Honors English 10 How to Create an Annotated Bibliography What: An annotated bibliography is a works cited page that includes an annotation: an analysis that informs the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. Why: The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. Because the researcher must include a summary and evaluation of the source, the researcher is forced to read more critically (pay particular attention to how credible the source is and its relevance to the research topic and question) as opposed to simply collecting information. Additionally, undertaking an annotated bibliography allows the researcher to see what is currently written about the topic in question and what the current perspectives are on the topic which in turn develops the researcher’s understanding and personal point of view of the topic. Writing Style: An annotated bibliography is a piece of formal academic writing and follows the general rules for all academic writing: Arrange sources in alphabetical order Write in paragraph form (no more than 250 words) Use transition words (e.g. furthermore, moreover, however, therefore …) Be concise – mention only significant details in your summary Use examples from other annotated bibliographies to guide and check your writing style Do NOT repeat information (e.g. the title) that is already in your citation Do NOT cross reference i.e. use any in-text references as you are only writing about a single text Format: An annotated bibliography begins with the source information in MLA format (how you would type the source on a Works Cited page). 1. A summary of the source: What are the main arguments? What topics are covered? If someone asked you what the source was about, what would you say? 2. An assessment of the source: Is the source relevant to your research? How does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is it reliable information? Is it biased, objective? What the goal of the source? 3. A reflection of the source: How does it fit into your research? Was the source helpful? Does it change your perspective of your topic? How can you use this source in your research? 1 2 The parts of a bibliography entry The citation information should be in the same format as it would be in the reference list - leave a line BELOW the citation A short summary of the theory, research findings, or argument 3 Comments on the usefulness and/or limitations of the text for your research 4 An evaluative comment on the work, taking into account how this work will fit into your research on a topic Examples Ex. of MLA reference: Morrow, Lance. "In praise of 'Huckleberry Finn.'" Current 372 (1995): 28+. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 3 March 2014. Example of sentence starters: *The main ideas expressed are . . . *Support for these claims is documented . . . *The author’s research/article focuses on . . . Example of sentence starters: *There is a lack of supporting evidence . . . *The main limitation of the website . . . * The information seems reliable because . . . Example of sentence starters: *This article is useful for my research topic . . . * Because the information is up-to-date and from a reliable source . . . * In particular, this article will assist . . . Honors English 10 How to Create a Works Cited Page Use the following information regarding research and composing a Works Cited page in MLA format. Additional examples may be found in The MLA Handbook as well as the back of your literature book. Follow the examples for the types of sources you have chosen to use. Pay close attention to punctuation. ALL DATES must be written in MLA format, never abbreviated! General Library Research Tips Use the Card Catalog on Library Search Stations to Find Books Use keyword searching for a narrow or complex search topic. Use subject searching for a broad subject. Print or write down the citation (author, title, etc.) and the location information (call number). Info the circulation status (checked in or out). When you pull the book from the shelf, scan the bibliography for additional sources. Excellent information can also be found in the reference section of the library (i.e. encyclopedias). Internet Research Tips Be careful with using the Internet to find research. Anyone with access to a computer can publish something online. Remember that an Internet source used in your paper must be from a legitimate site that is sponsored by a legitimate company or university. (HINT: Wikipedia is NOT a legitimate site!) Carefully Select Your Search Terms Broad or general terms will return thousands of possible sites. Try to use terms that are more specific to your topic. To narrow your terms, look at sites that you already have found and that are relevant to your topic. Identify possible search terms from those sites. Finding Periodical Sources The two main ways to find periodicals in our library are the Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature and the Alabama Virtual Library. The Reader’s Guide can be found in the back right corner of the library by the magazines. The AVL can be accessed online here at school at http://www.avl.lib.al.us/. It will also put citations in MLA format for you before you print them. On the next few pages are examples of many types of sources you might encounter. Additional examples may be found in The MLA Handbook. Follow the examples for the types of sources you have chosen to use. Pay close attention to punctuation. If you have any trouble citing your sources, here are some websites to help: www.noodletools.com Click on NoodleTools Express for free help on MLA documentation www.easybib.com Free help on MLA documentation Each of these Internet sources listed above help greatly. You can just type in the information about your source, and the website will put it into MLA documentation for you, all for free! However, these automatic generators sometimes make mistakes; always check by this packet! General Guidelines: ALWAYS spell out dates in MLA format (Day Month Year with no abbreviations). Double space entries but put no extra space between entries. DO NOT underline; ITALICIZE! NEW since 2009: Include a medium of publication marker at the end of each entry. Most entries will be print or web sources, but other possibilities include CD-ROM, TV. Performance, or DVD. Most of the markers come at the ends of entries. However, web sources will have date of access following the marker. Honors English 10 Many web entries now require a publisher name, a date of publication, and/or page numbers. When no publisher name appears on the website, write N.p. for no publisher given. When sites omit a date of publication, write n.d. for no date. For online journals that appear only online (no print version) or on databases that do not provide pagination, write n. pag. for no pagination. Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper, Double-space the text of your paper, and use Times New Roman font. The font size should be 12 pt. Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks. Set margins to 1 inch on all four sides. Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. Label the page Works Cited (do not underline the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent. List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50. Entries are listed by author name (or, for entire edited collections, editor names). Author names are written last name first; middle names or middle initials follow the first name. Do not list titles (Dr., Sir, Saint, etc.) or degrees (PhD, MA, DDS, etc.) with names. A book listing an author named "John Bigbrain, PhD" appears simply as "Bigbrain, John"; do, however, include suffixes like "Jr." or "II." Putting it all together, a work by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. would be cited as "King, Martin Luther, Jr.," with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma. If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order the entries alphabetically by title, and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first. The Process 1. Alphabetize your sources. It does not matter if the entry begins with an author, title, etc. Alphabetize by whatever comes first in the entry. 2. The entire page should be evenly double-spaced. This means the same amount of space comes between entries as well as before and after the “Works Cited.” If a citation is more than one line long, you must indent on the second line to indicate you are continuing information from the above source. Center Works Cited at the top of the page, 1” from the top. 3. Put your last name and page number in the right hand corner, ½” from the top of the page. The works cited page must be the last page of your research paper. 4. Begin typing your source information based on the following format. BOOKS: Author’s last name, first name. Book title. City of publication: Publishing company, year of publication. Medium of publication. *with a single author Mardis, Karen. Loony Legends of Layfield Hollow. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998. Print. *with two or three authors Espirit, Katherine, and Charles Lunsford. Literary Liaisons in New York. New York: McMillan, 2001. Print. Honors English 10 *with more than three authors (name only the first author and add et al – “and others”) Smith, Edna, et al. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Victorian Feminism. London: Bantam, 1967. Print. PERIODICALS (magazines and newspaper articles): Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical. Date of publication in MLA format: page numbers. Medium of publication. Date of access (if web source). Mozart, Wolfgang. “The Precarious Perch of a Child Prodigy.” Musician’s Monthly Digest. 10 March 1701: 78-82. Print. Grizard, Lewis. “The Reign of Bear Bryant Comes to a Close.” The Birmingham News. 8 February 1982: B1. Web. 9 September 2008. <http://www.birminghamnews.com/grizard-lewis/8-2-82.html>. *Online periodical must include both the name of the website in italics and name of publisher. If no publisher can be found, us N.p. Follow with the date of publication, Web as medium of publication, and date of access. Put web address in <brackets> at the end of the entry. Lubell, Sam. “Of the Sea and Air and Sky.” New York Times. New York Times, 26 November 2008. Web. 1 December 2008. <http://www.nytimes.com/26-11-08/lubell.html>. Cohen, Elizabeth. “Five Ways to Avoid Germs While Traveling.” CNN.com. CNN, 27 November 2008. Web. 28 November 2008. <http://www.cnn.com/27-11-08/cohen.html>. *Periodical found using a database like SIRS RESEARCHER, EBSCOhost, or any other computer source that allows you to print magazine articles: The information begins the same as a regular periodical as above. Provide the database name in italics. Library information is no longer required. List the medium of publication as Web and end with the date of access. Berger, James D. and Helmut J. Schmidt. “Regulation of Macronuclear DNA Content in Paramecium Tetraurelia.” The Journal of Cell Biology 76.1 (1978): 116-126. JSTOR. Web. 20 November 2008. REFERENCE WORKS: Author’s last name, first name (if given), “Topic.” Title of Reference Work. Year of edition (lowercase “ed” for edition). Medium of publication. <URL if found online>. “Nursing.” The World Book Encyclopedia. 1996 ed. Print. Honors English 10 *specialized reference works Author’s last name, first name (if given). “Topic.” Title of reference source. City of publication: Publishing company, year of publication. Page numbers. Medium of publication. “Textile Technicians.” Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance. Ed. William Hopke. Vol. 2. Chicago: Ferguson, 1998. 155-156. Print. *online reference Last name, first name (if given). “Topic.” Title of Electronic Publication. Version (if provided). Publisher. Year of publication (if no version given). Medium of publication. Access date. “Fresco.” Britannica Online. Vers. 99.1 April 1999. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 29 March 1997. <http://www.britannica.com/1-4-99/fresco.html>. INTERNET: While this might be the easiest to find, it is also the most difficult kind of source to cite. Fill in all information as shown below, omitting any information you absolutely can’t find. For articles that appear in an online-only format or in databases that do not provide a page number, use the abbreviation n. pag. for no pagination. End the citation with the medium of publication, Web, and the date of access. Author’s last name, first name. “Title of the work.” Title of the database, project, or website. Date of electronic publication or last update (Volume for online journals will suffice): pagination information. Name of the institution or organization sponsoring the site. Mode of publication. Date of access. <URL or web address>. Kessl, Fabian, and Nadia Kutsche. “Rationalities, Practices, and Resistance in Post-Welfarism. A Comment on Kevin Stenson.” Social Work & Society 6.1 (2008): n. pag. Center for Social Work and Social Policy. Web. 10 October 2008. <http://www.swas.org/2008/kessel-kutsche.htm>. Oakley, John H. “The Achilles Painter.” The Perseus Project. March 1997: n. page. Tufts University. Web. 14 May 2009. <http://www.tufts.edu/perseusproject/oakley/achillespainter.htm>. Honors English 10 Smith 1 Annotated Bibliography Smith 1 Almond, Steve. Candy Freak. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc, 2004. Print. Works Cited th In Candy Freak,“The Almond a solid of the candy industry in 20 century Fikes, Robert. Blackpresents Love-Hate Affairhistory with The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.” America. Western After describing his loveJournal of candy chocolate in particular, AlmondAcademic takes theSearch readerPremier. on a tourWeb. of candy factories across ofand Black Studies 35.4 (2011): 240-45. 4 March America while discussing 2014. how three large corporations (Hershey, M&M/Mars, and Nestle) managed to squeeze out hundreds “The of candy brands thatReaches were produced in Top this 10 country. Hunger Games Anotherregionally Milestone: Censored Books.” TIME. Time Inc., 26 September 2008. Web. 3 March 2014. This source provides a basic understanding of the history of candy but doesn’t go much further than Huck Finn in Context: A Teaching Guide. Public Broadcasting Service / WGBH, 1999. Web. 3 that. The author’s humorous tone makes it interesting to read and also provides some insight in the author’s March 2014. perspective (he seems a bit biased against the big three candy corporations). The information seems reliable but Morrow, Lance. "In praise of 'Huckleberry Finn.'" Current 372 (1995): 28+. Opposing Viewpoints Almond does not provide a bibliography for his book so the reader should take that into consideration while in Context. Web. 3 March 2014. reading. Almond’s personal tours through candy factories and conversations with candy makers do lend reliability to Roberts, Gregory. “’Huck Finn’ a masterpiece -- or an insult?” Seattle Post-Intelligence. Hearst his work. Seattle Media, LLC, 25 November 2003. Web. 4 March 2014. This source will work well for my basic understanding corporate influence the free market. I can use Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. NewofYork: Modern Library,in2001. this source in my introduction but it doesn’t provide much beyond the general. However, Candy Freak does provide a possible model for an explanation of how “mom and pop” stores have been supplanted by large corporations in the United States. It may offer insight into how the drink industry and beer industry have evolved over the last 100 years.
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