level exposures of employees. - Whether integrated or a separate map, the sound power of major noise sources also must be identified. ■ Ensure your hearing conservation program is in full compliance, including training, audiometric testing, identification of high noise areas, PPE, etc. ■ Identify jobs where administrative controls can be used (e.g., rotating employee assignments to lessen the time spent doing work in a high-noise area). ■ Get engineers and operations personnel to identify potential ■ machines where engineering controls might be applied and assess: - Technical requirements for noise reduction - Cost - Operational impact - Floor space - Ease of use by employees - Maintenance issues - Expected life cycle - Return on investment and cost benefit analysis - Feasibility using OSHA’s proposed new guidelines The recommendations described above require significant time and effort. If and when OSHA comes knocking on your door, it is better to have a good offense and be prepared with answers to their questions. If you are cited, you will be on the defensive and facing a very complex — and costly — challenge. Costly even if you were to prevail with your analysis. The time to start is now. Mike Taubitz is senior advisor at FDRsafety, www.fdrsafety.com. He was formerly Global Director of Safety for General Motors. He may be contacted at 810-542-0885 or [email protected] FDRsafety provides noise control assistance, OSHA compliance services, temporary safety staffing, safety awareness training, and expert witness services. Safety Made Simple Make Lab Safety Supply Your One Answer for Safety Products and Expert Technical Support ® HUGE PRODUCT SELECTION FREE TECHNICAL SUPPORT SIGNATURE SERVICE 120,000+ products backed by our ultimate guarantee Call our team of safety experts at 1-800-356-2501 Featuring NEW 24/7 ordering by phone Get Your FREE 2100+ Page Catalog Today! 1-800-356-0783 www.LSS.com Circle 23 on card. www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_032_035_taubitz_v3.indd 35 JANUARY 2011 | Occupational Health & Safety 35 12/14/10 12:39 PM DISASTER PREPAREDNESS Building In-House Capability It’s time to look in the mirror and take stock. By just providing what the laws and regulations require, we are by default deciding we will do the least we can do. BY TOM LINDTVEIT “O ur employees are our most valuable asset.” How many times have you heard or read that statement? When it appears in the context of EHS or Safety programs in general, it usually is a prelude to an explanation about “the new program” and how it will help protect or ensure the safety of those valuable assets. The managers issuing the statement think, “Here is what we are doing for them,” and the employees are hearing “blah, blah, blah” and wondering when they can get back to work. It is part of the understanding between employer and employee that has gone unspoken since the Industrial Revolution began. The Employer needs to comply with certain regulations and requirements, and the Employee needs to comply with the work rules. Many times, each in his own way really cares about doing it right, but most times he is just trying to “get by” and make everybody (the regulators) happy. In the case of emergency medical care in the workplace, this scenario usually takes the form of the employer providing first aid kits, possibly an AED, and bringing in a first aid instructor from some local agency and paying a few employees for the time they spend in the class. The Employer has satisfied the “requirement,” and the employee goes back into the workplace with one of three possible mindsets: 1) “Well, I am now ready for anything that can happen (unless there is a lot of blood)”; 2) “Gee, if somebody really gets hurt, I sure hope I’m out that day because I don’t know if I can do this stuff ”; or 3) “Well, that was an easy eight hours. Nobody gets hurt here, and it’s a good thing because I really didn’t get much out of this class besides the nap.” If you are reading this and nodding your head, then obviously you “get it.” If you disagree, then ask yourself these questions: Does our first aid/CPR training take into account the hazards we have in our facility? Are our “first aiders” trained to mitigate a hazard to an employee and keep him alive until professional responders arrive? If you answered yes to both questions, then try this: Do you know for a fact how long 36 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_036_037_lindtveit_v4.indd 36 it will take for an Advanced Life Support (ALS) ambulance to arrive on scene? If your answer is six minutes or more, then you have some work to do. In six minutes, brain death begins to occur in the cardiac arrest patient, and the chance of successful resuscitation starts to fall precipitously. Right now, take a look at your closest co-worker at the desk or machine next to you and decide whether you’re willing to watch him or her die because you didn’t want to put the effort into a real response system for your company. Harsh words? Yes, truly they are, and they may even appear to be alarmist. However, by just providing what the laws and regulations require, we are by default deciding we will do the least we can do. If you came through all of those questions, here is a final one: If I dropped right here at my workstation from an undetected condition, do I trust my coworkers to take care of me and keep me alive until a paramedic gets here? The Process of Change In the EHS field, we are quite familiar with the cost of safety or a lack thereof. We know the extended cost of an accident far exceeds the cost of the initial medical care. What we don’t often consider is the cost on productivity. It is known, but we don’t talk about it much and therefore don’t understand it as well as we should. If you’ve had a bad accident at your workplace, then you know that pretty much everybody stops working. They want to know who got hurt, how they got hurt, why they got hurt, who is taking care of them, are they going to the hospital, and the biggest question: Are they going to be “OK”? If it turns out the injury was severe and the person does not return to work the following day, the questions and conversations continue. If it turns out that the incident became a fatality, there is further time lost in all of the planning and support required for the family and co-workers. Of course all employers are sensitive to the needs of their employees during times of serious distress caused by the loss of a co-worker, and they would be foolish indeed to ignore them. Nonetheless, one has to ask, as callous as it may seem, whether anything can be done to minimize these hidden costs. The truth is that proper planning and training not only can provide better care for a group of employees, but also can put their minds at ease that everything that could have been done for a co-worker was in fact done and done www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:39 PM DISASTER PREPAREDNESS well. This provides confidence and peace of mind that the company is doing the right thing by making sure it is prepared to handle whatever may come up. There is no second guessing or finger pointing and minimal discussion of lawsuits, we hope. It sounds good, right — but you are probably thinking this is going to be tough. It won’t be easy, but you can break the task into manageable stages because each one will probably take some period of time to accomplish or institute. Step 1: Change the culture. The average EHS Manager right now would be thinking, “This all sounds good, but we really need to consider how much care and training we want to provide because we might get sued.” This is where most companies drop the ball; they fool themselves into thinking they might wind up in court because they tried too hard. The facts are just the opposite. Any employee who is trained in first aid, CPR, or any other level of medical care is considered a Good Samaritan under the law and is held harmless under the law, provided they do not administer care in which they are not trained. There is no available evidence of a successful lawsuit against a Good Samaritan who stayed within his or her training guidelines. On the other hand there are many cases of successful lawsuits against employers for not having the proper care available in situations where the possible hazards were known to the employer. So let’s agree right here that we have debunked the issue of “trying to do too much.” If you are in a more substantial corporation, there are probably some legal eagles available whose job it is to protect the company and its employees from legal actions. If you ask them about putting in a more aggressive plan, just make sure you ask them the right questions. If you ask about liability with a more aggressive plan, they will probably take the easy way out and advise that you keep things as they are. But if you ask about the case history on companies getting sued for providing an insufficient or inadequate response, you should get some very different answers. If your lawyers still say “no go,” challenge them to back up their opinion. In the end you will change the flow in your favor; just be persistent. www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_036_037_lindtveit_v4.indd 37 Step 2: Get some education. So now you are thinking, “OK, so we won’t get sued, but how do I make this happen?” In fact, it’s not easy. Our system is set up to let everyone “get by.” If you really want to make a difference and raise your response to a workable level, you have to do some work. First, realize that most EHS folks don’t have medical response training. Think about this: The overwhelming majority of first aid and emergency medical programs are created and overseen by people who have no medical training beyond basic first aid (sometimes not even that). Would your company have your Engineering Department managed by someone who had taken a drafting course in high school? Why then are we having minimally or even untrained people setting up our medical response programs? If you are The Safety Dude at your company, you need to fill in this gap and get some training. Don’t take the easy eighthour first aid class that is available locally; chances are it is designed just to meet the minimal regulations. (Avoid the classes that are designed for teachers and coaches to meet their minimum requirements because you’ll be right back in the same rut.) As a professional, you need to understand this stuff so that you can make good decisions. Do a little research and find a Certified First Responder (CFR) Course. Yes, it’s going to take about 50 hours out of your life, but you will hold the skills for a long time even if you don’t recertify when it expires. In the meantime, you will have gained an understanding of the human condition and how to deal with it. You will not regret the experience, regardless. If you really want to go all out, find an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) class and take that. Depending on your state, these run around 150 hours and can include ride time on an ambulance as well as clinical time in an emergency room. Now you are getting an idea of what your co-workers will be going through when your company calls 911. One other option is to find someone in your company who is already trained at these advanced levels. Look for firefighters, rescue squad personnel, or others who may have done that sort of work in the past. These folks can be a huge help to you and can provide information on how things work “out in the world” and what your local protocols and regulations might be. If you are lucky and have these people in your organization, remember to be kind to them. They have put a lot of time and effort into their certifications, as well as the ongoing time they put in to keep theirs skills up. If you lean on them for support, you might try to find a way to show your appreciation. Giving them a little paid time off to take classes, recertify, or attend an EMS convention would go a long way toward keeping their support. Step 3: Evaluate your program. Once you have some training and understand what can be easily provided to your co-workers, then you need to evaluate your current program. A team format with two to four members can work well here. Does your current program match the hazards present in your facility? Do you have special considerations that require special precautions, equipment, or training? When you took your class, you will have met and worked with the people who can help you work through these specific issues. If not, call your local emergency service agencies and tell them what your challenges are; they most likely will be very eager to help close the gaps and help you out. Keep in mind that the more your facility knows and is prepared for, the easier the professional responders’ job becomes. They are always anxious to build relationships that allow them to do their job more quickly and effectively. That’s their mission. They will be more helpful than you might guess. Evaluation is a key component to ensuring you have reviewed the hazards and considered how to deal with them. Keep documentation records of your evaluation. In the event of a serious event requiring an investigation, this documentation will show that you looked at all the reasonably foreseeable hazards and included them in your working program. Tom Lindtveit serves as a volunteer Firefighter and EMT and is currently in the position of Captain of an EMS Squad. He is a Pro-Board certified Fire Service Instructor II. Currently, he is employed as a Manufacturing Engineer for a large corporation where he also serves as an EMT when needed. Part 2 of this two-part article will be published in the February 2011 issue of OH&S. JANUARY 2011 | Occupational Health & Safety 37 12/14/10 12:39 PM PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT WWW.OHSONLINE.COM/MCV/PRODUCTS RUGGED EYEWEAR MSA’s Sightgard® protective eyewear line features multiple lens options, including anti-fog and anti-scratch coatings, UV-400 protection, polarization, and mirroring/tint. 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The cartridge is NIOSH-certified for organic vapor and acid gases, including carbon disulfide, chlorine, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. www.ohsonline.com/productinfo CIRCLE 202 ON CARD 38 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_038_039_ProdSpot_v4.indd 38 AUDIT SOFTWARE Sparta Systems’ TrackWise Audit Execution Package is geared to increase the efficiency of field audit execution and reduce error-prone manual steps. The program, powered by Adobe www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 7:59 PM PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT WWW.OHSONLINE.COM/MCV/PRODUCTS Flex-based technology, allows users to draft audit reports and templates/plans in real time in remote locations without Internet access. www.ohsonline.com/productinfo CIRCLE 205 ON CARD ABSORBENT CLOTHS FR WORK PANTS CIRCLE 206 ON CARD CIRCLE 207 ON CARD Kimberly-Clark Professional’s Wypall X90 Cloths are ideal for heavy wiping, prepping surfaces with solvents, and cleaning metal shavings and rough surfaces. 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Keller & Associates Inc. ww.jjkeller.com 8 12 WileyX Eyewear www.wileyx.com GROUP PUBLISHER | Kevin O’Grady 972-687-6731 [email protected] ■ WEST COAST, SOUTH, & CENTRAL DISTRICT SALES MANAGER | Barbara Blake 972-687-6718 [email protected] ■ MID-ATLANTIC DISTRICT SALES MANAGER | Rick Neigher 818-597-9029 [email protected] CLASSIFIED SALES | Stan Pruitt 972-687-6738 [email protected] ■ NORTHEAST & SOUTHEAST DISTRICT SALES MANAGER | Matt Hart 678-982-6764 [email protected] www.ohsonline.com 0111ohs_041_AdIndex_v5.indd 41 JANUARY 2011 | Occupational Health & Safety 41 12/15/10 12:03 PM BREAKTHROUGH STRATEGIES B Y RO B E R T PAT E R Enlist the Power of Setting Expectations In my experience, too many leaders have well-intended but murky ideas of improvement. can do to elevate safe decisions and actions? Select and use the best tools for efficiency and Safety? Recognize when adjustments are called for due to changes in environment/work/personal life, and then make effective modifications? Serve as a peer catalyst for Safety improvement? n times of threat and change, leaders can’t just adhere to the 3. For Everyone: Do they think of Safety and ergonomics in a status quo. Their effectiveness stems from their ability to use power to change the future. That is, helping everyone, from Ex- positive light? Are they receptive to Safety interventions helping to improve their work and personal lives, rather than ecutives to Workers, think differently, act safer, obstacles to efficiently doing necessary work, nor as prevent the “3 I’s” of incidents/injuries/illnesses, to a means to show them how “wrongly” they operate? work and live better today than yesterday. Think and plan ahead and cumulatively, recogBut these general goals aren’t enough; too much nizing that small actions changed can result in larger like wishes and too little like directions. When potential problems prevented? navigating to a never-visited location, you’ll need Once you’ve decided on highest-priority expectamore than “We have to move to a higher level,” “Try tions (ideally, in concert with those from top to botharder,” “Think before you act,” or “Make the best tom in your company), then how do you set these so decisions.” they spur actions? Certainly start with yourself (you Think of expectations as consistent words and can’t effectively create change for others if you can’t actions that propel movement toward the desired do this for yourself). Then: direction. Harvard University has done extensive Do workers willresearch on the power of expectations, revealing ■ Examine. What might be getting in the way that a leader’s view of others’ strengths, limitations, ingly embrace of transplanting positive expectations? What kinds and future actions tends to become self-fulfilling, what they personal- of disconnects/mixed messages do we still transmit? consistently shaping their performance — for betdo I elicit courageous feedback to doublecheck ly can do to elevate How ter or worse. Or, as one corporate Safety Director I’m not deluding myself? reflected, “Treat people like donkeys, and you’ll safe decisions and ■ Cleanse. Unearth and neutralize existing negfind they’ll just bray.” ative mindsets. This is definitely not a one-shot proactions? In my experience, too many leaders have wellcess, especially when people have long-term memointended but murky ideas of improvement and, as a result, their ries and experiences that fuel their skepticism. organizational staffers swim blind. In contrast, the clearer your ex■ Replant new and improved expectations. Remind others pectations of improvement, the easier it is to communicate these that the current situation is different now, both internally and due simply and understandably, the better for prompting discussions, to outside forces (explaining specific reasons why). Again, don’t surfacing and dealing with objections, and the faster for setting up expect to just communicate this once and assume this plant has accurate measurements of success. “rooted.” Highest-level leadership starts within; in this case, by specifical■ Show others the importance — to them — of their expectaly elucidating what you expect to happen to move toward global- tions and then specific skills for learning to control these. class Safety performance. Here are some expectations that point to ■ Reinforce positive expectations that are fulfilled by setting up improved Safety performance and culture. Of course, the following and applauding milestone accomplishments (“milestones” = leadexamples are neither exhaustive nor customized. Employ these as ing indicators). a starting point for clarifying your own situation-specific expectaOf course, setting and then communicating expectations tional sets: are just two steps up the Safety performance trail. Highest-level 1. For Executives/Managers: They’re seeing real Safety problems leaders don’t expect “personal responsibility” only from others; and obstacles in their company, rather than having an idealized or they first shore up their own expectations of themselves. So begin misguided view? Previous Liberty Mutual studies reveal executives within, looking at your own actions for what you can do differare out of sync when it comes to perceiving which injury sources ently to inspire and induce better performance in yourself and cost the most (e.g., execs rated same-level slips/trips/falls as the others. seventh-most-costly injury when, in fact, it was number two for that year). Robert Pater ([email protected]) is Managing Director, Stra2. For Workers: Do they willingly embrace what they personally tegic Safety Associates and MoveSMART®, www.movesmart.com. I 42 Occupational Health & Safety | JANUARY 2011 0111ohs_042_pater_v4.indd 42 www.ohsonline.com 12/14/10 12:40 PM 800.262.5755 www.pipusa.com CIRCLE 9 ON CARD The art and science of safety. Honeywell is bringing together the brands you trust for head-to-toe protection. Our commitment to innovation and safety, combined with our worldwide engineering and R&D resources, will transform the safety industry and deliver to you the best and most complete PPE solutions available anywhere in the world. Today, the safety industry has a new name — Honeywell. To learn more, visit us at ArtandScienceofSafety.com. CIRCLE 8 ON CARD © 2011 Honeywell International Inc. All rights reserved.
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