Document 181169

Outline of topics
Overview
Seventh chords
• Diatonic seventh ohords in
major keys
• Seventh chords in inversion
• Diatonic seventh chords in
This chapter explains how to spell
seventh chords and several ways to
label them. We consider different
musical contexts for seventh
chords, and look at how triads as
well as seventh chords are
arpeggiated in these settings.
mi~orkeys
• Spelling isolated seventh chords
Seventh chorels in popular styles
• Les$cornmon seventh chords
• Arpagglated triads and seventh
chords
• Seventh chords and musical
style
Repertoire
Johann Sebastian Bach, Prelude in C M,*,r, from The Well­
Tempered Clavier, Book 1
Gerry Goffin and Michael Masser, "Saving All My Love for
You"
Edward Heyman and Victor Young, "When I Fall in Love"
Wolfgang Amadeus MozarL
Piano Sonata in C Major, K. 545, second movement
"Voi, che sapete" ("You Who Know"), from The Marriage
of'Figaro
_Ii Chapter 8 Seventh Chords
o
Seventh Chords
Listen to Example S.la, the opening measures of a prelude for keyboard by J. S.
Bach. The beauty of this piece, composed of common triads and seventh chords,
comes from the ordering ofthe chords, the artful way they are connected, and the
delicate way the individual notes are brought out in the texture. Each measure
consists of only one type of chord, which is repeated.
EXAMPLE
8.1: Bach, Prelude in C Major
(a) Mm. 1-11 (;]
==== 9
1
~~i
~~r
~~i
~~i
1
(b) Root-position chords in 111111. l-ll (;]
f'
c:
§
I
2
"
I
UI m
6
5
4
§
8
7
II I #u
§
vi
V
I
10
9
i
11
II I #u
§
vi
V
II
Seventh Chords
The chords from measures 1-11 are notated in root position in part (b). The
triads in measures 1, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 11 should be familiar: they are C major, A minor,
and G major triads, or the tonic, submediant, and dominant chords in the key of
C major. The other chords (without Roman numerals) contain four pitches-an
additional third has been added on top of the triad. These are called seventh
chords, because the distance from the root to the top note is a seventh.
t:'\
KEY CONCEPT Seventh chords are named by the quality ofthe triad
plus the quality of the seventh measured from the root. A major-major seventh
chord (MM7), for example, has a major triad and a major seventh.
There are several qualities of seventh chords in the Bach passage. For example,
the chord in measure 2 has a D minor triad plus the note C, which forms a minor
seventh from the root CD-C). The minor triad plus minor seventh makes a minor­
minor seventh chord Cmm7), or minor seventh for short. The chord in measure 3
has a G major triad plus the note F, a combination ofa major triad and a minor sev­
enth CG-F): this is a major-minor seventh, or dominant seventh, chord (Mm7).
Diatonic Seventh Chords in Major Keys
Seventh chords are built above each note in a major scale by adding a third above
each scale-degree triad Crefer to Examples 8.2 and 8.3). Here we consider all the
possibilities in the key of G major.
EXAMPLE
8.2: Seventh chords built above the G major scale (;]
2:#
Triad quality:
7th quality:
Full name:
II
Ii
n
1
2
:3
4,
II:
1m
m
m
II majormajor 7th
minorminor 7th
Common name:
II major 7th
minor 7th
Abbreviation:
IMM7
mm7
~,--
Roman numeral: I! 17
ii?
I
I:
1m
I
m
ff
5
6
7
I:
~d
M
m
-----'-­
minor-
r:m
I::
oe7lh
minor 7th
n
,
major-
major-
'=io< 7th
minD; 7th
major 7th
MM7
IIV?
i
i
1
I
minor-
m
climinished­
minor 7th
I minD' 7th
dominant 7th ,minor 7th I half-dimin­
ished 7th
I Mm7
JlllID7
IV?
Jvi7
9f7
i
vii9f7
Chapter 8 Seventh Chords
The seventh chords built on ]: and :4 are major triads with a major seventh (see
Example 8.3a): major-major seventh chords, or major seventh chords for short
(MM7). Chords built on 2, 3, and 6 are minor triads vvith a minor seventh: minor
seventh chords (part b). Only one seventh chord has a major triad and a minor
seventh: the chord built on 5 (part c). Its name is major-minor seventh, but it
is usually called a dominant seventh because it is built on the dominant scale
degree.
The remaining seventh chord to consider in major keys is that built on
the leading tone (part d): a diminished triad and a minor seventh, called a
diminished-minor or half-diminished seventh chord ("half" because there is a
diminished triad but no diminished seventh). This is abbreviated with a small
circle with a slash through it (fZf7): the slash divides the diminished symbol in half.
As Examples 8.2 and 8.3 show, seventh chords may also be labeled with Roman
numerals to indicate their scale-degree placement (and function) in the key.
For example, the dominant seventh chord on 5 is labeled V7, and the leading-tone
seventh chord vii07.
EXAMPLE
8.3: Scale-degree seventh chords in major keys
(a) Major seventh chords (MM7)
0
(b) Minor seventh chords (mm7)
0
M7
,: -.-,,[it' [AJ
G' m<;tJor I7
. tnad
II
IV7
(c) Dominant seventh chords (Mm7)
0
(d) Half-diminished seventh chords (f'f7)
0
m7
G:
major
triad
I
~)=- ;;»[[1]/
II
G: diminished vii 0 7
triad
V7
SUMMARY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
In major keys:
.. Seventh chords on i and :4 are major sevenths (MM7)-I7 and IV7.
.. Seventh chords on 2, 3, and 6 are minor sevenths (mm7)-ii7, iii7, and vi7.
.. The seventh chord on 5 is a dominant seventh (Mm7)-V7.
.. The seventh chord on 7is half diminished (07)-vij07.
Seventh Chords
Try it #1
A. Label each seventh chord with a Roman numeral that reflects the correct chord quality in the
key.
(1)
0
(2)
0
2: .ft#. II I HI tt IIII 2: ~kb~ I I § I I I I I (3)
A[':
IV7
E:
0
(4)
0
2: &b § I § I I I II I 2: #g
Bb:
nI m I i
I§
B
D:
B. Write each of the following seventh chords in the major key specified. Then identifY the type
of chord (e.g., mm7) above the staff.
Mm7
(1)
*
*
#m
A:
(3)
(4)
II':
II~
112:
Bb: ii7
V7
(5)
E:
(2)
V7
D:
V7
F:
(6)
(7)
(8)
II':
II~
II':
G:
ii7
Eb: vii07
I
IV7
I
B:
17
Seventh Chords in Inversion
Like triads, seventh chords can appear in root position or in an inversion (see
Example 8.4), and like figured-bass symbols for triads, the figures are usually
simplified: 7 for root position, ~ for first inversion, ~ f(')r second inversion, and ~
or 2 for third inversion. These abbreviated figures always show the location ofthe
second: to locate the root of an inverted seventh chord, find the upper note of the
second.
Chapter 8 Seventh Chords
EXAMPLE
,
8.4: Figured bass for seventh chords
(a) A seventh chord and its inversions on the treble staff (arrow marks the root)
;;[cfJ4]6
1[eIS]3] 6
;[iiJJ"
~or 56
7
50r7
3
6
4 or
.3
3
.65[%]2
6
~or~or2
t
,_J
(b) A seventh chord and its inversions on the grand staff
0
~2 or 42 or 2
~or~;)
7
;) or 7
3
:3
0
Troy it #2
~e~:r:~~::::~r~~~~:e~:U;:~:~;a~ii~~:t~~;~~:~c~::~e:::m~e:r~ !U~~t~:s.the
Bach, Prelude in C Major, mm. 1-6
indicated
II
0
l~~~~~
1
QUALITY
BASS AND FIGURES
m. 2
MM7
mm7
Mm7
°7
third (?,)
fifth (~)
seventh (~)
m.3
MM7
mm7
Mm7
°7
third (g)
fifth
CD
seventh (~)
m.6
MM7
mm7
Mm7
07
third (g)
fifth (~)
seventh (~)
I
Sevonth Chords
B. For each key and chord specified, write the key signature and then the seventh chord in root
position and inversion, as specified by the figures.
(1)
'~ft#a
tl
SO
I
,:
(4)
IV7
F:
(3)
II
II
V~
V7
E:
(2)
.. 6
ii7
Db:
II
(5)
(6)
II
II
Ab:
IVg
vii0~
vii0?
14:2
17
A:
115
II
V~
V7
Ek
Diatonic Seventh Chords in Minor Keys
The seventh chords built from a minor scale (G minor) are given in Example 8.5.
Since scale degree b'7 is typically raised in minor, the seventh chords on .5 and '7 are
written here with an F#. The seventh chord built on the leading tone thus intro­
duces another seventh-chord type: a diminished triad plus a diminished seventh.
This chord is called a fully diminished seventh chord, or diminished seventh for
short, and is labeled viiOf (see Example 8.6). In minor keys, then, both half-dimin­
ished and fully diminished sevenths are typically found: iiP? and viiO? Together,
Examples 8.2 and 8.5 list all the commonly used diatonic seventh chords.
EXAMPLE
8.5: Seventh chords built above the G minor scale (;1
~l:
[117
~
i
II
i
n di
1
2
3
4
d
M
1m
M
111
Full name:
f.
i
'I mmOf-­
.
minor 7th
diminished-- majormajor 7th
I minor 7th
Common name:
II minor 7th
I half-dimin-
Triad quality:
7th quality:
I
nl
i!
O7
mm7
Roman numeral: ~
I
ii07
:5
I~
!M -
minor 7th
I
i
III7
~
!
iv 7
-.-Jd
d
major!diminished-­
major 7th I diminished 7th
dominant
17th
major 7th
L:"11117
V7
I
!
I
mm7
IMM7
7
E=
m
1111110fIlllinor 7th
major 7th
Ii
()
,-------­
--'-----
ished 7th
Abbreviation:
~
MM7
IVI7
-'-----­
!
fully dimin-­
ished 7th
----
°7
viio7
Chapter 8 Seventh Chords
EXAMPLE
8.6: A fully diminished seventh chord (;)
F#-mis
diminished 7th
':~~[#H]/
diminished triad SUMMARY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
In minor keys (with leading tone in chords on 5and 7):
• Seventh chords on scale degrees 1: and 4, are minor sevenths (mm7).
• Seventh chords on b3 and b6 are major sevenths (MM7).
• The seventh chord on 5 is a dominant seventh (Mm7).
• The seventh chord on 2 is half diminished (?7).
7
• The seventh chord on is fully diminished (°7).
Try it #3u
Spell each ofthe following seventh chords in the given minor key. Use the leading tone for chords
on 5 and 7. Then identifY the type of seventh chord above the staff.
mm7
(1)
$ I
b:
11$
iv7
(5)
2:
c:
(2)
vii"'!
(3)
(4)
II ,:
II':
c#: iY"7
a:
V7
(6)
(7)
(8)
112:
11$
11$
f#:
iY"7
g:
vii07
I
f:
i7
e:
i7
Sevonth Chords
Spelling Isolated Seventh Chords
To spell a specific quality of seventh chord above a given root, first spell the cor­
rect quality triad and then add the proper seventh. The steps to spell a mm7 chord
above F follow.
~
KEY CONCEPT To write a mm7 chord above F:
1. Spell the proper-quality triad: F-AI,-C (Example S.7a).
2. Write the seventh by drawing a note head a third above the triad's fifth (E).
3. Check the interval quality between the root and seventh. Since F to E is a major
seventh, add a flat to the E to make a minor seventh.
EXAMPLE
8.7: Spelling a minor seventh chord
(b)
(a) ~
Fm
b
I
:::: bi'U
+
m7
mm7
11(: .{'o
M7 +--+ m2
~
~
I ~'::
m7-M2
fb.{'o 1
d7 +--+ A2
(c)
~ bb U
Fdim
['b 6IpM3
-------+
F.0'7
bf,fb UJffiB
p07
II, #11
or
#IPM3
F~dim ~ F~.0'7
;UJIHa II
F~07
It may be easier to check the quality of the seventh by inverting the interval
(part b). Imagine the root ofthe seventh chord up an octave, making a second. If
the second is minor (half step), the seventh is major; ifthe second is major (whole
step), the seventh is minor; ifthe second is augmented, the seventh is diminished.
To make a diminished seventh chord, write a diminished triad first, then add
a third on top (part c): for a half-diminished seventh the third is major; for a fully
diminished seventh the third is minor. In fact, all thirds in the fully diminished
seventh are minor.
Chapter 8 Seventh Chords
SUMMARY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
To spell seventh chords in isolation,
(1) Write three thirds on the staff (line-line-line-line or space-space-space).
(2) Check the quality ofthe triad and add accidentals as needed:
• MM7 and Mm7 have major triads,
• mm7 has a minor triad,
• °7 and ff7 have diminished triads.
(3) Check the quality ofthe seventh and add accidentals as needed:
• MM7 has a major 7th,
• Mm7, mm7, and ff7have a minor 7th,
• °7 has a diminished 7th.
Try it #4
Spell the following seventh chords from the roots provided.
(b)
Ca)
~:
(i)
Ch)
Mm7
ff7
mm7
#e­
°7
Ce)
I
mm7
0000000000000000000000
11
ff7
MM7
(k)
(1)
0
be
%7
Mm7
0000
~e
0
°7
(j)
~o
Cf)
e
0
Mm7
e
Cd)
n
m
,~)
Cc)
e
II
MM7
o
Seventh Chords in Popular Styles
Ifyou play in studio, rock, or jazz bands, you may be familiar with another labeling
system for seventh chords. This system is found in lead sheets and may be
combined with guitar-chord TABs, as in Example 8.8, from "Saving All My Low
forYau:'
Seventh Chords in Popular Styles
As mentioned in Chapter 7, chord symbols in popular music designate a capital
letter for the chord's root, and a capital letter alone indicates a major triad (for
example, D). A letter name plus 7 assumes a Mm7 (dominant seventh) quality,
and other seventh chord types are specified with abbreviations or other
annotations.
EXAMPLE
8.8: Goffin and Masser, "Saving An Yly Love for You;' mm. 44b-48a (]
46
45
C~m?
Dmaj7
f'l J,/
say - ing
~ll
~
I
t.J
so I'm
1
j.f
,.-,
11
I
S
t.J
1~t!-Tr+±
-
r
m
Ii
I
my love,
say - ing all
yes I'm
~
l
I
..
I
~
"'.
••
my
. r-
1
ov - mg,_
I
~I
•
­
yes I'm
1:- --:I ­
~
J.
48 47
#a
Em?
r­
Dmc\i'
F~mi/C~
mY
110
~--
it!
Dmaji
1m If' 1m
,...-,
11
Em!
C~m7
lJ~fr
Dr
say - ing all
Em7
e
DIE
Amaji jM
mm
~
p~
my love
for
you. ___
.­
The melody in this passage is harmonized almost entirely with seventh chords.
The Dmaj7 chord in measure 45 is a D m<\jor seventh (D-F#-A-C#); it could be
labeled Dmaj7 as here, D"7, DM7, or D+7 (the system is not completely standard­
ized, and these symbols are used interchangeably). The next two chords are minor
seventh chords built on C# (C#-E-G#-B) and B (B-D-Fif-A), labeled C#m7 and Bm7.
This three-chord pattern appears three times in the passage (for variety, the piano
arrangement slightly changes the C#m7 in 111. 46). The excerpt closes with DIE (a
D major triad with an E in the bass), and an arrival on Amaj7 CA-C#-E-G#).
Chapter 8 Seventh Chords
Example 8.9 shows various seventh chords in C major and C minor, with some
of their possible labels. Half-diminished seventh chords are often notated as minor
sevenths with a ~5.
EXAMPLE
8.9: Seventh chords in C major and C minor, with lead-sheet labels
(a) C major
~
I
Cmaj7
CM7
C"7
(b) C minor
~bbb
0
i
Cm7
U II
Dm7
Em7
II
I
Fmaj7
FM7
G7
R I
Am7
Bm7'.s B"'7 F"7 0
E~maj7
Dmh
DJ"7
~II
II
U II
Fm7
G7
R ~i
Bm7'5
B07
Bdim7
Abmaj7
A~M7
EbM7
Ef,'7
II (blll
m
B~7
Gm7
II b~1
II
E~+maj7
Ebmaj7C#.s)
Less Common Seventh Chords
You may have noticed that Examples 8.2 and 8.5 do not exhaust all the possible
combinations of triads and sevenths. For example, you could write an augmented
triad with a major or minor seventh, or a minor triad with a major seventh.
Although these seventh chords are not found in common-practice tonal music,
they add harmonic richness in some styles of jazz as substitutes for diatonic
seventh chords. As an illustration, listen to Example 8.10, from "When I Fall in
Love." In mea..c;ure 8, the Bb7 indicates a dominant seventh sonority (which sounds
on beat 2, Bb-D-F-Ab), while the C7+5 in measure 10 is a seventh chord type we
have not yet encountered: an augmented triad with minor seventh, C-E~-G#-Bb
(the G# is spelled Ab). The excerpt closes with an Fm7 (F-Ab-C-Eb).
EXAMPLE
8.10: Heyman and Young, "When I Fall in Love;' mm. 5-11a
Eb
m
,..,
I
@)
3fr.
p;d±I::
6
7
-,J
~en
I
fall
in
love
j
...
...
t
I
I
J:
@)
:
-e-
0
yj
-e-
-,J
it
will
I
J:
j
yj
-e­
,,
be
for ­
... ...
yj
Seventh Chords in Popular Styles
B o7
JR
9
.
~
I
I
.
.
fall
I
:f j
Ff ~ f
~
1I1J
I
of I'll nev - er
I
Fm7
lOe
=tHE
-,j
- ev - er,
1\
e 7+ S
Eo
TfW3rr
in
---
-----­
love.
.
~~
vi f
~
~
f
~
I
'"-...
~ I'"Y t.t #5 "rrr«r~rrr+
On the staves below, write the seventh chords requested. Write in all accidentals (rather than a
key signature) for practice spelling these chords.
(b)
(a)
2:
II
(c)
(e)
(d)
~
I
G~m7
D7
Am7
,m Bmaj7
(g)
(h)
I
1
Cm7(~5)
Bbmaj7C#5)
Emaj7
(i)
G) I
F#m7
F7(+5)
II
A~7(#5)
Arpeggiated Triads and Seventh Chords
In some pieces of music, all members ofa chord sound at the same time. But in others,
a chord may be arpeggiated-played one pitch at a time-as in the Bach prelude
(Example 8.1) and the bass-clefpart ofMozart's ''Voi, che sapete," shovvn in Example
8.lla. (Mozart probably chose to arpeggiatc the chords here because a singer onstage
is pretending to accompany the aria on a guitar; the arpeggiated chords in the left
hand mimic the sound ofa guitar.) To analyze the left-hand chords in this Bb major
passage, first write the pitches for the whole chord in Mozart's spacing (part b)
before arranging them in root position to identifY the Roman numeral (part c).
In the first measure, a Bb major triad is played one chord member at a timc:
Bb-D-F-Bb. In the following measure, an F major chord (V6 in the keyofB~ major)
Chapter 8 Seventh Chords
is arpeggiated A-C-F-A. Mozart likely used a first-inversion chord here (with the
A in the bass instead of the root F) to make a smooth connection between the ms
of measures 1 and 3, instead of jumping down to the F (as in part c). The
remaining chords include a ii~ (Eb-G-m-C; disregard the shaded notes) and V
(F-A-C).
8.11: Mozart, ''Voi, che sapete"
EXAMPLE
(a) Mm. 1-4 (;)
I
f
2
I
3
I
.
--7"
-
P
~
. .it
"
"
-
.iI
.
(b) Mozart's inversions (;)
~)= ~b
m:
~
§
I
..
i
.
"
-
-
4
~
"
i=j::=-­
.~
~
I
~
-
:......I
•
I
. . . . .­ . ~ . "~~ .
~
-
1!
III
u za R
III
IB B
Ii
V6
.~~
I
V
115
I
(c) Root position (;)
,:~b
§
Iu
§
m:
ii7
I
V
V
For another familiar accompaniment pattern from the Classical period
(1750-1830), listen to the passage shown in Example 8.12, from the second move­
ment of Mozart's Piano Sonata in C Major. This movement is in G major, and the
first two beats express a G major triad, I in this key. The left-hand accompani­
mental pattern arpeggiates the harmony with a "low-up-down-up" contour that
is typical of an Alberti bass. In this kind of pattern, the pitches at the beginning
of each group of notes are typically the lowest notes of the chord (not necessarily
the root) and form a bass line.
EXAMPLE
8.12: Mozart, Piano Sonata in C Major, second movement, mm. 1-2 (;)
2
I
p
1
G:
I
1
2
i
V~
I
i
i
Seventh Chords in Popular Styles
Here, the bass line is 1(in a G-B-D I chord), 2 (in an inverted D-F#-A-CV~ chord,
with the F# implied), and 1(a return to the I chord).
The two Mozart examples represent only two of the various possible arpeg­
giation patterns used to set chords in tonal music; when you encounter an arpeg­
giated accompaniment, stack the chords in thirds to identifY the root and quality.
Seventh Chords and Musical Style
The treatment ofseventh chords is an important aspect ofmusical style. For exam­
ple, only sevenths built on scale degrees 2, 5, and 7appear frequently in Classical­
period music; yet we find seventh chords on all scale degrees in Romantic
(1830-1910), jazz, and popular styles. In some styles, the dissonant interval ofa sev­
enth must be approached and resolved down by step; in others, the seventh may be
left unresolved altogether for dramatic effect, or the entire chord may simply slide
up or down by step to another seventh chord. In common-practice tonal music,
for example, composers typically would not end a piece with a 17 or i7, yet tonic
chords at the end of ajazz standard may be embellished with an unresolved sev­
enth. As you identifY seventh chords in music you are playing, consider what type
ofseventh cach chord is, and how the chord is connected to those around it. Later
chapters on harmony and style will discuss some special uses of seventh chords.
Did You Know?
The ':Alberti bass"is named for Dominica Alberti (c.
[email protected]).....an Italian singer, keyboard player, and
composer-who was born in Venice and died in
Romeatonlythirty~ Alberti was one of the first to
usc the 1eft-hand arpeggiatioll pattern. that has
become associa,tedwith his name, often found
aecompanying a right-hand melody line in key-
Alberti bass
arpeggiated chord
seventh chords
• first inversion
• second inversion
• third inversion
board music of the Classical era. As few ofAlberti's
compositions are performed today, the pattern has
largely become associated with keyboard works by
Mozart-such as the first and second Illovementsof
the Piano Sonata in C Major, K. 545 (anthology,
pp. 256, 259) and the theme ofthe Piano Sonata in
D Major, K. 284 (p. 245).
seventh-chord qualities
• dominant seventh (Mm7)
• fully diminished seventh (°7)
• half-diminished seventh (°7)
• major seventh (MM7)
• minor seventh (mm7)