HOW TO USE THIS BOOK (FOLLOW THE FLOWCHART SHOWN ON THE NEXT PAGE) 1 Study Chapters 1 - 7, holding periodic name-in-the-hat group meetings. When reading the text, reflect on each sentence. Reflect on the concepts. 2 Be sure that all senior management has taken the 24-hour “Management for Results” course offered by the Instituto de Desenvolvimento Gerencial. 3 Set up a Management Improvement Plan that corresponds to the “PUTTING THE HOUSE IN ORDER” phase. Adopt an 8 - month time frame. 4 Begin work. During this time reconvene your name-in-the-hat group and study again chapters 1 - 7. When the ideas are applied in practice, the level of understanding improves considerably. See for yourself. 5 After 8 months resume the study of the book. Together with your namein-the-hat group study up to Chapter 13. 6 Set up a new Management Improvement Plan that corresponds to the “ADJUSTING THE MACHINE” phase. Adopt a 16 - month time frame. 7 Begin work. Reconvene your name-in-the-hat group as in item 4. 8 At the end of the 16 months get back to your name-in-the-hat group and go through to the end of the book. I can guarantee you that by that time your management may already be classified as "World Class." 1 UNDERSTAND YOUR WORK 2 6 5 4 3 7 MANAGE TO IMPROVE RESULTS MANAGE TO SUSTAIN RESULTS MONITOR RESULTS ELIMINATE ABNORMALITIES STANDARDIZE PUTTING THE HOUSE IN ORDER 2ND PHASE “PUTTING THE HOUSE IN ORDER” 1ST PHASE “UNDERSTANDING YOUR WORK” 9 8 IMPROVE IMPROVE MAINTENANCE PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLVING 12 10 IMPROVE MONITORING 13 11 “ADJUSTING THE MACHINE” 3RD PHASE HUMAN RESOURCES ASSURE QUALITY (EACH RECTANGLE CORRESPONDS TO A CHAPTER OF THIS BOOK) FLOWCHART FOR “THE ROAD TOWARDS EXCELLENCE” 4TH PHASE 14 FUTURE “ON THE ROAD TO THE FUTURE” OPERATIONAL OPERATION SUPERVISION MANAGEMENT C A C A D S D P Figure 1.1: Functions of people within an organization and its relation to the method. FUNCTIONS MANAGERIAL DIRECTION SITUATION OPERATION SUPERVISION MANAGEMENT DIRECTION FUNCTIONS MANAGERIAL OPERATIONAL * Follows the Standard Operational Procedures. * Promotes the training of the operation function * Checks wether the operation function is following standard operational procedures. * Promotes the training of the supervision function. * Attains GOALS (PDCA). * Establishes GOALS that guarantee the survival of the company through the use of a strategic plan. Deploy these goals. NORMAL * Reports abnormalities. * Every six months draws up a status report for senior management. * Eliminates chronic abnormalities by attacking their root causes (PDCA). * Periodically reviews abnormalities to detect chronic abnormalities (Pareto Analysis). * Checks abnormalities daily at the site of their occurrence, working in a complementary manner with supervision. * Records abnormalities and reports them to the managerial function. * Conducts abnormality analysis, attacking the inmediate causes (for example, was the standard observed?). * Understands status report management. * Establishes GOALS to correct the current situation. OCCURRENCE OF ABNOMALITIES Table 1.1: Type of Work Carried Out Through Each Function(2), (3). TYPE TOP MANAGEMENT TOP DOWN MANAGEMENT Figure 2.1: Division of Management. - IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIP ROUTINE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT BY POLICY MODE CROSSFUNCTIONAL MANAGEMENT HOW ARE MY RESULTS? HOW DO THEY COMPARE WITH THE GOALS? HOW DO THEY COMPARE WITH THE BENCHMARKS? CONTROL ITEMS: ACTING ON THE PROCESS (MEANS) TO SUSTAIN AND IMPROVE RESULTS. CORRETIVE ACTION: D C MORALE: MOTIVATION, UNITY, PARTICIPATION, FRIENDSHIP, LEARNING, GROWTH, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 5S: PARSIMONY, ORGANIZATION, CLEANLINESS, DISCIPLINE, PURITY OF INTENTIONS, AND JUSTICE. EXECUTION: DISCIPLINED WORK ACCORDING TO STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES. Figure 2.2: Daily Work Routine Management Mentality. P A COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS - SYSTEM STANDARD - PROCESS TECHNICAL STANDARD - STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE METHOD: THE COMPETITION AND IN A MORE ECONOMICAL MANNER”. GOAL: ”TO SATISFY PEOPLE BETTER THAN A 5S DEFINITION OF FLOWCHARTS ABNORMALITY REPORT PDCA TRAINING A PRIORITY PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION OF CHRONIC ABNORMALITIES + STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE (On-the-job training) PROCESS TECHNICAL STANDARD OR SYSTEM STANDARD PROCESS EVALUATION (Dispersion evaluation) PROCESS IMPROVEMENT (Dispersion reduction) CORRECTIVE ACTION TWO EASY PROBLEMS RESEARCH OF BENCHMARK VALUES DEFINITION OF PRIORITY CONTROL ITEMS ACTION PLAN FULL UTILIZATION OF PDCA C D A S FULL UTILIZATION OF SDCA QUALITY ASSURANCE (Reliability) PRODUCTIVITY GAINS C D A P IDENTIFICATION OF PRIORITY PROBLEMS GRAPHS CONTROL ITEMS TABLE Figure 2.3: Basic Outline for the Improvement of Daily Work Routine Management. STANDARDIZATION C B ELIMINATION OF ABNORMALITIES D ORGANIZATION OF YOUR MANAGEMENT DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS GOAL IDENTIFICATION 5S DAILY WORK ROUTINE MANAGEMENT Figure 2.4: Exemplary Daily Work Routine Management. Exemplary Daily Work Routine Management HUMANISM METHOD Receive an IMPROVEMENT GOAL from your director or establish your own goal (quality, cost, customer service, morale, and safety). Establish a control item. Gather information (Facts and Data) P Carry out an analysis (What are the causes that keep us from reaching the goal?) MANAGERIAL ACTION PLAN (Countermeasures against the causes) You and your team carry out the ACTION PLAN. D Check whether all actions were executed. 500 CONTROL ITEM 475 BETTER 455 * GOAL (425) 400 Time (380) BENCHMARK Company Y, Inc. C If your PLAN produced no results, go further in gathering data and in the analysis. If your PLAN was successful, STANDARDIZE. Train the workers and conclude. Figure 3.1: Method for Attaining Goals. A Table 3.1: How to Set Up Your First Action Plan. 1 Receive the IMPROVEMENT GOAL from your director, or establish one yourself. Collect all the information you can on the subject. Call on everyone (engineers, technicians, supervisors, workers, other 2 managers, technicians from supplying companies, consultants, etc) that you feel can contribute; those who “are on top of the subject.” This is a process of knowledge collection. 3 Hold a meeting, visiting, if possible, the location where the subject occurs. Have available: plenty of flip-chart paper, masking tape, magic markers of several colors, “post-it” notes, etc. 4 At the meeting, state first your long-range goal (one in which you surpass the best in the world). Then, state the goal to be reached within one year at the most. Clearly explain how much the company will earn per year after it reaches the goal. Put all this on flip-chart paper affixed to the wall. Print in very large, colored letters to help people remember. Discuss these numbers with the people in the meeting. How many families could be supported with the saving from this waste reduction? 5 Define the group’s problem. Write: OUR PROBLEM IS TOO MANY INVOICING ERRORS (for example). 6 Now ask the group: WHY DO WE HAVE SO MANY INVOICING ERRORS? (for example). At this point you have two alternatives: either you can distribute post-it note paper and have each one write down a cause of the problem or simply say what he or she thinks is the cause of the problem. The leader of the meeting writes down each cause on the flip-chart sheets affixed to the wall of the room. Do not forget to ask why? a number of times. 7 Having finished the “cause harvesting” activity, attempt to simplify the causes by combining similar ones and eliminating those considered unimportant by the group. If necessary, the group may vote. Analyze the consistency of the causes during the cleanup process. (a) What is the impact of the elimination of each cause on the desired result (goal)? (b) Is it within my authority to act on this cause? 8 Now, for EACH CAUSE that remains after the cleanup process, discus with the group one or more COUNTERMEASURES. Write on the flip-chart sheets only those countermeasures that are agreed upon by all. Place these countermeasures in the 5W 1H format. Presto! You have an ACTION PLAN, as shown in Table 3.2. 06/30 Paul 3. Train personnel In this column place a name, and not a group or an acronym. It must be the name of the person in charge 08/31 John 2. Change the guides In this column place the countermeasures that came out of brainstorming (See Table 3.1) 08/31 (WHEN) TIME Mike PERSON RESPONSIBLE (WHO) 1. Level the base of the equipment (WHAT) COUNTERMEASURES To prevent stoppages To train them in new procedures Rolling mill Training center and work area In these five columns you place the complementary data as shown above To prevent sleeve breakage Rolling mill * Do not leave out this WHY column. People want to know why they must do something Use recently updated Standard Operational Procedures RC-0-1-98 and RC-0-1-99. Take advantage of the shutdown of the rolling mill and change any guides that are worn. Disassemble the main roller, remove it with the overhead derrick and raise base B2 by 2cm with drilled steel plates in order to make room for the regulating screw. PROCEDURE (HOW) JUSTIFICATION* (WHY) (WHERE) LOCATION Table 3.2: Example of an ACTION PLAN (5W 1H). OPERATIONS Product Merchandise or Service Figure 4.1: Distinction between PROCESS and OPERATION. PROCESS STEEL REFINED FURNACE PREPARED TRANSPORT SCRAP PREPARED PROCESS FLOWCHART 16 8 4 8 Assembly Casting Operation Refining Operation C A C B A 4 Booth Operation Platform Operation A 6 C 4 Adjustment Crane Operation C 4 Priority level of the task Prepare the Tower OPERATIONS Number of people assigned to the task 6 3 5 4 2 1 8 7 Standardization “Putting the House order in Order” phase Priority for the Table 4.1: Priorization for Standardization (this table is a simulation and does not depict an actual case. It merely serves as an instructive example). Customer Product Process Engineering Engineering PRODUCTION Manager Supervisor Operator Needs Product specification and design Process specification Standard operational procedure Trains the supervisor Trains the operator and checks compliance with standard Implements quality assurance complying with standard Idea for new standard operational procedure Approves Approves Figure 4.2: Process of Establishing and Modifying a Standard Operational Procedure. STANDARD RESTAURANT INC. STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Standard: RP-C-03 Established: 03.24.94 Revised: 04.08.1994 NAME OF PROCEDURE: Coffee Preparation WORKER RESPONSIBLE: Kitchen Assistant Revision Number: First MATERIAL REQUIRED KETTLE 1 FILTER HOLDER GROUND COFFEE - CONNECTOR COFFEE MEASURER 1 STANDARD CUP THERMOS BOTTLE 1 HEAT-RESISTANT GLOVE PAPER FILTER - CRITICAL ACTIVITIES 01 - CHECK HOW MANY PEOPLE WILL DRINK COFFEE. 02 - PLACE WATER TO BOIL IN KETTLE (1 STANDARD CUP/PERSON). 03 - PLACE GROUND COFFEE IN PAPER FILTER (1 COFFEE MEASURE/PERSON). 04 - WASH THE THERMOS BOTTLE. 05 - PLACE FILTER ON TOP OF THERMOS BOTTLE, USING CONNECTOR. 06 - WHEN THE WATER BEGINS TO BOIL, POUR A LITTLE OVER THE GROUND COFFEE TO MOISTEN IT THOROUGHLY. 07 - AFTER 30 SECONDS, POUR THE REST OF THE WATER IN THE FILTER. 08 - WHEN ALL THE WATER HAS PERCOLATED, REMOVE FILTER AND CLOSE THE THERMOS BOTTLE. HANDLING OF MATERIAL 01 - AFTER EACH BREWING, WASH ALL EQUIPMENT, DRY AND STORE. 02 - GROUND COFFEE SHOULD ALWAYS BE KEPT IN A CLOSED CONTAINER. EXPECTED RESULTS 01 - COFFEE AVAILABLE IS ALWAYS FRESH (MAXIMUM OF ONE HOUR AFTER BREWING). 02 - COFFEE AT CORRECT STRENGTH (NEITHER TOO WEAK NOR TOO STRONG). CORRECTIVE ACTIONS IN CASE THERE ARE COMPLAINTS THAT THE COFFEE IS TOO WEAK OR TOO STRONG, CHECK TO SEE IF THE CORRECT AMOUNT OF WATER AND THE CORRECT AMOUNT OF GROUND COFFEE WAS USED, OR IF THERE WAS A CHANGE IN THE QUALITY OF THE GROUND COFFEE. IF IN DOUBT, CONSULT THE SUPERVISOR. APPROVED: WORKER WORKER WORKER SUPERVISOR MANAGER Figure 4.3: Example of a Standard Operational Procedure - SOP(6). 6 4 1 NAME OF OPERATION 5 2 3 AIR PRESSURE OF PNEUMATIC SCREWDRIVER NOTE TIGHTENING THE SMALL SCREWS CRITICAL ACTIVITY 3 TIGHTENING THE LARGE SCREWS CRITICAL ACTIVITY 2 PLACING OF REAR COVER IN GROOVES CRITICAL ACTIVITY 1 IMPORTANT POINTS 4 5 2 2 3 6 2 AUTHORIZED BY: 3 kg/cm - 4kg/cm 1 FINAL ASSEMBLY NAME OF PROCESS: Figure 4.4: Example of a Standard Operational Procedure (Illustrated). ASSEMBLY OF REAR COVER STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE CHECKED BY: FRONT VIEW PREPARED BY: João Praxedes Teles Fiuza Antenor Pereira Manoel Vargas Dornelles Souza Augusto Workers Section: Months Company X, Inc. X X J X X M X X A X X M X J X X J X X A Figure 5.1: Model for an Operational Task Diagnosis Plan. X X F MONTHS Supervisor: S X X OPERATIONAL TASK DIAGNOSIS PLAN X X O X X N X D Read Worker Supervisor NO Read Section Chief OBSERVATION: Not following operational procedure is an “abnormality” (work nonconformity) and should be treated by means of an “abnormalities analysis” (why wasn’t the procedure followed?) 5. Recommendations for changing the standard (see Figure 5.4). Etc. 4. Accident risks of the task 3. Operator difficulties in observing standards 2. Training given during evaluation 1. Additional training needs Write down observations here regarding: OBSERVATIONS Figure 5.2: Supervisor Evaluation Report Model. Read 8. When all the water has gone through the filter, remove the filter and close the thermos bottle 5. Place filter on top of thermos bottle using connector 6. When the water begins to boil, pour a little over the ground coffee to moisten it thoroughly 7. After 30 seconds, pour the rest of the water into filter 2. Place water to boil in kettle (1 standard cup per person) 3. Place ground coffee in filter (one coffee measure per person) 4. Wash thermos bottle YES Date: July 21, 2011 Operational Procedure: RP-C-03 OPERATIONAL TASK DIAGNOSIS PLAN Supervisor: Manuel Antônio Souza Task: Preparation of coffee 1. Check how many people will drink coffee CRITICAL STEPS Section: Food Service Worker: Augusto Company X, Inc. REPORTS OCCURRENCE OF ABNORMALITY WORKER WHY? TRAINING? “FOOLPROOF”? NO PROCESS ENGINEERING STAFF PDCA SOLVES THE PROBLEM BY ACTING ON THE ROOT CAUSE ESTABLISHES PRIORITIES, CHECKING, THROUGH PARETO ANALYSIS, WHICH CHRONIC ABNORMALITIES ARE THE MOST FREQUENT REVIEWS AND COMPLETES THE ABNORMALITY REPORTS ON A DAILY BASIS MANAGER Figure 5.3: Flowchart of a Process for Addressing Abnormalities. MAKES ABNORMALITY REPORT ACTS UPON IMMEDIATE CAUSE CONDUCT ABNORMALITY ANALYSIS AT SITE YES CHECKS COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS AUTHORIZES REMOVAL OF SYMPTOM SUPERVISOR Occurrence of the abnormality Remove symptom Investigate the cause 1 Is there a standard procedure? Prepare a standard operational procedure and make sure that all operators are trained in it. No Yes Is the standard procedure appropriate ? No The operators have difficulty in understanding it It is not in a usable form Yes 2 Rewrite the standard to conform to the current work method No The operators do not understand the standard Was the standard operational procedure being followed ? The operators are not trained so as to be able to follow the standard 6 5 Train the operators in the standard Offer technical training to the operators or reassign them in other work It is not practical or does not produce good results 4 3 Rewrite the standard using diagrams and figures for easy understanding Take another look at the standard from a technical perspective Yes The operators do not feel the need to follow the standard 7 Instruct and orient the operators to follow the standard Work conditions are inadequate 8 Easy to make error using procedure, or complicated equipment 9 Improve work conditions Improve work methods, introducing foolproof mechanisms Figure 5.4: Countermeasures for Preventing the Recurrence of Abnormalities, according to Hosotani(7). Table 5.1: Supervisor Training in standard operational procedures. 1 Show the supervisor how to perform the task according to the standard operational procedure. 2 Explain to him or her why the standard operational procedure should be followed. 3 Let him or her do it as instructed. 4 Repeat it until he or she is able to do it alone. 5 Now evaluate whether the supervisor is ready to teach the operator. NO YES 6 Certify the supervisor in the task. Observation: Note that this sequence is the basis for operational training on any hierarchical level. For example: a sales manager should be trained in how to make a sales forecast precisely as shown here. 92 Production Losses in 1993. (tons/day) 0 420 93 240 J F M A M 100 J S D 300 O N Losses from Stops A Losses from Defects Decline in Rhythm J * 120 200 80 40 20 Losses from Unforeseen Breakage 200 80 Losses from Tool Replacement 100 20 Losses from Intermittent Stops 65 10 4 20 ce 1 Losses from Breakage in the Roller 120 sc G u id re e w Losses from Scrap 100 ive Losses from Production Start 50 30 20 50 5 6 20 Losses in Roller Lines 3 rs 19 Figure 5.5: Pareto Analysis in Preparation for the Current Situation Report (simulation). Sto ps De fec ts D Sp eclin ee e d in U Br nfor ea es ka ee g n To e Re ol pla c em en t n Ro lle r Ro l l e rL ine Cy R lin e pla der ce G me Re uide nt p lac em G Sc rap Pr Sta odu rt ctio In L ter o sse mitt en s t D Sp eclin ee e d in na Fu r en t uid eb r ea ka ge Po w e r lo ss Lu b r ica tio n GOAL (380) rs Dr Cr ac ks Production Losses in 500 tons/day he Ot ng BETTER m Sc ali Ha rd n ar ing kle s en Di es s Re s r p W ar sio n Ot h Be ce ne Tu r W rin ist an he M ing 60 4 2 11 15 gs Ot ot or s rs he Ot er s rin Be a 1000 le Ax 5 n=5 50 UCL = 45,69 40 X LC = 29.86 30 20 LCL = 14,03 60 R UCL = 58,04 40 20 x xx x x x x x x 5 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x LC = 27.44 x x 10 15 20 25 Control Card X - R Figure 6.1: Control Card (UCL = Upper Control Limit; LCL = Lower Control Limit). 24 6 18 Hour of the day 12 24 LSL (15) USL (25) (20) Value sought (Standard goal) Figure 6.2: Sequential Graph (USL = Upper Specification Limit; LSL = Lower Specification Limit). 0 5 Time necessary to make up a 15 hotel room, in minutes 10 20 25 LSL 140 USL 160 180 Figure 6.3: Histogram (USL = Upper Specification Limit; LSL = Lower Specification Limit). Energy Consumption ICNº IC-R-93-01-14 Dimension: Cost 400 500 00 475 01 455 F M A M J 02 J A S O Figure 6.4: Sequential Graph of a Cost Control Item. J N D * (380) BENCHMARK COMPANY Y, INC. GOAL (425) BETTER Front Office: ________________ Management: ____________ Control: Monthly XX Company, Inc. (kWh/t) PROCESS RAW MATERIALS EQUIPMENT RESULTS 450 INFORMATION n=2 LSC = 449,79 LC = 406,31 X 400 LIC = 362,84 350 100 LSC = 75,55 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 50 PEOPLE PROCEDURES LC = 23,13 R 0 1 2 3 4 9 10 11 12 Operators conforming to SOPs MAINTAIN DIAGNOSIS/ TREATMENT (SUPERVISOR) ABNORMALITY REPORT (OPERATOR) - 5 SENSES REMOVAL OF SYMPTOM (OPERATOR/SUPERVISOR) COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST IMMEDIATE CAUSES day YES OK ? NO SPECIAL CAUSE ? COMMON (CHRONIC) ABNORMALITY ANALYSIS (SUPERVISOR) ABNORMALITY REPORT (SUPERVISOR) ADDITIONAL COUNTER MEASURES (MANAGER) DAILY REVIEW (MANAGER) The person responsible for the ACTION is indicated in parentheses. Figure 7.1: “Basic Process Control” for sustaining results. (This figure is shown complete in Figure 10.5) SUPPLIERS PROCEDURES EQUIPMENT PEOPLE INFORMATION CHECK ITEMS CONTROL ITEMS (ENDS) RESULTS RESPONSIBILITY CUSTOMERS EMPLOYEES STOCKHOLDERS NEIGHBORS OBJECTIVE PEOPLE´S SATISFACTION TOTAL QUALITY GOALS Figure 8.1: Basic Features of the Managerial Process. YOUR MANAGERIAL AREA (MEANS) ENVIRONMENTHAL CONDITIONS RAW MATERIALS AUTHORITY Table 8.1: How to Improve Your Daily Work Routine Management. 1 Make a description of your business (See Table 8.2). 2 Define your priority products (the one which takes most time, the one which presents most problems, etc). 3 Make a flowchart of each process, always beginning with the highest priority (or most critical) product (See Annex C and item 4.1). 4 Promote the standardization of priority tasks (See items 4.2 and 4.3). 5 Define the control items (See item 8.6). - for each product of your business (quality, cost, delivery, and safety), - for the people who work in your business (morale and safety). 6 Define the goals for each control item, consulting the customers for each product and the needs of the company (See item 8.9). 7 Establish your benchmark values as you go along (See item 8.9). 8 Draw graphs for your control items (See Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 6.4). Standardize your graphs. 9 Standardize each process (See Figures 10.1 and 10.2). 10 Manage. Attain the goals (See Annex A). - for standard goals use SDCA (See Figure 10.5). - for improvement goals use PDCA (See Annex E). Table 8.2: How to Describe Your Business 1 Hold a meeting with your fellow workers. Provide flip-chart paper and magic markers. 2 On the flip-chart, draw a square in the middle and write in it the name of your sector (for example: finance, shipping, refining, etc) (See Figure 8.2). 3 Below, write how many people work in your business (list only those who are under your authority). List also important equipment used in your business. 4 On the right-hand side of the square, design a tree-branch diagram and begin listing the products of your business (See item 8.5). 5 List the customers for each product. 6 Now, on the left-hand side of the square make another tree-branch diagram and list the products you receive from suppliers. 7 Define the suppliers of each product. 8 OK. You have just defined your business. OBSERVATION: Hang the flip-chart paper with the description of your business on the wall and let your fellow workers think about it. They may want to contribute additional information. When it seems complete, write it up neatly and place the scheme on a board so that it is very clear what your business is. PRODUCTION/ DISTRIBUTION GRID PRODUCT SUPPLY ORDER WAGON PROJECT FEEDBACK - 5 COMPUTERS - 2 TERMINALS - 4 PRINTERS - 8 TELEPHONES - 6 CALCULATORS - FAX AND XEROX MACHINES EQUIPMENTS - HUGO - MANAGER - MARX - PROJECT DRAFT - FORTUNATO - DISTRIBUTION/RECEPTION DESK - JOSÉ DOMINGOS PRICES - BERNARDO - PURCHASE - ELIANE - DISTRIB./RECEP. DESK - WALTER - DISTRIB./RECEP. DESK - ALESSANDRO - DISTRIB./RECEP. DESK - SAULO - DISTRIB./RECEP. DESK - VAGNER - DISTRIB./RECEP. DESK - 2 TRAINEES - TO BE DEFINED PEOPLE - ENSURE THAT PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION ARE ACCORDING TO COMPANY POLICIES AND COMPATIBLE WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE UNIT MISSION PCPD PLANNING AND CONTROL OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION BUSINESS BUSINESS BOTTLE LOAN AUTHORIZED RECEPTION FOR REINFORCEMENT PRODUCTS AUTHORIZED FORECAST FIGURES FOR SALES CALCULATED PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED CHECK FOR ENTERED BOTTLES DELIVERED STOCK ROTATION DONE BOTTLING LINE SUPPLIED PRICE TABLES ASSESSED PRICE TABLE ISSUED PRODUCTION SUPPLIED WITH KELLCOLOID/ INFUSION EARTH PRODUCTION SUPPLIEDX WITH INPUTS/ CORKS/PET/ CARDBOARD TRAY/LABLE PRODUCTION SUPPLIED WITH BOTTLES/BOTTLERS BOTTLING/MANUFACTURE PROJECT PRODUCT - COMMERCIAL D. - COMMERCIAL D. - FINANCE D. - COMMERCIAL D. - FINANCE D. - COMMERCIAL D. - INDUSTRIAL DIR. - INDUSTRIAL D. - GENERAL M. - COMMERCIAL D. - GENERAL M. - INDUSTRIAL D. - GENERAL M. - INDUSTRIAL D. - GENERAL M. - INDUSTRIAL D. - GENERAL M. - INDUSTRIAL D. CLIENTS Figure 8.2: Description of the “Production and Distribution Planning and Control” Business of Company S. LOGISTICS M. SHIPPING COMPANY ES. COMMERCIAL D. CVRD RESALES SHIPPING COMPANIES PRICE TABLE REQUEST FOR THE LOAN OF BOTTLES COMMERCIAL D. OTHER UNITS REQUEST FOR PRODUCT REINFORCEMENT REMOVAL SCHEDULE LEGISLATION PRICE POLICY COMMERCIAL D. COMMERCIAL Ds. / UNITS COMMERCIAL D. MARKETING BOARD FINANCE BOARD FINANCE BOARD MARKETING BOARD TOP MANAGEMENT INDUSTRIAL D. ORDERS INPUT AND PACKAGE CONSUMPTION STANDARDS INDUSTRIAL D. INPUTS PRODUCTION CAPACITY/ (BOT. + MANUF.) SUPPLIERS Personnel Environmental Procedures conditions PEOPLE PRODUCTS OF EMPLOYEES OF NEIGHBORS OF CUSTOMERS RIGHT TIME RIGHT QUANTITY CARACTERISTICS THAT MEASURE EVERYONE’S SATISFACTION MORALE SAFETY DELIVERY RIGHT PLACE COST (COST, PRICE, PROFIT, MARGIN) INSTRINSIC QUALITY Figure 8.3: Origin and Coverage of Your Control Items. Information Equipment Raw materials Imagine yourself president of this “small company” Table 8.3: Method for Determining Control Items in Daily Work Routine Management at all Hierarchical Levels. (See Figure 8.4) 1 Get together your staff and immediate co-workers. 2 Ask: “What are our products?” (”What do we do here?”). Anything that is done to meet someone’s needs (or as a result of this) is a product (goods and services). 3 Who are the (internal and external) customers for each product? What are our customers’ needs? Ask each one in person. 4 Quality Control Items: How can we measure quality (meeting the needs of our customers) of each of our products? Are our customers satisfied? What is the number of complaints? What is the rate of rejects? 5 Cost Control Items: What is the cost sheet for each product? (Make one yourself, even if in approximate figures. Do not wait for the Costs Department, nor should you be afraid of committing errors). What is the unit cost of the product? 6 Delivery Control Items: What percentage of each product delivery fails to meet deadlines? What is the percentage of deliveries to the wrong address? What is the percentage of deliveries of the wrong quantity? Etc. 7 Morale Control Items: What is the turnover in our team? What is the absentee rate? What is the number of shop steward complaints? What is the number of health unit visits? What is the number of suggestions? Etc. 8 Safety Control Items: What is the number of accidents in our team? How serious are they? What is the number of accidents among our customers because of the use of our product? Etc. Company Manufacture Equipment and Services Made Available Affects final consumer Manufacture Manufacture/ Sales Production Planned Production Supplied (Dir./ Indir. Mat.) External Clients Products delivered to clients Obeying Restrictions from Manufacture Quantity/Deadline Quality (Released) Cost Quantity/Deadline Quality (Released) Supply Flexibility Low Acquisition Cost Stocks Quantity Models Deadline Deadline Product as ordered Quantity (volume) of Correct Billing Product Integrity Cost of Deliveries Needs Variation in equipment and service costs Number of missing items Value of Total Stock Number of raw materials (items) missing in production Number of MNC - material nonconformity Evolution in raw material costs Evolution in indirect material costs Planned x actual production at closure . Quantity . Model Number of orders not delivered to clients on schedule Orders x billing portfolio Total Lead Time Amount of divergence between orders & deliveries in relation to: . Product as ordered . Quantity (volume) . Product Integrity . Billing Costs of Order Deliveries Control Item Figure 8.4: Example of a sequence for defining the Control Items of a Logistics Director. Logistics Mission Clients Products SALES PRODUCT (OR FUNCTION) ETC. MARKET SHARE OF PRODUCT “X” CONTROL ITEM PORCENTAGE OF SALES OVER TOTAL SALES OF A SIMILAR PRODUCT UNIT OF MEASUREMENT A PRIORITY (A, B, C) WHEN TO ACT CONTROL ONCE A MONTH ALWAYS WHEN LESS THAN 50% FREQUENCY Table 8.4: Example of a Control Items Table. CALL A MEETING OF MANAGERS, SALES PEOPLE OF THE AREA AND OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE. DETERMINE CAUSES AND TAKE ACTION. HOW TO ACT METHOD NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS PER MONTH 0 10 20 95 M J J A S O N D Figure 8.5: Practical Rule for setting up Goals. 94 * “THEORETICALLY ATTAINABLE VALUE” IN THIS CASE IS ZERO Goal Line J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A AVERAGE VALUE (16) BETTER GOAL (8) DEFECT RATE (%) (Percentage in weight of defective material over total produced) YOUR PROCESS 92 93 94 J F M J J A S O N D Figure 8.6: Definition of a “Problem”. 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 RESULTS * GOAL PROBLEM FOR 1994 TOTAL PROBLEM Table 9.1: Simplified Method for Identifying Bad Results in Your Management Area. 1 Call in your staff and immediate co-workers and make a short presentation of the theme: “What comprises a problem”. 2 Give a piece of paper to each of the participants and ask them to list the main problems in your managerial area. 3 Collect the opinions and screen the problems, examining each problem with everyone present. Select those that are “undesirable results” (the excluded suggestions should be kept for future action). 4 If the group so wishes, distribute more paper and have the participants list additional problems. 5 Classify the problems (“undesirable results”) into controllable (those over which it is possible to “exercise control” within the managerial area itself) and not controllable. 6 Among the controllable problems, select those that can be most easily solved in the short term (around 3 months) and use PDCA to solve them. This is equivalent to on-the-job training in the PDCA method. 7 The problems that depend for their solution on other managerial units should be treated within a crossfunctional relationship. 8 When problems brought up are vital for the company and their solution depends on the organization, the board should set up a committee and a crossfunctional work group to solve them. N Y 8 7 CONCLUSION STANDARDIZATION WAS RECURRENCE PREVENTION EFFECTIVE? CHECKING 6 ? EXECUTION ACTION PLAN 4 5 ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOMENON 2 3 IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM PHASE 1 FLOW CHART * For more details on this method see Annex E. A C D P PDCA OBJECTIVE Go over the solving process for future work. To caution against problem recurrence. To verify that recurrence prevention was effective. To eliminate the root causes. To conceive a plan for each small problem in order to eliminate the root causes. To discover the root causes of each small problem. To investigate the specific characteristics of the problem with an open mind and from several points of view. To break down a bigger problem into smaller problems. To clearly define the problem and recognize its importance. Table 9.2: Problem-Solving Method. A C D P N Y 3 Standardize (adopt that which was successful) Conclude 7 8 Level the base of the equipment Augusto Gerson Responsible WHO 0 1 5/20/94 4/15/94 Time WHEN 91 Bar rolling Location WHERE Goal 0,6 To prevent sleeve breakage Reason WHY Procedure HOW This is an important part of any action plan 93 * Problem Present Situation This action plan should be discussed and approved by the department head (it may involve investment). There is one Action Plan for each small problem. 92 Eliminate that which does not work and go back to phase 2 until you are able to reach the GOAL. EVERY SUCH RETURN IS A PDCA ROUND. Every PDCA round is a new action plan, a new Three-Generation Report. 3 Regulate injectors 2 Change rollers 1 Countermeasure WHAT PLANNING PHASE (This may take a number of months or be done at one meeting, depending on the complexity of the problem) Figure 9.1: Managerial Action Using PDCA. Checking of the “Control Item” “Check the progress of your control item” Check the execution of the plan PLAN EXECUTION “Set of countermeasures”- 5W 1H ACTION PLAN 6 5 4 Analysis (search for causes by your team) (5 whys) 2 Causes Observation (using data). Break down the problem into smaller ones. Small Problem Identification of the problem “Difference Between Goal and Current Situation” 1 Defect index % 2 CONTROL ITEM 1 What has been planned PAST 2 What was done PRESENT 3 The results PRESENT 4 Problem points PRESENT 5 Proposal (plan) to resolve problem points FUTURE 6 CHECK 5 EXECUTE 4 ACTION PLAN D E What you wanted to do PLANNED 7 Standardize C A Poor Result (“Bad News”) Good Result B A RESULTS Why was it not possible to carry out the production in the open 6t vacuum tank? 3 NEW ANALYSIS 4 S R What was bad? Why? PROBLEM POINTS PROPOSAL V X T U NEW ACTION PLAN What should be done about the poor results SECTOR: Refined Product Sector Show in graph from, quantitatively, the good and poor results (merits and demerits) 8 CONCLUDE What you did EXECUTED THREE GENERATION REPORT CONTROL ITEM: Production in t/d. PROBLEM: Low production level. Figure 9.2: Stages in Setting up a Three-Generation Report, showing the solution of a problem through several PDCA rounds. C D P WHY PRODUCTION LEVEL IS LOW 3 ANALYZE 2 OBSERVE 1 IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM 1. Conducted successfully. 2. Transport time reduced. 3. Maintained at the end of the period. 4. Analysis done. 5. Flowchart time reduced from the total lead time. 6. Run time reduced. 2. Rationalize the transport of raw liquid. 3. Maintain the charge volume constant. 4. Identify bottleneck in the flowchart. 5. Carry out logical solutions for the bottleneck. 6. Analyze the efficiency of 6 t tank (open and vacuum). EXECUTED 1. Carry out production experiments with a 6t tank (open and vacuum). PLANNED (Month) 2 4 6 8 10 12 2.000 1.000 0 2.000 1.000 0 Graph of the evolution of volume of production in a 6 t tank open and vacuum (Month) Graph of the evolution of volume of production of other machines (bottlenecks) (Month) 2 4 6 8 10 12 3.000 3.000 2 4 6 8 10 12 4.000 4.000 Control graph of index achieved with planned charge (Month) 2 4 6 8 10 12 Objective: 3,678t/year Actual result: 4,419t/year Achieved: 114,0% 0 100 98 102 (%) Objective: 100%/year Actual result: 100,3%/year Achieved: 100,3% Objective: 2,060t/year Actual result: 1,450t/year Achieved: 70,4% Graph of the evolution of production volume 0 2.000 4.000 6.000 Objective: 5,936t/year Actual result: 5.870t/year Achieved: 98,9% RESULTS 3. The Rinse Shampoo production was less than the forecast for the year. (Of 219 t planned for RGSA, RGSB, RPGA and RPGB, 6 t were produced). 2. The product that should be produced with a 6 t mixer was produced in lots with 1 t mixer. (RPTD 18.5%, PETK 0.5). 1. Until June, production was not possible using the 6 t mixer owing to problems of drop in RPTD viscosity. (Of 260 t, only 4% were produced). Reasons for not achieving production in the open 6t vacuum tank. PROBLEM POINTS THREE-GENERATION REPORT SECTOR: Refined Material Production DATE: 09/30/92 Table 9.3: Three-Generation Report. CONTROL ITEM: Production in t/day GOAL: Raise production volume to levels indicated PROBLEM: Low Production Volume (ton) precision of sales forecast. (Other divisions). Resp.: Sales Division Deadline: Annual meeting 12/12/92. . Necessary to raise the combined production with the lot volume. Resp.: John Deadline: 11/30/92 . If possible, resort to of the emulsion lot, confirmation of the items to ensure quality is necessary. Resp.: Edward Deadline: 11/15/92 . To increase the volume PROPOSAL Upper Management DIVISION Reports, Documents or Division Department Section Staff and Standards Manager Manager Manager Supervision • Basic Standard Managerial Theory Corporation Analysis Managerial Resources Analysis External Factors Analysis P • Medium Term Planning Standard Establishment of Basic Work and Organizational Goals • List of Shared Functions Deployment of Goals and Work Functions NEGOTIATION: Checking of the Compatibility Between the Work Designation and the Organization NEGOTIATION: Adjustment of Goals, Production, and Control Items. • Control Cards • Company’s Standardization Manual Work Standardization P-D-C-A CHECK C • Standard process Flowchart EXECUTION D Monthly Report Monthly Report • Abnormality Report Monthly Report Top Management Diagnosis (monthly) (A) • Business Report • Diagnosis A Report Top Management Diagnosis (occasional) (B) A • Organization Chart • Control Items Table Reconsideration of Annual Activities Status Report • Diagnosis B Report • List of Vital Problems Figure 10.1: Example of a Managerial Standard (Daily Work Routine Management System). INGOT CASTING PLATFORM OPERATOR TOWER OPERATOR CONTROL PANEL OPERATOR INJECTION STANDARD BS-5201 BETWEEN 1570 and 1600ºC BETWEEN 2 and 3 m/min CARBON IN LADLE CASTING TEMPERATURE CASTING SPEED BETWEEN 0,45 - 0,56% 100% (ABSENCE OF BLISTERS, CRACKS AND FAULTS CARBON CONTENT SURFACE QUALITY SHIFT FOREMAN SHIFT FOREMAN SHIFT FOREMAN LEADER WHAT MUST BE DONE BY THE OPERATOR UPON FINDING AN ABNORMALITY PO-583 CONTINUOUS RECORD AM-031 VELOCITY GAUGE CORRECTION STANDARD BS-6881 RUN SHEET THERMOCOUPLE AX-32 CORRECTION STANDARD BS-7318 RUN SHEET RUN SHEET LEADER LEADER CORRECTION STANDARD BS-7318 CORRECTION STANDARD BS-7318 WHO TO SEEK OUT WHAT TO DO CORRECTIVE ACTION X-RAYS FLOW METER AS-536 RUN SHEET PRESSURE GAUGE AS-432 HOW TO MEASURE AND REGISTER CONTROL PARAMETERS ALL RUNS ALL RUNS ALL RUNS RUN SHEET RECORD TIMER MEASURING INSTRUMENT Figure 10.2: Example of a Process Technical Standard. WHAT MUST BE ADJUSTED BY THE OPERATORS ALL RUNS BLOW OPERATOR BETWEEN 1 and 1,5 Nm3/t DISCHARGE WHAT MUST BE ENSURED BY THE OPERATIONS ALL RUNS BLOW OPERATOR BETWEEN 2 and 2,5 atm. BLOW PRESSURE ALL RUNS BLOW OPERATOR BETWEEN 2,5 and 3 min. ARGON BLOW TIME MEASUREMENT (TIME/FREQ) COMPOSITION AND TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS DURING THE RUN LESS THAN 3% PERSON RESPONSIBLE HOMOGENEITY STANDARD VALUE CHECKING METHOD WHO WHEN WHERE HOW CONTROL PARAMETER LADLE METALURGY WHAT CONTROL LEVEL VALUE ASSURED QUALITY CHARACTERISTIC NAME OF OPERATION PROCESS FLOWCHART PROCESS QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCESS ANALYSIS RESULTS ARE PLACED HERE (THEY ARE A COMPANY SECRET) Flowchart Name PROCESS QUALITY ASSURANCE CONTROL LEVEL CHECKING METHOD CORRECTIVE ACTION The lines of this document are related to standard operational procedures. Indicate here what the operator should do upon perceiving an abnormality. Specify here who should carry out the measurement, the frequency of the measurement, the instrument, and the way the form is to be filled out. The operator “adjusts” these variables so that they conform to the standards set up by engineering. MEANS Figure 10.3: How to Use a Process Technical Standard. The operator may measure and even plot these variables on a graph, but only the supervisor may take corrective action in case of abnormalities. Control charts are utilized with these variables, if needed. The flowchart goes here, as determined in item 3.1. The results of the process analysis conducted during the development of a new product or optimization of an existing product are placed in the two columns shown. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS END FLOWCHART 20 ± 0,1 mm 40 - 60 HARDNESS DIAMETER SURFACE QUALITY HEAT TREATMENT BENDING 19,9 45 99 20,1 mm 55 HR 1,02 1,35 0,65 Cpk THE RESULTS OF THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS EVALUATION ARE PLACED HERE 101 mm HISTOGRAM EVALUATION OF OPERATION RESULTS Figure 10.4: Suggested Model for a Process Evaluation Report. THIS PART COMES FROM THE PROCESS TECHNICAL STANDARD (” QC PROCESS CHART”) 100 ± 1 mm LENGTH CUT 45 - 55 HR VALUE ESTABLISHED BY ENGINEERING QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS QUALITY ASSURANCE NAME OF OPERATION PROCESS RESULT PROCESS RAW MATERIALS EQUIPMENT RESULTS 450 INFORMATION n=2 LSC = 449,79 LC = 406,31 X 400 LIC = 362,84 350 100 LSC = 75,55 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 50 PEOPLE LC = 23,13 PROCEDURES R 0 Compliance with operational procedures by workers 1 2 3 4 9 10 11 12 MAINTAIN DIAGNOSIS/ TRAINING (Supervisor) ABNORMALITY REPORT (Operator) 5 Senses SPECIAL REMOVAL OF SYMPTOM (Operator/Supervisor) COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST IMMEDIATE CAUSES YES Day OK ? NO CAUSE ? COMMON (CHRONIC) ABNORMALITY ANALYSIS (Supervisor) ABNORMALITY REPORT (Supervisor) ADDITIONAL COUNTERMEASURES (Manager) DAILY REVIEW (Manager) PERIODIC REVIEW (Pareto Analysis) Identification of Chronic Abnormalities (Manager) COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST ROOT CAUSES TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PROBLEMS (Manager) A P Problem-Solving C D Method (“QC Story”) 6-MONTHLY STATUS REPORT (All Managerial Levels) (Part of Policy Deployment) STUDY OF STATUS REPORTS AND SETTING OF ANNUAL POLICIES FOR REDUCING ABNORMALITIES (Top Management) The person responsible for the ACTION is indicated in parentheses. Figure 10.5: Advanced Process Control (This figure complements Figure 7.1). People Environmental Conditions Procedures Information 6 Procedures should be standardized and the work should be in accordance with the standards. The detailed flowchart of the process is of fundamental importance for assuring quality. Product 7 The product should meet specifications, and have maximum economically viable reliability. Inspection procedures should be audited. 3 Measuring instruments should be checked regularly for accuracy. This measurement should be audited. Figure 11.1: Overview of the Process Quality Assurance. 5 People should be trained and this training should be audited. Equipment Interruptions cause variations and defects. The machinery should not stop. Maintenance for maximum reliability and availability. Maintenance should be audited. Raw materials 4 Environmental conditions should be specified: dust, temperature, humidity, etc. 1 The quality systems of suppliers should be audited. 2 (A) LSL USL LSL USL Nonconformity High Dispersion Low Dispersion USL = Lower Specification Limit USL = Upper Specification Limit (B) Temperature Hardness Time Figure 11.2: Concept of Dispersion. P D A C (Compliance with standards) IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE - Process Technical Standard or System Standard - Standard Operational Procedures QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT Figure 11.3: Relationships Among Planning, Execution, and Auditing Functions in Quality Assurance. QUALITY AUDIT (Internal or external) (Checking compliance with standards) QUALITY CHECK CORRECTIVE ACTIONS FOR THE PLANNING, EXECUTION, AND AUDITING PROCESSES Customers CARRYING OUT QUALITY QUALITY PLANNING THE CONCEPT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE A P C D P A ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION OF MATERIALS PROCESS DESIGN PRODUCT DESIGN CUSTOMER NEEDS STANDARDS DAILY WORK ROUTINE MANAGEMENT D A SUPPLIERS CUSTOMERS COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS AUDIT OF SUPPLIERS’ QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM PROCESS AUDIT PRODUCT AUDIT “QUALITY ASSURANCE” C CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS AND CLAIMS NONCONFORMITY REPORT Figure 11.4: Arrangement of the Various Activities that Ensure Quality for Customers. INTERNAL AUDIT OF STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE (SOP) COMPANY B AUDITOR AUDITEE POSITION JOHN SMITH WILLIAM WALKER FURNACE OPERATOR LOCATION: FURNACE PLATAFORM DATE: 03/16/93 AUDIT Nº 32 S.O.P.: PLACE LADLE ON SUPPORT QUESTIONNAIRE: 1 2 3 4 5 6 - IS THE S.O.P. IN THE AREA? DOES THE S.O.P. HAVE ANY CHECK LIST FOR QUICK CONSULTATION? DOES THE OPERATOR HAVE QUICK ACCESS TO THE S.O.P. FOR CONSULTING? IS THE LATEST VERSION OF THE S.O.P. AVAILABLE IN THE WORK AREA? ARE THE REVISED ITEMS CLEAR TO THE OPERATOR? ARE THE CONDITIONS REQUIRED BY THE S.O.P. MET IN TERMS OF: 6.1 - MACHINES, EQUIPMENT 6.2 - AREA CONDITIONS 6.3 - SAFETY 6.4 - RAW MATERIALS 6.5 - OTHERS (________)? 7 - IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE S.O.P., ARE THE MAIN ITEMS BEING FOLLOWED IN TERMS OF: 7.1 - LOCATION FOR SIGNS ( ) YES (x) NO 7.6 - _____________________________ 7.2 - USE OF EPI’S? __________ (x) YES ( ) NO 7.7 - _____________________________ 7.3 - _______________________ ( ) YES ( ) NO 7.8 - _____________________________ 7.4 - _______________________ ( ) YES ( ) NO 7.9 - _____________________________ 7.5 - _______________________ ( ) YES ( ) NO 7.10 - _____________________________ (x) YES (x) YES (x) YES (x) YES (x) YES ( ( ( ( ( ) NO ) NO ) NO ) NO ) NO (x) YES (x) YES (x) YES ( ) YES ( ) YES ( ( ( ( ( ) NO ) NO ) NO ) NO ) NO ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) NO ) NO ) NO ) NO ) NO ) YES ) YES ) YES ) YES ) YES IN CASE AN ESTABLISHED ITEM IS NOT BEING FOLLOWED, DESCRIBE THE REASON ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ WHAT ALTERNATIVE IS SUGGESTED BY THE OPERATOR? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 8 - DOES THE S.O.P. SPECIFY A CORRECTIVE ACTION WHEN THE ITEM IS NOT FOLLOWED? 9 - ARE SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL ADVISED OF THE CORRECTIVE ACTION? 10 - DOES THE OPERATOR REQUIRE RETRAINING? 11 - GENERAL CONDITIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE S.O.P. ACCORDING TO THE AUDIT ( ) BAD (x) YES ( ) NO (x) YES ( ) NO ( ) YES (x) NO ( ) AVERAGE (x) GOOD (x) YES ( ) NO 12 - DOES THE S.O.P. REQUIRE REVIEW? WHY? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ OBSERVATIONS: ________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 11.5: Example of a Standard Operational Procedure Audit Report. FOLLOW-UP METHOD CONTROL ITEMS OF THE CHIEF Reduce to 10 cases/year CHART AND HIST. Get to 100% within specifications Tensile strength Number of client complaints QUALITY COST SOUZA TELLES TRAJANO TELLES AGUIAR B A C C B TIMETABLE 20 b / min 0.1% Coil loading rate Scrap rate Low relationship Lack of relationship Medium relationship Strong (direct) relationship CAPTION: 94% JANUARY 50% NOVEMBER Availability of the roller SEPTEMBER OCTOBER Production losses from broken bearings CHECK ITEMS OF THE CHIEF GOALS Figure 12.1: Process of deployment of the policies and their introduction into the annual action plan from the first managerial level. ANNUAL ACTION PLAN OF THE FIRST MANAGERIAL LEVEL 4. Reduce losses from cracks 5. Reduce package losses 2. Reduce bearing breakage 3. Increase coil loading rhythm 1. Reduce roller stops PROJECTS GOALS OF THE CHIEF PRIORITY ANNUAL GOALS OF THE FIRST MANAGERIAL LEVEL RESPONSIBLE METHOD FOR REACHING THESE GOALS MAY ANNUAL GOALS OF THE MANAGERS APRIL METHOD FOR REACHING THESE GOALS FEBRUARY MARCH ANNUAL GOALS OF THE DIRECTORS JUNE METHOD FOR REACHING THESE GOALS JULY AUGUST ANNUAL GOALS OF THE CEO DECEMBER TRACKING METHOD SUPERVISOR’S CONTROL ITEMS 5. Reduce packaging losses 4. Reduce crack losses 1. Reduce rolling-mill stoppage 2. Reduce sleeve breakage 3. Increase spool exchange speed AND HIST. GRAPH. SOUZA TELLES TRAJANO TELLES AGUIAR PRIORITY B A C C B 50% 20 b / min 0,1% Production losses by sleeve breakage Spool charge rate Waste rate No relation Weak realtion Average relation Very strong relation (Direct) KEY: 94% NOVERMBER DECEMBER Rolling-mill availability SUPERVISOR’S CHECK ITEMS CRONOGRAMA Figure 12.2 : Annual Action Plan of a Basic Managerial Unit. GRAPH Number of customer complains PROJECTS COST JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST QUALITY SEPTEMBER OCTOBER SUPERVISOR’S GOALS PERSON RESPONSABILE ACTION PLAN OF THE FIRST MANAGERIAL LEVEL Reduce to 10 cases/year Attain 100% of specifications Tensile strength GOALS FIRST MANAGERIAL LEVEL SENIOR MANAGER DIRECTOR PRESIDENT ANNUAL ACTION PLAN A P C D PROJECT B GOALS Figure 12.3: Annual Policy Deployment. FIRST MANAGERIAL LEVEL POLICY A P C D PROJECT A GOALS SENIOR MANAGER’S POLICY DIRECTOR’S POLICY PRESIDENT’S POLICY ACTION PLAN PROJECT B ACTION PLAN PROJECT A SUPERVISORS WORKERS SUPERVISORS SUPERVISORS TECHNICAL SUPPORT FIRST MANAGERIAL LEVEL SUGGESTIONS SYSTEM A P C D Figure 13.1: Continuous Improvement Activities carried out in the Basic Managerial Units. QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLES A P C D ATTAIN MANAGERIAL GOALS A P C D ... HUMAN NEEDS BASIC NEEDS OF HUMAN BEINGS SIMULTANEITY OF NEEDS SELF-REALIZATION Realization of your own potential, self-development, creativity, self-expression SELF-REALIZATION EGO OR ESTEEM Self-confidence, independence, reputation, etc. SECURITY Protection for yourself and your family. Stability at home and at work. PHYSIOLOGICAL Survival, food, clothing, and shelter. HUMAN GROWTH SENSE OF BELONGING Feelings of being accepted, friendship, association, feeling of belonging to the group. EGO OR ESTEEM SENSE OF BELONGING SECURITY PHYSIOLOGICAL Figure 13.2: Basic human needs, whose satisfaction are preconditions for motivation. MEANS WASTE WASTE MEANS MEANS INCONSISTENCY GOAL GOAL GOAL "END” PRODUCT MEANS INSUFFICIENCY INSUFFICIENCY Figure 14.1: The Concept of the Three Sources of Losses. GOAL INCONSISTENCY PROCEDURES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS PEOPLE "MEANS” INFORMATION EQUIPMENT RAW MATERIAL PROCESS GOAL ORIGIN OF PROBLEMS P R O C E S S HUMAN RESOURCES RAW MATERIALS EQUIPMENT utilized? - Are the machines and tools being well- - Is there any idle equipment? layout? - Is there any waste due to inadequate - Is the equipment being underutilized? - Is there corrosion prevention? project? - Is there any waste due to the process - Is there energy waste? - Is the rate of rejection high? where cheaper ones might suffice? - Are expensive raw materials being used - Are yields low? right time? - Are the right tools in the right place at the - Is there waste due to bad planning? - Is there any movement wasted? - Is there any job that does not add value? WASTE reasonable way or in a wasteful way? - Is there any equipment being used in a machines well balanced? - Are the production capacities of the several - Do the products have uneven finishing? supervision? - Are the machines getting enough used for high-precision tasks? - Are there low-precision machines being from use above their capacity? - Is the life of the machines being harmed suppliers? - Is there any insufficiency in items from - Is there any insufficiency due to project? - Are there any irregularities in the properties of the materials? - Is the strength enough for ensuring safety? end of the job? - Are there people who get too tired at the machines and is being done manually? - Is there any job that could be done by - Is the quality of the materials uniform? - Are people too busy at certain times and having nothing to do at other times? - Is there a good mix of experienced and inexperienced staff members? - Are there enough people to face the work - Are there areas where people are exhausted, and other areas where there is nothing to do? load? INSUFFICIENCY INCONSISTENCY Table 14.1: The Technique of the Three Sources of Losses MARKET RESEARCH Identification of consumer needs A product that is better, cheaper, and delivered more quickly than the competitor’s Product - Better - Cheaper Design of new product Survival - Safer - Faster Delivery - Easier Maintenance Design of new process Definition Satisfied customer Process - Easier - Better - With less dispersion - Cheaper Production - Faster - Safer Technical assistance Figure 14.2: Concept of Survival According to Miyauchi(12). 3 4 Improve the current way of working (KAIZEN) Operate ever more efficiently a process that has waste built into its design. 3 4 A P C D Eliminate waste contained in the design itself of a previous process. Promote drastic changes in the way of working (INNOVATION) Seek the ideal way of working (new process) Reject the current way of working (process) DRASTIC IMPROVEMENTS Figure 14.3: Comparison between “Successive Improvements” and “Drastic Improvements”. 2 Analyze the current way of working (process) 2 1 Accept the current way of working (process) A P C D 1 SUCCESSIVE IMPROVEMENTS CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT ACTION PLAN DEFINE GOALS ACT IN THE PROCESS ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS A P C D CHECK THE EFECTS OF THE WORK DONE DETERMINE THE METHODS TO REACH THE GOALS EDUCATE AND TRAIN EXECUTE WORK CHECK Figure A.1: PDCA - Process Control Method. DO MANAGEMENT TO SUSTAIN RESULTS STANDARD GOAL S 1 STANDARD GOAL: Standard Quality, Standard Cost, etc. 2 STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE (S.O.P): S.O.P. to attain the standard goals. D 3 DO: Comply with the S.O.P. 4 CHECK: Confirm the effectiveness of the S.O.P. SUSTAIN 450 n=2 UCL = 449,79 LC = 406,31 X 400 LCL = 362,84 C 350 100 UCL = 75,55 50 YES EFECTIVE ? NO A 5 LC = 23,13 R 0 1 2 3 4 9 10 11 12 Day CORRECTIVE ACTION: Removal of the symptom. Act on the cause. Figure A.2: Detailed PDCA to Sustain Results. MANAGEMENT TO IMPROVE IMPROVEMENT GOAL P 1 PROBLEM: Identification of the problem. 2 PHENOMENON ANALYSIS: Break down the problem in smaller problems. 3 PROCESS ANALYSIS: Detection of main causes of each smaller problems. 4 D ACTION PLAN: Countermeasures against main causes of each smaller problem. 5 DO: Execute the “Action Plan”. 6 CHECK: Confirm the Action’s Effectiveness. C BETTER NO EFECTIVE ? Number of complaints per month * GOAL YES 92 A 93 J 94 D 7 STANDARDIZATION: Definitive elimination of causes. 8 CONCLUSION: Review of activities and planning for future tasks. Figure A.3: Detailed PDCA for Improvement. A S C D PRODUCTS STANDARDIZATION A P C D ANNUAL GOALS MAINTAINS IMPROVES Figure A.4: PDCA applied with the goals of maintaining and improving. CORRECTIVE ACTION PERIODIC REVIEW OF PRIORITY CHRONIC PROBLEMS PRIORITY CHRONIC PROBLEMS ANNUAL POLICIES OF TOP MANAGEMENT (KAIZEN) "EXISTING PROCESS” TIME C D A P "EXISTING PROCESS” INNOVATION (KAIKAKU) "NEW PROCESS” C D A P Figure A.5: Combination of Cycles for Sustaining and for Improving which make up Continuous Improvement. LEVEL OF RESULT C D A S CONCEPT OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CONTROL SHIFT ABNORMALITY ANALYSIS REPORT COMPANY B SHIFT: 3 CREW NUMBER: ___/___ DATE: 03/15/12 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ABNORMALITY/COMPLAINT: Run with % of carbon above that intended. DESIRED RESULT: Carbon percentage = 0.093%. RESULT OBTAINED: Carbon percentage = 0.120% DIFFERENCE: Excess carbon percentage = 0.027% BRAINSTORMING (POSSIBLE CAUSES): Error in calculating amount added, lack of stop control in standard operational procedure. Operator’s carelessness. MOST PROBABLE CAUSES: Machine Labor Environment Operator’s carelessness in regard to graphite residue in cannon Lack of stop control in standard operational procedure Run with a high percentage of carbon Method Raw material ROOT CAUSE(S): - Lack of stop control in standard operational procedure. - Operator’s carelessness in regard to possible graphite residue in the cannon. ACTION PLAN WHAT WHO HOW (WHEN APPLICABLE) WHEN 1 - Introduce stop control (item 2) into the standard procedure Jason Revising present standard Immediately 2 - Make sure that the cannon is empty Furnace operator Injecting nitrogen into cannon until it is thoroughly clean When recarburizing the runs 3 - Limit carbon content range to 0.085-0.105% Cid Sending note to quality assurance department Immediate 4 6 Section: Shift: OP Number: Control Shift abnormality analysis report COMPANY "E" 2 1 Nº: ____/____ 3 Date:____/____/____ C.C.: 7 Crew: 8 Description of OP: Machine/Line: Operator: 9 Detected by: 5 10 11 12 13 Time: Investigation of Causes: Raw material Equipment Information 14 15 16 Abnormality 20 17 18 19 Environmental Conditions Personnel Procedures Why did the abnormality occur? Probable cause: 21 22 Action Plan What to do 23 Who How to do it When 24 25 26 Additional Information: 27 Supervisor’s comments: 28 29 Supervisor’s signature ABNORMALITY ANALYSIS REPORT COMPANY "C" Unit: Shift: CORPORTATE Date: 03/15/12 ONE SHIFT ONLY Management Area/Department Department/Sector: FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT BILLINGS CREDIT 1. IDENTIFICATION Abnormality: Unwarranted collection Removal of Symptom: Approval letter written for notary. Certification of no payment requested. Fact communicated to SCI and SERASA. Time: Location: Operator: 2. OBSERVATION Billings Type: Customer’s complaint Symptom: Protest Negative File CUSTOMER BANK - Direct payment NOTARY - Didn’t honor instruction 3. ANALYSIS - Payment after due date - Did not recognize collection - Didn’t honor instruction - Did not instruct notary UNJUSTIFIED COLLECTION - Did not issue instructions BILLINGS - Delay in delivering invoice - Delay in delivering - Error due date merchandise INVOICING LACK OF STANDARD PROCEDURE TRANSPORT Department Chief (Name/Signature): (What was done) 1 - Devise a procedure for writing off settled duplicates 2 - Train team 3 - Follow-up 03/31/12 04/08/12 4.3. Date Limit (When) (What was observed after the action) Moacir Moacir/Cláudia Cláudia 6. CHECK 4. ACTION PLAN - 5W 1H 5. ACTION 4.2. Person in charge (Who) 9. GAINS (US$) Manager/Department Chief Foreman (Name/Signature): (Should the standard be changed?) 4.4. Observation (How/Why/Where) 7. STANDARDIZATION 4.1. Action (What to do) 8. CONCLUSION PROCESS ABNORMALITY REPORT Occurrence of the abnormalities COMPANY X, INC. Name of the Machine ENT-86814 Control Chart Number Name of the Process Pre-Test Lot Number Quality Characteristic Electrical behavior (oscillation) Operator Inspector Date and Time of Occurrence 20-2-Tuu-A3-2 February 15 5:00 p.m Akemi Yoshikawa 3% stratification on the control chart, showing errors in electrical 3,0 oscillation chart in pre-test UCL = 1,12 Detected by LM = 0,3 Tabuchi Investigation of the Cause In the past, the position of the cam was determined in relation to the groove on the axle shaft (that is, by dimension C). To improve efficiency, the welding guide for the cam was determined by dimension B. Owing to burrs and other irregularities at the Cam Rotor Dimension B Weld axle end of the rotor axle, this increased the Dimension C variation in dimension C, causing obstruction Burr of the chassis by the cam and altering Interference electrical oscillation. Chassi 1 2 Dimension A It is desirable to use the current guide to guard against future increases in production. When welding a floor spring, check to see if the cam is interfering with the chassis. During the rotor assembly process, correct the cam of the rotor axle welding the guide. 3 Connection with pertinent departments When ? Who ? When ? When ? When ? February 16 Tabuchi Day/Month Day/Month When ? Emergency Action February 17 The investigation requires that the case be sent to the technical department. (UTU - 014) 1 2 Who ? Tabuchi When? February 17 Checked by? Tokuno Actions to prevent recurrence Prevention of recurrence During the rotor assembly process, control the axle by cam dimension (dimension B) with an X - R control chart (after February 17) Confirmation of the efect of the action to prevent recurrence Emergency action Investigation of the causes 9 10 11 14 15 After changing Dimension A, no electrical oscillation error occurred. As the control chart for electrical oscillation errors continued to show zero defects, it was discontinued. When ? March 8 The X - R control chart for the dimension of the weld of the rotor/cam was also discontinued. Who ? Tokuno Change in the dimensions of the part where the chassis enters in contact with the cam (Dimension A) from 5.5 to 6.5 mm. To be kept on file for 3 years Format Number TG-Q001 Regulation Division MP Warehouse, Production Section, Assembly Crew UHF When ? February 28 Who ? Confirmation of details of the action Tokuno Aoki Checking Section Chief Supervisor Leader Aoki Tokuno Tabuchi * According to an original of Kaoru Ishikawa in Introduction to Quality Control, p.299. Abnormality Report Model(13). ~ ~ Shipment Packaging Packaging Process Finishing Process PROCESS PRODUCTION BOARD CIRCUIT PRINTED TOTAL PROCESS Figure C.1: Difference Between Flowchart and Macro Flowchart(18). Complete inspection of product Flux coating Corrosion prevention Water wash Degreasing and dust removal Inspection of process Printing Process MACRO FLOWCHART FLOWCHART Circuit board cutting GROUPED PROCESS SINGLE PROCESS Table C.1: Flowchart Symbols Symbol Meaning Meeting or Action Checking Request by board Partnerships Constitution Merge Incorporation Transformation Alteration COMPANY “C” Documents prepared for commerce board federal treasury Payment documents provided Documents sent to commerce board Documents received from commerce board INC Documents prepared for publishing Payment made IOSEC sent for publishing DOE publications received LTD. INC. LTD. Documents for federal treasury prepared Payment bill provided Document to state treasury sent Document from state treasury received Charter provided Documents distributed and original filed END Table C.2: Simplified Conventions for Flowcharts. Work a Operation that causes changes in the form and properties of materials, components, or product. Transport Operation that causes changes in the position of raw materials, components, or products. 1/2 to 1/3 of a Planned stock Unplanned stock Quantity inspection Quality inspection Operation of stocking up raw materials, materials, components, or products according to a plan. State of congestion of raw materials, supplies, components, or products, contrary to plan. Operation to obtain the difference of results, using as a reference the quantity of raw materials, materials, components and products. Operation for judging the conformity of a lot or good quality of a part, testing the quality characteristics of the raw material, supplies, components, or product and comparing the results with a reference. * See the book Padronização de Empresas, p.93, for more details. Flowchart conventions may also be combined if operations occur simultaneously. Table C.2: Continuation. Composite Symbol Meaning While the main focus of inspection is quality, quantity inspection is also carried out. While the main focus of inspection is quantity, quality inspection is also carried out. While the main focus is on doing the work, quantity inspection is also carried out. While the main focus is on doing the work, transport is also being attended to. Shield Legs Shield Armature Inductor Axle Ventilator Clamp A Clamp B Perforation and contraction of the area Work on external diameter st Perforation Dimensions and return Dimensions and return ~ ~ Folding 1st package/time 1 winding/time Winding Perforation st 1 part/time Drillingand contraction of the area Initial work Drilling 1st part/time Final work Drilling Armature Dimensions and return Dimensions and return Hole of class Drilling Drilling Dimensions For 1 motor a time Armature Rotor 1st part/turn Quantity dimensions Dimensions Clamp B Grinding Clamp A 240 parts/ time Output dimensions 240 parts/ time ~ Pre-treatment ~ 4 parts Weld Pre-treatment 15 parts/ pallet 4 parts/ hanger Shield legs Insertion of bearing Painting 240 parts/ each time Voltage polarity Loading 24 parts/ pallet ~ = Shield 50 parts/ pallet Nest Axle = Insertion of axle Reception inspection 1 part/time Cover Work on external diameter 240 parts/ time Finish Weld 15 parts/ pallet Coupling Screws Remove from box Washers Remove from box Dimensions of connection Balancing 15 parts/ pallet Rotor Assembling Nuts 24 parts/ pallet Rolling 24 parts/ pallet Rolling Insertion Remove from box Assembling 1 part Clamp B Inductor Inductor Shield Ventilator Test of characteristic value 1 part Bearing Box for Packaging Painting 1 part # of final inspection completion Axle Clamp 120 motors/a time Monophase Induction Motor Rotor Example of a Process Flowchart. Shield Leg Table D.1: Method for Receiving a Consultant. P D 1 Clearly establish your GOAL and discuss it with the CONSULTANT´S TEAM (if there is a contract, put this in). 2 Gather information on the subject. 3 Set up a team mixing your people with the consultants and conduct an analysis by asking “What have been the causes that have kept us from achieving our goal up until now? (See table 3.1) 4 This mixed team must then, set up an Action Plan, which consists of COUNTERMEASURES against the causes (See Tables 3.1 and 3.2). 5 Execute. 6 C NO SUCCESS YES A Check. Make a Three-Generation Report (See Table 9.3). Discuss the report with the CONSULTANTS and ask for advice: (a) Is the plan lacking something? (b) Why wasn’t the goal achieved? (c) What should be the next steps? The CONSULTANTS should go over steps 3 and 4 with you and your team until the goal is attained. 7 Standardize. 8 Conclude the project. A C D P PDCA N Phenomenon Analysis 2 8 7 Conclusion Standardization (Was prevention of recurrence effective?) To recapitulate the entire problem - solving process for future work. To prevent recurrence of the problem. To check if the action was effective. Checking 6 ? To eliminate the root causes. Execution To conceive an action plan for each smaller problem to eliminate the root causes. Action Plan 4 5 To detect the root causes of each smaller problem. Process Analysis To break down the problem into smaller problems. To define the problem clearly and recognize its importance. OBJECTIVE 3 Y Problem identification PHASE 1 FLOWCHART Table E.1: Problem-Solving Method - QC STORY. Tracing history of the problem 1 2 5 4 3 Selecting the problem Assigning responsibilities Doing a Pareto analysis Showing current losses and viable gains Tasks Flow F B A M IJKL EFGH M A F E J J A J I S O Better Assignment of responsibilities ABCD Pareto analysis J Present Always use historical data Propose a deadline for solving the problem. Appoint the person or group that will be in charge. Designate the group leader. A Pareto analysis makes it possible to prioritize topics and to establish viable numerical goals. Subtopics may also be established if necessary. Note: Do not look for causes here; only undesirable results. Causes will be sought in phase 3. What is it possible to gain? What is being lost? How does it occur? What is the frequency of the problem? A problem is the undesirable result of a job (be sure the problem chosen is the most important, based on facts and data). For example: loss of production owing to equipment stoppage, overdue payments, percentage of defective parts, etc. Area’s general policy (Quality, delivery, cost, morale, safety) Graphs Photographs Observations Tools Utilized Phase 1 - Problem Identification Losses 3 2 1 Flow Timetable, budget and goal Discovery of the characteristics of the problem by means of observation on site Important recommendation: the more time you spend here, the easier it will be to solve the problem. Don’t skip this part! Discovery of the characteristics of the problem by means of the gathering of data. Break down the problem into smaller problems. Tasks IJKL EFGH F E PHASE Analysis Action Plan Execution Check Standardization Conclusion 1 2 3 4 Go to the place where the problem occurred ABCD B A 5 J I 6 7 8 PRIORITIZING Choose the most important themes and go back PARETO CHARTS CHECK LIST STRATIFICATION PARETO ANALYSIS Tools Employed Make a timetable as a reference. This timetable should be updated for each phase. Make a budget. Define a goal to be reached. Should not be done in the office, but at the site of the event itself for the gathering of supplementary information that cannot be obtained in the form of numerical data. Use a video camera and photographs. Observe the problem from several angles (stratification): a. Time - Are the results different in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, on Mondays, on holidays, etc.? b. Place - Are the results different in different parts of a part (defects at the top, at the base, on the sides)? In different places (accidents in corners, in the middle of the streets, on sidewalks), etc.? c. Type - Are the results different depending on product, the raw material, the material used? d. Symptom - Are the results different whether the defects are cavities or porosity, whether absenteism is due to absence or sick leave, whether the stop is due to the burning-up of a motor or mechanical failure, etc.? It will also be necessary to investigate specific aspects, such as air moisture, room temperature, gauge instrument conditions, standard reliability, training, who is the operator, which team worked, what are the weather conditions, etc. "5W1H" - Ask the questions: what, who, when, where, why and how to gather data. Build several Pareto charts according to the groups defined in stratification. Set up a goal and an action plan for each smaller problem. Observations Phase 2 - Phenomenon Analysis No No Yes ? ? Did you confirm a most probable cause? 3 Consistency test of root cause Analysis of most probable causes (hypothesis verification) Yes 1 Screening of most probable causes Definition of contributing causes (for each smaller problem) 2 Tasks Flow B D F B C D F A 10 20 A Is there technical evidence that it is possible to prevent recurrence? Would recurrence prevention generate undesirable defects? A 100% Collection of new data about the most probable causes, using a check list. Analyze collected data. Testing of the causes. E C If recurrence prevention is technically impossible, or if it can produce undesirable effects (scrapping, high cost, rework, complexities, etc.), it may be that the determined cause is not the root cause but rather an effect of it. Consider the cause as a new problem and ask again “why” and go back to the beginning of the flow of this process. Based on the results of the experiments, you will confirm or not confirm the existence of a relationship between the problem (effect) and the most probable causes (hypothesis). Visit the locations where hypotheses apply, collect information. Stratify the hypotheses, collect data using the check list as an aid. Use Pareto to prioritize, a relational diagram to test the correlation between the hypotheses and the effect. Use a histogram to evaluate the dispersion and graphs to check trends. Test the hypotheses through experiments. More probable causes: the number of causes listed in the previous task must be reduced by elimination of the less-probable causes. Based on data collected during the observation process, take advantage also of suggestions based on the experience of the group and hierarchical seniors; also, based upon information collected during observation, prioritize the most probable causes. Be careful with “cross” effects: problems that result from two or more factors simultaneously. Pay special attention to these. Identification through cause and effect diagram A F Setting up a work group: involve all those who can contribute to the identification of the causes. Meetings should be participatory. Cause-and-effect diagram: write down the largest possible number of causes. Set up a cause-and-effect relation between the causes listed. Construct the cause-and-effect diagram placing the more generally based causes on the larger branches, and secondary and tertiary causes, etc., on the smaller branches. Observations Brainstorming and cause and effect diagram Question: Why does the problem occur? Tools Utilized Phase 3 - Process Analysis 2 1 2 Designing of an action strategy 1 Carrying out the action Training Designing of an action plan for recurrence prevention and revision of the timetable and final budget Tasks Flow NEI WHAT STANDARD AXLE FLOOR PIN Plan and timetable Training techniques ! Dissemination of plan to everyone Participatory meetings ! EDU TO CHANGE TO CHANGE ! ! RUI WHO ELI TO CLEAN TASK TO MEASURE Observations Define what is to be done (What) Define when it is to be done (When) Define who will do it (Who) Define where it will be done (Where) Clarify why it is being done (Why). Detail or delegate the detailing of how it will be done (How) ! Determine the goal to be attained and quantify it ($, tons, defects, etc.). ! Determine the control items and the check items of the various levels involved. ! ! ! ! ! ! Make sure that actions are being taken on the root causes and not on their effects. ! Make sure that the actions proposed do not produce secondary effects; if these do occur, take action against them. ! Propose diferent solutions, analyze the effectiveness and cost of each; choose the best. ! ! During execution, physically check on location whether actions are being carried out. All actions and the good and bad results should be recorded in a form, on the date when they were taken. ! Check which actions require the active cooperation of all. Give special attention to these actions. ! Clearly present the tasks and the reason for them. ! Be sure that everyone understands and agrees with the measures proposed. Phase 5 - Execution ow? Who? H hy? ?W Where hat? W When? "5W1H", timetable, costs Discussion with group involved Discussion with group involved Tools Utilized Phase 4 - Action Plan Checking whether the problem persists 2 3 N Y ? Listing secondary effects 1 Was recurrence prevention effective? Comparing results 4 Tasks Flow A BEFORE C E A D Analyze C E BEFORE MONTHS Checking Better LIC LC LSC AFTER A S O N D Action J F M A M J J D B $ Question: Was the root cause effectively identified and recurrence effectively prevented? B AFTER l l l l l l l l Utilize the information previously obtained for making the decision. If the solution was faulty, go back to phase 2 (Phenomenon Analysis). When the results of the action are not as satisfactory as expected, check whether all the planned actions were implemented according to plan. When the undesirable effects persist, even after the recurrence prevention action, this means that the solution presented was faulty. Any alteration in the system may entail positive or negative secondary effects. Data used should be collected both before and after action to prevent recurrence, to check the effectiveness of the action and the degree of reduction of the undesirable results. Comparison formats should be the same before and after the action is taken. Convert and compare the effects, also in monetary terms. Check if all actions were implemented. Pareto, control charts, histograms. l Observations Phase 6 - Checking Tools Utilized Defects Communication Education and training 1 2 3 4 Development or alteration of standard Monitoring utilization of the standard Tasks Flow A P C D · System for checking observance of standard. · Meetings and lectures. · Training manuals. · On-the-job training. · Communiques, newsletters, meetings, etc. · Set up the new operational procedure or revise the old one using 5W1H. · Whenever possible, incorporate a foolproof mechanism. Tools Utilized Observations · Avoid the reappearance of an already solved problem because of laxity in complying with standards: · Set up a periodic check system; · The supervisor should periodically observe his subordinates to ensure compliance with standard operational procedures. · Make sure that the new standards or the changes in existing standards are passed on to all those involved. · Do not communicate solely through documents. The reasons for changes must be explained, and the important features and changes made clear. · Make sure that employees are able to execute the standard operational procedure. · Provide on-the-job, on-site-training. · Provide documents at the location where they are needed and in the form necessary. · Avoid possible confusion: set up the beginning date for new systems and the areas to be impacted, so that the standard may be applied at all necessary locations, at the same time and by all involved. · Make clear in the operational procedure “what”, “who”, “when”, “where”, “how”, and principally, “why”, as regards activities that should really be included or altered in the existing standards. · Check if the instructions, decisions, and procedures contained in process 5 should be changed before being standardized, based on results obtained in phase 6. · Use your creativity to ensure that problems will not recur. If possible, incorporate foolproof mechanisms into the standard, so that the work can be done without error by any worker. Phase 7 - Standardization Tasks Listing of remaining problems Planning for attacking remaining problems Reflection Flow 1 2 3 More complete check sheets Analyze the stages of the problem solving method regarding the following aspects: 1. Timetable - were there significant delays or too generous deadlines? Why? 2. Was elaboration of the cause-and-effect diagram superficial? This would be an indicator of the degree of maturity of the team involved. The more complete the diagram the more able the team. 3. Was there group participation? Was this the best group to solve this problem? Were the meetings productive? What could be improved? 4. Did the meetings occur without problems: absenteeism, disputes, imposing of ideas? 5. Was the assignment of tasks well done? 6. Did the group gain knowledge? 7. Did the group improve the problem solving technique? Did it use all the techniques? · Careful reflection on the problem solving activities themselves. Improve the timetable Improve cause and effect diagram · Re-evaluate pending items, organizing them for a future application of the problem-solving method. · If there are problems connected with the very way the problem solving was approached, this can become a subject for future projects. nonproductive. The ideal situation practically never exists; limit, therefore, activities when the original time limit has been reached. · List those things that were accomplished and those that were not. · You should also show results that are above expectations; they are important indicators for increasing efficiency in future work. · Spending a very long period of time on seeking perfection may be Observations · Application of problem solving method to problems which are important. · Analysis of results. · Graphic representations. Tools Utilized Phase 8 - Conclusion Processes Secondary classification Secondary pressure Painting of base Carbon impregnation Carbon impregnation Surface treatment Inspection upon receipt Sample Control Item Zeta Micro meter Visual Measurement instrument Thermal resistance Resistance to solvents Resistance to vibration Useful life of charge External dimensions Solderability Eletrical resistance Thermal impact By lot Paint preparation by lot By lot Test Gravitometer Standard meter Vacuum meter Thermocouple CR-AC Figure F.1: Example of a Process Technical Standard. Resistance of lid Specific weight Membrane resistance By carbon impregTemperature nated lot Degree of vacuum By Concentration measurer of liquid: treated Chronotime lot External appearance By road lot External dimensions Standard operational procedure RZ-11-08 IP-20-43 RP-00-33 RP-00-11 RP-00-22 Card record Card record Continuous record Continuous record X-R X-R Record Main process Processing of raw materials Control item checking method - Low Correlation - Medium Correlation - High Correlation Production Monthly department Monthly Correlation with quality assurance items Monthly Engineering department Monthly Flowchart Responsible party Superv. Superv. Superv. Superv. Superv. Superv. Monthly Management Monthly Name of raw materials Pig Iron Area Maintenance Department Pig Iron Technology Department Pig Iron Production Department Sinter Production Department Andrade Mine Production Department Pig Iron Production Management Steel Area Maintenance Department UGB Steel Production Department Steel Production Management Client Technical Support Department Technology and Process Automation Department Utility Department Sabará Steel Mill Production Management Supply Department Logistics and Production Planning Department Programming, Logistics and Supply Management Maintenance Engineering Department Maintenance, Utilities and Environment Engineering Management Metallurgy and Quality Assurance Department Technical Management Finance Support Figure G.1: Plant organization chart. Rolled Steel Area Maintenance Department 02 Rolled Steel Production Department 01 Rolled Steel Production Department Rolled Steel Production Management General Management João Monlevade Steel Mill Logistics, Utility and Supply Department Department of Production for Civil Construction Rod Department Human Resources and Total Quality Management Picture G.1: Heads and staff of steelmaking shop. From left to right: Vidigal, Joaquim, André Fernando, Anísio, Júlio, Marco Antônio. *SOBREMETAL AFIN GRHQ DEUT DLPP DTAP *DMAC *MAGNESITA Supplier Development Plan (P.D.F) DSUM *DGUS GCIM DMGQ Suppliers 2 - Mixers 2 - Converters 1 - Pot Grate Furnace 1 - Continuous Ingot Casting Machine 1 - Neutral gas blowing-in station 6 - Traveler Crane 11 - Steel / Pig Iron Ladles 13 - Distributor Equipment XYZ People Ensure that the physical plan for the production of billets is followed within the scheduled budget and with the specified quality characteristics for each steel, and avoiding an impact to the environment and the health of the staff. Mission Production of Billets Business Business • GGJM • GPGU • AFIN • GRHQ • DMGQ • GPLA • Roller 2 • Roller 1 • Production scheduling Clients *Suppliers synthetically appraised (Vendor Rating). Information • 155X155 mm • 9 a 12.20 m • Chemical analysis according to Belgo’s steel table Billets Products Figure G.2: Definition of the BMU Business (Steel Production Department - DPAC). • Metallics Transportation • Metallic Cutting • Metalic Residue Treatment Refractories Maintenance Services • Corrective • Preventive • Predictive Production Program Automation System • Power • Fluids • Treated Water • Total Quality Consultancy • Safety Consultancy • HR Management • Instrument Gage Service Financial Support • Assemb. VG. Distributors • Sulfur print Molten pig iron Scrap Chemical analysis • Ferroalloys • Fluxing agents • Miscellaneous inputs Inputs TECHNICAL STANDARD GGJM - GPAC - DPAC Page: 01/02 Rev.: 01 Code: SEP280 Date: 11/21/01 CASTING OF XYZ AND ABC STEELS AT MLC 1 - Objetive This standard sets the casting procedures to ensure the specified quality characteristics required during the application of the following steels: XYZ and ABC 2 - Responsible Supervisor or monitor Activitities Tolerance What to do Why? 1 - Empty ladle time Standard SEP XYZ Act according to the standard Stability of temperature in the distributor 2 - Wait time at the tower Maximum X minutes Divide MLC Get a free opening 3 - Open ladle drawer valve Free As O2 Cast normally Mark in the running record Act according to the standard Prevent internal defect 4 - Ladle plate valve condition 5 - Closing of the drawer valve during ladle replacement (Amepa = X%) Amepa system on automatic with an X% sensitivity Visually assess the passage of slag to the distributor and Prevent internal defect register on the running record 6 - Steel covering at the distributor Utilize proper thermal insulation Fully cover the steel surface on the distributor Prevent thermal losses 7 - Weight of steel on the distributor ³ Y tons Note on the running record Prevent internal defect 8 - Steel remaining in the distributor ³ X tons < X ton, increase X meters in the final billet length Prevent internal defect 9 - Number of sequential runs Maximum = X runs or Y minutes Stop casting the sequence Prevent excessive wearing of the refractories 10 - Temperature Standard SEP XYZ or supervisory 11 - Centralization of the submerged valve Aligned to the mold 12 - Submerged valve immersion depth (15 cm) X to Y cm Standard SEP XYZ Above tolerance record on the running record Work on the vertical/ transverse settings Adjust distributor height Ensure a free opening Prevent surface defect Prevent internal defect Prevent wearing of the submerse valve and internal defect Record of Alterations What changed Minimum billet length Why? Who When Alteration in the AP XX process ABC 11/21/2001 CDC.: 004/04-08; 011/05-06-10 Prepared by: ABC Checkd by: XYZ Figure G.3: Product/Service Specifications. Approved by: KZY Budget Reduce 10% in relation to 2000 65% Zero Infraction record Operational Cash Flow Complaints Corporate Climate Environment Figure G.4: Goals of the Management of Long Products - 2001. Budget Goals Operational Profit Control Items Environment (Infraction Record) Organizational Climate Client Complaints Operational Cash Flow (Ebtida) Operational Profits Control Items for the Management of Long Products Figure G.5: Deployment of Control Items - 2001. Number of Environmental Anomalies Zero infractions recorded Zero Improve 10% in relation to the last survey Organizational Climate Number of Accidents Reduce 10% in relation to 2000 External Market Complaints about Steel Cord Reduce 10% in relation to 2000 Reduce 10% in relation to the budget General managerial expenses Client Complaints Goal Plan: reduce 7% in relation to the budget Cost of wire rod Reduce 10% in relation to 2000 Goal Plan: increase 4% in relation to the budget Production of wire rods Storehouse Stock Goal Control Items for the Monlevade Steel Mill Reduce 7% in relation to the budget Reduce 10% in relation to 2000 Reduce 10% in relation to the budget Reduce 10% in relation to 2000 Reduce 10% in relation to 2000 Improve 10% in relation to the last survey Zero Cost of Wire Rods Storehouse Stock DGA Client Complaints External Market Complaints about Steel Cord Organizational Climate Number of Accidents Figure G.6: Goals of the João Monlevade General Management - 2001. Number of Environmental Abnormalities (Infractions recorded) Zero infractions recorded Increase 4% in relation to the budget Goals Production of Wire Rods Control Items Cost of Billet Cost of Wire Rod - Cost of Ferroalloy - Cost of Refractories - Yield - Cons. of Fluxing Agents - Cons. of Power Additional Cost of Billet Department Head Daily Running Casting Yield Reblowing Rate Running Running Sequence Every 3 days Mg O in Slag Slag Splash Sequential Runs Electrode Consumption Running Running Steel Mill Yield Fe O in Slag Frequency Control Item Supervisor / Operator Steel Mill Department Figure G.7: Deployment of Control Items from the Manager to the Operator. Steel Mill Management General Management kg/t Nº % % % % % % - 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 Apr Goal June Oct Sep Benchmark Nov July Figure G.8: Monthly Follow-Up Chart. Done Aug May March Feb Jan 2000 0.20 Control Item: Bore Rate Managerial Unit: DPAC - Steel Production Dept. - Monlevade Responsible: Renato Borges de Moura 2001 Dec 1999 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.04 June July August September October November December 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.18 0.02 May 0.15 1999 0.10 April 0.15 0.15 0.11 March 0.15 2000 0.13 February 0.15 0.06 0.12 January Goal 2001 Actual Month Measurement Unit: % Benchmark: 0.01 Annual Goal: 0.10 Picture G.2: Visual Management Room - Monlevade Steel Mill. Page: 01/01 Rev.: 07 Date: 03/18/2002 SYSTEM STANDARD Usina de Monlevade PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PDCA Phase Round P People Involved/Responsibility Management Record Where When Material Coordenator Supervisor Operational 1 JO surveys generated by the system STE 079 SAP (W004) 2 JO inspection programs STE 079 SAP (W007) 3 Print service JO STE 079 SAP (W019) 4 Deliver Jos to operationals 5 Prepare the tools 6 Move to the area 7 Request client autorization 8 D Clients SEM 036 OS’S Authorize the inspection DRI 254 Consignment Map DRI 254 Consignment Map OS’S e SEN 036 Job Order 9 Inspect equipment 10 Note down the results of the inspection OS’S Job Order 11 Communicate with client (end of inspection) DRI 254 Consignment Map Deliver JO to Supervisor 12 13 Create JO rec. Maint. Prog. for equipt. With answer of bad condition code SET 079 14 Close JOs for the coordinator SET 045 15 Deliver JOs to coordinator C 16 A 17 Prepated by: Check and take any measures necessary SAP (AC05A, W010) Job Order Wait for Scheduled Maintenance Checked by: Approved by: Figure G.9: System Managerial Standard. Desulfurized molten pig iron Transportation of the hot-metal transfer car Tilting of the hot-metal transfer car Slag scraped Thermal and chemical sampling Yes LD? Pig iron tumbled into converter No Pig iron tumbled into mixer Transport the ladle Mixer covered Combustion in the mixers controlled Control the stock and moving of molten pig iron Figure G.10: Flowchart for the Molten Pig Iron Reception and Storage Process. Flow X Internal and surface defects Internal defects Surface defects Surface defects Billet cutting Sulfur print Transportation of the billet to the yard Casting X X X X X Internal and surface defects Internal defects X Ton Weight of steel on distributor X Internal defects Tapping of steel from the distributor to the molds >X% Free opening rate Y Rate Internal defects NA When Every run Visual Crack pattern X veins per run Ingotman Ingotman Ruler Probe Not applicable SEP XXX SEP XXX Inspection Report SEP XXX SEP XXX SEP XXX SEP XXX MLC Report Supervisor of MLC Supervisor of MLC MLC Report Supervisor of MLC SEP XXX Tachogenerator Supervisor of MLC Flux valves SEP XXX Supervisor of MLC Whole sequence Every run Every run SEP XXX Supervisor of MLC Larry car scale Immersion pyrometer SEP XXX SEP XXX What to do Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Who to look for Corrective Action Ladle area repoirt Supervisor at ladle furnace Record How Page: 01/01 Rev.: 12 Date: 03/12/1999 Not applicable Immersion pyrometer Gage instrument Gauge instrument Ingotman Automated system Ingotman Every run Every run Ingotman Supervisor X per run Every run Every run Every run Ingotman Ingotman Ingotman Ingotman Person Measurement Responsible (hour/freq.) Who Check Method Figure G.11: Process Technical Standard. Visual standard X X Intial and final billets Standard X X Level variation Flow powder X X m/min Speed Spray program X Temperature X Tapping of steel from the ladle to the distribuitor Temperature X Rate Internal and surface defects Placement of ladles in the MLC tower Standard value Value ensured Control Parameter Control Level Quality characteristics Quality Ensured Process Name Process GGJM / GPAC / DPAC PROCESS TECHNICAL STANDARD Process: Continuous Casting Desulfurized molten pig iron Transportation of the hot-metal transfer car Tilting of the hot-metal transfer car Slag scraped CRITICAL TASK Thermal and chemical sampling Yes LD? Pig iron tumbled into converter No Pig iron tumbled into mixer Transport the ladle Mixer covered Combustion in the mixers controlled Control the stock and moving of molten pig iron Figure G.12: Critical Process Flowchart. Page.: 01/01 Rev.: 04 Code: SFT089 Date: 09/17/1999 STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE GGJM - GPAC - DPAC CHANGE THE METAL NOTCH WITH A DRILL Responsibles: LD Monitor, Furnaceman and Maintenance Mechanic 1 - Furnace stop 1 - Raise the Gradall to the plataform by means of the traveler crane. 2 - Clean furnace rim and metal notch flange with Gradall. 3 - Clean the notch internally using oxygen. 4 - Lower the Gradall using the traveler. 2 - Notch drilling 1 - Raise the drill to the platform by means of the traveler crane. 2 - Tilt the furnace to the sampling side and position at the proper angle. 3 - Center the drill facing the furnace. 4 - Couple the drill to the notch flange. 5 - Drill the metal notch. 6 - Uncouple the drill. 7 - Transport the drill to designated place. 3 - Change the metal notch flange 1 - Assemble the scaffold facing the furnace. 2 - Cut the screws fixing the flange and remove it. 3 - Mount the clevis onto the proper flanged pipes and fix it. 4 - Weld the flanged pipe with the clevis to the flange to be mounted. 5 - Screw up the flange with the clevis to the furnace. 6 - Disassemble the scaffold. 4 - Filling the notch with paste 1 - Tilt the furnace to the tapping side and position it at the desired angle. 2 - Fill the projection machine with enough of the desired concrete. 3 - Position the projection lance facing the furnace. 4 - Regulate the projection machine with pressure of x kgf/cm2. 5 - Project the concrete until the notch is filled up. 6 - Pull the hoses back and store them. 7 - Clean the area. 8 - After finishing the projection wait X min and release the furnace for loading. 4 - Safety, health and the environment 1 - PPE must be worn. Boots with steel tips, leggins, safety goggles, helmet, scrape glove, ear mufflers. 2 - Residues generated should be collected as instructed onto collecting containers. 3 - Do not walk and/or stay under suspended loads. CDC.: 010 - 03/14 Prepared by: Checked by: Approved by: José Geraldo Silva Geraldo José dos Santos Marco Antônio Macedo Bosco Figure G.13: Standard Operational Procedure. Picture G.3: Training and Critical standards - DPAC. From left to right: Gilvânio, Edmar, Ronildo, Júlio, Maurilo, Wilson, César. Picture G.4: Motivational Lectures - DPAC. Renato Renato Helvio Helvio Júlio Distributor preparation practice Coupling practice Metallic load preparation Converter heating procedure Ladle furnace wire injection procedure J F M A M J J A S O N D Figure G.14: Standard Auditing and Training (DPAC). Renato Júlio Steel treatment in ladle Steel casting in protected jet Helvio Tapping operation TREIN. Helvio AUDIT. Converter blowing operation STANDARD IMPROVE MAINTAIN Training and Execution Manager to operator Annual Action Plan (Matrix) Control Items Standards Execution of the plan “5S” Program A S C D Norm Auditing Follow-Up Charts Visual Management Anomaly Analysis Project Auditing Critical Analysis Meeting A P C D CEDAC - Participation of operators in the projects Figure G.15: Management Model - PDCA/SDCA. SHAKEDOWN Three Generation Report Projects Goals 0.00 Average 00 0 98 197 295 394 492 590 689 787 886 984 Feb Scrap 465 Aug July June May Apr Oct Nov Reclassification 77.5 Dec Sep 0 7.75 15.5 23.25 31 38,75 46,5 54,25 62 69,75 77,5 0 44 88 VGDIST 56.6 26 RM IN 40,1 A P C D AL 20,5 CU 25.4 IB 16 CE PIG 4 Reclassification 10.1 4.8 AO 1.1 EV 3.6 3.5 3.2 2.7 1.4 1.3 1.3 0.4 0.2 0.2 Deviation AG 26.2 48.647.9 39.631.2 27 24 22.5 21.5 16.616.1 12 10.810.3 9.9 85.5 A P C D TI Figure G.16: Identification and Prioritizing of Problems at DPAC. Deviation 441,2 Bad Quality Index 132 176 220 264 308 652 AE 440 EP IN 396 VGDIST 1.00 RO RO 0 STL 1.1 60.3 TI 46.5 96.2 TU 93 A P C D PA 139.5 153,2 NB 186 AG 2.00 Average 01 A P C D DTA 232.5 AL 2,53 AQ Tons/month Tons/month Tonelada/mês A P C D CE 279 JUN 2.7 VA 325.5 OC 3.00 AO Scrap EXT Average 99 Tons/Mmnth VARVEL 372 PS 465 VIN 418.5 SG Bad Quality Index DTB 2,8 GF 4.00 MR March Jan Suggestions: 174 Ideas implemented: 56 Participants: 69 Raw material Inadequate sand quality Dropping of slag in the drawer valve before tapping Excessive time between sand insertion and tapping Machine Deviation of reclassification due to opening Figure G.17: Plan for Attacking Prioritized Problems. Cost of improvements: R$ 12,000 Annual Gain: R$ 46,000 Excessive hold time of the ladle in the tower Ladle stays too long in Heater Insufficient amount of sand in the valve Burst of metallic body of the porous plug Method Cause and Effect Diagram During the deployment of GPAC policies the shakedown done for the quality dimension showed that one of the characteristics affecting billet deviation and reclassification was the opening of the drawer valve of the ladle with oxygen. So the CEDAC (cause-and-effect diagram with addition of cards) project was launched. Choice of Theme (justification): Reduction of Deviation and Reclassification by Opening - DPAC 0 50 100 150 Fev Mar Abr Mai Jun Ago Month Jul Before Set After Out Nov Dez Actual Goal Conclusions: - The actions implemented so far have reduced by 40% the amount of deviation and reclassification of billets by opening with oxygen, thus reaching the result expected. - The high level of participation of the staff is acknowledge. 174 cards for possible cause and possible solution were presented. Proposed actions: - Review ladle cycle standard - Develop a more resilient metallic carcass - Ensure that the duct is clean - Have a meeting with supplier and improve quality of sand used - Create a standard for laddle heating time - Increase amount of sand according to the lifespan of the ladle - Avoid anticipating runs for mlc tower T 200 250 300 350 Results: Leader: Fernando Marques Moraes Start: 08/21/00 End: 11/31/00 Vladimir Vladimir Vladimir Vladimir Renato Vladimir Vidigal Vladimir Vidigal Vladimir Vidigal Determine procedures for finding the points of potential delay in Scheduled Maintenances. Prepare blocks for potential delays in Scheduled Maintenances. Take over the coordination of the shift’s operation staff. Implement assessment meeting with all coordinators during maintenance. Attribute scores to VENDOR RATING of the Steel Mill and the companies in the P.P.’s assessment meeting. Assess 5S, efficiency of consignation, release of consignation and general safety aspects. Prepare Abnormality Analysis for possible delays. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Status Figure G.18: UGB - DPAC Action Plan. Delayed Vladimir Vidigal Include coordinator procedure in the scheduled maintenance preparation meeting 1 Concluded Who To do N Optimization of Schedule Stops J S O N D In progress and on schedule When (2001) F M A M J J A 2 1 12 6 3 4 4 2 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Project for improving the refractories of the distributor Resp.: Renato Deadline: 12/31/01 4 Distributor Refractory Restriction defect and FP steel car Review inspection and maintenance plans. Resp.: Frank Deadline: 11/30/01 3 Car distributors electromechanical Review Castability project Resp.: Júlio Maria Deadline: 12/31/01 2 Castability Negotiate with programming the minimum number of sequential runs. Resp.: Vidigal Deadline: 12/31/01 Propositions Date: 11/12/2001 1 Schedule Figure G.19: Three-Generation Report. 0 10 20 30 40 50 54 Program 60 Castability 70 Pareto for Causes - October Eletromec. Defect 80 Done - 8.2 runs/sequence Problem - 0.3 runs/sequence Distributor Ref. Restriction Goal - 8.5 runs/sequence Done/Result Obstruction Planned Control Item: Number of Sequential Runs Problem: Result from October 2001 below goal Managerial Unit: GPAC Responsible: Wéllerson Júlio Ribeiro THREE-GENERATION REPORT - MANAGERIAL Others Control Items Steel Cord 2nd Blowing Automation Project Convert. Vessel and Ladle Project Free Opening Project Ladle Tower Project Eletromag. Agitator Project (M-EMS) Billet Dresser Project Billet Scrap Reduction Project Safety Annual Project - GPAC Steel Mill 5S Project Pig Iron - Billet Chain Production Minimum Cost Project Specific Consumption Project Billet Production Project Improve 10% in rel. to last survey Organizational climate XXX kg/t Specific Consumption JF, Vitória and Piracicaba Budg. Average Pig-Iron Billet Chain Min. Cost According to Budget Billet Cost According to Budget Billet Production Marco Antônio/Roberto Roberto Roberto Augusto/Roberto Zero accidents including service providers 100% schedule fulfilled 100% schedule fulfilled Free opening index > 90% Caption: Augusto/Roberto Project may affect the goal Project affects the goal Project strongly affects the goal 100% schedule fulfilled Marco Antônio Marco Antônio Marco Antônio Reduce index to 0.50% 100% Steel Cord with automatic blowing 100% Steel Cord with automatic blowing Marco Antônio/Roberto Marco Antônio Marco Antônio Wéllerson Reponsible MLC Standard Increase billet production capacity Enable for specific consumption JF, Vitória and Piracicaba Budget Average Project Goal Figure G.20: Annual Action Plan of Steel Production Management. Bad Quality Index Projects Reduce 5% in relation to 2001 Reach 200ppm last Quarter Drilling Index Goals Zero Number of accidents General Management of João Monlevade Steel Mill Zer (infraction record) # of Environmental anomalies Frame G.1: Criteria for Abnormality Analysis. Accidental stops above 30 minutes Line scrap More than 5 rollers deviated Any job or equipment accident (or quasi accident) that takes place Rolling Casting machine stoppage above 30 min Quasi accident and actual accident with staff or equipment Any billet scrap Opening with oxygen Drilling Steel Mill Run delays above 20 minutes Load stops above 20 minutes Percentage of S in pig iron > 0.010% Any job accident or accident with equipment that takes place Blast Furnace GGJM - GPAC - DPAC Shift 1 2 Code: ABNORMALITY REPORT Crew 3 1 2 3 Date: 4 5 01/31/2002 Participants Adaílton, Ronaldo, Márcio Miranda, Antônio, Altair, João Bosco and Lucas Motta. Abnormality Stop of the V6 at the junction of 1015L with P926A due to obstruction after casting ~3m. Operational Procedures SLT 001 Was the Operational Procedure followed? YES NO Note - Ladle No. 3-49 runs. Deficiency of heating of valve V6. There was an interruption during translation of car II for tapping of V3. The ladle was opened with oxygen (by inserting the tube 2X) Union time was 11 minutes. Placement of the long tube without the distributor being 100% full. Non observance of heating deficiency in V6 during distributor heating. Abrupt fall of level and position of the drawer valve without a successful intervention by the ingotman. Due to the freezing of the parameters this item could not help us in analyzing the abnormality. - There is no obstruction tendency alarm in the PCIM. - Reduction was actuated but without success. Brainstorming Non observance of the deficiency in heating of valve V6 Placement of long tube without the distributor being 100% full Opening with oxygen Deficiency in V6 heating Obstruction of vein 6 at the junction Coupling time of 11 minutes. Refractory breakage in vein 6 valve Mention the abnormality: Stop in V6 at the junction of 1015L with P926A due to obstruction after casting ~3m. Why did it happen? Non observance in the deficiency of valve V6 heating. Why did it happen? Standard SLT001 (inspection every 15 minutes after air opening) was not followed. Action Plan/Standardization What? Recycle ingotmen in standard SLT001 - activity number 3 (distributor heating) Recycle ingotmen in standard SLT001 - activity number 10 (MLC startup) Who? When? Adaílton 01/31/2002 - OK! Adaílton 01/31/2002 - OK! Final Assessment: A general maintenance of the preheating station of the distributors is scheduled, which will contribute for solving the heating problem. Figure G.21: Example of Abnormality Analysis report.
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