TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA I KAKO IH PREVAZI]I

Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA I KAKO IH PREVAZI]I
John Macdonald, 129 Holly Lane East, Banstead Village, Surrey, England
Doc. dr. Slavko Dolin{ek, Univerzitet u Ljubljani, Fakulteta za stojni{tvo v
Ljubljana, A{ker~eva 6 Ljubljana, Slovenia
REZIME
Krajem sedamdesetih, na hiljade kompanija sa zapada po~ele su da prihvataju izazov s Dalekog Istoka,
te su lansirale neku vrstu inicijtiva o kvaloitetu. Kao rezultat toga, mnoge od njih su postale svjetski
konkurenti i iz njihovog se iskustva mo`e mnogo toga nau~iti. Na`alost, tako|er je ta~no da mnoge
organizacije, ako ne i ve}ina njih, nisu bile jednako uspje{ne, pa mo`emo u~iti iz njihovih iskustava.
Klju~ne rije~i: kvalitet, menad`ment, TQM, neuspjeh TQM-a
TQM - THE REASONS FOR FAILURE AND HOW TO
OVERCOME THEM
John Macdonald, 129 Holly Lane East, Banstead Village, Surrey, England
Slavko Dolin{ek, asisstant professor, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering Ljubljana, A{ker~eva 6 Ljubljana, Slovenia
SUMMARY
Since the late 1970s thousands of
and launched some form of quality
and much can be learnt from their
the majority, have not met with the
Western companies have woken up to the challenge from the Far East
initiative. As a result, many have since become world class competitors
experiences. Unfortunately, it is also true that many organisations, if not
same measure of success; we can also learn from their experiences.
Key words: Quality, Management, TQM, TQM Failure.
1. UVOD
1. INTRODUCTION
U toku na{eg istra`ivanja iznenadila nas je
~injenica da je o~ekivana stopa neuspjeha
inicijativa TQM bila vi{e od dvostruko ve}a za SAD
nego za VB (vidi [1]). Ne vjerujemo da je to samo
zbog sposobnosti menad`menta u VB u odnosu na
jihove kolege u SAD-u. Istra`ivanje je tako|er
otkrilo jo{ neke ~injenice, a njihova mogu}a
povezanost bila je jako interesantna. U to vrijeme
je manje od 2000 kompanija u SAD-u imala
certifikate ISO-2000, dok je ta cifra u VB iznosila
vi{e od 25 000. Kad se uzme u obzir veli~ina
ekonomija ovih dviju zemalja, takve brojke su jo{
vi{e zapanjuju}e. Potreban je kratki historijski uvod
da bi se objasnila ovolika razlika.
Standard ISO 2000 poti~e iz britanskog standarda
BS 5750, koji opet vodi porijeklo od standarda oko
kojih su se usaglasili Ministarstvo odbrane SAD-a i
Ministarstvo odbrane VB radi isporuke vojne
opreme NATO-u i jedni drugima.
During our research we were surprised to find that
the estimated failure rate for TQM initiative was more
than twice as high for the United States as for the
UK (see also [1]). We are not chauvinistic enough to
believe that this was wholly due to the competence
of UK management vis-ŕ-vis their US counterparts.
But the research also led to some other facts, and
the possible correlation was intriguing. At the time,
fewer than two thousand US companies had ISO
9000 certification, while the corresponding figure for
the UK exceeded twenty-five thousand. When one
considers the relative size of the two economies, the
figures are even more extraordinary - A little history
is needed to explain this discrepancy.
ISO 9000 is derived from the British standard
BS5750, which in turn was derived from quality
standards on which the U.S. Department of Defence
and the -British Ministry of Defence agreed for
delivery of military equipment to NATO and to each
other.
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Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
U vrijeme akcije M.Thateher da o`ivi VB, Ministarstvo
trgovine i industrije je odlu~ilo da akreditacija za BS
5750 bude glavni elementi njihovoj "dr`avnoj
kompaniji o kvalitetu". Re`iranost kompanije i pomo}
manjim kompanijama bili su ve}i nego sam uvod
standarda; to je nagovje{tavao i reklamni slogan,
"Kvalitet je isuvi{e va`an da biste ga prepustili
va{em menad`eru kvaliteta". Uspjeh te kampanje,
zajedno sa obuzdavanjem arhai~ne mo}i sindikata,
vjerovatno obja{njava i ogromna ulaganja u VB iz
Japana, Koreje i SAD-a. Nije slu~ajno to {to
negda{nja istro{ena, umorna i staromodna VB sada
vodi Njema~ku, Francusku i ostatak Europe kad je u
pitanju ve}ina parametara ekonomskog uspjjeha. Iz
ovoga se mo`e nau~iti da se period discipliniranog
razmi{ljanja na mnogim nivoima organizacije na kraju
ipak isplati. primjena razumijevanja i potra`nje
akreditacije ISO 9000 je izgleda obrazovni utjecaj u
razvoju jedne evolucione kompanije koja razmi{lja
(barem kad je u pitanju kvalitet ISO 9000 mo`da
jeste noviji kvalitet koji je svet u SAD-u, ili brzina
njegovog sticanja }e na du`e staze vi{e doprinjeti
promjeni mno{tva ameri~kih kompanija kad je u
pitanju kvalitet nego svi stru~njaci zajedno. Ono {to
je mo`da jo{ va`nije je da ova zapa`anja vode
naprijed zemlje kao {to su Indija, Meksiko, te dr`ave
isto~ne i centralne Europe u njihovoj potrazi za
konkurencijom u kvalitetu (tako|er predstavljeno u
[2]).
Uspjeh je stvar usporedbe. Nekim neuspje{nim
firmama bi bilo te{ko priznati neuspjeh. Istinu
govore}i, za njih je mjera uspjeha negdje izme|u
uspjeha i neuspjeha. To je i razumljivo jer je sada
bolja svaka kompanija koja je zapo~ela akciju
kvaliteta. u poslovnom pogledu, kvalitet je u centru
pa`nje i pokazuje pozitivne povratne rezultate, dakle
uspje{an je. Uspjeh bi se ipak trebao mjeriti u
odnosu na svjedske konkurente i prvobitna
o~ekivanja. Ako se tako gleda, mnogo firmi ima
razloga za razo~arenost (kao {to je to obrazlo`eno
u [3]). Istra`ivanja autora i
njihovo iskustvo u
pomaganim organizaicjama koje provode inicijative
kvaliteta {irom svijeta dovelo ih je do toga da
razlikuju deset osnovnih razloga za razlo~aranost
koji }e biti sumirani (vidi tako|er [4]).
Under Thatcher's drive to revitalise Britain, the UK
Department of Trade and Industry decided to make
2. NEDOSTATAK PREDANOSTI
[email protected]
Naj~e{}i razlog koji prethodi uporednom neuspjehu
inicijativa
kvaliteta
je
nedostatak
prednosti
menad`menta tome da provedu proces do kraja.
Komentari razlo~aranih glase sli~no vom: "Dobro
smo po~eli, sve osoblje je bilo za to, ali nekako
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
accreditation to BS5750 a major element in their
"national quality campaign." The breadth of the
campaign and the assistance to smaller companies
were wider than the introduction of standards alone;
this was indicated by the advertising launch slogan,
"Quality is too important to leave to your quality
manager." The success of this campaign, together with
the curbing of archaic trade union power, probably
accounts for a major proportion of the massive
investment in Britain from Japan, Korea, and the
United States. It is not an accident that the erstwhile
spent, tired, and old-fashioned UK at the lime of this
writing now leads Germany, France, and the rest of
Europe in most of the parameters of economic
success. The lesson to be learned is that a period of
disciplined thinking, at many levels in the organisation
eventually
pays
dividends.
The
exercise
of
understanding and seeking accreditation to ISO 9000
would appear to be an educational influence in
development of a thinking evolutionary company (well,
at least in the area of quality). ISO 9000 may be a
latter-day quality saint in the United States, but its
gathering pace may do more in the long run to
change the mass of U.S. companies in the field of
quality than all the gurus combined. But perhaps more
important these observations point the way toward for
countries such as India, Mexico and the East and
Central European nations in their search for quality
competitiveness (as also presented at [2]).
Success is a comparative term. Some of the
unsuccessful companies would have difficulty in
admitting failure. In truth the measure of success for
them is somewhere between success and failure.
This view is understandable for, almost without
exception, every company that has launched a quality
drive has improved. In business terms quality has
been in focus and has shown a positive return;
therefore it has been successful. But the real
measure of success should be against world class
competitors and the original expectations. Viewed in
that light most companies have reasons for
disappointment (as discussed at [3]). The author’s
research
and
their
experience
in
assisting
organisations implementing quality initiatives around
the world have led them to recognise ten principle
reasons for disappointment which will be summarised
(see also [4] for details).
se sve izgubilo – menad`ment nije bio predan
tome do kraja".
2. LACK OF MANAGEMENT
COMMITMENT
The most frequent reason advanced for the
comparative failure of quality initiatives is a lack of
management commitment to see the process
through. The disillusioned comments can be
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Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
paraphrased as: 'We got off to a good start, the
staff were all for it but somehow it all petered out
Kvalitet se vidi kao "ukus godine", a sad organizacija
ima drugi ukus. Drugim rje~ima unapre|enje kvaliteta
se tretira kao kratkoro~ni program, a ne kao proces
koji se nikad ne zavr{ava.
U stvarnosti je sve previ{e pojednostavljen izgovor
i ne ide do sr`i neuspjela. nije nedostajala
predansot nego razumijevanje. na kraju krajeva, ko
mo`e uop}e biti protiv kvalitete? Stvarni razlog je
taj {to menad`ment zapravo nije shra}ao ~emu to
treba biti predan. U bilo kojoj fazi programa,
menad`ment bi se smatrao predanim kvalitetu i
rado bi odr`ao uvjerljivi govor u kojem bi
demonstrirao svoju predanost. pre~esto se de{ava
da se menad`eri upuste u programe kvalitete bez
pravnog
razumijevanja
odredi{ta,
a
kamoli
promijena koje ih o~ekuju na tom putu.
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
- management didn't stay committed.'
other words, quality improvement had been treated
as a short-term programme rather than as a neverending process.
In reality this is a too simplistic excuse and does
not go the root cause of failure. It was not
commitment but comprehension that was lacking.
After all, who can really be against quality. The real
issue is that management generally had little
understanding as to what they were supposed to be
committed to. At any stage of the programme the
management would have considered themselves
committed to quality and been delighted to have
made another rabble-rousing speech to demonstrate
their commitment. Too often managers launch into
quality programmes with no real comprehension of
the destination, let alone the vicissitudes to be met
on the way.
Quality had been seen as the 'flavour of the year'
and now the organisation had a new flavour. In
3. NEDOSTATAK VIZIJE I
PLANIRANJA
Preobra}anje u kvalitet se ve`e s religijskim
iskustvom. neki direktori vide svjetlo i iznenada se
rade iznova u menad`ere kvaliteta. Vo|eni `arom
nove vjere, aoni jure na put u Damaskus i o~ekuju
da }e ih svi slijepo slijediti. Na`alost, ti
evand|elisti imaju slabu predstavu o tome gdje je
i {ta je Damaskus, o tome kako da tamo stignu, a
ponajmanje znaju {ta }e im na tom putovanju
trebati. Skoro bez izuzetka se de{ava na mo} ovog
pojma i pobjede timskog rada pretvore negda{njeg
skeptika u mo}no sredstvo promjene. W. Edward
Deming, ameri~ki stur~njak za kvalitet, je uvijek
zahtijevao doslijednost cilja a ne predanost
menad`menta (na primjer [5]. Obilje znanja koje se
skriva u ovoj tvrdnji je da menad`ment prije svega
mora imati cilj kojem }e ostati dosljedan. Ako se
ne odredi cilj i ne napravi plan kako }e se
ostvariti, to je istinski razlog razo~arenja mnogih
inicijativa
kvaliteta.
Izvr{ni
direktor
ili
vo|a
organizacije mora prije svega imati jasnu predstavu
o Damaskusu a onda je jasno prenijeti svim
budu}im hodo~asnicima. Mnogi izvr{ni direktori
prili~no
jasno
definiraju
poslovne
ciljeve
organizacije ali pridaju malo pa`nje principima i
vrijednostima ili metodama kojima `ele ostvariti tu
poslovnu viziju. Isuvi{e ~esto se to dodjeljuje
direktoru osoblja ili, u slu~aju kvaliteta "timu za
kvalitet". Dr. Stephen Tanner je kratko opisao rezultt
toga rije~ima"igranka stru~njaka".
3. LACK OF VISION AND PLANNING
The conversion to quality has been likened to a
religious experience. Some executives see the light
and suddenly become born-again quality managers.
Fired with the zeal of the new faith they go
rushing off on the road to Damascus and expect
everyone else to follow blindly. Unfortunately these
evangelists have little real idea of where or what
Damascus is, of how to get there and even less
idea of what they are going to need on the
journey. Almost without
exception, the power of the concept and of
teamwork triumphs and the erstwhile sceptic
becomes a powerful agent for change. W. Edward
Deming, the American quality guru, always
demanded constancy of purpose rather than
commitment from management (for example [5]).
The profound knowledge which lies at the heart of
this statement is that management must first have
a purpose to which to remain constant. The failure
to provide this purpose and to provide a plan to
achieve it is the real cause of disappointment in
many quality initiatives. The executive or leader of
the organisation has to have a very clear idea of
Damascus and then communicate it very clearly to
ail the would-be pilgrims. Many executives define
fairly clearly the business objectives of the
organisation but give only moderate attention to the
principles and values or methods by which they
want the business vision achieved. Too often that
is delegated to the Human Resources or Personnel
Director or in the case of quality to a 'quality
team'. The resultant process has been succinctly
described by Dr Stephen Tanner as 'guru-hopping'.
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Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
4. ZADOVOLJAVANJE POPRAVCIMA
NABRZINU
Danas ve}ina izvr{nih direktora zna da je kvalitet
usluge va`an njihovim mu{terijama. naravno da `ele
u~initi ne{to da pobolj{aju kvalitet unutar svoje
organizacije, ali malo njih razumije da bi
nedostatak kvaliteta koji otkriju u svojoj kompaniji
mogao biti rezultat njihovog vlastitog pona{anja ili
postupaka. Tako|er ih pro`ima zapadna filozofija da
ako obrate pa`nju na problem, on se mo`e brzo
popraviti. kao posljedica toga hvalisave `elje da se
pove}a zadovoljstvo kupca, kao i imid` organizacije
se grubo prevode u jedno drugo nastojanje, a to
je "svaliti to na radnike". Jezik koji se u takvoj
situaciji koristi su obi~no fraze poput "motivirati
radnu snagu" ili "pru`iti na{im ljudima orjentacije ka
kupcima".
Tri
naj~e{}a
primjera
mentaliteta
"popravke nabrzinu" u poku{ajima da se pobolj{a
kvalitet su u zapadnim uslu`nim organiazcijama
uvo|enje krugova kvaliteta, programa brige o
kupcu i osposobljavanje ljudi.
Svaki od onih pristupa je vjerodostojan i zaista mo`e
biti sna`an doprinos cijelom tom procesu, ali samo
ako je radna sredina, prijem~iva na svoj uspjeh ili
drugim rije~ima, ako su izvr{ioci prvo stvorili novu
sredinu u kojoj su se tradicionalni na~ini pona{anja
menad`menta dokazano promijenili. Bez kulturolo{ke
promjene svaki navedeni program se gasi. Tako|er
obmanjuju menad`ment i uvjeravaju ih da su se
pozabavili pitanjem kvaliteta i da sada mogu skrenuti
misli va`nijim "pravim poslovnim pitanjima". ^ak i
najnaprednije firme budu uhva}ene u zamku
popravke nabrzinu. Trenutna primjena udru`ene
pomo}i mo`e prikriti ugru{ak u tijelu organizacije.
Vrijedno je ispitati zablude koje le`e iza ovih
pristupa ako se primjene izolirano.
Krugovi kvaliteta – kad je utjecaj izazova
japanskog kvaliteta prvi put postao o~igledan, zapadni
konsultanti i biznismeni su odjurili u Japan. To su
bila skupa putovanja, pa je bilo malo vremena za
pravo istra`ivanje o svim pitanjima. Ipak prona|en je
jedan odgovor koji je zadovoljio njihove umove koji
funkcioni{u po principu popravke nabrzinu: krug
kvaliteta. Za njih je krug kvaliteta predstavljao grupu
radnika kojir ade zajedno sa svojim nadzornicima da
bi zavr{ili dijagrame poput riblje koti i rije{ilis ve
svoje probleme u vezi s kvalitetom. Ova se ideja
svidjela menad`mentu na Zapadu.
Nekoliko godina poslije, zbunjeni izvr{ioci nisu mogli
objasniti relativni neuspjeh pokreta kruga kvaliteta na
Zapadu. na kraju su uzdahnuli i to prepisali razlici u
stavu izme|u japanskog i radnika sa zapada. U
jednu ruku su bili u pravu, ali im nikad nije palo na
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
pamet da ta razlika u stavu radnika postoji zbog
razlike u pona{anju menad`menta.
4. SATISFACTION
FIX
WITH
THE
QUICK
Today most executives realise that quality of service
is important to their customers. Naturally they want to
do something to improve quality within their own
organisation. However, few comprehend that the lack
of quality that they detect in their own company
could be the result of their own behaviour or
actions. They are also imbued with the Western
philosophy that if they turn their attention to the
problem it can be quickly fixed. Consequently, the
laudable desire to improve customer satisfaction and
the image of the organisation is often crudely
translated into another urge 'to beat up on the
workers. The language actually used is more likely to
be 'motivating the workforce' or 'providing our people
with a customer orientation'. The three most common
examples of the 'quick fix' mentality in attempting to
improve quality in Western service organisations are
the introduction of quality circles, customer care
programmes and empowering the people.
Each of these approaches is valid and indeed they
can be powerful contributors to an overall process,
but only if the operating environment is conducive
to their success - in other words, if the executives
have first created a new environment in which
traditional management behaviour patterns have
demonstrably changed. Without the cultural change
each of the above become one-off programmes.
They also delude management into believing that
they have dealt with the quality issue and that they
can now turn their minds to more important 'real
business issues'. Even the most progressive
companies can fall into the quick fix trap.
Immediate application of the Band-Aid can hide
the haemorrhaging in the body of the organisation.
It is worth examining the fallacies that lie behind
these approaches if applied in isolation.
Quality Circles - when the impact of the
Japanese quality challenge first became apparent
Western consultants and businessmen rushed to
Japan. These were expensive trips so there was
little time for real research into al! the issues but
they did find one answer that satisfied their quick
fix minds: the quality circle. For them the quality
circle meant groups of workers collaborating with
their supervisors to complete fishbone diagrams
and solve all their quality problems. This idea
appealed to Western management.
Some years later puzzled executives found it hard to
explain the relative failure of the quality circle
movement in the West. In the end they sighed and
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Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
put it down to the difference in attitude between the
Japanese and the Western worker, in one sense they
were right but it never occurred to them that the
Japanski menad`er je poznavao statisti~ku teoriju.
Znali su da sami radnici mogu ukloniti oko
dvadeset posto uzroka gre{ke. Morali su aktivno
u~estvovati s radnicima u rje{avanju onih preostalih
80 %. Zato su krugovi kvaliteta osu|eni na propast
ako menad`ment ne razumije u potpunosti svoju
vlastitu ulogu u tom procesu.
Program brige o kupcima je najdeminantniji
pristup popravke nabrzinu u pobolj{anju uslu`nih
organizacija.
Pravljenje
udobnih
~ekaonica,
odu~avanje
osoblja
ljubaznom
opho|enju
s
kupcima i kori{tenju telefona su va`ni sastojci u
pru`anju kvalitetne usluge, ali ako se koriste
odvojeno, samo }e prekriti pukotine u pru`anju
istinski kvalitetnih usluga.
Briga o kupcu mo`e biti brz izlaz za uslu`nu
industirju. Ona poti~e iz o~igledne ~injenice da su
to prvenstveno poslovi u koje su uklju~eni ljudi.
Njihov menad`ment smatra svojr ad suprotan radu
sistem analiziranih proizvodnih linija u kojima
dominiraju ma{ine, te misli da tu ne postoji nikakva
povezanost. ne shva}aju da i oni tako|er pru`aju
usluge putem niza sistematiziranih procesa koji
iziskuju sli~nu kontrolu i pomo}. Mo`da se i
primjenjuju na druga~iji na~in, ali su konceptualno
sli~ni. Uslu`ne organizacije moraju soigurati da su
svi procesi koji dolaze iz kancelarija u pozadini
ispravni, te moraju obu~iti osoblje u isturenim
kancelarijama kako da vode briju o kupcu. zapravo,
ako su svi procesi za scene pod kontrolom, ljudi
koji imaju dirketni kontakt s kupcima }e se naravno
smje{kati. Bit }e sretni zbog svog rada jer se ne
moraju nositi s ljutim kupcima.
Osposobljavanje ljudi je slo`enije pitanje. zavisi
{ta
organizacija
podrazumijeva
pod
osposobljavanjem, ali kao i ostalim konceptima
kvalitete, prijeti mu opasnost od iskori{tavanja.
Danas je to postalo moderno kod konsultanata u
SAD-u, a zauzima teren i u VB. U ve}ini slu~ajeva
je to kratki nastavak brige o kupcu, koji daje
direktnom kontaktu s kupcem vi{e slobode u
pru`anju dodatnih usluga s ciljem njegovog
zadovoljavanja.
U
proizvodnoj
industriji
je
proizvodna linija nekad bila sveta i samo je
pojedinac na jako visokoj funkciji, vjerovatno sam
direktor pogona, imao ovla{tenja da je zaustavi.
Danas proizvodnu liniju mo`e zaustaviti i operater
ako uo~i neki kvar. ovo je osposobljavanje ljudi.
To zna~i definiranje standarda u kojem je gre{ka
neprihvatljiva.
difference in attitude in the workers was caused by
the difference in behaviour of the respective
management.
The Japanese manager understood statistical
theory. They knew that the workers on their own
could only eliminate some twenty per cent of the
sources of error. They had to participate actively
with the workers in tackling the remaining eighty
per cent. Therefore, quality circles are doomed to
comparative failure if management do not wholly
understand their personal role in the process.
Customer care programmes are the most
prevalent of the quick fix approaches to quality
improvement in service organisations. Providing
pleasant waiting rooms, teaching staff to treat the
customer with courtesy and how to handle the
telephone are important ingredients in
giving a quality service. However, used in isolation
it will generally only gloss over the cracks in
providing a real quality service.
Customer care can be an easy way out for service
industries. It stems from the obvious fact that they
are primarily people businesses. Their management
contrast their operations with the machine-dominated
systematised production lines of manufacturing and
consider that there is no correlation. They fail to
recognise that they also deliver service through a
series of systematised processes which require many
similar controls and aids. They may well be applied
differently but they are similar in concept. Service
organisations must ensure that all the back office
processes are right and train the front office to care
for the customer. Actually, if all the behind thescenes processes are in control, the people with
direct customer contact will be smiling naturally.
They will be happy in their work because they have
no irate customers to cairn down.
Empowering the people is a more complex
issue. It depends on what the organisation means
by empowering. However, like other quality concepts it
is in danger of being prostituted. It is very much in
vogue with consultants in the USA and is gaining
ground in the UK. In many cases it is a short fix
extension of customer care, giving the direct customer
contact more latitude in providing extras to delight the
customer. In the manufacturing industries the
production line was once sacrosanct and only a very
senior individual, probably only the plant manager
himself, was authorised to stop the line. Now in some
plants the operator can close down the line if he
spots a defect. That is empowering the people. That
is defining a standard where error is unacceptable.
5. MALO VLASNI[TVO PROCESA
implementira svaki element TQM-a. Takve organizacije
su reorganizirale potrebu da se mijenjaju i naravno ne
`ele tra}iti vrijeme na provo|enju ofosa kvalitete.
Jedna druga~ija varijanta pristupa popravke nabrzinu se
tako|er mo`e vidjeti u organizaciji koja je odlu~na da
- 129 -
5. LITTLE OWNERSHIP OF THE PROCESS
Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
A different variant of the quick fix approach can also be
seen in the organisation that is determined to implement
every element of TQM. They have recogni-sed the need
to change and naturally do not want to waste too much
time in implementing a quality ethos.
Osim toga, jo{ uvijek su male da shvate da }e im
trebati pomo} izvana i stoga dolaze konsultantima
TQM-a. U ovoj fazi lako mogu postati plijen
metodologije "punog paketa" i obrazovnog sistema
"punog paketa".
Te{ko je kritikovati izvr{ioca koji odlu~i da slijedi
ovaj unaprijed propisani pravac. Mnoga od ovih
rje{enja u paketu su direktno, ili putem zaklju~ivanja,
u vezi s podu~avanjima pojedinih stru~njaka za
kvalitet. Ipak, uprkos neupitnoj vjerodostojnosti
stru~njaka, ovakva rje{enja u paketu }e ignorisati
jedinstvenu kulturu organizacije i stvoriti prepreke
komunikaciji u cijeloj radnoj snazi.
Bilo koja organizacija koja obja{njava kako
primjenjuje procese "Crosby" ili "Macdonald i
Piggolt" je osu{ena na razo~arenje. Njima treba
njihov vlastiti proces. zato autori savjetuju klijente
da odaberu slogan za svoju inicijtivu koji odra`ava
njihovu vlastitu radnu kulturu a ne npr. "TQM".
They are also wee enough to comprehend that they
are going to need outside help and therefore they
approach TQM consultants. At this stage they can
easily fall prey to the complete 'packaged'
methodology and a complete 'packaged' educational
system.
It is difficult to criticise the executive who decides to
follow this prescribed route. Many of these packaged
- solutions are directly, or by inference, linked to the
teachings of one or other of the quality gurus. Yet,
despite the undoubted credibility of the guru, these
packaged solutions will ignore the unique culture of
the organisation and create barriers to communication
throughout the workforce.
Any
organisation
that
explains
that
it
is
implementing the 'Crosby' or 'Macdonald and
Piggott' process are doomed to disappointment.
They need their OWN process. For this reason the
authors advise their clients to select a title for
their initiative which reflects their own operational
culture rather than for example 'TQM'.
6. PROMJENA KULTURE NASPAM
PRISTUPA PROJEKTU
identificiraju a onda se uspostave radne grupe ili
timovi za projekat da bi poradili na tim pitanjima.
Sva filozofija menad`menta kvaliteta se vje{ta~ki
dijeli u dvije razli~ite i konkurentne strategije
provo{enja. Ta dva pristupa se kategori{u kao
"pravac sveobuhvatne promjene kulture" i "pristup
projekat po projekat".
Pravac promjene kulture ponekad kritikuju njegovi
protivnici i nazivaju ga "materinstvom". Naravno, ako
se
pogre{no
primijeni
ne}e
ba{
rezultirati
pobolj{anjem kvalitete ili proizvodnje. Koncept se
uglavnom zasniva na jakom educiranju i treningu
za sve u organizaciji. ovaj proces je napravljen
tako da vodi sve do prepoznavanja potrebe da se
napravi promjena, te da se oja~a analiti~ka
sposobnost kod ljudi da bi se pobolj{ao proces
rada. Nema ni{ta lo{e u ovom pristupu – on je
zapravo su{tinski element u pobolj{anju kvaliteta.
Opasnost le`i u organizacijskom nastojanju da svi
~ekaju da se obrazovni proces zavr{i, pa da se
onda pozabave krupnim problemima na koje usput
nai|u, ali do tad }e ve} zaboraviti ve}inu onoga
{to su nau~ili. Ovo je posebna opasnost za srednji
menad`ment. U najgorem slu~aju se mo`e
uporediti sa insistiranjem da svi ostanu na
prevenciji po`ara dok na drugoj strani gori isto~no
krilo zgrade.
Postupno druga~iji pristup "projekat po projekat" je
pragmati~niji i tvrdi se da je prakti~niji. Moderni
"rein`enjering poslovnog procesa" (BPR) predstavlja
neke od onih tendencija. U su{tini, niz klju~nih
pitanja, procesa ili prilike za unapre|enje se
6. CULTURE CHANGE VERSUS
PROJECT APPROACH
- 131 -
The overall philosophy of quality management has
been artificially divided into two distinct and
competing implementation strategies. The two
approaches are categorised as the 'overall' culture
change route' and the 'project by project approach'.
The culture change route is sometimes castigated by
its opponents as 'motherhood'. Certainly if misapplied
it will produce little real improvement in quality or
productivity. The concept is based largely on
cascading education and training for everyone in the
organisation. This process is designed to lead
everyone to recognise the need to change and
provide them with the competence to analyse and
improve work processes. There is nothing wrong in
this approach - indeed it is an essential element in
quality improvement. The danger lies in the
organisational tendency for everyone to wait until the
educational process is complete before tackling the
major problems discovered on the way. By then they
will have forgotten much that was learnt. This Is a
particular danger for middle management. At its worst
it can be likened to insisting that everyone stays on
the fire prevention course while the east wing burns
down.
The opposing 'project by project' approach is more
pragmatic and is argued to be more practical. The
fashionable 'business process re- engineering' (BPR)
Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
exhibits some of these tendencies. In essence a
series of key issues, processes or opportunities for
improvement are identified and then task forces or
project teams are established to work on the issues.
Naravno, svaki je tim prethodno pro{ao edukaciju o
tehnikama postizanja dodataka koji su mu dodijeljeni.
promjena kulture se donekle i de{ava zbog same
prirode aktivnosti, ali opasnost le`i u tome da
edukacija, seminari i iskustvo nisu uobi~ajeni, te
funkcija kao {to su administrativne i finansijske nisu u
potpunosti uklju~ene. Tako{er postoji nastojanje da
se napravi velika organizacija za podr{ku kvalitetu sa
desilitatorima i trenerima koji bi bili zaposleni na
puno radno vrijeme. U naj{irem smislu novi na~in
rada ne ulazi u cjelokupnu sr` organizacije.
Pravi odgovor le`i u obimu prvobitne procjene i faze
planiranja procesa. procjena }e osvijetliti i promjenu
kulture koja je neophodna i trenutne klju~ne faktore
uspjeha. Plan bi onda trebao da se pozabavi
strategijom provo|enja koja osigurava da oba pristupa
budu integralni, a ne konkurentni. Tako }e se izbje}i
opasnost koju svaki pristup sadr`i, ako se ova dva
pristupa uzmu kao jedan. Mo`da onda takav
integrisani pristup ima vi{e srodnosti sa raditeljstvom,
a ne samo sa materinstvom!
Of course, each team is educated and trained in
techniques to accomplish their allotted task. To
some extent a culture change does take place by
the very nature of the activity. The danger is that
the education, training and experience is not
common and many functions such as administrative
and financial are not wholly involved. There is also
a tendency to create a large supporting quality
organisation of full-time trainers and facilitators. In
the broadest sense the new way of working does
not enter the overall fabric of the organisation.
The real answer lies in the scope of the original
assessment and planning stage of the process. The
assessment will highlight both the culture change
required and the immediate key success factors. The
plan should then address an implementation strategy
that ensures that both approaches are integral rather
than competing. It will avoid the dangers inherent in
each when taken as the sole route. Perhaps the
integrated approach becomes more akin to
parenthood rather than mere motherhood!
7. OPSJEDNUTNOST ALATIMA I
TEHNIKAMA
kontroli procesa rada, {to je su{tina stalnog
pobolj{anja, ali kontrola nije jedini faktor kad se
posmatra ili kad se upravlja ljudskim elementima u
radu.
Posljednjih godina je razvijen zna~ajan arsenal alatki
koje podr`ava, sve uklju~ene u proces pobolj{anja
kvaliteta. one se kre}u od alata za relativno
jednsotavna mjerenja i analize procesa, kroz niz
tehnika
za
rje{avanje
problema,
do
veoma
safisticirane upotrebe statisti~kog koncepta. Ve}ina
ovih alatki i tehnika }e stvarno doprinijeti promjeni
svijesti, te su zato sastavni dio strategije pobolj{anja.
ostale tehnike se koriste u specifi~nim situacijama
(vidi pregled [6]).
Bilo kako bilo, kvalitet se ne}e dosti}i samo uz
pomo} alatki. Neke organizacije postanu toliko
opsjednute samim alatkama da zaborave da su
one tu da poslu`e odre|enoj svrsi. Poku{aji da se
mjeri svaki element procesa od po~etka }e
preplaviti organizaciju ~injenicama koje ne mo`e
koristiti ili na osnovu kojih ne mo`e ni{ta poduzeti.
Kad se kao alterntiva tapetama koriste mjerni
diajgrami mo`e se sa sigurno{}u smatrati da se
ne}e promijeniti mnogo. neki ljudi provedu toliko
vremena u ispunjavanju dijagrama i prikupljanju
statisti~kih podataka da im ostane malo vremena
da zavr{e svoj stvarni posao.
Mnoge pristalice kontrole statisti~kog procesa
(Statistical Process Control – SPC) izgleda vjeruju
da se sve {to treba da se dostigne stepen
odlu~nog samo upotreba ove nesumnjivo mo}ne
alatke. naravno SPC sadr`i niz alatki za mjerenje
koje treba pa`ljivo izabrati da bi odgovarale
okolnostima. Sve su osmi{ljene da pomognu
7. AN OBSESSION WITH TOOLS AND
TECHNIQUES
A substantial armoury of tools has been developed
over the years to support all involved in the quality
improvement process. They range from relatively
simple measurement and process analysis tools,
through a series of problem-solving techniques, to
very sophisticated use of statistical concepts. Many
of these tools and techniques will actually assist
the mindset change and are therefore an integral
part of the improvement strategy. Others have their
use in specific situations (for review see [6]).
However, quality will not be achieved by tools
alone. Some organisations become so obsessed
with the tools themselves that they forget that tools
are there only for a purpose. Trying to measure
every element of a process from the outset will
drown the organisation with facts that it cannot use
or take action on. When measurement charts are
being used as an alternative to wallpaper it is a
reasonable bet that nothing much will change. Some
people spend so much time filling in charts and
collecting statistics that there is little time left to
complete their real work.
Many proponents of Statistical Process Control (SPC)
seem to believe that the use of this undoubtedly
powerful tool is all that is needed to achieve
excellence. Of course SPC contains a range of
- 126 -
Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
measurement tools which need careful selection to
meet given circumstances. They are all designed to
assist in the control of work processes, which is the
Sli~no tome, dr`avni sistemi kvaliteta, kao {to su
ISO 9000 su korisne discipline, ali sami nikada ne
mogu osigurati kvalitet usluga. previ{e organizacija
prolaze kroz zadatak certificiranja do takvih
marketni{kih sistema same i drugim rije~ima da bi
ostale
u
poslu
kao
nabavlja~i
drugim
organizacijama treba im taj certifikat. One }e se i
pobolj{ati, ali ako ne vide {ire razgranjavanje
kvaliteta ne}e posti}i ono {to su mo`da o~ekivale.
Ovi sistemi mogu postati jedan drugi oblik
odustajanja menad`menta: "Eh, sad kad smo dobili
certifikat, zavr{ili smo s kvalitetom".
central core of continuous improvement. Nevertheless,
control is not the only factor in looking at or
managing the human element of work.
Similarly, national quality systems such as ISO 9000
are useful disciplines but by themselves will not
ensure quality of service. Too many organisations go
through the task of certification to such systems for
marketing reasons alone: in other words, as
suppliers to other organisations they need such
certification to remain in business. They will improve
but unless they see the wider ramifications of quality
they will not achieve what they might have
expected. These systems can become another form
of management cop-out: 'Good, now we have been
certified we have dealt with quality.'
8. KVALITET JE PREVI[E
ORGANI^AVAO
8. QUALITY WAS TOO CONSTRAINING
Rije~ kvalitet mo`e biti smetnja tome da se uop}e
po~ne. premalo izvr{ilaca vide kvalitet kao strate{ki
imperativ. ^e{}e ga vide kao zadatak koji treba
oddijeliti odjelu za kvalitet i u svakom slu~aju kao
tro{ak koji treba kontrolisati. ne vide da kvalitet
pro`ima sve {to se de{ava u organizaciji. kad
kvalitet i postane ta~ka na njihovom dnevnom redu
i `ele ne{to poduzeti, naj~e{}e idu u pravcu
popravke nabrzinu.
Konkurencija je navela mnoge organizacije na
podizanje kvaliteta na strate{ki nivo. Ali i ovdje
opet rije~ "kvalitet" name}e ograni~enja. Ogromna
energija se ula`e u proces pobolj{anja kvaliteta i
svi u organizaciji su odu{evljeni ali ne postoji
istinska i trajna promjena. ovaj nivo razumijevanja
~esto dovodi do toga da se pobolj{anje kvaliteta
~esto instituicionali{e u birokraciju koja sama sebe
pokre}e. potreba za pobolj{anjem se prvo
prepoznaje kroz potrebu konkurentnih te`ui{ta da
se pobolj{a kvalitet usluga. Ta se potreba ne}e u
potpunoti zadovoljiti ako se kvalitet ograni~i
nedostatkom razumijevanja onoga {to se time misli.
Kvalitet treba gledati kao rezultat a ne kao proces.
9. [email protected] KVALITETA
POSTAJE INSTITUCIONALIZIRAN
Kori{tenje TQM-a kao procesa u postizanju nivoa
odli~nog zaista iziskuje organizaciju koja bi u
po~etku pomogla kroz planiranje i podr{ku procesu
promjene, ali takva organizaicja se ne smije smatrati
odgovornom
za
kvalitet.
To
je
odgovornost
uobi~ajene strukture menad`menta i ljudi kojir ade
zajedno. Da bi se naglasio taj zna~ajni koncept,
po~etne organizacije TQM-a bi trebalo da isplaniraju
i vrijeme kada one zavr{avaju sa svojimr adom od
samog po~etka.
The word quality can be an impediment to even
getting started. Too few executives see quality as
a strategic imperative. They are more likely to see
it as a task to be delegated to a quality
department and in any case as an expense item
to be controlled. They rarely see it as permeating
everything that happens in the organisation. When
quality does find a place on their agenda and they
want to take action they are likely to adopt the
quick fix route.
Competition has led many organisations to elevate
quality to the strategic level. But here again the
word 'quality' imposes constraints. Tremendous
energy is thrown into the quality improvement
process and everyone in the organisation is
enthused but there is no real and lasting change.
This level of comprehension will often lead to
quality improvement becoming institutionalised into
a self-perpetuating bureaucracy. The need to
improve is first recognised through the competitive
market need to provide quality services. That need
will not be wholly met if quality is constrained by
lack of comprehension of what is now meant by
that word. Quality should be viewed as the
outcome rather than the process.
Na`alost, u mnogim organizacijama koje su
predane pobolj{anju kvaliteta mno{tvo timova za
pobolj{anje kvaliteta, fasilitatora i koordinatora
kvalitet smatraju trajnim vlasni{tvom.
9.
QUALITY MANAGEMENT
INSTITUTIONALISED
BECAME
Using TQM as a process to achieve excellence
does require some initial facilitative organisation to
plan and support the process of change. However,
that organisation should never be seen as
responsible for quality, that is the responsibility of
the normal structure of management and people
- 126 -
Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
working together. To emphasise that important
concept the initial TQM organisation should plan the
timing of its own extinction right from the outset.
Unfortunately, in many organisations fully committed
to quality improvement a proliferation of quality
improvement teams, facilitators and co-ordinators
establish a permanent ownership of quality.
Tako se stvori jo{ jedna tvr|ava i uobi~ajena
struktura
organizacije
ubrzo
prebacuje
svoje
probleme s kvalitetom "ljudima za kvalitet".
Ovaj trajni grijeh inicijativa kvaliteta obi~no poti~e
iz generalizovane metodologije stavljene u paket.
Tro{e se velike sume novca na ovu generi~ku
edukaciju ili metodologiju, a onda se tro{e jo{
ve}e sume tokom dugog vremenskog perioda na
polu-trajnu biokraciju TQM-a. ova tendencija je
siroko zastupljena u velikim organizacijama. Njihova
kultura podr`ava pravljenje carstva (barem do
sljede}e vje`be podrezivanja) i ~esto kupuju ono u
{ta su ih drugi uvjerili
dokazane metodologije".
10. UKLJU^ENOST ZAPOSLENIH NIJE
[email protected]
10. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT
NOT MAINTAINED
Ovaj razlog neuspjeha je zaista rezultat drugih
neo~ekivanih faktora a ne su{tinski uzrok, ali ~esto
se navodi kao uzrok neuspjeha, koji zaslu`uje
posebnu pa`nju. Tipi~ne tvrdnje kompanije koje
prolaze kroz ovo iskustvo su sljede}e:
•
"Ni{ta se zapravo nije promijenilo"
•
"Prodavnice ustvari nisu uradile ni{ta"
•
"Nekako se to i nije desilo"
•
"Mada
je
na
op~etku
pozdravljeno
s
entuzijazmom, radnici nikad nisu postali dio toga"
•
"U su{tini, radnici nisu bili zainteresovani".
This reason for failure is really the result of other
causal factors rather than a root cause in its own
right. However, it is often quoted as a cause of failure
that it deserves separate consideration. Typical
statements of companies experiencing this issue are
as follows:
•
'Nothing really changed'
•
'The shop floor didn't actually do anything'
•
'Somehow it didn't really happen'
•
'Though initially greeted with enthusiasm, the
workers never "bought in"'
•
'Deep down the workers were not interested'
Malo toga }e se promijeniti (vidi [7]) ako elementi
edukacije i seminara nisu osmi{ljeni isklju~ivo tako
da uklju~e radnike u pobolj{anje vlastitog rada.
Svaki element plana bi trebalo da se usmjeri na
stvarno i specifi~no pobolj{anje koje radnici mogu
prepoznati i povezati sa svojim vlastitim radom. ovo
}e se rijetko posti}i motivacijskim izazovima! U
stvarnom `ivotu, uklju~enost radnika zavisi od
promjene pona{anja menad`menta. Kad oni shvate
da je njihova prvobitna uloga da pomognu svojim
ljudima, bli`e smo rje{enju.
11. NEDOSTATAK PRAVNIH
POSLOVNIH MJERLJIVOSTI
Osnovni princip kontinuiranog pobolj{anja se mo`e
sumirati frazom "ono {to se ne mo`e mjeriti ne
mo}e biti ni predmet upravljanja", kojoj se mo`e
dodati "ako se ne{to ne mjeri, vjerovatno se njime
ni ne upravlja". Pa ipak previ{e procesa upravljanja
kvalitetom se ne mjeri na pravi na~in. Neke firme
pogre{no vjeruju da mjere procese tehnikama kao
npr. tro{ak za kvalitet (Cost of Quality – COQ)
da
su
"isprobane
i
Another fortress has been created and the normal
structure of the organisation is soon throwing its
quality problems over the wall to the 'quality people'.
This abiding sin of quality initiatives usually stems
from a generalised and packaged methodology.
Large sums of money are spent on this generic
education or methodology and then even larger
sums are expended over long periods of time on a
semi-permanent TQM bureaucracy. This tendency is
very prevalent in large organisations. Their culture
inherently encourages empire-building (or at least
until the next pruning exercise) and they have a
natural tendency to purchase what they are
led
to
believe
are
'tried
and
proven
methodologies'.
WAS
Unless the education and training elements in the
initiative are specifically designed to involve workers
in the improvement of their own work process little
will change (see also [7]). Every element in the plan
should focus on real and specific improvement
which the workers can recognise relate to their own
work. This will! rarely be achieved by motivational
challenges. In reality the involvement of employees
depends on a change in management behaviour.
When they understand that their principal role is to
help their people we are nearer the solution.
(kao {to je opisano u [8] ali rijetko ko primjenjuje
prave poslovne mjerljivosti kao kriterije uspjeha).
11. LACK OF REAL BUSINESS
MEASURABLES
A central tenet of continuous improvement can be
summed up in the phrase 'what you cannot
measure, you cannot manage', to which could be
added 'what you do not measure, you are
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Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
probably not managing. Yet all too many total
quality management processes are not measured
in a meaningful way. Some companies mistakenly
believe they are measuring the process by
techniques such as the Cost of Quality (as
described by [8] but few apply real business
measurables as the criteria for success.
Ne zanima nas {to je ve}ina uspje{nih pionira
menad`menta kvaliteta, koji su prvobitno koristili
COQ kao sveobuhvatnu mjeru, odlu~ila da¸ga
prestane koristiti prije mnogo godina. pravi razlog
{to ve}ina firmi ula`e u menad`ment kvalitetom je
konkurentna potreba da pobolj{avaju kvalitet svojih
usluga i proizvoda. U toj fazi COQ je mo}no
sredstvo da se pove}a njihovo razumijevanje da
ne}e dosti}i ciljeve samo pove}anjem nadgledanja
ili pukim motivisanjem radne snage. istinski
nedostaci koji se moraju pobolj{ati su jo{ uvijek
prisutni i zato moraju biti osnova
mjerenja
pobolj{anja. na primjer, ako faza po~etne procjene
u osiguravaju}oj firmi poka`e da vrijeme prerastanja
prijedloga u izdavanje zavr{ene politike je dvadeset
dana, a konkurentna potreba je da se taj period
smanji na pet dana, onda je to mjera. Mo`e se
postaviti prekretnica za smanjenje sa dvadeset na
pet dana u fazama u toku odre|enog vremenskog
okvira. Savladavanje tih prekretnica bi bila stvarna
mjerljivost poslovnosti. Svaka organizacija mo`e
postaviti odre|en broj takvih kriterija koji se mogu
koristiti kao prava mjera uspjeha.
Postojat }e argumenti unutar organizacije o tome da
li su ova pobolj{anja rezultat procesa menad`menta
kvalitetom. ista stvar bi se zapravo mogla re}i za
COQ, ali da li je zaista va`no jesu li sve mjerljivosti
na koje smo se fokusirali i ostvarene? Ipak, kao
dodatak poslovnim mjerljivostima (koje treba definirati
u izvornom planu), postoje dodatne mjere koje se
mogu poduzeti da bi se pomoglo ovima onima koji
upravljaju procesom TQM. TQM treba gledati kao
jedan poslovni proces. Drugim rije~ima, imat }e
ulaganja i rezultate koji trebaju biti u vezi s
uslovima. Oni se mogu koristiti kao mjere od strane
onih koji su direktno uklju~eni u upravljanje
procesom promjene. Ove mjere }e podr`ati proces
promjene izvr{iocima koji mjere poslovne parametre.
It is of interest that most of the successful pioneers
in quality management who originally used COQ as
the overall measure decided to stop using it many
years ago. The original reason most companies
invest in quality management is the competitive
need to improve the quality of their products and
services. At that stage COQ is a powerful tool to
help their understanding that they will not achieve
their aims by just increasing inspection or merely
motivating
their
workforce.
But
the
original
deficiencies that must be improved are still present
and should therefore be the basis for measuring
improvement. For example, if the initial assessment
stage in an insurance company shows that the
turnaround time from proposal to issue of a
completed policy is twenty days and the competitive
need is to reduce this to five days then that is the
measure. Milestones can be set for a staged
reduction from twenty to five days over a given time
frame. Achieving those milestones would be a real
business
measurable.
Every
organisation
can
establish a number of such criteria which can be
used as the real measure of success.
There will be arguments within the organisation about
whether all these improvements are wholly the result
of the quality management process. Actually, the same
could be said of COQ, but what does it really matter
if the focused measurables are all being achieved?
However, in addition to the business measurables
(which should be defined in the original plan) there
are additional measures which can be established to
assist those managing the TQM process. TQM should
be viewed as a business process in its own right. In
other words, it will have inputs and outputs which
should be related to requirements. These can be used
as measures by those directly involved in managing
the process of change. These measures will support
progress or otherwise for the executives measuring the
business parameters.
12. ZAKLJU^AK
12. CONCLUSION
Sva ova razo~arenja se mogu izbje}i. Klju~ trajnog
uspjeha te`i upravo na samom po~etku puta
kontinuiranog
pobolj{anja.
U~inkovitost
izvorne
procjene i razumijevanje plana da se upravlja
promjenom su osnove uspje{nog puta.
All of these disappointments can be avoided. The
key to lasting success lies right at the start of the
journey to continuous improvement. The effectiveness
of
the
original
assessment
and
the
comprehensiveness of the plan to manage the
change are the real basis for a successful journey.
13. LITERATURA - REFERENCES
[1]
Macdonald J.: The Quality revolution in
retrospect, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 10,
1998, No. 5, pp. 321-333.
- 135 -
[2]
Dolin{ek S.,
Management
Rozman M.: TQM as a
Model
for
SME,
2nd
Ma{instvo 2(6), 125 – 134, (2002)
International Conference ICIT, Roga{ka 1999,
Slovenia.
[3]
[4]
[5]
Dolin{ek S., Macdonald J.: TQM evolution a retrospect and lesson for future (in
Slovene),
8.
Letna
konferenca
SZK,
Bernardin, November 1999, Slovenia.
Macdonald J.: Calling a Halt to Mindless
Change - a Plea for Common Sense
Management, Amacon, USA, 1998.
J.Macdonald,….: TQM – UZROCI NEUSPJEHA....
[6]
Montgomery D.C: Introduction to Statistical
Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto
1997.
[7]
Macdonald J.: Understanding Knowledge
Management in a Weak, The Institute of
Management, Hodder & Stoughton, London
1999.
[8]
Crossby P.B.: Quality is Still Free - Making
Quality Certain in Uncertain Times, McGraw
Hill, New York, 1995.
Deming W. E.: The New Economics for
Industry, Government, Education, MIT Centre
for Advanced Engineering Study, Cambridge,
MA, 1993.
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