Document 181250

How forchstone develops the base knowledge
that enables speech
Kako Touchstone razvija temeljno znanje, ki
omogoda govorno zmoZnost
Janez Skela
Liubliana, 20. april 2010
How to "teach" speaking
studcnts always say that
they want more speaking, but I
don't know how to tcach lt.
apart from giving them lots of
usefulexpresslons."
"[,4y
"How much grammar
before they can have
\
R
I,
How to "teach" s peaking
,a
(
4
For a long time it was assumed that
the ability to speak fluently followed
naturally from the teaching of
grammar and vocabulary, with a bit of
pronunciation thrown in. We now
know that speaking is much more
complex than this and that it involves
both a command of certain skills and
several different types of knowledge.
Know fg a anguaqe and
be ng abe lo speak it are not
synonymous Yel. n ma.y
yeaE the leach ng ofloregn
anglages has cafied on as
f know n! and speak ng were
lhe samelh nO That s you
learn lhe grammar u nd you
leam some vocabu ary and
you make senlen.es you
pronounce proper y .nd hey.
;':if.-.
Research and common
sense
s
suggests thal lhere
ol more to speak nq than
G-,^;
lM-
"
'
2-
SPOKEN PRODUCTION
lcan use slmple phrases and
sentences to describe where
I live and people I know.
can present a clear, smoothlyfowing descrlplion or
arqument in a style
apprcpiate lo lhe context
and with an effective logical
structure which helps the
recipient to notice and
rcmember siq.if icant points.
c2
A1
DEVELOPING SPEAKING PROFICIENCY
AI
A2
Bt
82
Ct
c2
What's your opinion?
Therc is nothins wrons
wilh farc dodging on
a bus or train if you
can qet away wilh t.
SPEAKING
SPOKEN
INTERACT ON
A1
T'42 T'81 Y' 82 Y'C1 T' C2
can inle€clin a simple way
provided the oiher percon is
preparcd to €peat or
rephrase things ata slower
tate ofspeech and help me
formulate what l'm trying to
say. I can ask and answer
simple questions in arcas of
immediate ieed or on very
I
can use sirnple phrases and
sentences lo descrlbe where
I live and people I know.
A1
A1
SPOKEN INTERACTION
can ntemcl nasimpleway
provided ihe other person is
prepared io repeat or
rephrase things at a sower
rale ofspeech and help me
iormulate what l'm irying to
say. I can ask and answer
slmple quesUons in areas of
immediate need or on very
can take pad effoftlessly in any
conversation or discussion and
have a good lamiliarity with
idiomatic e)(pressions and
colloquialisrns. I can express
myself fluenily and convey finer
shades ofmeaning precisely. lf I
do have a problem I can
backilack and restruciure arcund
the difficulty so smoothly lhat
other people a.e hardly aware of
it.
A,I
c2
Task
What does it take to be able to speak in a
foreign language?
How have you developed/acq uired your
speaking proficiency?
How do you teach speaking?
The constraints on the student
Research based on hours of classroom
recordings, even recordings of socalled conversation classes, reveals
that the role of the student in
teacher-led classroom interaction is
generally that of responding.
classes as interrogation sessions
The constraints on the student
Since responding is one third of the typical threepart exchange, and since all students share this
one third between them, an average student in a
class of 30 will get half a minute's speaking time
in a 45-minute lesson. With 4 x 45 minule
lessons a week for 36 weeks a year, each
student will get one and a quarter hour's
talking time a year. This is in fact a generous
estimate, it does not allow for times in class
where the teacher is in 'lecture' mode, or when
students are reading, writing or listening.
The constraints on the student
tf 1 0 minutes of every lesson is used for pair
interaction (all pairs working
sim u ltaneously), this allows each learner
an extra 20 minutes'speaking a week or
1 2 hours per year, making a total of
around 13 hours. This at least is some
improvement.
Speaking: pair and groupwork
giving pupils sufficient oral practice:
some oral practice has to be done
simultaneously instead of
consecutively
What L2 speakers need to know:
the knowledge base that enables speech
knowledge base
intelliglb e
].
What L2 speakers need to know (1):
a core grammar
present and past simple 'to sequence narratives
the continuous and perfect aspect forms of verbs ' to
frame and background information in narratives
most frequently ocurring modal and semi-modal verbs
to formulaie questlons
some basic coniunctions (and, so, buf) 'to string
together sequences of clausal and non-clausal units
one or two all-purpose quoting expressions, of the he
said ... and then I said ...lype
What L2 speakers need to know (2):
a core vocabulary
' a core vocabulary of at least 1000 high-
frequency items
Native speakers employ over 2,500 words to cover
95% of their needs. A working knowledge of the
1 ,500 most frequent words in English would
stand a learner in good stead. Even the top 200
most common words will provide the learner with
a lot of conversational mileage.
8.
What L2 speakers need to know (3):
common discourse markers
discourse markers: by the way, while I
remember, that reminds me, before I
forget, as I was saying, talking of which
What L2 speakers need to know (4):
a core "phrasebook" of chunks
.
.
.
Sentence starters: Do you mind if I .. .?; Do you
think you could ...?: The lhing is. .. .: Would it be
OK if I . . .?: Do you happen to know . ..?
Social formulas and useful expressions: How
do you do?; Can I take a rnessage?, See you
later.; How do you spell that?; Just looking,
thanks.
Catchphrases and idiomatic phrases: Betfer
late than never.: lt's on the tip of my tongue.:
Long time no see.; The sooner the better.; Look
who's talking.
THE LEXICAL APPROACH
.
The second major development underlying a
lexical approach was the recognition of the
important role played by multi-word units or
chunks. Reseachers proposed that adult
language users have at their command a
repertoire of literally hundreds of thousands of
these memorised chunks.
ll seems that the mental lexicon is not so much a
dictionary as a phrase book.
THE LEXICAL APPROACH
We store a huqe assortment of memorised words,
phrases and- collocations. along with their
associated "grammar". ln order to maintain
conversational fluency, we select from this vast
phrase book the chunks we need, and then finelune for grammar.
Thus, to make a requesl, we might select the
chunk D'you think you could ... and tack on to it
another chunk ? turn the volume down? - while
at the same time making any appropriate
grammatical adjustments to ensure the lwo
chunks stick together neatly.
10.
rornenrber box
Touchstone and
the lexical approach
WORD CHUNKS:
.
.
idioms, catchphrases, sayings
sentence frames
.
discourse markers
GAMBITS
or conversational routines
A word or phrase in conversation which
signals the function of the speakefs next
turn in the conversation. They may be
used to show whether the speaker's
contribution adds new information,
develops something said by a previous
speaker, expresses an opinion.
agreement, etc.
11.
GAMBITS
Checking Gambits
. Are you with me?
.
.
.
.
.
Are you still with
me?
ls that clear?
OK so far?
Have you got it?
Do you understand
so far?
MAK Nc
r
ri. iu brrjre/ rr.:l'!
ts! o thi,er
11r,r
.
.
.
ln other words,
lf I understand you
correctly,
So you mean that ...
coNracr{Johe(hai up tine,
! 1r,ri., !r.riunr ndrr t.rny.!;
r!!r: ii ! rlilbr.:her l'r.rd ).niyo!)
ts14.i
Re-stating
. So what you're sayrng
is ...
. So what you're really
saying is ...
Noi: h:d ptrilr s
t
Y.rh
rlri.r
ir r fo! rn!n
hi,'\t:r'jtorrn:re)
5:.atrdr.
.r r
r. y.L r. nre.t
.!'nierei iq 1'rr:!.Lld.
.r'n 1rh.r.i
r
l'.nl r.nurL
:owtrierr riq5
'Framework of the
|
nr.
c!!lq
rl,rdtr)
rliqor
ieei
: b.r qhrrr.
1L.
1
.,
What L2 speakers need to know (5):
performing common speech acts
There is a good case for the explicit
teaching of these forms. Apart from
anything, they are typically realized in
short, memorable formulas, and therefore
can be learned and stored as extended
lexical items, much in the way tourists use
phrasebooks to get by with.
11
What L2 speakers need to know (6):
context factors
Learners will also need lo know how to adapt
these speech-act formulas for different situalions,
according to such context variables as the status
of the person they are talking to. Exposure to
different registers of speech should be sufficient
to sensitize learners to this area.
Role-plays are probably one of the best ways of
practicing different constellations of register
va ria bles.
Speaking in Relation to the Other
Language Skills
All the language skills are expressions of the
same language system, and as such they are
all interrelated. Therefore, practice in one
should lead to higher levels of competence
and increased communication potential in
each of the other three skills.
infelligible
(orfunctons)
speech acts
This is my mot
|lt[tnllftl
r.rrr
er:
ny ftienl
David.
Ni.e to meet vou.
raro
;;;;;;;;#
Good morninq, Mr / Mrs /
Tako nekoqa prednav 5
Miss
Good afrernoon, Sir/Miss.
.
Lo' a 6rdo
droqop,eo.'d!
Tako podravis odrasleqa
Tako pozdravil uaileljatut te jir:o.
Tako
vpraiai, kakoje nekdo
l'm OK,
ll'rin"'
.. t'unr'.
Im very well,
d"oodao.ors
Not bad,
15.
Sllins rox
arc borcd
(Actua ry ) it bo€s me slifi
.
looks/sounds/seems etcralher boring.
s dead
yhwiu ly/rncrediby er.
Can twork up much enthusiash ior
(
m arraid)
To be qu le
s
A
lrnd
I
d
ficlll
iran( lind
lo be
rathetve.y
!ery exciting/interestrng
spi€l aiiangement of
functions (speech acts)
'Snakes and ladders' syllabusl
functions & qrammatical items
r--v
16.
Box 18
Kusretl
Satveer:
Kusret:
Satveer:
Kusret:
Satveer:
Kusrei:
Satveerl
Kusret:
Satveer:
Hiya Satveer How are you doing?
0h, nottoo bad.
Your hair looks nice.
Thanksvery much. l'vejlst had it cut.
Lisien. Do you want to come for a drink?
l'm afraid lcan't.l've gottoo nr{rchworkto do.
You always saythat!
No I don't.
0h, goon. l'llhelpyo!whenwe getback.
0h alrightthen, justa q!ick one.
makirg an oifer
giving a compliment
makinganexcuse
responding to a compliment
denying
accepting
making a suggestion
insisting
greeting
complaining
responding io
O (lambridee Unive6iiyl\ess 2oo7
ref using and apologising
a
greeting
[email protected]
.=__.+€c'4|4
ij
Availabil ity for use: tm plications for teaching
Perldrminq memorized dialoques
I
d fficulty
Availability for use: implications for teaching
non-communicative
Colltrol
r
I
I
I
Crealivlty
Perto.minsmsmodzeddi.loqucs
Conrerluali3eddrillr
cued dialoques
Discomechains
nor' ouy.
lmprcvisations
11.
Availability for use: implications
teachi
ADVANCED
LEARNERS
Drilling and chants
Dialogues
Availability for use: implications for teaching
BEGINNERS
--''
-1
ADVANCED
LEARNERS
Presentations and talks
Stories, jokes, and anecdotes
Drama, role-play, and simulation
Discussions and debates
conversation and chat
Lo.
7
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t,,h.n"
rr:l,nrrd
:'
Matp d
rFdfdobe!o,eroun.r idt\ n9.
!
l
Dhma, role-play, and simulation
THE BURGLAR
-w"le,pl
A huiglo, I i, en rr
Yru re rightl There 5
q ho,se rn the t<itcheh
Lisien, Jrmi
.,,]
I
b
outthe scene above- Work in
t 5lup nah po tr Od qr.i qo.n
L1
DialogUES AND ORAL DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE
Oral discourse {nd tcxlbook dialogucs
I
John Helo
Tom
Joh n
how are you?
nr fine thanl' you How
l'm also fine thank you.
John She s very wel thank you.
How s yourwife?
She's also very well thank
Do... has this ever...
does this cause you
any any problems? I
mean do you get, do
you get a loi of
attention that you
don't want from the
media?
zL.
DIALOGUES
Dialogues as a model for real-life
interaction
Dialogues as a source of language
input (i.e. used as contexts in which to
present grammar and functional expressions)
Dialogue as language practice
(e.g. controlled, information-gap activities,
simulation and roleplay)
+'
2005
ll
7 Everyday Conversation
s
*1
2\.
With
a partner,
tatk :bout the .ollectiont ol rhete people.
5 soSol.em^oao ko se poAovarlal
C How
many namps has Math€w gor?
e
Fe3 got 700.
e
How many coins has he gori
He's got 50
300 matchboxes/30 pictLres
500 Kinde. Suprise Toys
/
400 poncards/20 marb es
Ask your partnerwhat he/5he colte.ts.
Vpraiaj toto .aAol! ko, talzb
g Whal do,ou cotlecr? 'a
i
g Io
C
e
e lloh' many have you gorr
led posrcardi and bufiorr
I collecr
I
donl
g
node/ .a6.
e Oh, that s a lot!/ Oh, tha|s a bq.o ecton!
col ect anythifq
I wo'. in pai6.P'actiserhe lollowinq didlogue
JD
'oqo.
e can
,e
lry thesel?a,i on)
-a OI.o!6e Over rheF
p!
Iinq
th" prru'6below.
po o poo d ,"
language
ln pairs, pracri5e naking suggeltions. You can oakeyourown sugg€st'on5.
trdv.l,.ah vad .rckinle D.edlo!ov Podaa ahlo LLrd 5voie predoge
Alr
qht
OK
<gF
\\t'r
'R
su
&
Foc YoUR v^JN cou"r'
A\D,. r!rsH...
2L
U
a
b work in pairs Fac$e thit dialosle.
t t\tt.
s
t.,tdt
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s.nP. htt en rarl
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w",Lr, odir.o e,o,o...roo\",n"drhom h"rcruard p ad,.e
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dkroqur
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ph.rer below,
hakh then and nat.
rr
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bfiq
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phtrr)
the
rmtd(6t
''!('^llyd'aftdwhali/h.doe'
' rh.i' r/he ir.nry,love*rurr, friqht.ne4 el..
,.r, d wdk ivirn a pa*is. A,r n
r matnaresyousd laiqry,happy,neNour,d.)r
11,
DISCOURSE CHAIN
rf
your,le you.ar urclhisdi:9ran:
opposG(i!,nextto,bdwe.n,
in fionr oi behhd)ih.banr
rum kft/hqhr ,r
,t.
rhoo/ lar $?
ratr
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,4hr)
rar. thc nd 1r<o^d, ihndl t.firiqhr
.,
T
I
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z8
wo'l with.partne' and praclue ihe fo lowrrgdiatoqu.
rall about a film vouve reen o'
!a!eyou fen nDt nflvona,n.8r.om n nr yeo
tar teen ea,.t pa(e' d.t1th. ..b!t at tn? yett
qzre
No. h:ven 1a1!a ty
rrtrnds
r
riaf
blr
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to d me
Rearyrw.f mlnrdnr
u/htrt d'd
yoL.
Mea
fsw.rh +.n,
lgood
|o.r!
thrnr ofLtr
. !.s l'etr Jri rel/.iloyalit
F th.ughl 1llas i:ntast.
N. irea lyid di i rle/entotn
i rir (rybor nq k ly ir ! a )
r
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r
dtrt
iri
i!
l dEsppo rtinq.
frs io|i
, I
rarjl
rv)my.rportea
n9 t. \!rr.rohe about
( (,ea
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DISCOURSE CHAIN
ase€tu
Z*" .,," DnlNKs
.m: ;-",d
SNACKS
I l,b
DES5ERTS
li,
"'ffiy*' '
o'
Lt.
worrif p,,s Adourrh€fo|dwinqsjtu ioB, te
i,t
!t
Br
erdLorJwst.rr brr.
1no.ht. Prrore ) p{holi:niq
y.!r n eRd bo'o$ryo!r b re rhanh4rhe
\o1., n
yoLr f,i.nd hrl5 s.nk a .oho
indqer
l4l r.ul,.Ly€riogclherwnhrrrrndwh. ors
ing
(51 Y,L, niends qDto the {rtrlya,,r
16l YoLrfi.id
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(ir
rsl
r'e
iid smrh
son! drlqs
r.s: I qr.tt.
r|e.n ha; : nqhr for rl
19r rDLrn erdgo$ nj a I d..i, nroio(}.
ir.l
Yo!r
Y.ur rPrd L!:nr ro !r.
irou:
e
rh.rt L,9
'dbP
30.
DlscusstoN
Dno6s 5one of rie quenions betow
HNlou
_qoron
rar
cd
bdl}
!q
rom
h.rer{rm|,
nctrrd)d1e9 r:
oneprr( tDridIfr b9.in ioidiJi d.))
: hold,l)tsippt sid, wirr
!13r \( r!r )r in lsomefn.sbec:iq4rut
and
f
ib
runiurrornniqer.oro!rhnrih*o{rrr
ri!!..rn:r
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tr
r.E 4l(rnom5:1dfi.d
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r. DoJouw
n
h. dir5
ronr
n5iorr[.!pn.r
Nor.niponantrre,3igurq$ rdfo
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ln.i)i
rrk
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or
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32,
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rid
map lelow, iay ,omething about
tle Srtlddyr .hanty feetival.
soltDAYs
OUR GUIDE TO
wl{AT's
IN ANO
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PROJECTBASED
ACTIVITTES
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