For all who would like to know more about Poland
Prepared by the Investment and Technology Promotion Office
of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in Warsaw,
under the auspices of the Ministry of the Economy
Warsaw, July 2006
UNIDO ITPO in Warsaw would like to thank the following institutions for their
co-operation and involvement in the process of preparing the current edition of this guide:
the Ministry of the Economy, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs – the
Department of Foreign Economic Policy and the Department of Promotion, the Ministry of
the Treasury, the National Bank of Poland, and PAIiIZ (the Polish Information and Foreign
Investment Agency).
We are especially grateful to the staff of the Inquiry Office at GUS (the Central Statistical
Office) and for the contributions and co-operation of Cushman & Wakefield Advisory
Services, Potworowski Kinast Grant Thornton Sp. z o.o., and Prof. Włodzimierz Karaszewski
of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń.
This guide is not intended to be comprehensive – it has been prepared to provide a general
overview of the current situation in Poland. The information contained herein should be
treated as a guideline and the actual laws and regulations in force should be consulted
whenever a business decision is to be made. Potential investors should conduct further
analysis according to specific project requirements.
The designations employed in the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply
the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of UNIDO concerning
the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the
delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Mention of firms’ names or commercial products
does not imply endorsement by UNIDO.
Editor-in-chief: Grzegorz Bychawski
English language version reviewed by Jean-Jacques Granas
Copyright by UNIDO ITPO Warsaw 2006
All rights reserved
Published by:
Al. Niepodległości 186; 00-608 Warsaw, Poland
tel.: (+48-22) 8259186, 8259467; fax: 8258970
e-mail: [email protected] web-site:
ISSN 1642-7823
How to Do Business in Poland
I. GENERAL INFORMATION ..................................................................................................... 7
Climate ...................................................................................................................................9
Natural Resources...................................................................................................................9
Energy and Fuels ..................................................................................................................10
Population and Language......................................................................................................11
Political System and Government .........................................................................................12
Government Administration..................................................................................................14
II. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................. 17
GDP and Inflation.................................................................................................................19
Budgetary Policy ..................................................................................................................21
Foreign Exchange .................................................................................................................22
Foreign Debt.........................................................................................................................24
Employment and the Labour Market.....................................................................................25
Industry and Technology ......................................................................................................27
Agriculture ...........................................................................................................................35
Construction Industry............................................................................................................38
Banking Sector .....................................................................................................................40
Insurance Sector ...................................................................................................................45
Pension System.....................................................................................................................50
Power Industry......................................................................................................................55
Transportation Infrastructure and Highway Construction ......................................................58
Outlook for 2006 and Beyond..............................................................................................62
Co-operation with International Organisations ......................................................................64
UNIDO and its Activities in Poland ......................................................................................68
III. FOREIGN TRADE ................................................................................................................. 71
Customs Regulations and Duties...........................................................................................73
Autonomous Tariff Suspensions and Quotas .......................................................................75
Duty Free Zones and Free Warehouses .................................................................................76
Refinancing Interest on Export Credits ................................................................................78
Foreign Trade Results ...........................................................................................................78
IV. PRIVATISATION ................................................................................................................... 85
Legislative Framework .........................................................................................................87
Ministry of the Treasury........................................................................................................88
Privatisation Revenue ...........................................................................................................88
Privatisation Objectives and Plans for 2006 ..........................................................................89
The Multi-methods Approach ...............................................................................................91
Capital Privatisation..............................................................................................................93
Direct Privatisation ...............................................................................................................94
Agricultural Property Agency ...............................................................................................96
The Mass Privatisation Programme.......................................................................................98
Restitution ............................................................................................................................99
Capital Markets ..................................................................................................................100
V. FOREIGN INVESTMENT.................................................................................................... 107
Legal Considerations ..........................................................................................................109
State Aid for New Investments............................................................................................113
R&D Support .....................................................................................................................115
Special Economic Zones.....................................................................................................116
Institutional Structure for Foreign Direct Investments .........................................................119
Why Invest in Poland? ........................................................................................................121
What the Investors Say .......................................................................................................122
Foreign Direct Investment...................................................................................................126
Polish Direct Investment Abroad ........................................................................................130
VI. POLAND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION........................................................................... 133
Integration Process Overview ............................................................................................135
The Accession Treaty.........................................................................................................136
Temporary Provisions........................................................................................................137
Current Economic Developments ......................................................................................140
VII. TAXATION SYSTEM ........................................................................................................ 143
Taxes ..................................................................................................................................145
Capital Allowances .............................................................................................................151
Double Taxation Treaties....................................................................................................152
VIII. REAL ESTATE .................................................................................................................. 153
Legislative Framework Governing Real Estate..................................................................155
Purchase of Real Estate by Foreigners ...............................................................................156
Permits Issued ....................................................................................................................158
Transaction Costs................................................................................................................159
Professional Services on the Real Estate Market ...............................................................160
Real Estate Market by Segments........................................................................................162
IX. INDUSTRIAL AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ..................................................... 169
Patent Legislation ...............................................................................................................171
Copyrights ..........................................................................................................................173
X. OPERATING IN POLAND................................................................................................... 175
Forms of Business Entities..................................................................................................177
Establishing a Company......................................................................................................178
Subsidiaries of Foreign Companies .....................................................................................182
Competition and Consumer Protection................................................................................184
Accounting and Auditing ....................................................................................................187
Public Procurement.............................................................................................................189
Bankruptcy and Insolvency.................................................................................................190
Employees ..........................................................................................................................193
Employment of Foreigners..................................................................................................196
Living in Poland .................................................................................................................197
XI. TOURISM IN POLAND....................................................................................................... 201
Visiting Poland ...................................................................................................................204
Tourism Industry ................................................................................................................210
XII. HISTORY OF POLAND .................................................................................................... 215
XIII. SOURCES OF BUSINESS INFORMATION IN POLAND......................................... 235
Newspapers, Magazines and Other Publications..................................................................240
Internet ...............................................................................................................................241
XIV. APPENDICES..................................................................................................................... 245
How to Do Business in Poland
Map of Polish Communities Abroad ................................................................................................ 11
Structure of the Sejm in June 2006 ................................................................................................... 13
Administrative Map of Poland.......................................................................................................... 15
Inflation (1991-2005) ........................................................................................................................ 19
Gross Domestic Product (1991-2005) .............................................................................................. 20
Structure of State Budget Expenditure.............................................................................................. 22
Foreign Debt in 2005 in Comparison to Other Economic Indicators .............................................. 24
Total External Debt and Central and Local Government External Debt (1996-2005).................... 25
Unemployment and Unemployment Rate (1991-2005) ................................................................... 26
Number of Farms and Their Area by Farm Size Category .............................................................. 36
Ownership Structure of the Banking Sector ..................................................................................... 43
Share of Foreign-Controlled Banks in the Banking Sector’s Assets................................................ 43
Number of Insurance Companies (1993-2005) ................................................................................ 46
Structure of the Life Insurance Market ............................................................................................. 46
Structure of the Non-life Insurance Market ...................................................................................... 47
Relation of Insurance Premiums to GDP (1995-2005) .................................................................... 47
Foreign Investment Structure in the Insurance Sector...................................................................... 49
Assets of Pension Funds (1999-2005) .............................................................................................. 51
Telephone Subscribers per 100 Inhabitants (1997-2005)................................................................. 54
Structure of the Mobile Market......................................................................................................... 55
Share of Goods Delivered by Various Means of Transport ............................................................. 58
Roads Repaired (2001-2005) ............................................................................................................ 59
Highway and Motorway Construction Programme in Poland ......................................................... 61
Exports and Imports (1994-2005) ..................................................................................................... 80
Exports – Geographical Structure ..................................................................................................... 80
Imports – Geographical Structure ..................................................................................................... 80
Official Reserve Assets (1993-2005)................................................................................................ 84
Privatisation Revenue (1991-2005) .................................................................................................. 88
Privatisation Results by Method ....................................................................................................... 92
Direct Privatisation by Forms ........................................................................................................... 95
WSE – Number of Listed Companies and Capitalisation (1995-2005)......................................... 103
Foreign Direct Investment in Poland (1991-2005)......................................................................... 126
Share of Commercial Companies with Foreign Capital in the Number of Commercial Companies
in Selected Sectors and Branches.................................................................................................... 129
Commercial Companies with Foreign Capital by Sector ............................................................... 129
Corporate Income Tax Rates (1997-2006) ..................................................................................... 145
Land Acquisition Permits Granted to Foreigners (1990-2005)...................................................... 158
Office Market – Cumulative Stock and Annual Supply................................................................. 162
Office Market – Warsaw Rents....................................................................................................... 163
Modern Retail Market – Cumulative Stock and Annual Supply ................................................... 164
Retail Market – Rents...................................................................................................................... 165
Industrial Market – Cumulative Stock and Annual Supply............................................................ 166
Industrial Market – Prime Rents and Vacancy ............................................................................... 167
Foreign Arrivals (1991-2005) ......................................................................................................... 210
Tourist Arrivals to Poland by Main Purpose .................................................................................. 211
Tourism – Foreign Currency Receipts (1995-2005)....................................................................... 212
Outbound Trips by Polish Residents (1991-2005) ......................................................................... 213
Seasonal Breakdown of Domestic Tourist Travel .......................................................................... 213
Production of Major Fuel and Energy Products ...........................................................................10
Functions of Major Government Institutions ...............................................................................16
Gross Domestic Product (1997-2005)..........................................................................................19
State Budget................................................................................................................................21
Poland’s Rating by International Credit Rating Agencies ............................................................22
Economic Entities by Sector and Form of Ownership..................................................................28
Structure of Industry by Branch...................................................................................................29
Agricultural Output ....................................................................................................................37
Construction Output Structure....................................................................................................39
Commercial Banks......................................................................................................................41
Ranking of Banks by Balance Sheet Total .................................................................................44
Financial Flows between Poland and the EU Budget.................................................................67
Foreign Trade (1997-2004) .........................................................................................................79
Exports – Major Partners.............................................................................................................81
Imports – Major Partners............................................................................................................81
Balance of Payments on the Current Account (1998-2005)..........................................................83
Land Taken over into APA Stock and its Redistribution (by Province).....................................97
Major WSE Indices ..................................................................................................................103
WSE Equity Market Trade.......................................................................................................103
WSE Futures Market Trade......................................................................................................103
WSE Main Market Sector Figures ...........................................................................................105
Results of Operations in SSEs ...................................................................................................118
Foreign Direct Investment Inflow (2004-2005) .........................................................................127
Commercial Companies with Foreign Capital (1991-2005).......................................................128
Polish FDI in 1995-2005 ..........................................................................................................131
FDI Outflow by type in 1995-2004 ..........................................................................................132
Personal Income Tax Scale .......................................................................................................149
Real Estate Tax Rates................................................................................................................150
Major Depreciation Rates..........................................................................................................151
Hotel Rooms (2003-2004).........................................................................................................214
General remarks
The main sources of statistics cited in the Guide are the official publications of the
Central Statistical Office (GUS).
Unless stated otherwise, tables and graphs included in this publication are based on
the information contained in the text.
Unless stated otherwise, values in US dollars have been calculated in accordance with
the average exchange rate for a given period set by the National Bank of Poland.
When the text refers to industry, the term includes the mining and extracting
industries, manufacturing, and the sectors supplying gas, power, and water.
How to Do Business in Poland
One of the largest countries in Central Europe;
312.700 sq. km.; 38.2 million people
EU and NATO member
Urban population – 61 %
12 million Poles living abroad
English is the most popular foreign language
Moderate climate, with relatively cold winters and
warm summers
Large deposits of hard and brown coal, copper,
sulphur, zinc, lead, silver, magnesium and rock salt
Main agricultural crops are wheat and other cereals,
potatoes, sugar beets, and fodder crops
29 % of the country covered by forests
How to Do Business in Poland
The Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska) is one of the largest countries in
Central Europe. It borders on Russia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia, the Czech
Republic, and Germany. Its northern frontier on the Baltic Sea gives it easy access to
Scandinavian and North Sea ports.
The capital of Poland, Warsaw, is situated in the centre of the country. Poland ranks
ninth in Europe in terms of size, and 69th in the world, with a surface area of 312,677 sq.
km. Poland is in the Central European time zone (GMT + 1 hour). In late March it
switches to daylight saving time, which lasts till late October.
The country lies almost wholly on the North European Plain and is a land of gentle
slopes, rarely rising above 300 m, except along the southern border with the Sudety and
Carpathian Mountain ranges. Rysy, Poland’s highest mountain peak, rises 2,499 m
above sea level. Approximately one-fifth of Poland’s area is maintained as pasture and
meadows. Forests cover over one-fourth of the total area. The longest rivers cross the
country northwards: the Vistula (1,074 km in length) in the centre, and the Oder (854
km), which flows along Poland’s western border.
Poland has a moderate climate characterised by relatively cold winters and warm
summers. Winters become increasingly severe inland from the Baltic coast, with January
temperatures averaging -1 °C (30 °F) in the north and going as low as -5 °C (23 °F) in
the south-east. July temperatures range from 16.5 °C (62 °F) near the coast to 19 °C
(66 °F) in the south. Rainfall varies with the altitude, from less than 500 mm a year in
the lowlands to as high as 1270 mm in the southern mountains.
Natural Resources
Poland has substantial agricultural and mineral resources. It has the world’s fifth-largest
proven reserves of hard and brown coal, in addition to deposits of copper, sulphur, zinc,
lead, silver, magnesium, and rock salt. There is natural gas and also potentially useful
deposits of chalk, kaolin, clays, and potash.
I. General Information
Poland’s main agricultural crops are wheat and other cereals, potatoes, sugar beets and
fodder crops. Poland is a leading exporter of apple concentrate and is among the
world’s leading producers of berries, cabbages, and carrots. Poland is ranked second
in the world in rye and sixth in potato production. At the end of 2005, the livestock
sector included 5.4 million beef and dairy cattle and approximately 18.7 million pigs.
Due to Poland’s favourable geographical position and temperate climate utilised
agricultural area amounts to more than half of Poland’s surface (15.9 million
hectares). In addition, almost 9.2 million hectares are forested, making sawn timber an
important resource.
Energy and Fuels
The overwhelming majority of Poland’s electricity is generated by coal- and lignite
fuelled power stations, while the remainder derives from hydroelectric power stations
and wind power plants. Hard coal remains the foundation of Polish industry. Thanks to
coal, Poland’s total energy consumption and production have generally been in balance,
with imports of oil offset by coal exports. In 2005, hard coal production reached over 98
million tons, slightly less than in the previous year, and that of brown coal and coke 61.6
and 8.5 million tons, respectively. Outputs of natural gas, basic fuels and electricity are
presented in the table below.
Production of Major Fuels and Energy Products in 2005 *
Hard coal
Brown coal
Fuel oils
Petrol (incl. aviation fuel)
Diesel oil
Natural gas
Companies employing over 49 persons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
cubic hectometres
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
About a third of Poland’s demand for natural gas is covered by domestic production and
most imports come from Russia.
How to Do Business in Poland
Population and Language
In recent years (since 1999) the population of Poland, currently 38.2 million people, has
been experiencing a very slow decline. In 2005 this trend continued and the population
of Poland declined by 0.04 %. Approximately 61.4 % of Poles live in 887 towns, which
are mostly small or medium-size, and almost half of the town population lives in 39
cities with a population of over 100,000 inhabitants. Warsaw, the capital and Poland’s
largest city, has a population of 1.7 million people. Apart from the capital, the largest
Polish cities are Łódź, Cracow, Wrocław, Poznań and the Gdańsk-Sopot-Gdynia
conurbation, which together account for about 3.5 million people. With respect to size of
population, Poland ranks 8th in Europe and 30th in the world, with an average population
density of 122 persons per km2.
The population of Polish communities abroad is estimated at 12 million, with the largest
communities living in the USA (5.6 million), the Commonwealth of Independent States
– CIS (2.5 million), France (1 million), Germany (0.8 million), Canada (0.4 million),
Brazil (0.2 million), Australia (0.15), and the UK (0.14).
Map of Polish Communities Abroad
Source: Institute of Geodesy and Cartography
Demographic trends in Poland indicate a further growth in the working-age population,
standing at 64 % of the population at the end of 2005. In the last quarter of 2005 there
were 14.4 million people employed, including almost 5.0 million by companies
employing ten or more persons. On the other hand, the number of retired persons and
pensioners reached 9.2 million. Even though the number of retired people is growing,
Poland’s workforce is among the youngest in Europe. Its activity rate is 55.2 % (as of
the last quarter of 2005).
I. General Information
From the ethnic point of view, Poland is one of the most homogeneous countries in
Europe, with over 98 % of the population being ethnically Polish.
In the business community, as well as among young people, English is the most popular
foreign language. In addition, German and Russian are frequently spoken, reflecting the
geographical position of the country.
Political System and Government
Poland was the first country in Central and Eastern Europe to free itself from communist
rule. This bold move was soon followed throughout the region. It all started early in
1989 when the communist-dominated authorities and the opposition embarked on
discussions which became known as the ‘Round Table Negotiations’. As a result, major
agreements were reached, including legalisation of the Solidarity trade union and an
agreement to hold elections on 4 June 1989. The elections were won by the
representatives of Solidarity, who then formed the first non-communist government in
East-Central Europe since the Second World War.
Poland is a republic reflecting a mixture of parliamentary and presidential models. In
1997, a new constitution was adopted by the national assembly and submitted for
ratification in a national referendum. The new constitution contains some important
guarantees for business. It states that the Republic of Poland assures freedom of
economic activity and that any limitation of this freedom should be based on law.
Similarly, fiscal charges may be imposed only by law. Another important safeguard
clause concerning public finance says that an increase of expenditure by the government
should not cause an increase of the budget deficit above the level set by the budgetary
law, and that the budgetary law should not provide for the financing of the deficit
through lending from the central bank.
The president is elected to office by universal suffrage for a 5-year term. He appoints
candidates for the post of prime minister and has the right to veto acts passed by
parliament. His veto may be rejected by a three-fifths majority in the sejm, with at least a
half of deputies present. The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief
of the armed forces. He has the right to dissolve parliament if it is unable to approve the
budgetary law or to form a government. Lech Wałęsa, the historic leader of the
Solidarity movement, was elected president in November 1990. However, in a heated
presidential campaign in the autumn of 1995, he lost to Aleksander Kwaśniewski, leader
of the Democratic Left Alliance, who also won the subsequent presidential elections
held in 2000. October 2005 witnessed another very intense presidential campaign,
finally won by Lech Kaczyński, President of Warsaw and a former Minister of Justice,
who assumed the office at the end of the year.
How to Do Business in Poland
Legislative authority is vested in the parliament, or National Assembly, composed of two
chambers: the lower house, the sejm, with 460 seats, and the upper house, the senate, with
100 seats, both elected for a 4-year term. The sejm has 460 deputies elected through
a proportional voting system. All 100 senators are elected in a majority voting system. The
senate has the right to initiate legislation, and it reviews and proposes amendments to acts
passed by the sejm. It is ultimately the sejm that decides on the final version of any
legislative act. Apart from the sejm deputies and the senate, legislative initiative is also
granted to the president, the Council of Ministers, and any group of at least one hundred
thousand citizens coming up with a draft law.
The last parliamentary elections were held on 25 September 2005. The Law and Justice
Party (PiS) won with almost 27 % of votes, receiving 155 seats in the sejm. The Civic
Platform Party (PO) came second, receiving 24.1 % of votes (133 seats), followed by the
Self-Defence Party (Samoobrona), which received 11.4 % of votes (56 seats). The
remaining seats were divided between the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) – 55 seats, the
League of Polish Families (LPR) – 34 seats, the Polish People’s Party (PSL) – 25 seats,
and the German Minority – 2 seats. Since then several changes have taken place on the
Polish political scene. The present structure of the sejm (as of June 2006) is presented in
the following diagram.
Structure of the Sejm in June 2006 (number of seats)
Independent deputies
Source: Sejm, 2006
I. General Information
Executive power is vested in the prime minister and his cabinet, called the Council of
Ministers, while judicial power is vested in independent courts.
At the very outset of the political and economic transformation process Poland focused
its efforts on two major goals: economic integration with the European Community (see
Chapter VI) and NATO membership.
The economic integration process aimed at re-establishing Poland as an integral part of
the European economy. It led to Poland’s acquiring EU membership as of 1 May 2004.
NATO membership, ensuring external security, has been achieved even earlier. The first
step in the process of joining NATO had taken place in March 1991, when the military
structures of the Warsaw Pact were dissolved. A mere three months later, in October
1991, in Cracow, the presidents of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary expressed the
desire of their states to participate in NATO activities.
At a 1997 NATO summit, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary were invited to
start negotiations on membership in the alliance. Finally, on 17 February 1999, the
parliament passed a law allowing President Kwaśniewski to ratify the North Atlantic
Treaty, which he did on 26 February 1999. On 12 March of the same year, Poland’s
accession to NATO was sealed with the ceremony of depositing the ratification treaty
with the Treaty’s Depository Office.
Government Administration
The government administration is composed of the central administration (ministries
and other bodies) and the regional administration.
The administrative division of the country is based on three levels of administration, i.e.,
provinces (województwo), which are divided into districts (powiat), which are further
divided into communes (gmina). There are 16 provinces, 379 districts, and 2478
communes in Poland. The list of local authorities (Urząd Wojewódzki) is presented in
Appendix 17.
How to Do Business in Poland
Administrative Map of Poland
Source: Institute of Geodesy and Cartography
I. General Information
Some major ministries and their main functions, likely to be of interest to foreign
investors and businessmen, are listed in the table below.
Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development
Ministry of
Ministry of the
Main Functions
Developing and implementing policies regarding agriculture, rural
development and the development of agricultural markets.
Directing government administration in the areas of architecture,
construction, housing and land management.
Initiating and co-ordinating policies regarding economic activity and
development, including foreign trade and economic issues, energy
policy, tourism, and co-operation with economic business
Ministry of Education
Directing state activities in the field of education, including developing
curriculum and social assistance to pupils.
Ministry of the
Regulating all issues pertaining to environmental protection and water
resources, and particularly, developing and implementing policies
concerning air and water protection, the avoidance of land degradation,
water management and protection of the population and property
against flood and drought.
Ministry of Finance
Responsibilities include activities in the area of public finance, state
budget development and implementation and financial institutions.
Ministry of Foreign
Maintaining diplomatic relations with other countries and international
organisations, representing and protecting the interests of Poland, its
citizens and its entities abroad, promotion of Poland and the Polish
language abroad, and co-operation with Poles living abroad.
Ministry of Internal
Overseeing internal safety, state administration, citizens’ affairs with
Affairs and
respect to public administration and all issues regarding foreigners in
Poland, directing state activities in the field of information technology.
Ministry of Labour and Regulating all issues pertaining to the labour market and work
Social Policy
conditions, the social security system, social benefits, directing state
activities aimed at reducing poverty and at social integration.
Ministry of Regional
Developing and implementing regional development policies aimed at
the acceleration of social and economic development of all regions and
at the prevention of a further differentiation between the most and the
least developed regions of the country.
Ministry of Transport
Developing and implementing state activities in the field of
transportation, including transport infrastructure and road safety.
Ministry of the Treasury Supervising and managing the State Treasury, taking privatisation
decisions concerning state-owned enterprises, initiating the
privatisation of municipal property, keeping a register of the State
Treasury’s assets, and the setting up, closing down and privatisation of
State Treasury companies.
Source: Various acts
How to Do Business in Poland
GDP growth of 3.4 %, driven mostly by exports
Annual inflation of 2.1 %
Industrial output growth of 3.8 %
Budget deficit: 2.9 % of GDP
2.8 million unemployed – official unemployment rate:
17.6 %
Average gross monthly salary: PLN 2,380
(approx. EUR 600)
Poland’s foreign debt amounts to USD 130.0 billion
53 commercial banks (mostly foreign-owned) and
almost 600 co-operative banks
71 insurance companies, mostly foreign-owned
Average telephone density (per 100 inh.):
fixed-line – 32; mobile – 76
Electric energy production: 157 TWh
Roads: 80 km per 100 km2, many in poor condition
Railway network: 6 km per 100 km2
Standard & Poor’s country rating – foreign currency
(long/outlook/short): BBB+ / Stable / A-2
How to Do Business in Poland
GDP and Inflation
Poland was the first country in Central and Eastern Europe to embark upon the
breakthrough transition from a planned economy to a market system. Dismantling of all
central economy planning mechanisms and the introduction of a market economy was
quick to produce effects. Inflation, running at three digits in 1990, fell to double digits in
1991-1998, and declined steadily in the following years to fall to as little as 0.8 % in
2003. In 2005 it reached 2.1 %.
7.3 10.1 5.5
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
Although successful, the radical reforms also plunged the country into a deep, but
relatively short-lived recession. Still, Poland was the only country in the region to
achieve GDP growth in 1992. The recovery gained momentum in 1993 with a GDP
growth rate of 3.8 %, at that time the highest growth rate in Europe. In 2005, GDP grew
by 3.4 % and exports continued to be an important driver of GDP growth, especially in
the first half of the year.
Gross Domestic Product
Gross Domestic Product
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
GDP at current prices (PLN bn) 515.4 600.9 666.3 744.6 779.2 807.9 842.1 923.2
GDP real annual growth (%)
Average PLN/USD
3.28 3.49 3.97 4.35 4.09 4.08 3.89 3.65
exchange rate
GDP at current prices (USD bn) 157.1 172.0 167.9 171.3 190.3 198.0 216.5 252.7
Source: Central Statistical Office, NBP, 2006
II. Economic Environment
To reflect the real degree of development in comparing Polish GDP per capita to that of
other countries, overall price levels should be considered and appropriate adjustments
made. In 2005, applying the OECD and Eurostat estimates of the PLN’s purchasing
power, GDP per capita in Poland in PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) terms amounted to
over USD 13,100.
Gross Domestic Product Growth
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
Since 1990, important changes in resource allocation have taken place with a dynamic
expansion of trade and services, and a steep fall in construction, farm, and industrial
output. This has moved Poland’s economic structure closer to that of countries at
a medium level of development. The Polish economy entered the 1990s as the weakest
in Central Europe. It emerged in the new millennium as one of the strongest.
How to Do Business in Poland
Budgetary Policy
Poland managed to go through a difficult period of transition without excessive
relaxation of its budgetary policy. However, in 2001, the budget deficit doubled in
comparison to the previous year and amounted to approximately 4.5 % of GDP. The
next three years did not bring any improvement in this respect. In 2005, however, the
budget deficit decreased to just 2.9 % of GDP.
A breakdown of the state budget in the last two years is presented in the table below.
State Budget 2004 and 2005 (PLN billion)
Selected Items
Indirect taxation
- thereof VAT
- thereof excise tax
Corporate income tax
Personal income tax
Dividends and income from profit
Custom duties
Social security contributions
Current expenditure of budgetary entities
Domestic debt service
Foreign debt service
Subsidies for local government
Investment expenditure
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
As a result of the economic growth and fairly good budget performance in recent years,
the ratio of public debt to GDP declined substantially, from 70.4 % at the end of 1994, to
some 55 % of GDP at the end of 1995, following an important reduction of foreign debt.
At the end of 2005, it amounted to 47.7 % of GDP.
Budgetary expenditure in 2005 is presented in the following diagram. It is worth noting
that foreign debt service expenditure is rather insignificant, amounting to just 1.7 % of
the budget.
II. Economic Environment
Structure of State Budget Expenditure in 2005
Domestic debt
Foreign debt
expenditure of
budgetary entities
Subsidies to local
Other expenditure
Social security
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
A good budgetary performance, stable economic growth, the curbing of inflation, and
other positive economic factors of the past decade, led first to constant improvement of
Poland’s rating on international markets, and then to its stabilisation. Currently (June
2006), Poland’s rating by the major agencies is decidedly favourable, as reflected in the
table below.
Rating Agency
Standard & Poor’s
Long-term Rating
Short-term Rating
Source: Rating Agencies, June 2006
Foreign Exchange
The official currency in Poland is the złoty (zł or PLN), which is divided into 100
groszy. Foreign exchange operations are governed by Foreign Exchange Law of 27 July
2002. It came into force on 1 October 2002 and further liberalised capital exchange. In
line with mandatory EU regulations concerning foreign exchange, the law removed all
restrictions in the flow of capital payments between Poland and the EU member states,
the European Economic Area, and OECD member states.
Nonetheless, some limitations to capital exchange that are not contrary to the EU
mandatory foreign exchange regulations are permitted. These are defined in art. 9 of the
law and apply mostly to operations with non-residents from countries, that are not EU,
How to Do Business in Poland
EEA, or OECD members. The limitations focus on capital flows relating to direct
investments (including investments in real estate), the provision of financial services,
and the introduction of securities to capital markets. The law also contains a provision
stating that limitations resulting from other acts supersede the freedom of capital flow
arising from the Foreign Exchange Law.
The limitations pertaining to foreign exchange terms and conditions may be abolished
through foreign exchange permits. There are two types of permits: general and
individual. General foreign exchange permits are granted by the Minister of Finance,
while individual foreign exchange permits are granted by the President of the National
Bank of Poland. Both general and individual permits will be granted if there is no threat
to state security, public order, the equilibrated balance of payments, and other basic
interests of the state.
An important safeguard mechanism is provided in art. 10 of the Law, which allows for
the introduction of certain restrictions, if necessary, to:
• implement decisions of international organisations, of which Poland is a member,
• ensure public safety, or public order,
• ensure the balance of payments’ equilibrium in case of its general disequilibrium,
or sudden collapse, or a threat of either of these,
• ensure the stability of Polish currency in case of a sudden fluctuation in its rate of
exchange, or a threat of it.
Currently, general exchange permits are granted on the grounds of a decree of the
Minister of Finance of 3 September 2002 on General Exchange Permits, as amended.
Generally, the decree provides for Polish currency and foreign exchange transfers, by
both residents and non-residents exceeding the EUR 10,000 limit stipulated in the
Foreign Exchange Law. It also lifts various foreign exchange restrictions regarding
operations with countries that signed binding agreements with Poland on the reciprocal
promotion and protection of investments. Moreover, Polish residents are allowed to
conduct transactions and payments in Poland in euros and other convertible currencies,
providing that a consumer is party to the transaction, or payment. This allows, for
example, shops to accept payments in euro and there are already some that do.
A recent amendment to this decree came into force on 1 January 2006. It allows Polish
residents to conduct transactions and payments in euros with regards to funds coming
from the European Union budget, as well as those earmarked for co-financing projects
implemented using funds coming from the European Union budget.
II. Economic Environment
Foreign Debt
At the end of 2005, Poland’s overall foreign debt reached USD 130.0 billion (42.9 % of
GDP), according to the National Bank of Poland. It increased by approximately just
USD 1.3 billion during the year, much less than in the previous year. The NBP, central
and local governments were mainly responsible for this slight increase, while the
companies reduced their foreign debt by over USD 2 billion, from USD 56.4 billion at
the end of 2004 to USD 54.2 billion at the end of 2005. However, it is not the absolute
value of foreign debt, but its relation to other economic indicators that is important for
the economy. These relations are presented on the following diagram.
Foreign Debt in 2005 in Comparison to Other Economic Indicators
(in USD billion)
Official Reserve Assets
Public Debt
Foreign Debt
Source: Central Statistical Office, NBP, 2006
Until 2002, a characteristic feature of Poland’s foreign debt was the constant trend of
change in the proportion between state and private debt, with the private share
increasing in line with the liberalisation of foreign exchange policy and transformations
in the economy. In 1996, the share of government foreign debt amounted to 76.3 %, and
in only five years it had decreased to just over 40.6 % by the end of 2001. However,
2002 reversed this trend. In 2005, the share of government foreign debt further increased
to 45.3 %. The following diagram presents Poland’s foreign debt in the past ten years.
How to Do Business in Poland
Total External Debt and Central and Local Government External Debt in 1996-2005
(USD billion)
Central and Local Government External Debt
Total External Debt
Source: NBP, 2006
Short-term debt accounted for less than 19.6 % of total debt by the end of 2005. The
ratio of Poland’s overall short-term foreign debt (owed by the government, banks, and
companies) to foreign currency reserves amounted to some 60.0 % at the end of the
same year.
Employment and the Labour Market
Since 1998, the number of unemployed and unemployment rate has been growing, to
peak in 2002, mainly as a result of industrial restructuring and structural changes in
companies aimed at increasing productivity and competitiveness. However, one should
note that the number of unemployed at the end of 2002 was only slightly higher – by
approximately 100,000 – than at the end of 2001. The sharp increase in the
unemployment rate resulted from a verification of the economically active population.
Since then, the situation on the labour market has been gradually improving. At the end
of 2005 the number of registered unemployed persons dropped to 2.77 million, or
17.6 % of the labour force. The unemployment rate varied significantly from one
province to another. It was lowest in the provinces of Mazowieckie (13.8 %) and
Małopolskie (13.8 %) and highest in Warmińsko-Mazurskie province (27.5 %).
Of the 2.77 million unemployed, 1.39 million, more than half, have been without work
for more than one year. Furthermore, almost 87 % of the unemployed are not eligible for
benefits, and a considerable number of job-seekers are school graduates. Many of them
have acquired good qualifications but cannot find work because the vocational education
system has not kept up with the changes in demand for specific professional skills.
II. Economic Environment
Number of unemployed
Unemployment rate (%)
Unemployment and Unemployment Rate
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
Nonetheless, Poland’s labour force is generally well educated and highly qualified.
The number of young people seeking better and/or higher education has been
constantly increasing since the beginning of the transformations. In the 2004/2005
academic year, there were over 1.9 million students attending 427 universities,
polytechnics, academies, and other higher education institutions. The proportion of
students in the 16 - 18 age group reached 95.1 %, while in the 19 - 24 age group it
climbed to 54.4 %.
In 2005, the average gross monthly salary in Poland was PLN 2,380.29 (approx. USD
740), 4.7 % more than in 2004. Average gross monthly salary in the enterprise sector
amounted to PLN 2,515.85, a 3.2 % increase in nominal terms in comparison to 2004.
It was considerably higher (PLN 4,399.12) in mining and quarrying. On the other
hand, average salaries in the manufacturing sector (PLN 2,290.57), and especially in
the manufacturing of wearing apparel and furriery (PLN 1,310.59), as well as in the
hotel and restaurant sector (PLN 1,847.00), were significantly lower than the national
The relatively low labour costs and easy access to skilled workers are important assets
for prospective foreign investors, particularly in regions with industrial traditions.
According to Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Communities, the annual
nominal compensation per employee amounted to EUR 8,740 in Poland in 2005. This
is several times lower than in the ‘old’ European Union countries and lower than in
the Czech Republic (EUR 10,870) and Hungary (EUR 12,550).
How to Do Business in Poland
Trade unions play a relatively important role both in national politics and at the
enterprise level. In addition to the Solidarity trade union there are also federations of
branch trade unions (former communist unions). Trade unions are particularly strong
in big, still state-owned enterprises, but they are also active on a regional level. Trade
unions tend to present their demands directly to the government. Nonetheless, Poland
was very peaceful socially in 2005.
Industry and Technology
With the trade and service sectors gradually gaining in importance, the share of
industry in Poland’s gross domestic product has been more or less constant over the
last couple of years. In 2005, industry accounted for some 24.9 % of the gross value
added (a 4.0 % increase in real terms over 2004), while market services represented
49.3 % of the gross value added (a 3.2 % increase in real terms over the previous
year). The economic transformations have brought progressive modernisation, which
is reflected, for example, in growing productivity and exports.
The structure of the Polish economy in 2005, in terms of the number of economic
entities by sector, taking form of ownership into account, is presented in the following
table. The figures encompass legal entities, entities with no legal personality, and
single-person businesses, excluding branches.
II. Economic Environment
Economic Entities by Sector and Form of Ownership as of 31 December 2005
Agriculture, hunting & forestry
Quarrying and mining
Power, gas and water production
and supply
Trade and repairs
Hotels and restaurants
Transport, storage &
Financial mediation
Real estate and business services
Health & social welfare services
Other community, social and
personal service activities
Excluding farmers
100 %
1,029 230,588
100 %
Private Foreign
Domestic Capital
164,243 54,336
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
The private sector of the economy has grown rapidly since the beginning of the
transformations. In 2005, the private sector accounted for 83 % of industrial output and
it is still expanding, due to the privatisation of state-owned enterprises and to the
establishment and development of new private businesses. At the same time, the private
sector, already dominant in foreign trade for several years, was responsible for 90.2 % of
imports and 87.3 % of exports. Furthermore, nearly all of agriculture, retailing,
wholesale trade, and construction (98 %), are in private hands.
In 2005, the structure of industrial production saw a stagnation in the general trend,
visible during the last decade, of steady increase in the processing industry’s share:
It remained at the 2004 level of 84.7 %. Similarly, the share of the mining and quarrying
sectors remained at 5.0 %, and the power, gas, and water production and supply sector’s
share stayed at 10.3 %.
The production of food and related products (beverages and tobacco articles) occupies
the most important place in the Polish processing industry, accounting for over a fifth of
total production. Other important manufacturing sectors are the automotive industry, the
chemical industry, the coke and refined petroleum products sector, the electrical
engineering industry, and the metalworking industry.
How to Do Business in Poland
The year 2005 witnessed only a slight growth of industrial output, which increased by an
estimated 3.8 %, as compared to a growth of 12.6 % the year before. The private sector
accounted for 83.0 % of the output, up from 80.9 % in the previous year, and
productivity (in terms of production sold per employee) rose by approximately 2.9 %.
The following table presents the branch structure of Polish industry in 2005. Please note
that these figures refer to companies employing more than 9 persons, as data covering
the entire economy was not available at the time of printing. The total industrial
production sold for the entire economy is expected to be roughly 6 % higher.
Structure of Industry by Branch in 2005
Industrial Production
Sold (PLN million)
Food products and beverages
Tobacco products
Wearing apparel and furriery
Leather and leather products
Wood and wood, straw, and wicker products
Pulp and paper
Publishing, printing, and reproduction of recorded media
Coke and refined petroleum products
Chemicals and chemical products
Rubber and plastic products
Other non-metallic mineral products
Basic metals
Metal products
Machinery and equipment
Electrical machinery and apparatus
Radio, television, and communications equipment and apparatus
Medical equipment, precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks
Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
Other transport equipment
Furniture and manufacturing not elsewhere classified
Total manufacturing
Mining and quarrying
Electricity, natural gas, and water production and supply
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
II. Economic Environment
In 2005, a very dynamic growth in sales was noted in the following areas: machinery
and equipment (17.8 %), metal products (10.9 %), rubber and plastic products (9.1 %),
and in wood and wood, straw, and wicker products (8.9 %). On the other hand, a decrease
in sales was noted in wearing apparel and furriery, and in leather and leather products,
just as in the previous year.
The output of companies with ten or more employees producing mainly investment
goods experienced an 8 % growth in 2005. At the same time, the output of companies
with ten or more employees manufacturing mainly consumer durables increased by 7 %,
while the output of such companies manufacturing mainly consumer nondurable goods
increased by 4 %.
Several branches of Polish industry are still undergoing organisational, managerial, and
technological transformations based on restructuring programmes. Most notably such
programmes are being implemented in the coal-mining sector, fuel and energy, and
defence industries.
In this context, it is worth pointing out that Polish science and technological research,
while suffering from under-investment, is still able to produce some very interesting
results. A major problem is the lack of financing necessary to develop this research into
commercially viable projects, and this presents yet another opportunity for foreign
investors to enter the market and launch successful businesses.
A large number of inventors, research and development companies, universities, and
scientific institutions, are members of the Association of Polish Inventors. The
Association supports research activities leading to inventions, promotes Polish
inventions in Poland and abroad and protects the rights of inventors.
Investment and co-operation opportunities based on Polish inventions and new
technologies can be found in numerous industrial sectors in Poland. The ones outlined
below are just a few.
How to Do Business in Poland
Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Warsaw
New Calcipotriol Manufacturing Technology
Inventors: Michał Chodyński, Hanna Fitak, Jacek Martynow, Krzysztof Krajewski, Teresa Ryznar,
Andrzej Kutner, Wiesław Szelejewski, Jerzy Winiarski, Małgorzata Krupa, Jadwiga Dzikowska,
Regina Gutowska, Zofia Zaworska, Janusz śochowski, Bartłomiej Górecki, Katarzyna Kolasa,
Agnieszka Burzyńska, Hanna Beczkowicz, Barbara Trzpil, and Ewa Chojecka-Koryn.
The project consists of a new manufacturing technology for the synthesis of calcipotriol – a
structural analog of vitamin D3. The technology has been developed on a pilot plant scale. The
final product – calcipotriol – is manufactured by a convergent strategy from the advanced
intermediate vitamin D synthon and from a separately obtained aliphatic side chain fragment.
Calcipotriol is an active substance of a drug used in dermatology. Calcipotriol is an
antiproliferative and cell differentiating agent for epidermal keratinocytes in some types of
psoriasis and other skin disorders. Calcipotriol is also used in combination with other active
substances in treating multiple sclerosis, hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis, symptoms of
rheumathitis, acne, skin atrophy, and inflammatory diseases.
In comparison to the commonly used method for the synthesis of calcipotriol, this technology
shortens the synthetic route and substantially improves a number of synthetic steps. An innovative
synthesis of the side-chain fragment was also developed, resulting in a synthetic intermediate of
high enantiomeric purity.
The critical coupling step of both advanced intermediates, vitamin S synthon and a side-chain
fragment was developed as a single step procedure, as a concomitant addition and desulfonylation
due to the intramolecular rearrangement of the intermediate product. This way there was no need
for sodium amalgam, a desulfonylating agent commonly used in such processes. A new method
for the purification of a crude synthetic product to obtain calcipotriol as an anhydrous substance of
high pharmaceutical quality has also been developed. The key synthetic transformations and
methods are subject to four national patent applications: P-368012, P-353328, P-372013, and P353832.
This technology won the 2005 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the
Technology of the Future category.
ChemTech – ProSynTech InŜynieria i Technologia Chemiczna, Sławków
Multi-Directional Recycling of Solid Leather Waste
Inventors: Wojciech Lasek, on the basis of research contributed by the team: Mieczysław
Gajewski, Maria Jesionek, Halina Kostrzewa, Wojciech Lasek, Ewa Magdziarz, Urszula
Majewska, Lidia Mazur, Maria Pawłowa, Małgorzata Przybyłek, Jadwiga Rudecka, Włodzimierz
Siepracki, Alicja Wydra, et al.
The project provides an innovative method for recycling of all wastes from chrome leather
production. Moreover, it enables the recycling of very complex tannery effluent sludge together
with municipal sewage sludge. This innovative idea results in a thorough purification of effluent
water originally bound tightly to the former sludge because of a high pH-value. All harmful
impurities are removed selectively, step-by-step, and transformed into compounds of commercial
value. Organic residue in both types of sludge serves as a base for a series of mixed
organic/mineral fertilizers. Effluents can be purified to an extent that makes it possible to dump
them directly into surface waters or to use them instead of tap water for the preparation of all
solutions necessary to run the entire plant.
II. Economic Environment
The installation has been designed as a combination of eight units, bound functionally one to
another. Chromium(III) is leached from scraps, splits and shavings in the form of strong
complexes, followed by precipitation to insoluble hydroxide, which is filtered off, while the
complexing agent is recovered. Filter cake is used for the manufacturing of a tanning agent.
Purified collagen, with its original fibrous structure preserved, serves as the starting material either
for technical gelatine or for biopolymers, or even organic fertilizers.
Tannery effluent sludge undergoes a different purification process. Cr(III) and Fe(III) ions, in the
form of properly shaped anionic complexes, together with excess chlorides, are replaced by
sulphates in liquid/liquid extraction mediated by a phase-transfer catalyst. Extracted species are, in
turn, transferred from the organic phase into a concentrated aqueous bisulphate solution, where
they are selectively separated due to large differences in solubility. The recovered catalyst in the
organic solution may return to the process. Inorganic salts, either those selectively separated from
the effluent water in successive units, or those gained in the bisulphate milieu, undergo a
purification process and form valuable products.
Project’s characteristics:
- Chromium(III) compounds are removed from the tanned collagen tissue as complexes stronger
than those formed during the tanning process between Cr(III) cations and functional groups of
the protein fibres,
- Cr(III) and Fe(III) present in sewage sludge are converted into anionic species of desired
stability and electric charge, which in turn are transferred together with excess chlorides to the
organic phase by means of a phase-transfer catalyst,
- Both leaching solutions circulate in closed cycle mode, allowing for the extraction and
regeneration of the extracting agent,
- Collagen of purified leather wastes with intact original fibrous structure is a suitable raw
material for further innovative products,
- The process conditions are exceptionally mild, the plant’s operation does not generate neither
wastes, nor extra effluents, nor any unpleasant odours.
This technology won a distinction in the 2005 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
KOMAG Mining Mechanization Centre, Gliwice
SKZ - 81 Haulage System With Dual Driving
Inventors: Jerzy Chruszcz, Andrzej Drwięga, Leszek Golanka, Marek Majewski, Andrzej Meder,
Krzysztof Nieśpiałowski, and Hubert Suffner.
The SKZ-81 haulage system is designed for the transportation of heavy machines, equipment and
materials, or men in underground mine workings. Its special feature is the option of operating on
tracks already installed in the mines. In case of inclined track sections, the track is equipped with a
rack bar mounted along its axis. Such a solution enables the transport of heavy loads with no need
for reloading, which is less time-consuming and cheaper. It is possible to use the system in
conditions of ‘a’, ‘b’ and ‘c’ degree of methane explosion hazard and ‘A’ and ‘B’ coal dust
explosion hazard.
The system consists of a diesel locomotive and of a transportation platform of a basic type, a
transportation platform for men-riding, or a container platform for transportation of materials. A
railway track includes curves in the horizontal plane (R = 8 m), curves in the vertical plane (R = 15
m), straight sections of the rack bar, special steel bolting sleepers and S30 or S42 rails. The straight
sections mentioned above can be laid and fixed, using bolting sleepers.
How to Do Business in Poland
Depending on the seam bedding, the SKZ-81 haulage system can operate both on the horizontal
and inclined railway tracks, where the inclination can reach up to 30°. Rolling keeps mounted on
the axles of braking cars protect the system against loss of stability on large inclinations. During
operation on horizontal sections of the rails, the keeps, whose bottom edges are below the level of
the rails heads, are slightly raised, and during operation on inclined sections they are lowered and
work in tandem with the rack bar guides.
Using an innovative transportation platform with articulated torsional cars it was possible to
compensate for the tilting moment of the construction. Moreover, the design of articulations was
simplified, so the cost of their manufacture was reduced. The new SKZ-81 haulage system
eliminates the disadvantages of previous solutions, i.e., the separation of the emergency braking
system, and parking brake system, as well as the dependence of the braking force on the condition
of the track being a part of the frictional pair.
This product won the 2005 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition in the Product
of the Future category.
SMARTTECH Sp. z o.o., Łomianki
ScanBrightTM Integrated 3D Measurement System
Inventors: Anna Gębarska, Marcin Bączyk, Marcin Kowalski, Paweł Bolewicki, and Robert Sitnik.
The ScanBright system is based on the innovative method of structure lighting measurement. This
is a full-field, non-contact optical method in which white light fringes are projected on the
measured object. Coordinates of the measured surface are calculated on the basis of images of the
fringes deformed on the object. The method is characterized by quick measurement (10 sec) with a
high sampling rate (100pt/mm2) and the option to adjust the measurement volume to different
needs (<1.5m x 1.3m x 0.5m). The application of this method results in a measurement cloud of
points, with each point described by six parameters: X,Y,Z - the object’s coordinates and R,G,B its
colour components.
ScanBright consists of a 3D scanner and a work-station with Mesh3D specialized software.
Mesh3D enables the user to control the system as well as to carry out further processing such as
advanced operations on clouds of points (filtering, merging, simplification), and creating and
editing triangle meshes. The results can be exported to CAx systems or computer graphics
programs (IGES, VRML+ texture, STL, OBJ, DXF, TXT).
The system was designed in such a way as to provide failure-free operation both in a laboratory
setting and in the field. The 3D scanner is equipped with a unique vibration damping mechanism
and a backup power system that protects it from detrimental voltage fluctuations. The system has a
comfortable grip and a professional-grade stand with a height range of 0.5 to 1.7 m, which
facilitates work in field conditions.
The ScanBright system is used in a wide range of applications, such as computer aided design and
manufacturing, rapid prototyping, reverse engineering (production quality assessment),
multimedia, cultural heritage archiving, and medical systems. Thanks to features like its userfriendly operation, mobility, high accuracy, reliable measurements, and high quality of texture
reproduction, it has won wide recognition among engineers and artists.
The ScanBright system is the first 3D measurement system that fully integrates accurate noncontact digitalisation of complex 3D objects and the processing of coordinate and texture data.
This method, unlike tactile methods, allows measurement of delicate objects such as human faces
or valuable museum exhibit items, while the software comfortably prepares the data for multiple
II. Economic Environment
applications. Due to its unique structural solutions the ScanBright system is recognized as one of
the few mobile optical 3D measurement systems delivering high accuracy data.
This technology won a distinction in the 2005 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Product of the Future category.
POLATOM Radioisotope Centre, Otwock/Świerk
Ophthalmic Applicators with a Monolithic Radioactive Core for Brachytherapy of Eye Cancers
Inventors: Andrzej Piasecki, Izabela Cieszykowska, Mieczysław Mielcarski, and Tadeusz Barcikowski.
This is a novel technology for the production of ruthenium-106 and iodine-125 ophthalmic
applicators. It consists of a method of uniform deposition and fixing of a layer of radioactive
isotope on the sliver surface of a spherical plaque, which is then hermetically sealed in acryl. The
shape and dimensions of the obtained acrylic insert are identical, regardless of the radionuclide
used, hence allowing the multiple use of expensive and difficult to produce metallic capsules,
which are used as holders of the applicators. The use of an acrylic insert with a uniformly
distributed layer of radionuclide resulted in several advantages over products offered by other
Ophthalmic applicators are used for the conservative treatment of intraocular tumours. So far,
cases of choroidal melanomas and retinoblastomas have qualified for radical surgery of the eye.
The method based on the irradiation of tumour cells with an external source of ionising radiation
results in a successful therapy and to a large extent, in the maintenance of the eye’s visual
functions. However, the applicators offered on the market are expensive, which limits their
therapeutic application. In addition, the other applicator design has some distinct drawbacks, such
as a complicated technique of sealing of the radioactive core in the case of ruthenium-106, or the
necessity of placing the miniature radioactive sources of iodine-125 in the spherical part of the
acrylic insert, which in turn results in elevated radiation exposure to personnel during the
mounting and handling of the applicator. The new technology was oriented towards eliminating
the need to use iodine-125 seed sources and successfully led to the production of applicators with a
monolithic radioactive core.
Applicators of ruthenium-106 and iodine-125 with a monolithic radioactive core present a novel
and improved construction of much higher quality then other applicators on the market. The
design of a monolithic radioactive core of ruthenium-106 and iodine-125 simplifies the process of
preparating and assembling the applicator’s radioactive core, and at the same time, retains all the
technical parameters required for its use. In comparison with the technical solutions offered by the
competition, the main advantages of the new technology consist in the lowering of production
costs, the lowering of radiation exposure of the personnel handling the applicators, and the
reduction of the amount of liquid waste during the production process.
This technology won a distinction in the 2005 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Product of the Future category.
For the list of other awarded technologies and contact details of the technology
providers, please refer to Appendix 20.
How to Do Business in Poland
The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development
The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development (PARP) is a governmental body
established as a result of the transformation, in 2001, of the Polish Foundation for the
Promotion and Development of Small and Medium Enterprises. The Agency is
subordinated to the Minister of the Economy. It focuses on:
• the development of small and medium-size companies;
• the growth of exports;
• regional development;
• the application of modern technologies;
• human resource development;
• creating new jobs and counteracting unemployment.
The agency is involved in a number of assistance programmes and provides grants for
the co-financing of initiatives supporting the development of entrepreneurship, as well
as direct support to entrepreneurs. PARP offers consulting services, facilitates access to
know-how, economic information, studies and analyses, and organises informational
and promotional events.
The activities of the agency are financed from the state budget and European Union
funds. The agency co-operates with a number of local business advisory centres, which
are grouped in the National SME Service Network.
In Poland, 38.6 % of the population lives in rural areas and approximately a quarter is
engaged in farming. There are some regions where agriculture is still the major sector
of the economy, even though its importance has been declining steadily. However,
persons who work exclusively, or mainly in agriculture account for less than 6 % of
Poland’s population. The Polish agricultural sector includes farms that vary
considerably in terms of organisational structure, ownership, size, and output volume.
In 2005 there were 2.73 million farms in Poland, including 1.79 million farms with
over 1 ha. of farmland. The average size of a farm was just 6.7 ha. Only 13 % of farms
in Poland have an area of more than 10 ha.; however, their total area amounts to over
62 % of the country’s farmland. The structure of Polish farms in terms of size and
number is presented on the following graph.
II. Economic Environment
Number of Farms and Their Area by Farm Size Category in 2005
4 000 000
1 000 000
3 500 000
900 000
in hectares
700 000
2 500 000
600 000
2 000 000
500 000
1 500 000
400 000
300 000
1 000 000
Number of farms
800 000
3 000 000
200 000
500 000
100 000
<15-30) <30-100) 100 ha and
Number of farms
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
Despite politically driven efforts to collectivise farms after the Second World War,
private ownership has always prevailed in the agricultural sector. The political and
economic transformations launched in 1989 led to even greater reduction of the public
sector’s share in agriculture and to the introduction of new forms of ownership, e.g.,
various types of companies and foreign equity. In 1992, the Agricultural Property
Agency of the State Treasury (AWRSP) started its operations, which focused on
taking over and managing state-owned farms, primarily through selling or leasing
their land (see Chapter IV, the section on the Agricultural Property Agency). In 2005,
privately owned farmland accounted for approximately 95.8 % of utilised agricultural
Unpredictable weather conditions and the constantly changing profitability of various
crops and other produce have resulted in an instability of agricultural production,
which is not regulated by quotas. It is the producer who bears the entire production
risk, with only a few crop deliveries being based on supply contracts (concluded
between producers and food processing plants), e.g., for sugar beets, rape seed, and
flower and vegetable seeds. Mixed farming with both crop growing and some animal
production prevails in most farms in Poland, as a majority lack clearly defined
specialisation. Consequently, a characteristic feature of Polish agriculture is that
marketable production accounts for only approximately 60 % of the total agricultural
output, with the rest of output being used for self-supply.
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2005, there were 15.9 million hectares of utilised agricultural area in Poland,
approximately 51 % of the country’s surface. According to preliminary estimates, the
agricultural output decreased by 2.1 % (in comparison to 7.5 % growth in 2004). The
most important crops in Poland are cereals, especially wheat and rye. Next, there are
potatoes, fodder crops, sugar beets, oilseeds and pulses. Pigs and cattle dominate the
livestock sector, though poultry, and sheep in southern Poland, are also quite popular.
The basic agricultural output in 2005 is presented in the table below.
Agricultural Output in 2005
Cereals, total
- wheat
- rye
Rape and oil-yielding rape
Sugar beets
Tree fruits
Pigs (million)
Cattle (million)
(million tons)
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
Horticulture is a well-developed sector in Poland, offering a large range of fresh and
processed fruit and vegetable products. Polish strawberries and excellent apple juice
are very well known and popular both in Poland and abroad.
It is important to note that Polish agriculture is characterised by a low use of
chemicals. In 2005, the chemical fertilisers used to grow the crops harvested in that
year amounted to 102.4 kg of NPK and 91.5 kg of CaO per one hectare of utilised
agricultural area.
II. Economic Environment
Construction Industry
The construction sector is regulated by the Construction Law of 7 July 1994 (as amended)
and accounts for 5.8 % of the economy (in terms of gross value added). The Construction
Law regulates professional requirements, professional liability, rights and duties of
parties involved in the construction process, the commissioning and maintenance of
construction works, and pre-construction issues, including construction permits.
Construction works may only be started upon obtaining a construction permit, which
is granted in a form of an administrative decision authorizing the commencement and
conducting of construction works.
However, there are numerous exclusions from the permit requirement pertaining to,
generally speaking, small-scale construction works. For example, no construction permit
is required in the following cases:
• repair and renovation works (unless the building is listed in the Register of
• detached, single-storey utility buildings, summerhouses and umbrella roofs with
an area of up to 25 sq.m (no more than two per 500 sq.m of land);
• car parking places (up to ten);
• swimming pools of up to 30 sq.m area (attached to a homestead);
• water supply, sewage disposal, gas, electricity, heating, and telecommunication
connections to buildings;
• fences.
Assuming the land is zoned for an intended type of investment, the permit may be
issued on the grounds of the local land management plan, though not many exist at
present. If there is no local land management plan, a decision on the conditions for site
development (warunki zabudowy) must be obtained first, which is a quite lengthy and
challenging process. Furthermore, in some cases, issuing a decision on the conditions
for site development is not possible, due to restrictions imposed by the Spatial Zoning
Law of 27 March 2003.
A construction permit expires, if the construction work has not started within two
years from the date it became final. It also expires if construction work is halted for a
period exceeding two years.
The output of the construction industry has been increasing significantly since 1997,
primarily as a result of foreign investment, and particularly in the industrial, retail and
office sectors, although developments financed by Polish capital have also been on the
increase. According to preliminary data released by GUS, there was an approximately
5 % increase in the output of the Polish construction industry in 2005.
How to Do Business in Poland
The overall result was influenced by a 5 % increase in private construction and a 4 %
decline in the output of state enterprises. In 2005, the private sector’s share in the
construction industry remained unchanged, at approximately 98 %.
As usual, new investments and modernisation projects dominated the sector’s output,
with their share amounting to 71.8 %, as opposed to a 28.2 % share of repair and
maintenance work. The following diagram presents the construction output structure
(current prices) in 2005. Please note that it is based on data covering companies
employing more than 9 persons, as data covering the entire economy was not available
at the time of printing.
Construction Output Structure in 2005
Residential buildings
Non-residential buildings
Civil engineering works
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
In 2005, 114,391 new flats were put on the market (preliminary figure), 5.8 % more than
during the previous year. An increasing average usable floor area since the early 1990s is
yet another indicator of economic growth in Poland. In 2005 it amounted to 105.7 sq.m.
II. Economic Environment
Banking Sector
The operations of the Polish banking system are governed by the Law on the National
Bank of Poland and by the Banking Law (both of 29 August 1997). The National
Bank of Poland (NBP) performs the role of a central bank. Its main objective is to
ensure the stability of prices. The NBP issues currency, holds Poland’s foreign
exchange reserves, refinances the banking system, exercises some supervising
functions, and provides monetary and banking statistics.
Most banks in Poland operate as multipurpose institutions. They are involved in
various types of deposit taking and financing activities, and offer a wide range of
commercial and personal banking services. Some of them are also active on the capital
market through their own brokerage houses. Some of the banks are involved in
investment banking activities, such as underwriting issues of bonds and stocks, or
advisory services. There are also some mortgage banks and other specialised credit
As of 1 May 2004, branches of foreign banks which have their registered office in a
member state of the European Union are considered to be branches of credit
institutions, as defined in the Banking Law. The Commission for Banking Supervision
exercises supervision over branches of credit institutions with respect to their
maintenance of adequate liquidity. However, these branches are not subject to the
regulations on capital adequacy.
At the end of 2005, there were 642 banks operating in Poland. This number included
53 commercial banks in the form of joint-stock companies, one state bank, and 588
co-operative banks. Furthermore, there were 7 branches of credit institutions. The
State Treasury directly owned two banks, with a further two being controlled
indirectly. Head offices of banks (excluding co-operative banks) and branches of
credit institutions operating in Poland are listed in Appendix 22.
The co-operative sector, although very important for Polish farmers, does not play
a significant role in Polish banking. However, the co-operative banking sector’s share
in banking services continued to increase in 2005. By the end of the year co-operative
banks granted 7.6 % of loans to the non-financial sector. Their total assets increased
during the year by 18.1 % and amounted to PLN 33.9 billion, or 5.8 % of the total
assets of the whole banking sector in 2005.
The consolidation process in the co-operative banking sector also continued. In 2005
eight co-operative banks disappeared through mergers. By the end of the year, out of
588 co-operative banks, only one, Krakowski Bank Spółdzielczy w Krakowie, was
independent. All other co-operative banks were associated in three bodies:
How to Do Business in Poland
Mazowiecki Bank Regionalny S.A. (80 banks), Gospodarczy Bank Wielkopolski S.A.
(153 banks), and Bank Polskiej Spółdzielczości S.A. (354 banks).
The structure of commercial banks in Poland at the end of 2005 in terms of their
ownership and their share in the banking sector’s assets is reflected by the following
Commercial Banks in 2005
Number of Banks and Their Share in Total Banking Sector Assets (%)
Banks controlled by the State Treasury:
- directly
- indirectly
Banks controlled by the private sector:
- with majority Polish equity
- with majority foreign equity
% Share
Source: NBP, 2006
The banking network has been growing very fast during the past few years. In 2005, the
domestic office network of commercial banks (excluding head offices and representative
offices) comprised over 3,700 branch offices and over 4,600 other offices (sub-branches,
customer service outlets, etc.). Moreover, co-operative banks operated almost 1,400 branch
offices and over 1,600 other offices. Investments in ATMs (Automatic Teller Machines) are
progressing at an even swifter rate. At the end of 2005 there were almost 8,800, or 230 per
one million citizens, which was about a third of the ‘old’ EU average.
The bankcard market is certainly one of the fastest growing segments of new services in
Poland. In 2005, the number of bankcards in use reached almost 20.4 million. Polish
banks offer all types of bankcards, although debit cards account for some 76.6 % of all
cards in use. On the other hand, credit cards’ share is growing fast, amounting to 20.4 %,
in comparison to 11.8 % at the end of 2004.
In 2005, both the number of bankcard transactions and the total transactions’ value
increased, while the average transaction’s value remained at just over PLN 240. There
were 776.2 million bankcard transactions, with a total value of some PLN 187.2
billion. At the end of the year, there were some 140,000 shops and service outlets in
Poland accepting credit and/or debit cards.
To meet the challenges of competition, Polish banks have had to invest heavily in their
networks, as well as in automation and information technology. Commercial banks, as
well as some co-operative banks, offer bank services through the internet. Some banks
allow their clients to carry out operations via phones, cellular phones using WAP
technology, or via teletext. Moreover, there are some virtual banks operating on the
II. Economic Environment
market. Their number did not change in the last year. By the end of 2005, there were
three (mBank, Inteligo and Volkswagen Bank Direct), operated by BRE Bank S.A.,
PKO Bank Polski S.A. and Volkswagen Bank Polska S.A., respectively.
The modernisation of banks is progressing rapidly. However, huge investments in IT are
increasing the costs of their operations significantly. Even more costly is increasing the
quality of consumer service and introducing new banking products. Nonetheless, the end
result is decidedly positive, especially for the clients.
In 2005, favourable economic conditions in Poland helped the banking sector to achieve
even better financial results than in 2004. In fact, from the financial point of view, this
was the best year for the banks since the beginning of transformations. Gross earnings
reported by the banking sector grew by 40 %, amounting to PLN 11.1 billion, while net
earnings reached PLN 9.2 billion. This led to ROE reaching 20.8 %.
Other positive developments included:
• The total assets of the banking sector grew by 9.0 %, amounting to PLN 587 billion
at the end of the year. The ratio of banking sector assets to GDP amounted to 59.8 %,
• A substantial increase in household lending; housing loans up by 41 %, consumer
loans up by 26 %.
At the end of 2005, of the 54 commercial banks operating in Poland, 13 were listed on the
Warsaw Stock Exchange, and their share in the WSE capitalisation amounted to 29.9 %.
It is important to note that competition in the Polish banking sector has been growing
rapidly in the past few years. This is reflected in mergers, as well as in the ever growing
involvement of foreign banks. Since the privatisation processes started, foreign
shareholders have been steadily increasing their investments in the Polish banking
sector. In 2005, banks controlled by foreign investors accounted for 69.0 % of the total
assets of the banking sector. Foreign branches of credit institutions accounted for
another 0.9 %. The following diagram presents the ownership structure of the banking
sector in Poland as of 31 December 2005.
How to Do Business in Poland
Ownership Structure of the Banking Sector as of 31 December 2005
State Treasury
Other domestic entities
Disperse shareholders
State legal persons
Shareholders of co-operative banks
Source: NBP, 2006
In 2005 the principal changes seen in the ownership structure of banks were the result of
mergers and of foreign investors’ involvement in the sector, as well as further
privatisation of PKO Bank Polski S.A. and Bank Gospodarki śywnościowej S.A. At the
end of 2005, out of 54 commercial banks operating in Poland, foreign shareholders
controlled 43. This number includes 23 joint-stock companies with 100 % foreign
ownership, 16 with a majority of foreign capital, and 4 banks controlled indirectly.
Moreover, foreign shareholders had minority stakes in a further 3 banks. According to the
NBP, Italian, German, Dutch, American, and Belgian institutions have made the largest
investments in the sector. Foreign involvement in the banking sector in Poland in terms
of country of origin is further illustrated in the following diagram.
Share of Foreign-Controlled Banks in the Banking Sector’s Assets as of 31 December 2005
Other Countries
Source: NBP, 2006
II. Economic Environment
In 2005, the consolidation processes continued, resulting in the disappearance of two
banks. These, however, were merely transformed to became a part of the newly opened
branches of credit institutions. Two banks (Cetelem Bank Polska S.A. and RCI Bank
Polska S.A.) and four branches of credit institutions (Banque PSA Finance S.A.
Oddział w Polsce, Jyske Bank A/S S.A. Oddział w Polsce, Nykredit Realkredit A/S
S.A. Oddział w Polsce, and Dresdner Bank AG S.A. Oddział w Polsce) started
The clients of banks operating in Poland are protected by a deposit insurance system –
Bankowy Fundusz Gwarancyjny (The Bank Guarantee Fund) – established in November
1994. As of 1 May 2004 this protection refers to banks covered by the Polish deposit
insurance system. The list of these banks is available at the BFG’s website The BFG guarantees 100 % of deposits up to EUR 1000 and 90 % of
deposits between EUR 1000 and EUR 22,500. Moreover, the NBP protects savings in
those banks by strict supervision and by imposing receivership management in case of
financial problems.
Ranking of Banks by Balance Sheet Total as of 31.12.2005 (PLN billion)
Bank Pekao S.A.
Bank BPH S.A.
ING Bank Śląski S.A.
BRE Bank S.A.
Bank Handlowy S.A.
Bank Zachodni WBK S.A.
Bank Millennium S.A.
Kredyt Bank S.A.
Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego
Total Assets
Net Profit / Loss
Source: Rzeczpospolita, 14 June 2006
In June 2006, according to the National Bank of Poland, there were 19 representative
offices of foreign banks and credit institutions operating in Poland. These are listed in
Appendix 22.
How to Do Business in Poland
Insurance Sector
Presently, the legal framework for the insurance sector in Poland comprises the
following laws, passed by the sejm on 22 May 2003:
• The Insurance Law,
• The Law on Compulsory Insurance, the Insurance Guarantee Fund and the Polish
Bureau of Motor Vehicle Owners’ Insurers,
• The Law on Insurance and Pension Supervision and on the Spokesman of the Insured,
• The Law on Insurance Mediation, and
• The Law on Supplementary Supervision of Credit Institutions, Insurance Companies
and Investment Companies Forming a Part of a Financial Holding of 15 April 2005.
The insurance sector in Poland is supervised by the Insurance and Pension Funds
Supervisory Commission (KNUiFE), created on 1 April 2002. Insurance and reinsurance
services may be provided only after the approval of the KNUiFE, which grants an
insurance licence and also has the power to revoke it. Its scope of activity also includes
supervision over insurance mediation, pension funds, and employee pension plans.
The only legal forms permitted for conducting insurance activity are the joint-stock
company and the mutual insurance company. Insurance companies are obliged to
distinguish between life insurance and other types of insurance and can not engage in
any other form of economic activity.
Obligatory types of insurance include, but are not limited to, civil liability for damages for:
• car owners,
• farmers,
• entities providing health services,
• tax advisors,
• insurance and reinsurance brokers,
• registered auditors,
• organisers of public events,
• tourist agencies and brokers,
• court executive officers.
At the end of December 2005, according to KNUiFE, there were 71 insurance
companies licensed to operate in Poland. Out of 68 operating insurance companies, 32
were insurers licensed to run life insurance businesses, including two mutual insurance
societies. A further 36 were licensed to render non-life insurance services, the number
including seven mutual insurance societies and one main branch of a foreign insurance
company. In two companies, PZU S.A. and KUKE S.A., the State Treasury held the
controlling package of shares. At the beginning of May 2006, there were two insurance
companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange: Warta S.A. and TU Europa S.A.
II. Economic Environment
All insurance companies registered in Poland are members of the Polish Chamber of
Insurance (PIU) established in 1990. Initially, membership was voluntary; however,
since 1995, PIU membership has been obligatory. In 2005 there were over 35 thousand
registered insurance agents in Poland.
Number of companies
Number of Insurance Companies
Source: KNUiFE, 2006
In 2005, the market was still dominated by the PZU S.A. group, though its domination is
less pronounced from one year to another. The industry remains heavily concentrated. In
terms of gross written premium, two companies (PZU S.A. and TUiR Warta S.A.)
control 60.2 % of the non-life insurance market, with PZU S.A. accounting for
approximately 48.8 %. None of their competitors managed to secure more than 6.7 %.
The situation is not much different in the life insurance market. Two companies (PZU
śycie S.A., and Commercial Union Polska - TU na śycie S.A.) control 52.1 % of the
market, with PZU śycie S.A. alone accounting for 39.7 %.
Structure of the Life Insurance Market in 2005
Amplico Life
ING Nationale
Source: KNUiFE, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
Structure of the Non-life Insurance Market in 2005
Ergo Hestia
Source: KNUiFE, 2006
As far as products are concerned, in the life insurance sector simple life insurance
products predominate, whereas the non-life sector remains dominated by car insurance.
The overall 2005 gross written premiums of the Polish insurance market amounted to
approximately PLN 31.0 billion (USD 9.6 billion), a 12.2 % increase over the previous
year. Life insurance premiums increased by an impressive 20.4 %, while non-life
insurance premiums grew by 5.2 %. This means that the premium collected per capita in
Poland still lags far behind European levels, even though the proportion of insurance
premiums to the GDP has been increasing steadily, reaching 3.25 % in 2005 as
compared to 1.66 % in 1995. However, the European Union average is twice as high.
Relation of Insurance Premiums to GDP in 1995-2005 (%)
life insurance
non-life insurance
Source: KNUiFE, Central Statistical Office, 2006
II. Economic Environment
In 2005, the Polish insurance market recorded a joint net profit of over PLN 5.2 billion,
of which PLN 2.28 billion was made by the life insurance sector and the remaining PLN
2.96 billion by the non-life insurance sector. In comparison to 2004, the net profit grew
by 62.9 % in the life insurance sector and by a staggering 110.9 % in the non-life
insurance sector.
In order to protect the insured, the Insurance Guarantee Fund was established in 1990.
The main task of the Fund is to pay compensation and benefits by virtue of the
compulsory civil liability insurance of vehicle owners and farmers in case of:
• personal injury, if the guilty vehicle owner was not identified,
• personal injury and property damage, if the guilty party was not insured.
In the case of foreigners the Insurance Guarantee Fund pays compensation on the principle
of reciprocity. The Fund also satisfies claims if an insurance company declares insolvency,
subject to certain limitations.
The Export Credit Insurance Corporation (KUKE) is a Polish export credit insurance
agency. It has the form of a joint-stock company with most of the shares being owned
by the state. Since 1991, it has been insuring Polish companies, primarily against
commercial risk, offering solutions that combine export and domestic contract
insurance with credit information and credit portfolio management. Its services are
available to all exporters, regardless of the scale of their operations and the countries
to which they export, providing them with the opportunity to insure export receivables
from over 190 countries worldwide.
The activities of the corporation include:
• insurance of short-term export credits,
• insurance of short-term domestic credits,
• insurance of medium- and long-term export credits,
• insurance of direct investments abroad,
• foreign market entry costs insurance,
• financial leasing insurance,
• guarantees.
By the end of 2005 almost 290 insurance companies from the EU and the EEA declared
their intention of starting operations in Poland, based on the freedom to provide services
principle. Moreover, seven domestic insurers offer their services abroad. According to
KNUiFE, foreign investments in the insurance sector further increased by almost 9 %
(6 % in 2004), to reach over PLN 3.65 billion, accounting for approximately 76 % of the
sector’s aggregate subscribed capital. The share of foreign investments in the life insurance
sector and in the non-life sector was about the same. The following diagram presents the
foreign investment structure in the Polish insurance sector as of 31 December 2005.
How to Do Business in Poland
Foreign Investment Structure in the Insurance Sector (%)
United Kingdom
Source: KNUiFE, 2006
At the end of the year, foreign partners held majority stakes in 47 insurance companies
operating on the Polish market, while Polish shareholders held majority stakes in 21
companies. Major investments in the Polish insurance sector have come from German
companies, which have invested PLN 1.32 billion in 22 insurance companies in Poland,
accounting for approximately 36 % of the foreign investment in the sector. Significant
investments, amounting to some PLN 0.90 billion, have also come from Austrian
investors, while entrepreneurs from the Netherlands have invested PLN 0.43 billion.
Altogether, investments from the top five countries, which also include Denmark and
the United Kingdom, as well as the countries already mentioned, account for almost
85 % of total foreign investment in the insurance sector in Poland. Presently there are
only a few Polish insurance companies that do not have a foreign strategic partner.
The development of the insurance sector in the next few years will be influenced
substantially by new market players from the EU and the EEA entering the market on
the freedom to provide services principle. At the same time, consolidation of the market
will continue, encompassing an increase in the share capital of major insurance
companies, merger and acquisition processes, and strengthening capital links between
the banking and insurance sectors.
II. Economic Environment
Pension System
The Polish pension system embodies the idea of security through diversity, which is
achieved by basing the system on three independent pillars. It links the future pension
closely to the contributions paid. Out of the three pillars, two are mandatory and one is
voluntary. The mandatory pension contribution amounts to 19.52 % of the
contribution base (total salary/wages).
The first pillar, operated by the Polish Social Security Institution (ZUS), accounts for
12.22 % of the contribution base. It is predominantly a notional defined contribution
pay-as-you-go scheme, with the pension amount related to the amount of contributions
made that are index-linked to the contribution base and the average life expectancy.
Consequently, the later a person retires, the larger the pension paid.
The second pillar, accounting for the remaining 7.3 %, is a defined contribution
scheme serviced by open pension funds having the legal form of joint-stock
companies. ZUS collects the whole contribution of 19.52 % and then transfers 7.3 %
of the employee contribution base to the employee’s open pension fund. The pension
funds are managed by pension societies that invest the funds’ resources on financial
markets in keeping with provisions of the law. An employee can select a fund of his
choice (only one fund) from the ones registered. It is also possible to change funds.
Pension funds are supervised by the Insurance and Pension Funds Supervisory
Commission (KNUiFE), which protects the interests of the pension funds’ members.
As of 31 December 2005, there were 15 pension funds in Poland, managing assets of
approximately PLN 86.32 billion. At the end of the year most of their portfolio was
invested in bonds (63.1 %); however, the value of stock (including NIFs’ stock) in the
investment portfolio amounted to 32.1 %. This means that the pension funds are very
important players on the Polish capital market. In fact, their share in the WSE trade
amounted to 6.4 % in 2005. It is also certain that their role will still be increasing, in
proportion to the size of the assets under their management. The growth of pension
funds’ assets in 1999-2005 is illustrated in the following graph.
How to Do Business in Poland
Assets of Pension Funds in 1999-2005
billion PLN
Source: KNUiFE, 2006
Both mandatory pillars are similar in many ways, having in common the same defined
contribution principle, individual accounts, the same retirement age, benefits in the form
of annuities, and a minimum guaranteed pension.
On the other hand, the voluntary third pillar allows for diverse organisational principles
and forms of participation, which means that it can be better adjusted to individual
preferences. In this pillar contributions are paid into life insurance pension and
investment funds, and employee funds. Companies are allowed to establish employee
pension funds and mutual insurance funds on an entirely voluntary basis. Contributions
are paid from after tax income, although, the benefits are tax-free. As of May 2006, there
were 930 operational employee pension plans.
2004 brought another important development in the third pillar. As of 1 September 2004
it is possible to save for a future pension on individual pension accounts (IKE), managed
by banks, insurance companies, investment fund societies, and brokerage houses. The
most important benefit of this type of pension plan is that capital gains generated are taxfree. However, savings transferred to IKE during a year are limited to 150 % of an
average monthly salary envisaged by the budgetary law for this year.
The first four months since the introduction of individual pension accounts indicated that
this form of pension saving would be quite popular. By the end of 2004 there were
already over 175,000 IKEs. However, in 2005, only some 260,000 Poles decided to
open an IKE, resulting in approximately 428,000 individual pension accounts held by
the end of 2005. Almost two-thirds were managed by insurance companies, and almost a
quarter by investment fund societies. Banks and brokerage houses together managed
only about 13 % of individual pension accounts.
II. Economic Environment
Each of the pillars may be characterised by the various types of risks to which it is
exposed. For example, the first one is exposed to political pressure, the ageing of the
population and increasing unemployment risks, while the other two are more vulnerable
to persistent inflation as well as to disturbances on the financial markets. This is exactly
how the new system diversifies the risks – each of the two mandatory pillars works in
a different way, thus assuring that even in unfavourable circumstances the system as
a whole will perform satisfactorily, at least.
Telecommunications is one of Poland’s most dynamically developing sectors. It is
governed by the Telecommunications Law of 16 July 2004, effective as of 3 September
2004. The sector is supervised by the Office of Electronic Communications (UKE).
One of the key elements introduced by this law is a relaxation of the regulation of the
telecommunications sector exercised by the Chairman of the Office of Electronic
Communications. Now, the regulation is more focused on real market needs, i.e. on areas
where competition alone is not enough to ensure fair and proper functioning of the
market. The licensing system has been abolished, save for permits required in some cases
to operate radio broadcasting equipment. Operation in the telecommunications sector
requires only registering in the Register of Telecommunications Entrepreneurs kept by
the UKE Chairman. As at the end of May 2006 there were some 5800 companies
authorised to conduct telecommunications operations.
The UKE Chairman is empowered to perform typical regulatory activities with regards
to the telecommunications sector. These include resolving disputes between market
players, ensuring the stimulation of competition in the sector, determining professional
qualifications in the area of telecommunications, co-operating with the competent
minister in drafting new laws and regulations, and co-operating with international
telecommunications organisations. Moreover, the UKE Chairman manages the
frequency allocations.
Naturally, the Ministry of Transport continues its activities as the state authority
supervising the sector’s development. The Ministry’s tasks include:
• Formulating state policy guidelines and programmes pertaining to
• Building favourable conditions for the construction, maintenance and operation of
telecommunications networks, post installations and other telecommunication
means, allowing for the state’s defence and security needs,
• Providing conditions for the organisation of domestic and international
telecommunications and postal services,
How to Do Business in Poland
Supervision of the technical conditions, operation and use of telecommunication
It should be noted that the Ministry of Transport and the UKE are focusing their
activities on de-monopolising the Polish telecommunications market, and this has
included the introduction of the current telecommunications law and the privatisation of
The Polish telecommunications market is the largest in Central Europe. It is
characterised by relatively low rates of penetration per capita, both in fixed-line and
mobile segments. Low fixed-line penetration is due mainly to undeveloped
infrastructure, as well as the fact that a significant part of the population lives in rural
The fixed-line telecommunication market in Poland is highly concentrated. In 2005,
some 85 % of the Polish fixed-line telecommunications market, worth approximately
PLN 12 billion (USD 4 billion), was held by the national operator – Telekomunikacja
Polska S.A. (TPSA). Three other operators: Netia, Dialog and Tele 2 accounted for a
further 11 %.
The dominant fixed-line operator (TPSA), practically services the whole local fixed-line
telecommunications market. According to the latest estimates, only approximately 10 %
of this market (in terms of fixed lines) is controlled by a few dozen independent private
operators, who provide local level services. The only notable competition comes from
Dialog and Netia, which account for about 3 % of fixed lines each. As of December
2005, there were also 47 operators that have been assigned an NDS (Network Access
Number), which enables them to provide long-distance and international calls. However,
only a few of them have started operations.
Nevertheless, TPSA has local competitors everywhere now and the pressure in the longdistance and international call segments is growing. Moreover, there are several
companies offering VoIP services, which are very popular in Poland. Use of internet
communicators, such as Skype, instead of a phone, is on the rise, as such communicators
are much cheaper than traditional phone services.
In the 1990s, the telecommunications network registered a steady growth rate of
approximately 14 %. However, it has been slowing down ever since. In 2004, the fixedline telephone operators increased the number of main lines by just 2.8 %, bringing the
total number to 12.6 million at the end of the year. It seems that 2005 marks an end to
the era of fixed-line infrastructure development. Traditional telephone services are just
not good enough to compete with mobile networks and other means of electronic
communication. This is true especially in Poland, where phone calls are quite expensive.
II. Economic Environment
The number of main lines decreased by 2.0 % in 2005, bringing the total number to 12.3
million at the end of the year. Approximately 9.5 million of these are in urban areas (a
1.9 % decrease) and only some 2.8 million in rural areas (a 2.4 % decrease). At the end
of 2005, average telephone density, measured by the number of main lines per 100
inhabitants, was 32.2. For comparison, average telephone density in Sweden reached 77,
in Germany 66, in France 56, and in Spain 43, as of 1 January 2005.
Telephone Subscribers per 100 Inhabitants
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
The Polish mobile telecommunications market is worth some PLN 17 billion
(USD 5 billion). At the end of 2005 there were three mobile operators in Poland, PTK
Centertel (Orange, Orange Go, PoP), Polkomtel (Plus GSM, Simplus, Sami Swoi) and
Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa (Era, Era TAK TAK, Era BIZNES, Heyah). In June 2006,
the three mobile operators were still the only players in this market segment. This
situation may change if new mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) enter the
market. There are already well over 50 MVNOs authorised to provide services,
although, by June 2006 none had begun offering services on a commercial basis.
How to Do Business in Poland
Structure of the Mobile Market in 2005
(share in the number of mobile users)
PTC 35%
PTK Centertel
Source: URTiP, 2006
In 2005, the number of mobile phone users shot up by 26.3 %, reaching 29.2 million by
the end of the year. This pushed up the average mobile telephone density to 76.4, which
means that the number of cell phones in Poland is more than twice the number of fixed
lines. Still, mobile phone penetration in Poland does not yet compare very favourably
with the European average. As of 1 January 2005, the mobile telephone density reached
105 in the Czech Republic, 103 in Sweden, 86 in Germany, and 74 in France.
Power Industry
The Polish fuels and energy sector, significantly reshaped by the transformation
process started in the early 1990s, is still far from uniform in regard to ownership and
market structure. The situation in individual sub-sectors varies widely, from
dominance of a single company in the gas sector, to highly de-monopolised structures
in the liquid fuels and electricity sectors. The legislative framework is based on the
Energy Law of 10 April 1997, significantly amended in March 2005.
The power generation sector in Poland consists of:
• professional power plants (power plants and heat and power generating plants),
which sell most of the electric energy produced through the power grids of power
transmission companies;
• independent professional power plants, encompassing:
- heat and power generating plants, supplying most of the electric energy
produced to one final consumer,
- small hydro power plants and other small power plants using renewable
resources, operating independently of the structures of generating and
transmission companies;
II. Economic Environment
industry-based power plants, which form a part of industrial plants, with the
industrial plant using most of the electric energy produced.
Professional power plants generate approximately 94.5 % of the electricity in Poland.
Approximately 58 % of their electric energy comes from hard coal and around 37 %
from lignite. This situation is a result of the abundance of these natural resources in
Poland. Approximately 3 % of total electric energy produced is generated from
renewable resources, mainly in hydro power plants and wind power stations.
In 2005, according to the Energy Market Agency, Poland’s total electric energy
production amounted to 156.9 TWh, significantly exceeding domestic consumption
(144.8 TWh). Poland exported 14.3 TWh of electric energy, while importing just 3.1 TWh.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia remain the leading export markets for Polish energy.
The energy law passed in April 1997 has created conditions for competition on the
energy market and for improving the financial standing of companies in the energy
sector. The essential component of the law is the liberalisation of prices of energy and
fuels that will be allowed to respond to the demands of the market. The law provides for
the gradual introduction of market mechanisms. The competitiveness of the market is
achieved through de-monopolisation and by introducing the third party access
principle, which means opening the electric energy market to the final consumers.
The price of electrical energy is clearly divided into a production element and an
energy transfer element. The electrical energy market can be divided into the
wholesale market and retail market. In the wholesale market, providers, (both
producers and trade companies), sell energy on a competitive basis. The energy trade
is organised through direct contracts between the market participants, however, it is
expected that in future most trade will take place on the already established Electrical
Energy Exchange. The wholesale market includes both energy exports and imports.
The dominant wholesale market player is Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne S.A.
(Polish Power Grid Joint-Stock Company).
There are two segments of the retail market:
• the competitive segment, where distribution companies provide transfer services to
customers, while producers and electrical energy trade companies sell the energy
to these customers who have acquired the right to purchase electricity at source and
are willing to exercise this right;
• the regulated segment, where distribution companies sell the energy to ‘tariff’
customers at prices approved by the president of the Energy Regulatory Office.
How to Do Business in Poland
Presently the right to select an electric energy provider is granted to all institutional
customers (all customers other than households). On the grounds of the Energy Law, as
of 1 July 2007, all electric energy consumers in Poland will have the right to select their
electrical energy provider. Similarly, as of 1 July 2007, all gas fuel consumers will have
the right to select their provider. Currently, this right is granted to all institutional
customers. It is worth noting that already as of 1 January 2003 all thermal energy
consumers have the right to select a thermal energy provider.
In January 2005 the government approved an “Energy Policy of Poland until 2025”,
which sets out long-term strategy for the energy sector in Poland. The policy aims at
ensuring the country’s energy security, increasing energy efficiency, and
competitiveness in the economy, and environmental protection. It provides for
diversification of supply, development of energy generation from renewable sources,
further application of the third party access principle, and further restructuring and
privatisation of the sector.
With regards to restructuring and ownership transformations, the following activities are
• implementation of a restructuring program for long-term contracts for the purchase
of power and electricity, concluded between Polish Power Grid Joint-Stock
Company and electricity producers,
• creating means of support the development of local energy markets and local
power generation,
• continuation of restructuring processes in companies with shares held by the State
• developing a program for the consolidation of companies in the fuels and energy
• continuing the privatisation of energy sector companies,
• assuring state control over transmission system operators,
• monitoring the implementation of investment obligations undertaken by investors
participating in the privatisation of energy sector companies.
Investment opportunities exist in all sub-sectors of the power industry in Poland and
they continue to emerge along with industry’s privatisation. Foreign involvement in the
energy sector is already quite substantial and other major projects are pending.
II. Economic Environment
Transportation Infrastructure and Highway Construction
Poland has an extensive transport infrastructure. There are over 240,000 kilometres of
hard surface roads, i.e., approximately 80 km per 100 km2, and an extensive railway
network of some 23,500 kilometres, linking all the major cities and towns. However,
only some 19,000 kilometres of railway lines are in use, which gives a density of just
over 6 km per 100 km2.
In 2005, a total of 1.02 billion passengers* (June 2006 estimate) made use of public
transport (not counting urban mass transit). This represents a very minor decrease in
comparison to 2004 (1.08 billion). Of this number, 256 million passengers travelled by
rail, 762 million by road, and some 4.5 million by air.
The structure of the Polish transportation system is best reflected in the share of goods
delivered in 2005. All in all, approximately 311 million tons were transported (4.5 %
less than the year before). Please note that the data for the whole economy (including
companies employing 9 persons or less) is roughly twice as high, with road transport
accounting for approximately half of goods delivered.
Share of Goods Delivered by Various Means of Transport in 2005*
Railway transport
Motor transport
Pipeline transport
2.3% navigation
by companies employing more than 9 persons
Inland navigation
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
Altogether there are 379,455 km of public roads in Poland, divided into four categories:
national, regional, district, and communal. Motor transport focuses on the first two
categories, which total almost 47,000 km and include:
• National roads, of a total length of 18,368 km;
• Regional (provincial) roads, of a total length of 28,444 km.
The statistical data on the number of passengers and the volume of goods refers to companies
employing more than 9 persons.
How to Do Business in Poland
In spite of this, a detailed analysis of the Polish transport sector reveals a number of
deficiencies, the main ones of which are:
• changes in the structure of the transport sector in Poland, leading to the growth
of road transport;
• a tendency to overuse land-based transport in international freight transactions,
with a parallel decline in the use of sea transport and stagnation in air transport;
• the limited use of modern transport technologies, specifically in the area of
multimodal transport and traffic management techniques;
• the poor technical condition of the roads.
The maximum axle load allowed in Poland amounts to 10 tonnes, as only some 8 % of
roads in Poland conform to EU standards, which require international roads to withstand
axle loads of 11.5 tonnes.
The primary reason for the major problems with the quality of road transport
infrastructure is the continuously low share of relevant outlays in the GDP. In
developed OECD countries this share amounts to 1 - 2 % of GDP, while in Poland it is
less than half of this, despite a huge investment back-log and the evident need to
increase this share, at least for a limited period, above the level of more advanced
economies. The result is the poor state of Polish roads. According to a recent report
released in March 2006 by the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways
(GDDKiA) concerning the technical condition of national roads, only 49 % qualify as
good in terms of pavement quality, 26 % qualify as unsatisfactory and the remaining
25 % as bad. However, one must note the positive trend, which has continued since
2002, to increase the amount of road repair work, as reflected in the following graph.
Total length of sections repaired (km)
Roads Repaired
Source: General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways, 2006
II. Economic Environment
The adverse effect of poor road transportation infrastructure on the country’s
development was recognised quite early in the process of economic transformation of
the nineties. Thus the programme of building a network of highways in Poland was
adopted by a decree of the Council of Ministers in September 1993.
The experience of the first six years of the programme, during which not a single
kilometre of toll highway had been put into operation, indicated that it needed larger
support from public funds. At the beginning of 1999, in view of difficulties in
implementing the Highway Construction Programme, the government decided to replace
the BOT (Built-Operate-Transfer) system of highway construction with a PPP (PrivatePublic Partnership) system that would oblige the state to co-finance construction, or to
cover up to 50 % of the operating costs. In return, the state would gain the right to
participate in the profits.
Since then the programme has been significantly modified. The present highway and
motorway construction programme is defined in a Council of Ministers’ decree of 15
May 2004. It calls for the construction of a network of three highways, two running
from east to west, and one from north to south, with a total length of some 2,000 km. It
will be complemented by a network of motorways exceeding 5,000 km.
The highways to be constructed are, as follows:
The A-1 between Gdańsk, Toruń, Łódź, Piotrków Trybunalski, Częstochowa and
Gliwice, and on to the border with the Czech Republic,
The A-2 from the Polish-German border crossing in Świecko, then running
through Poznań, Łódź, Warsaw and Biała Podlaska, and on to the border crossing
between Poland and Belarus,
The A-4 running from the Polish-German border crossing in Jędrzychowice,
through KrzyŜowa, Legnica, Wrocław, Opole, Gliwice, Katowice, Cracow,
Tarnów, and Rzeszów to the Polish-Ukrainian border.
These are to be supplemented by the following short highway sections:
The A-6 from the Polish-German border crossing in Kołbaskowo to Szczecin,
The A-8, a part of the Wrocław ring road,
The A-18 from the Polish-German border crossing in Olszyna to the
A-4 at KrzyŜowa.
How to Do Business in Poland
Highway and Motorway Construction Programme in Poland
Source: General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways
As of 2005 there were only 570 km of highways and 250 km of motorways in Poland.
However, the highway and motorway construction is to accelerate, with less funds
coming from the state budget and more from other sources, especially the EU. European
Union financing is to increase from 22 % of the costs in 2005 to 50 % in 2010-2013. In
light of recent developments, it seems that highway construction in Poland is finally
taking off. Reaching the goal of 1,700 km of highways and 1,800 km of motorways by
2013 does not appear impossible.
II. Economic Environment
The Outlook for 2006 and Beyond
Current Developments
So far, developments in the first months of 2006 indicate that the growth of Poland’s
economy is picking up. The GDP is estimated to have grown by some 5.2 % in the
first quarter of 2006 (in comparison to the same quarter in 2005). Internal demand
appears to be the leading GDP growth factor. At the same time, inflation stayed at a
very low level. Prices of consumer goods and services grew by just 0.6 % in the first
four months of 2006 (in comparison to the same period in 2005).
In January-April 2006, sold industrial production grew by 10.8 % in companies
employing ten or more persons (as compared to the same period in the previous year).
At the same time, registered unemployed persons, numbering 2.70 million, accounted
for 17.2 % of the economically active population at the end of April 2006 (in
comparison to 18.7 % in April 2005).
With production and employment growing, a certain growth in salaries should be
expected. In January-April 2006, gross average salaries and wages in the enterprise
sector amounted to PLN 2,547 (a 4.5 % increase in nominal terms in comparison to
the same period of 2005). In real terms gross average salaries and wages in the
enterprise sector grew by 4.1 %.
In the first quarter of 2006, according to customs statistics, exports and imports rose
very substantially, with exports growing faster than imports. In USD terms exports
grew by 11.3 % and imports by 10.0 %, in EUR terms the growth was 22.3 % and
20.8 % respectively, and in PLN terms exports grew by 15.5 %, while imports
increased by 14.2 %. Exports in the period from January to March 2006 amounted to
USD 23.81 billion, while imports came to USD 26.31 billion, producing a USD 2.49
billion deficit, about the same as in the corresponding period of 2005.
Economic Forecasts
The assumptions for the Budgetary Law for 2006 envisage a GDP growth of 4.0 % in
2006, to be powered mostly by domestic demand. It is expected that employment will
continue to increase and that the unemployment rate will drop to 17.0 % in 2006.
However, following positive developments in the first months of 2006, both the
Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy forecast (in May 2006) 2006
GDP growth at approximately 5.0 %.
How to Do Business in Poland
In May 2006, the Ministry of Finance released information about selected
macroeconomic indices constituting the grounds for the drawing up of the 2007
Budgetary Law. According to this information, GDP growth, driven by domestic
demand, is to reach 4.6 % in 2007. Annual inflation is projected at 1.9 %, influenced
by an acceleration in domestic demand, the still high unemployment rate, and the
appreciation of the Polish currency.
Still, it is worth noting the prospects for Poland’s economy as seen from an outside
perspective, such as that of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The latest IMF
forecasts for Poland are summarised in “Republic of Poland – Concluding Statement
of the 2006 Article IV Consultation Mission”, released in late May 2006.
According to the IMF, a cyclical recovery and the benefits of EU membership are
coming together to produce promising opportunities for Poland. Therefore, Poland is
likely to register a GDP growth of 4.8 % in 2006 and 4.5 % in 2007, driven by private
consumption, private investment, and export growth.
The IMF views the outlook for inflation as benign. Presently, low inflation reflects
both one-off factors and subdued core inflation, which excludes direct effects from
food and energy. Obviously, inflation will rise with the recovery and the lapsing of the
one-off factors. Nevertheless, it should remain below the 2.5 % target by the end of
Medium-term prospects largely depend on a commitment to strong policies and on the
economic institutions to realize them. Possibilities for increasing growth are clear, as
the opportunities of EU membership, the efficient use of EU funds, and the
advantages resulting from euro adoption, could all contribute to higher growth over
the next 5 to 10 years.
According to the IMF, the most important macro-economic challenges are as follows:
• stabilizing the ratio of public debt to GDP below the present level, while
reducing the share of government spending in GDP,
• protecting the strength of financial institutions,
• removing impediments to entrepreneurs’ and workers’ responsiveness to
economic opportunities.
II. Economic Environment
Co-operation with International Organisations
Poland’s successful transition to a market economy has been, to a significant degree,
facilitated by the assistance of international economic organisations. Already in the
late 1980s, Poland had established good relations with the International Monetary
Fund, the World Bank, and the International Finance Corporation.
Poland rejoined the World Bank in 1986 and began borrowing from it in 1990. Since
then, the World Bank has supported the country’s economic transformation through
lending, advice, and technical assistance. Since 1990, the Bank has lent USD 6.220
billion (USD 4.880 billion net of cancellations) for 44 operations. About USD 4.472
billion of this amount has been disbursed and USD 2.9 billion repaid (as of end-June
2005). Twelve ongoing projects are mainly focused on upgrading the infrastructure
and energy sectors, protecting the environment, and promoting rural development.
Since 1986, the World Bank has aimed at boosting the country’s economic growth by
rebalancing its macroeconomic framework and improving the effectiveness of
government expenditures and programs. It has also helped the country create
employment through privatisation and reforms in the banking and financial sector.
In 2005, the World Bank Board of Directors adopted the new Country Partnership
Strategy that provides a framework for aligning the World Bank’s program both with
the challenges that Poland faces, as a new EU member, and with the government’s
decision-making process. The World Bank is currently assisting Poland in making the
most of EU membership. It is helping to enhance the country’s transport infrastructure
and the government’s capacity to use EU Structural Funds.
In the fiscal year of 2006 (running from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006), the World Bank
approved two loans to Poland – one for the amount of EUR 150 million, which will
help to finance the Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Project (RMRP III), and
another for the amount of USD 88.8 million to increase social inclusion in rural
underdeveloped communes and to support the reform of the agricultural insurance
fund (KRUS).
In June 2004, the position of Private Sector Liaison Officer (PSLO) was established
with the Confederation of Polish Private Employers to facilitate contacts between the
World Bank and the private sector. The PSLO, jointly with the World Bank’s Office
in Poland, organized a number of events targeting the business community, including
business seminars on India and on China.
How to Do Business in Poland
The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group,
fosters economic growth in the developing world by financing private sector
investments, mobilising capital in international financial markets, and providing
technical assistance and advice to governments and businesses. The IFC’s mission is
to promote sustainable private sector investment in developing countries to reduce
poverty and improve people’s lives. In light of Poland’s accession to the European
Union and the growing availability of long-term financing from private sources, the
IFC, as a developmental institution, has reorganised its mission in Poland. On 1 July
2004, it reduced its representation in Poland and it now continues operations through
its Special Regional Representative for Central and Eastern Europe, in the World
Bank office in Warsaw. The IFC focuses its investment and advice selectively in a
few areas where its value-added is highest, including:
• Eastward investments by Polish companies;
• Complex privatisation and post-privatisation cases where the IFC’s participation
may help to strengthen the transparency and credibility of the privatisation
process, and assist with structuring the post-privatisation investment program.
Possible areas include chemical plants, oil and gas, and infrastructure sectors;
• Promoting public-private partnerships in health and education;
• Supporting further institutional development in the financial sector (e.g.,
supporting the expansion of access to housing finance, facilitating the sale of
non-performing loans, developing the securitisation market); and
• Promoting renewable energy sources and energy efficiency.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) was established
in 1991 to finance development projects that foster the transition to a market economy
in Eastern and Central European countries. As of 31 December 2005, the Bank had
committed EUR 3,424.million to 147 projects, which attracted a further EUR 9,235
million from sponsors and co-financiers. The new business volume in 2005 remained
robust with EUR 339.6 million committed in Poland, and the Bank will continue to
play an important role by focusing selectively on areas where there is transition
impact potential and where the Bank’s involvement would most beneficial.
Given the above, the Bank’s activities in Poland will be based on the following
operational objectives:
• Stimulate development of revenue backed financing and private sector involvement
to minimise reliance on sovereign guarantees and increase the supply of long-term
finance for infrastructure and environmental projects.
• Further the scope for financing projects through public-private partnerships, mainly
in the municipal and transport sectors, in close concert with the national/local
authorities and EU Cohesion and Structural Funds.
• Support restructuring, modernisation and private sector participation in the road
sector, railways and airports.
II. Economic Environment
• Support energy saving projects and renewable energy projects designed in keeping
with market principles and which encourage private investment.
• Support enterprise restructuring, modernisation and privatisation, by sharing risk
with local or foreign investors, particularly in the more challenging sectors such as
the chemical industry, energy, heavy industry or mining.
• Provide necessary risk capital (equity and/or structured debt) to local companies to fund
their growth and/or expansion in the region; sometimes alongside private equity funds.
• Continue to work with local financial intermediaries and non-banks to provide
finance to micro, small and medium-size enterprises, particularly in the rural areas, in
conjunction with EU or other donor support.
• Contribute to the broadening of the local capital market through promotion and
development of new financial structures such as asset-backed securities, securitisation
of assets portfolios, convertible instruments, mortgage bonds, and revenue bonds.
The Bank will continue to ensure that all EBRD operations in Poland meet sound
banking principles, have a transition impact, are additional and are subject to the
Bank’s Environmental Procedures and incorporate, where appropriate, Environmental
Action Plans.
Poland also had benefited for many years before its accession from the financial
support of the European Union. Poland has been receiving non-returnable aid from
the European Union since 1990 as part of the PHARE Fund. In line with decisions
taken during the EU summit in Berlin in March 1999 (Agenda 2000), there was a
considerable increase in financial aid to EU candidate states in 2000-2006. Since
2000, Poland and other associated states have been able to benefit not only from
PHARE funds, but also from two new funds: ISPA (the Instrument for Structural
Policies for Pre-Accession) and SAPARD (the Special Accession Programme for
Agriculture and Rural Development).
PHARE (Poland and Hungary: Assistance for Restructuring their Economy) was initially
meant to help Poland and Hungary in their political and economic transformations. It was
later expanded to include other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Right now it has
ten beneficiaries: the ten countries of Central and Eastern Europe that are former and
present EU candidate states, i.e., Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
In the EU candidate states, the programme supported actions preparing the countries
for accession. In 1990-1999 PHARE aid funds for all the aforementioned countries
amounted to EUR 10.31 billion, with Poland receiving over EUR 2 billion. In the EU
budget for 2000-2006, PHARE aid was set at EUR 1.56 billion per year. In line with
the New Orientation of PHARE, 70 % of the resources was intended for investment
projects and 30 % for projects related to institutional development. In 2000 Poland
How to Do Business in Poland
was granted a record sum of EUR 484 million within the PHARE programme, in 2001
– EUR 468.5 million, in 2002 – EUR 451.7 million, and EUR 459.5 million in 2003.
There is no new 2004 PHARE programme, however the funds allocated in 2003, are
to be contracted within a 2 year period and realised within one year. It means that
PHARE will be present until 2006, when projects of 2003 should be concluded.
After joining the EU on 1 May 2004, Poland can benefit from various EU funds
earmarked for EU members. At the Copenhagen 2002 summit, it was decided that
Poland will benefit from nearly EUR 13.5 billion over the period 2004-2006, which
encompasses structural funds, direct payments, and other programmes.
In 2005, according to the Ministry of Finance, the net benefits to Poland from
settlements with the EU budget reached EUR 1.54 billion. From 1 May 2004 (the
accession date) transfers from the EU budget increased and diversified. Apart from
transfers within the pre-accession programmes, Poland gained access to other funds,
transferred within the framework of individual EU policies. All in all, Poland received
EUR 3.95 billion from the EU budget in 2005. Financial flows between Poland and
the EU budget in 2005 are presented in the following table.
Financial Flows between Poland and the EU Budget in 2005
Financial Flows
Transfers from the EU, including
- ISPA / Cohesion Fund
- Structural Funds
- Market Measures
- Rural Development
- Direct Payments
- Other transfers related to CAP
- Transition Facility
- Cash Flow Facility Instrument
- Schengen Facility
Poland’s cumulated contribution
Reimbursement of unused resources
EUR (million)
Source: Ministry of Finance, 2006
From the first day of Poland’s accession to the EU to the end of March 2006, Poland
received EUR 7.18 billion, while contributing EUR 4.47 billion to the EU budget.
Taking into account reimbursements of unused resources to the EU budget (some
EUR 22 million), the resulting positive balance of financial flows between Poland and
the EU reached EUR 2.69 billion. For information on Poland’s integration with the
European Union, please refer to Chapter VI.
II. Economic Environment
UNIDO and its Activities in Poland
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is a specialised
UN agency established in 1967 with the aim of reducing the traditional gap between
the industrialised countries, developing countries, and, more recently, economies in
transition. The UNIDO headquarters is in Vienna and its membership numbers 171
countries. UNIDO harnesses the joint forces of governments and the private sector,
acting as a neutral adviser to foster competitive industrial production, develop
international partnership, and promote socially equitable and environmentally friendly
industrial development. It is the only worldwide organisation dealing exclusively with
industry from a development perspective and rendering non-profit, neutral and
specialised services.
UNIDO activities focus on promoting investments and related technologies, and
assuring clean and sustainable industrial development. Maintaining its universal
character and vocation, UNIDO pursues a geographical, sectoral, and thematic
division of services directed at the least developed countries and economies in
transition and its services are offered first of all to small and medium-size enterprises.
Investment and technology are proving to be essential keys to success in the global
marketplace. However, many countries face enormous difficulties in attracting
investors, as well as in gaining access to technology and markets. UNIDO is giving
significant impetus to its services in this direction by launching a unique business
intelligence unit – the UNIDO Exchange – that optimises, through an electronic
platform, the use of information technology to provide information and knowledge to
its members.
The organisation holds promotion offices and units in 18 countries: Bahrain, Belgium,
Brazil, China, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Morocco,
Poland, Russian Federation, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom. They facilitate
contacts between business communities in their host countries and in other countries.
The Warsaw UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office (ITPO), was set up
in 1983 as a part of UNIDO’s investment and technology promotion network. By
drawing on the linkages of the UNIDO Exchange electronic platform, ITPO Warsaw
redresses the industrial development imbalance by bringing investment and the latest
technology on offer in Poland and abroad to those countries in Central and East Europe
and Mid-Asia which are most in need of a promotional hand. At the same time ITPO
Warsaw opens up new opportunities for investors and technology suppliers from Poland
to find potential partners in countries with economies in transition. Its tasks also include
supporting the development of Polish small and medium-size enterprises entering the
markets of countries in Central and East Europe and Mid-Asia.
How to Do Business in Poland
The main tasks of the Office are:
• the promotion of industrial investments and technologies in developing
countries, in Poland and in other transition economies,
• the support of Polish industry through managers’ training.
In its operations, the UNIDO Warsaw Office implements the methodology, practices,
and promotional tools developed by the UNIDO Secretariat. The most important are
the Country Presentation Meetings, which provide information on the economies and
legal frameworks for foreign investment in the developing and reforming countries.
Further, individual industrial investment projects are promoted in Poland and in
developing countries.
ITPO supports the development processes of Polish industry through various
management training courses (teaching the evaluation of the profitability of export
products, modern techniques for preparing an offer, marketing and negotiations
related to, for example, technology transfer). The promotion of COMFAR, a software
developed by UNIDO to enable the appraisal of industrial investment projects,
business performance, financial analysis, and the diagnosis of enterprises, is another
example of training-related activities.
Moreover, ITPO services encompass the gathering and promotion of information via
UNIDO Exchange on:
• Polish export offers,
• Polish technologies,
• Polish companies interested in investment and/or technical co-operation with
foreign partners.
Other kinds of assistance include editing and disseminating business manuals and
related publications. In this area the most important publications are: Manual for
Preparation of Industrial Feasibility Studies, annually updated foreign investors’
guide How to Do Business in Poland and country-focused manuals for Polish
entrepreneurs containing business information and guidelines on particular markets in
Central and Eastern Europe and in Mid-Asia.
The services of the Warsaw UNIDO Office are offered to entrepreneurs in the
developing and reforming countries, foreign investors and Polish institutions,
businesses and business organisations.
The ITPO assists companies from developing and reforming countries in their search
for potential Polish partners interested in technical co-operation, subcontracting, the
transfer of technology, establishing a joint venture, or in the acquisition of a company
in a respective developing or reforming country.
II. Economic Environment
The ITPO services offered to Polish firms, organisations, and institutions include the
identification of potential partners and strategic investors, and the upgrading of
managerial capabilities and skills through training courses on the preparation of
business plans and feasibility studies, marketing techniques, and the implementation
of ISO standards.
In view of Poland’s membership in the European Union, it is necessary to bridge the
developmental and structural gap between Poland and the “old” member states of the
European Union. Therefore, the activities of the ITPO Warsaw are focused on this
strategic goal, providing Polish enterprises and institutions with benefits stemming
from UNIDO’s expertise and experience in industrial development. In this context, the
office is concentrating its activities on the following strategic areas:
• promoting of Polish exports, particularly to countries with economies in
transition and to developing countries, using promotional tools such as economic
forums, country presentation meetings, country delegate programmes, and
servicing Polish and foreign economic missions, as well as establishing a data
base of Polish export offers in order to promote them through UNIDO channels;
• promoting technology (outward and inward), including the promotion of clean
industrial technologies, i.e., by establishing a portfolio of selected Polish
industrial technologies to be promoted via UNIDO Exchange and other channels;
• capacity building and facilitating private sector development with special
reference to SMEs, including the promotion of UNIDO standards in the
preparation of feasibility studies, business plans, financial analyses, and BOT
projects, the organisation of training courses based on UNIDO methodology
(i.e., on technology management and technology transfer negotiations), as well
as supporting the introduction of quality management systems in small- and
medium-size companies;
• supporting the creation and implementation of the Polish development assistance
policy, i.e., by encouraging Polish authorities to participate in UNIDO assistance
programmes addressed to developing countries (UNIDO Integrated
It should be noted that some of the publications mentioned above are also available
on-line and on CD-ROM. While promoting modern technology solutions for industry,
ITPO itself also takes advantage of IT tools to the benefit of its clients and offers
various services through the website
How to Do Business in Poland
EU membership – Common Customs Tariff applies
7 duty-free zones, located in: Gdańsk, Gliwice,
Małaszewicze, Mszczonów, Szczecin, Świnoujście,
and Warsaw
Dynamic development of foreign trade
USD 95.8 billion of exports and USD 98.5 billion of
Germany accounts for approximately one quarter of
Polish imports and a third of exports
Imports dominated by raw materials and
Diminishing trade deficit and current balance deficit
Official reserve assets of USD 42.6 billion
How to Do Business in Poland
There is a continuously increasing demand for various goods in Poland, as reflected in
the foreign trade statistics. It creates great opportunities for a broad range of exports to
Poland, including for medium-size and small foreign producers. However, more and
more companies are starting up new manufacturing operations each year and foreign
exporters face strong and constantly increasing competition. At the same time, a large
number of modern and innovative enterprises based in Poland are ready to expand into
foreign markets. These companies offer a wide range of high quality products, often at
very competitive prices.
Considering Poland’s geographic location, its EU membership and readiness to develop
economic co-operation, foreign companies increasingly discover that in many cases it is
more profitable to waive short-term profits for long-term gains, and to invest in
establishing more advanced forms of co-operation, including setting-up production
facilities in Poland – the opportunities are plentiful. For more information on the
investment incentives and on how to establish a company in Poland, please refer to
Chapters V and X, respectively.
The following sub-chapters concerning customs regulations and tariff suspensions and
quotas have been compiled based on information published and distributed by the
European Union.
Customs Regulations and Duties
Poland is a member of the European Union, therefore the common EU trade and
customs regulations apply. Generally, all goods and services can be traded without
restriction. There are, however, some usual exceptions. For example, a licence is
required for the import and export of products and technologies for the police and
military sector, such as explosives or weapons, and ammunition, in keeping with the
Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004. Please refer to Chapter V, the Legal
Considerations section, for a complete list of areas, enumerated in the Law on Economic
Freedom, in which economic activity may be undertaken only if an appropriate license
(koncesja) is granted. Moreover, separate legislation covers the export and/or import of
other goods, such as, for example, hazardous substances.
As of the day of Poland’s accession to the EU, the legal framework of the Polish
customs system encompasses directly applicable EU customs regulations and the
supplementary national legislation. The national legislation part consists of The
Customs Law of 19 March 2004 and the decrees issued on its grounds.
III. Foreign Trade
Poland applies directly the EU customs regulations as of 1 May 2004. The
fundamental one is the Common Customs Tariff (CCT). Since on the EU internal
market goods can circulate freely between member states, the CCT applies to the
import of goods across the external borders of the EU.
The tariff is common to all EU members, but the rates of duty differ from one kind of
import to another, depending on what they are and where they come from. The rates
depend on the economic sensitivity of products. The tariff is a concept, a collection of
laws as opposed to a single codified law in itself. It is a combination of
classification of goods and the duty rates which apply to each class of goods. In
addition, the tariff contains all other Community legislation that has an effect on the
level of customs duty payable on a particular import, for example country of origin.
Through the tariff, the Community applies the principle that domestic producers
should be able to compete fairly and equally on the internal market with
manufacturers exporting from other countries.
There is however a kind of working tariff, called TARIC. The TARIC represents the
Community legislation published in the Official Journal of the European Union. It is
an instrument for practical use and information, but does not have legal status itself.
At importation, the use of the TARIC Code for the customs declaration for release for
free circulation and for statistical purposes is obligatory. The structure of the TARIC
is based on the 8 digit code of the CN and two additional digits. In particular cases one
or two additional 4 digit codes are added (e.g. antidumping duties).
The TARIC includes all applicable customs duties and all customs trade policy
measures for all goods applicable at any time, set out in various legal measures and it
changes constantly. The TARIC is not itself law and is not a legal base for the
application of duties and other trade policy measures, however, it is an essential
instrument for the customs administrations and companies because it is updated daily
to take account of new legislation, the using up of quotas etc.
The TARIC presents all third-country and preferential duty rates actually applicable,
as well as all commercial policy measures. The TARIC includes information on tariff
suspensions, tariff quotas, preferential treatment, anti-dumping and countervailing
duties, import prohibitions and restrictions, quantitative limits, export surveillance,
licenses and certificates.
The bulk of the rules governing EU customs are in the frequently amended Community
Customs Code (Council Regulation (EEC) No 2913/92, as amended). This regulation
differentiates five customs-approved treatments or use of goods, such as: the placing of
goods under a customs procedure; their entry into a free zone or free warehouse; their reexportation from the customs territory of the Community; their destruction; their
How to Do Business in Poland
abandonment to the State Treasury. Customs procedures envisaged in the Code include:
• release for free circulation;
• transit;
• customs warehousing;
• inward-processing;
• processing under customs control;
• temporary admission;
• outward-processing;
• exportation.
The European Commission Taxation and Customs Union Directorate General’s
website ( provides an overview of
specific aspects of the customs code, including rules on origin, valuation, transit and
the tariff.
The annual publication of the tariff schedule (current edition: Official Journal L 286
of October 28, 2005) contains the most-favoured-nation (MFN) duty rates applied to
each class of goods, as well as the nomenclature of goods (classification of goods).
The annual tariff schedule applies for a calendar year.
Autonomous Tariff Suspensions and Quotas
Autonomous tariff suspensions and quotas permit the total or partial waiver of the
normal duties applicable to imported goods for an unlimited quantity (suspensions) or
a limited quantity (quota), normally for an unlimited period of validity. They are
exceptions to the general rule represented by the Common Customs Tariff.
The role of suspensions and quotas is to stimulate economic activity, improving
competitive capacity, creating employment, modernising structures etc. by allowing
companies to obtain particular supplies at a lower cost. The supplies concerned are
raw materials, semi-finished goods or components not available in the EU
(suspensions) or which are available but in insufficient quantities (quotas).
No suspensions or quotas are granted for finished products or where identical,
equivalent or substitute products are manufactured in sufficient quantities within the
EU or by producers in a third country with preferential tariff arrangements. The same
applies where the measure could result in a distortion of competition in respect of the
final products.
III. Foreign Trade
Once a suspension or a quota is granted, any operator in any Member State is eligible
to benefit from it. Both suspensions and quotas are reviewed regularly to take account
of technical or economic trends in products and markets, with the possibility of
addition, modification or deletion. Requests are submitted by the Member States on
behalf of EU processing or manufacturing companies. Requests are not considered
where the amount of uncollected customs duty in question is estimated to be less than
EUR 20,000 per year. However, small and medium-size enterprises may group
together to reach this threshold.
In the framework of several agreements that the European Community has concluded
with third countries, as well as in the framework of autonomous preferential
arrangements for some beneficiary countries, tariff concessions are provided for a predetermined volume of goods (preferential tariff quotas).
Within preferential tariff quotas, a predetermined volume of goods originating in a
specified country can benefit at import into the Community from a more favourable
rate of duty than the normal third countries duty mentioned in the combined
nomenclature. Entitlement to benefit from preferential tariff quotas is of course
subject to presentation of the necessary evidence of origin.
Most tariff quotas are managed by DG Taxation and Customs Union on a ‘first-come
first-served’ basis irrespective of where the goods are imported into the EU. The other
tariff quotas are managed by DG Agriculture through a system of import licences.
Various Council and Commission Regulations contain the specific provisions for the
management of these tariff quotas.
Duty-Free Zones and Free Warehouses
Duty-free zones and bonded warehouses are also governed by the Community Customs
Code (Council Regulation (EEC) No 2913/92, as amended), which defines a duty free
zone or a bonded warehouse as parts of the customs territory of the Community or
premises situated in that territory and separated from the rest of it in which:
• Non-Community goods are considered, for the purpose of import duties and
commercial policy import measures, as not being on Community customs
territory, provided they are not released for free circulation or placed under
another customs procedure or used or consumed under conditions other than
those provided for in customs regulations;
• Community goods for which such provision is made under Community
legislation governing specific fields qualify, by virtue of being placed in a free
zone or free warehouse, for measures normally applying to the export of goods.
How to Do Business in Poland
Both Community and non-Community goods may be placed in a free zone or free
warehouse. Goods entering a free zone or free warehouse need not be presented to the
customs authorities, nor need a customs declaration be lodged. However, the customs
authorities may check goods entering, leaving or remaining in a free zone or free
There is no limit to the length of time goods may remain in free zones or free
warehouses, except for certain goods covered by the common agricultural policy, with
regards to which specific time limits may be imposed. Companies operating in dutyfree zones may undertake any industrial, service, or commercial activity, under the
conditions envisaged by the code.
Non-Community goods placed in a free zone or free warehouse may, while they
remain in a free zone or free warehouse:
• be released for free circulation;
• undergo the usual forms of handling;
• be placed under the inward-processing procedure;
• be placed under the procedure for processing under customs control;
• be placed under the temporary importation procedure;
• be abandoned;
• be destroyed.
As of June 2006, Poland had seven duty-free zones, located in: Gdańsk, Gliwice,
Małaszewicze (Terespol commune), Mszczonów, Szczecin, Świnoujście, and at Warsaw
Okęcie International Airport. One of them (in Warsaw) operates simply as a group of
duty-free shops, however, the remaining six are ready to accommodate companies
undertaking economic activity. There were also seven free warehouses, located in
Braniewo, Cracow, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Katowice, Poznań, and Wrocław.
The above mentioned duty-free zones are linked with the main transport routes or are
located in ports (which allows them to influence the volume of goods in transit through
Poland, and the amount of goods that are re-exported).
Trade between the duty-free zone and a foreign country is subject to neither import
quotas nor customs permits and payments. Duty-free zones and bonded warehouses are
set up by the Minister of Finance in co-operation with the Minister of the Economy,
through a decree of the Minister of Finance which also appoints the manager and defines
the area. Free zones and free warehouses are to be managed by EU entities that own the
zone’s land or hold it in perpetual usufruct.
Duty-free zones are expected to attract capital, create new jobs, and facilitate exports,
however, they do not play any significant role in the Polish economy at present.
III. Foreign Trade
Refinancing Interest on Export Credits
To facilitate Polish exports, the Program of Refinancing Interest of Export Credit
(DOKE) was introduced in Poland in keeping with the Law of 8 June 2001 on
Refinancing the Interest on Fixed Interest Rate Export Credits. The program is
regulated in detail by several decrees of the Minister of Finance. The program is
modelled on the solutions contained in the OECD Arrangement on Guidelines for
Officially Supported Export Credits (OECD Consensus) incorporated into European
Law. The DOKE program introduces a mechanism for the stabilisation of interest
rates, allowing Polish exporters, commercial banks, and IFIs to offer medium and long
term export credit (with a repayment period of at least 2 years) with a fixed interest
rate for financing Polish exports. It eliminates the risk of incurring losses arising from
fluctuating market interest rates.
The mechanism is based on periodic settlements between Bank Gospodarstwa
Krajowego (BGK), a state-owned bank administering the DOKE program on behalf of
the State Treasury, and commercial banks granting fixed interest rate export credits
through long term agreements. If, during the settlement period, the fixed export credit
interest rate (CIRR rate) is lower than the costs of financing (market short term
interest rate for a given currency plus a spread of 80 to 170 points), then BGK effects
an appropriate payment to the commercial bank. If the opposite is found, then the
commercial bank is obliged to transfer the surplus to BGK.
CIRR rates for currencies of the countries that are members of the OECD Consensus
are announced each month by the OECD Secretariat.
Foreign Trade Results
This section contains information on Polish foreign trade in 2004. Comprehensive
data on 2005 foreign trade will be released by the Polish Central Statistical Office in
August 2006, and it will be incorporated as soon as it is available. The preliminary
foreign trade results released by the NBP (transactional basis) indicate that exports
reached USD 95.85 billion and imports amounted to USD 98.54 in 2005.
The liberalisation of the economy and fast economic growth have led to an ever growing
internal demand for products and services. In order to maintain its trade balance Poland
is faced with the challenge of ensuring a greater market share for Polish goods and
services on foreign markets. The following table illustrates the structure of Polish
exports and imports in the last eight years, reflecting the very dynamic developments
that have taken place in Poland’s foreign trade. In the period presented, exports have
almost tripled and imports have more than doubled, a great achievement, no doubt,
How to Do Business in Poland
although still somewhat inadequate in comparison to the per capita exports and imports
of ‘old’ EU member states.
Exports have been an important driving force behind the quickening pace of economic
growth in recent years. In 2004, exports saw spectacular growth, increasing by 37.7 %
(in USD terms), to USD 73.8 billion, with imports growing more slowly, though still
very substantially, by 29.6 %, to almost USD 88.2 billion, according to the Central
Statistical Office (GUS). Despite the higher growth rate of exports – due to the very
large increase in total foreign trade operations – the trade deficit in 2004 remained at the
2003 level of USD 14.4 billion. However, it must be noted that such spectacular foreign
trade results in USD terms were due, to some extent, to the comparative weakness of the
USD against the Polish currency in 2004. Nonetheless, export growth in PLN terms was
still very impressive at 30.2 % (with imports growing by 22.8 %).
Foreign Trade in 1997-2004 (USD million)
Food and live animals
Beverages and tobacco
Crude materials, inedible, except fuels
Mineral fuels, lubricants
Oil, fats, and waxes
Chemicals and related products
Manuf. goods class. by raw materials
Machinery and transport equipment
Misc. manufactured articles
Food and live animals
Beverages and tobacco
Crude materials, inedible, except fuels
Mineral fuels, lubricants
Oils, fats, and waxes
Chemicals and related products
Manuf. goods class. by raw materials
Machinery and transport equipment
Misc. manufactured articles
25,751 28,229 27,407 31,651
3,026 2,839 2,328 2,367
1,719 1,547 1,377 1,610
2,027 1,898 1,696 2,151
6,830 7,116 6,986 7,856
5,560 8,019 8,278 10,820
5,611 5,865 5,750 5,805
42,308 47,054 45,911 48,940
2,894 2,993 2,537 2,558
1,762 1,669 1,419 1,643
3,710 2,989 3,281 5,297
5,839 6,462 6,584 6,881
8,283 9,801 9,526 9,788
15,228 18,014 17,544 18,114
3,950 4,452 4,380 4,218
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Still, the above figures do not include cross border trade with neighbouring countries. It is
estimated that this trade amounts to several USD billion a year. When this ‘invisible’
trade is included, the overall trade deficit is much less pronounced, as reflected in the
NBP balance of payments statistics (see the table at the end of this Chapter).
III. Foreign Trade
USD billion
Exports and Imports
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
Developed countries dominate in both Polish exports and imports and their share of
Poland’s foreign trade amounts to 85.3 % and 75.9 % respectively. Poland’s main
trading partner is Germany, which alone accounts for just under one quarter of Poland’s
imports and almost a third of its exports. The EU as a whole has a 79.2 % share in
Poland’s exports and 68.3 % in its imports.
Exports in 2004 - Geographical Structure
Developing Countries
Central & Eastern
Other Countries
Other EU Countries
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
The share of Central and Eastern European countries in Poland’s foreign trade amounts
to 9.0 % of exports and 9.9 % of imports and that of developing countries to 5.7 % of
exports and 14.2 % of imports. Russia remains Poland’s major trading partner in the
East. Its share of Poland’s foreign trade increased in comparison to 2003 and amounted
to 3.8 % of Poland’s exports and to 7.2 % of its imports.
How to Do Business in Poland
Imports in 2004 - Geographical Structure
Developing Countries
Central & Eastern
Other Countries
Other EU Countries
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Exports in 2004 – Major Partners
United Kingdom
Czech Republic
Total exports
Value (USD million)
Share %
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
Imports in 2004 – Major Partners
Czech Republic
United Kingdom
Total imports
Value (USD million)
Share %
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005
III. Foreign Trade
The expansion of Polish exports since the beginning of transformations was
accompanied by the modernisation of its commodity structure. This resulted in the
growing importance of highly processed products (especially from the engineering
and automotive sectors). On the other hand, the importance of raw materials and semifinished products (mineral products, metallurgical products) decreased substantially.
Restructuring of the economy, powered by the inflow of foreign direct investments,
was the leading factor behind this change.
In 2004, machinery and transport equipment dominated both exports (38.8 %) and
imports (38.6 %). Manufactured goods classified by raw materials were in second place,
accounting for 23.3 % of exports and 20.7 % of imports.
Even though the overall foreign trade balance is negative, there are several commodity
groups generating substantial surpluses. In 2004, the most notable of these included:
• engines, with exports of USD 2.86 billion and imports of USD 0.19 billion,
generating a USD 2.67 billion surplus;
• furniture (chairs, seats and couches), with exports reaching USD 2.73 billion and
imports of USD 0.42 billion, generating a USD 2.32 billion surplus;
• other furniture, excluding the above types and medical furniture, with exports of
USD 1.94 billion and imports of USD 0.29 billion, generating a USD 1.65 billion
• coke, semi-coke and coke-oven gas with exports of USD 1.34 billion and imports
of USD 0.03 billion, generating a USD 1.30 billion surplus;
• hard coal and solid hard coal fuels, with exports of USD 1.38 billion and imports
of USD 0.15 billion, generating a USD 1.23 billion surplus;
Further examples of highly processed export items include TV sets, monitors, ships,
passenger cars and other passenger motor vehicles, trucks, etc.
As far as imports are concerned, it is important to note that the trade deficit mainly
results from the import of raw materials required by the economy, as well as of
investment goods and articles bought for co-operation and supply purposes,
indispensable for industrial restructuring and development. In 2004, the import of raw
materials and components accounted for 62 % of total imports, while the import of
investment goods reached 19 %.
Consequently, petroleum oils are the main imported commodity, generating a USD 4.19
billion deficit with imports amounting to USD 4.22 billion. Other very important import
products include passenger cars (imports of USD 3.50 billion, with a USD 0.74 billion
trade surplus), car parts and accessories (imports of USD 2.63 billion and USD 0.44
billion trade surplus), ships (imports of USD 2.41 billion, with a USD 0.16 billion trade
surplus), pharmaceuticals (imports of USD 2.40 billion, with a USD 2.12 billion trade
How to Do Business in Poland
deficit), and natural gas (imports of USD 2.09 billion, with a USD 2.08 billion trade
The private sector plays a dominant role in foreign trade. In 2004, the private sector
accounted for 88.1 % of exports (compared with 42 % in 1993) and for 91.7 % of
imports (compared with 60 % in 1993).
The impressive expansion of foreign trade in the past decade was no doubt greatly
facilitated by Poland’s political and economic integration with the world and especially
with the European Union (see Chapter VI).
Nonetheless, very positive developments, as well as the overall picture, should be
viewed in a wider, international context. In terms of value, current Polish exports are
similar to those of some much smaller countries of the region. The share of exports in
the Polish GDP amounts to 30.5 %, while in the Czech Republic and Hungary it is two
to three times higher. In 2004, exports per capita reached 1,900 USD, between half and
one-third of the Czech, Slovak, or Hungarian level, while in a majority of OECD
countries this ratio is several times higher.
The current account balance of payments has been negative for several years, as shown
in the following table. It is worth noting though, that a favourable trend consisting in
diminishing the current account deficit from one year to another (interrupted only in
2004) has been visible since 2000.
Balance of Payments on the Current Account 1998-2005 (USD million)
Current Account
Exports FOB
Imports FOB
Trade balance
Services balance
Income balance
Current transfers balance
-6,901 -12,487 -9,981
32,467 30,060 35,902
45,303 45,132 48,209
-12,836 -15,072 -12,307
-1,178 -1,010 -1,459
-4,599 -10,522 -4,364
61,007 81,862 95,846
66,732 87,484 98,540
-5,725 -5,622 -2,694
-3,637 -11,539 -10,543
Source: NBP, 2006
This deficit is balanced, however, by a strong position on the capital and financial
accounts. Consequently, foreign exchange reserves have been rising steadily. In 1993,
Polish official reserve assets amounted to USD 4.3 billion. Since then they have been
rising steadily, to stabilise in the late 90’s at a level of USD 27 - 29 billion. By the end of
2005, official reserve assets amounted to USD 42.6 billion (increasing by 15.7 % during
the year), corresponding to 5 months of Poland’s import payments.
III. Foreign Trade
Official Reserve Assets
USD billion
28.3 27.3 27.5 26.6 29.8
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: NBP, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
Privatisation policy aimed at completing core
ownership transformation, with the resulting public
ownership at 10 to 20 %
Most of the assets remaining to be privatised are in
the electric energy, gas, fuel & oil, steel, defence,
hard coal mining, transportation, shipbuilding,
pharmaceutical, and publishing sectors
Various privatisation methods: direct, indirect, and
based on article 19 of the Law on State Enterprises
The Agricultural Property Agency of the State
Treasury took over land from liquidated state farms
Restitution legislation still pending
Privatisation processes have been started in 5,715
state-owned enterprises
Privatisation revenue reached USD 25.5 billion
255 companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange,
capitalisation of USD 130 billion
How to Do Business in Poland
Legislative Framework
The current framework for privatisation in Poland is contained in the Law on the
Commercialisation and Privatisation of State Enterprises, passed on 30 August 1996.
This legislation came into force in April 1997. The law governs two basic privatisation
methods: indirect privatisation, also known as capital privatisation, and direct
privatisation, sometimes referred to as privatisation through liquidation.
The Mass Privatisation Programme, which aimed at spreading the benefits of ownership
changes across the whole nation is based on the Law on National Investment Funds and
their Privatisation of 30 April 1993. The Programme was launched in 1995.
Other legal regulations pertaining to this matter include the Law on the Financial
Restructuring of Banks and Enterprises of 3 February 1993, the Law on State
Enterprises of 25 September 1981, and the Law on the Formation of the Agricultural
System of 11 April, 2003.
The privatisation of the Polish economy is supervised by the Ministry of the Treasury.
There are, however, some exceptions:
The Ministry of Finance, privatising KUKE S.A. and Kopalnia Węgla Kamiennego
The Ministry of the Economy (seven coal industry companies),
The Ministry of Transport (Polish Railways and four other companies),
The Ministry of Defence, privatising Stocznia Marynarki Wojennej S.A.,
The Agricultural Property Agency, privatising state agricultural property,
The State Forests (five companies),
The Military Property Agency (ten companies),
The Military Housing Agency (three companies).
Finally, provincial governors (voivodes) supervise the privatisation of companies for
which they have been the founding body.
IV. Privatisation
Ministry of the Treasury
The Ministry of the Treasury was created on 1 October 1996 as the successor to the
Ministry of Privatisation, which had operated for a period of 5 years – from 1 October
The main functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of the Treasury include:
• the initiation of legislation,
• the keeping a record of State Treasury property,
• the exercise of ownership rights resulting from shares and stakes belonging to the
State Treasury,
• the maintenance of funding supervision,
• the registration of State Treasury representatives,
• the legal representation of the State Treasury,
• the realisation of the ownership transformation policy.
In 2002, the Minister of the Treasury authorised directors of Regional Offices of the
Ministry of the Treasury (see Appendix 15 for contact information) to grant
permissions, on his behalf, for direct privatisations of state enterprises supervised by
provincial governors.
Privatisation Revenue
Total privatisation revenues in 1991-2005 amounted to approximately USD 25.5
billion. Half of privatisation revenue has been generated by foreign investors. The
annual revenues, showing direct privatisation and indirect privatisation components
are presented on the following graph.
Privatisation Revenue 1991-2005 in USD million
7 000
6 000
5 000
4 000
3 000
2 000
1 000
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
indirect privatisation
direct privatisation
Source: Ministry of the Treasury, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2005, privatisation revenue (taking into account only the effected payments) amounted
to USD 1.19 billion, just 68 % of the envisaged figure. In 2006, the government plans
project privatisation revenue at some USD 1.7 billion (PLN 5.5 billion).
In order to ensure proper fulfilment of the annual statutory obligations (which are:
compensations, support of the social security system reform, support of defence industry
restructuring and modernisation of the Polish Army, the restitution reserve, restructuring
costs, costs of privatisation, science and technology related expenditure) privatisation
revenues should remain at the level of approximately 1 % of GDP.
Privatisation Objectives and Plans for 2006
The current national privatisation policy aims at completing core ownership
transformation processes in Poland. The resulting ownership structure of the Polish
economy should be similar to that of ‘old’ EU member states, with public ownership
at a level of 10 to 20 %.
Primary privatisation objectives are to ensure:
• development of privatised companies through the new owners and investments,
• generation of budgetary revenue,
• a balanced social development and securing employees’ interests,
• public support for privatisation operations.
The privatisation efforts of the state will focus in particular on:
• the further implementation of privatisation processes in strategic and infrastructure
• supporting restructuring processes in the so-called ‘sensitive’ sectors, specifically
in the context of adaptation to competitive conditions of the EU market,
• supporting capital market development.
Most of the state assets earmarked for privatisation are encompassed by the following
sectors: electric energy, gas, fuel & oil, steel, defence, hard coal mining,
pharmaceuticals, transportation, shipbuilding, publishing, and health resorts.
In 2006, in the electric energy generation sector, both the continuation and the launch
of privatisation processes in the remaining power plants and thermal power plants is
After the consolidation of BOT Górnictwo i Energetyka S.A. generation group is
completed, the privatisation process will follow. Privatisation of Elektrociepłownia
Zabrze SA, Elektrociepłownia Bytom SA, Elektrociepłownia Tychy S.A., and Zespół
Elektrowni Dolna Odra will continue.
IV. Privatisation
With regards to energy distribution, the government is considering a public offer of
shares of Grupa Energetyczna ENEA S.A., comprising five electric energy
distribution companies (EDCs) from western Poland. Further consolidation and
restructuring of the sector will continue, including establishing Energetyka
Podkarpacka S.A., which will take in Rzeszowski Zakład Energetyczny S.A. and
Elektrownia Stalowa Wola S.A.
In the pharmaceutical sector, a new restructuring program for Polski Holding
Farmaceutyczny S.A. is to be developed in 2006. Its privatisation is to take place in
two stages. First, a minority block of shares will be offered through the Warsaw Stock
Exchange. Upon completion of the first stage, analyses are to be conducted, including
evaluation of the impact of the above activities on the government’s policy concerning
pharmaceuticals. Subsequently, further decisions will be made in regard to offering
additional blocks of shares, and/or issuing new shares, should there be such a need.
However, the Treasury is to remain in control of the production assets.
Moreover, the sale of 85 % of shares in Centrala Farmaceutyczna Cefarm S.A. w
Warszawie and Cefarm Białystok S.A. (pharmaceutical distribution companies) is to
take place in 2006.
In the defence sector, the consolidation of companies will continue within two capital
groups (Bumar Sp. z o.o. and ARP S.A.), along with their restructuring and
privatisation. In 2006, privatisation through offering blocks of shares will take place in
thirteen companies.
The privatisation strategy for health resorts divides them into three core groups:
• health resorts excluded from privatisation,
• health resorts requiring an individual privatisation approach, with the State
Treasury retaining ownership of medicinal mineral deposits,
• health resorts which should be privatised through the offering of shares.
In 2006, the Ministry of the Treasury envisages the commencement of privatisations
in the third of the above groups of health resorts, including “Uzdrowisko Przerzeczyn”
Sp. z o.o., “Uzdrowisko Kamień Pomorski” Sp. z o.o., and Zespół Uzdrowisk
Krakowskich S.A.
Furthermore, the government’s Privatisation Lines for Treasury Assets in 2006
envisage the sale of shares in Zakłady Chemiczne Police S.A., and Zakłady Azotowe
Puławy S.A., as well as privatisation of Ruch S.A., the largest press distribution
How to Do Business in Poland
The Multi-methods Approach
From the very beginning privatisation was considered to be one of the three most
important components of the economic transformation, together with the economy’s
stabilisation and liberalisation. There were 8,453 state-owned companies registered at
the end of 1990. According to the Ministry of the Treasury, since the beginning of the
privatisation of state-owned enterprises till the end of 2005, privatisation processes
have been started in 5,715 state-owned companies. Moreover, assets of 1,654
liquidated state farms have been transferred to the Agricultural Property Stock of the
State Treasury, bringing the total number of state enterprises involved in privatisation
to 7,369. Of these, 21.4 % have been commercialised (the first stage of indirect
privatisation), 30.6 % have started direct privatisation, 25.6 % have had liquidation
procedures initiated due to their poor financial condition and the remaining 22.4 % is
accounted for by liquidated state farms.
The most characteristic feature of privatisation processes in Poland is the variety of
privatisation methods used. The idea behind this diversity is to offer methods best
suited to the size, financial situation, and importance of a given entity to be privatised.
Poland’s original contribution to privatisation is the sectoral approach. Whole sectors
or branches of industry have been analysed and strategies for their privatisation have
been devised, first by the Ministry of Privatisation and later by the Ministry of the
Treasury, once it was established. The Ministry decides which methods are best suited
for individual enterprises, what role can be played by foreign capital in the
privatisation of a given sector, and which enterprises can be offered to foreign
The legislation provides for two fundamental alternative methods of privatisation of
state-owned enterprises. The first method, indirect or capital privatisation, consists of
the ‘commercialisation’ of a state-owned enterprise or its transformation into a State
Treasury corporation, either as a joint-stock company or as a limited liability
company. The shares of the commercialised company are then offered to a third party.
This method is usually applied to large and medium-size state enterprises.
IV. Privatisation
Privatisation Results by Method at the end of 2005 (%)
Liquidation procedures initiated
Direct privatisation started
Liquidated State Farms
Source: Ministry of the Treasury, 2006
The other method is direct privatisation (‘through liquidation’), which is applied mostly
to small and medium-size state enterprises. Such liquidation is followed by the offer of
the assets (which could include the whole business) directly to third parties, either for
purchase or to lease. The assets of a company being liquidated may also be transferred to
an existing company.
The government also makes use of article 19 of the Law on State Enterprises of
25 September 1981 to put companies into private hands. This usually entails the
liquidation of a state-owned enterprise in poor financial condition, followed by the sale
of its assets to satisfy creditors. By the end of 2005, the liquidation procedure had been
started in 1,884 enterprises and by the same date the process had been completed in
1,031 enterprises (54.7 %).
Privatisation through debt – equity swaps was a form of capital privatisation, where
state-owned enterprises were transformed into limited liability companies in which
creditors were granted shares amounting to the enterprise’s debt. By 1 May 2004, only
17 state enterprises had been privatised this way. Since a lot of debt was retired during
privatisations of this type, privatisation through debt-equity swaps had a public aid
character. Therefore, as of the date of Polish accession to the EU, this form of indirect
privatisation was abandoned.
Finally, a remarkable achievement should be noted in the field of so-called ‘small
privatisation’. Hundreds of thousands of small and medium-size retail and wholesale shops,
restaurants, etc., which were previously owned by local authorities, were fairly rapidly sold.
How to Do Business in Poland
Capital Privatisation
A traditional form of capital privatisation is applied to large enterprises. The first stage
in the capital privatisation is conversion of the enterprise into a company with all
shares held by the State Treasury (commercialisation). Conversion into a joint-stock
or limited liability company with all shares held by the State Treasury provides a clear
management structure appropriate to the company’s size. Enterprises are valued
independently, prospectuses are drawn up, a subscription is held and then a final
allotment of shares is made. Accelerated privatisation may be applied to medium-size
and small enterprises, where the whole or substantial parts of an enterprise could be
sold to a single buyer.
The initiative for such a transformation may come from:
• the Minister of the Treasury, who takes the relevant decision on his own and
notifies the director of the company, its Employee Council and its founding
• the enterprise’s director and Employee Council;
• the enterprise’s founding body,
• the Regional Council,
• the manager running the enterprise on the basis of a management contract.
The newly created company assumes all the rights and liabilities of the transformed
state enterprise and, subject to certain exceptions, takes on most of the employees of
the transformed enterprise. Its opening balance sheet is the closing balance sheet of
the state enterprise and its capital is the sum of the enterprise’s original capital and
retained earnings. The charter of the company specifies how the capital is to be
divided into share capital and reserve capital. On the conclusion of the charter, the
management applies for registration of the new company, and the state enterprise is
removed from the registry of state companies.
The next step is to offer the company’s shares to private investors. Before this is done,
the Ministry of the Treasury may order a financial review of the company in order to
value its assets and to determine whether the company first requires restructuring,
particularly when there has been a time lapse between incorporation and the
presentation of the offer. The Ministry may also order an analysis of the legal status of
the company’s assets to determine if there are any conflicting claims.
There are four general methods for offering shares: public offer, negotiations initiated
by public invitation, public tender, and accepting an offer made by a shareholder
inviting other shareholders to sell their shares. Employees are eligible for up to 15 %
of the shares of their companies free of charge. These shares cannot be traded on the
Stock Exchange for a period of 2 to 3 years.
IV. Privatisation
Under certain circumstances farmers and fishermen may acquire shares on the same basis
as employees in the companies with which they have long-term contracts. State enterprises
require permission from the Minister of Finance to acquire shares in other companies.
By the end of 2005, according to the Ministry of the Treasury, 1,578 state enterprises
had been commercialised, out of which 1,561 had been transformed into single-holder
State Treasury joint-stock or limited liability companies. Out of this number, investors
acquired shares in 1,020 companies, including 512 encompassed by the Mass
Privatisation Programme.
The Ministry of the Treasury has prepared a transfer list of companies being privatised
individually and offered to foreign investors. This list provides potential investors with
some basic information on the companies that are currently being privatised by trade
sales or public offering. Initial contact by a potential investor should be with the
sector/company adviser and if none has been appointed, then with an appropriate
department of the ministry. The list is also available at the ministry’s website.
The basic criteria for selecting the investor remain as follows:
• the price for shares and terms of payment,
• investment commitments,
• the pro-export nature of the investment,
• social commitments towards employees and sub-contractors (in the case of the
food processing industry),
• environmental protection investment plans,
• accordance with Poland’s obligations towards the European Union and the OECD.
The pricing, sale and distribution of shares is subject to thorough control and
supervision. Fixing the price for each enterprise is carried out in strict compliance with
market techniques. An active anti-monopoly policy supports the competitive process and
counteracts any attempt to acquire capital control over any branch by a single investor.
Direct Privatisation
An enterprise may be privatised directly (‘through liquidation’), which is the fastest and
most popular way of privatisation. It entails the direct sale or leasing of the assets of the
liquidated enterprise. The characteristic feature of direct privatisation is that it is conducted
by the founding bodies of state enterprises by consent of the Minister of the Treasury.
The direct privatisation is decentralised. The founding bodies – 16 province governors –
play the main role in the decision-making. However, the whole process of direct
privatisation is controlled and supervised by the Ministry of the Treasury by granting its
approval for implementation of individual projects.
How to Do Business in Poland
By the end of 2005, privatisation through liquidation had been started in 2253 and
completed in 2157 enterprises. This method is devised for smaller companies. In most
cases, the privatised enterprises were sold or leased to employees and management of the
enterprise. Direct privatisation is not only popular but also very effective. Almost 96 % of
state-owned enterprises being privatised in this way have completed the process.
Direct Privatisation by Forms at the end of 2005
Sale of assets - 24.4%
Lease of the enterprise - 61,6%
Contribution of assets - 11.0%
Mixed - 3.0%
Source: Ministry of the Treasury, 2006
Direct privatisation can take several forms:
Sale of assets. All or part of the assets may be acquired using the same methods as with
the offering of shares by private local or foreign investors without any special permit.
When an enterprise is sold as a whole and the legal ownership of land and other fixed
assets under its control has been established, ‘fast-track’ privatisation may be
implemented. In such cases the pricing of the enterprise is simplified by making use,
within certain pre-set limits, of a valuation based on the book value of the enterprise and
on the annual profits. This accelerates the process leading to a sale and also considerably
reduces the cost of privatisation. An enterprise may be sold by instalments. In this case
the first instalment amounts to at least 20 % of the agreed price and the outstanding
amount plus interest must be paid within 5 years.
Contribution of assets. Assets may be contributed to an already existing company or
a company specially incorporated to receive these assets in exchange for shares. As the
State Treasury becomes a partner, it is easier to mobilise a strategic investor. The shares
acquired by the Treasury would eventually be sold in a public offer.
Employee buyout (lease of the enterprise). The enterprise is liquidated and the new
company leases the assets under a contract negotiated on behalf of the State Treasury by
the founding body of the liquidated enterprise. This contract may give the lessee an
IV. Privatisation
option to purchase. When only part of the assets is leased, the remainder may be sold or
contributed to another company. Liquidation by means of a lease is considered
appropriate for small companies and has proved to be the most popular method of direct
privatisation, accounting for approximately 62 % of direct privatisations.
Agricultural Property Agency
The Agricultural Property Agency of the State Treasury (APA) was established under the
Law on the Management of Agricultural Real Estate of the State Treasury dated
19 October 1991. APA was a trust organisation, authorised by the State Treasury to
exercise ownership rights regarding state property in agriculture and obliged to take over
all the property of liquidated state-owned farms, other agricultural real estate of the State
Treasury, as well as realty from the National Land Fund. Furthermore, by virtue of the
provisions of the Farmers’ Social Insurance Law of 20 November 1990 the Agency had
been obliged to acquire agricultural real estate for the State Treasury stock at the request of
farm owners having the right to social security pension, or disability pensions. On July 16,
2003 the Law on the Formation of Agricultural System of 11 April 2003 came into force,
transforming the Agricultural Property Agency of the State Treasury into Agricultural
Property Agency (APA). Other significant provisions of the Law stipulate, as follows:
APA has pre-emption or priority rights for buying agricultural real estate on the land
market, subject to certain limitations,
A family farm must be managed by an individual farmer and its total area can not
exceed 300 ha,
The individual farmer is defined as an owner or lessee of the family farm, managing
farm personally, having appropriate qualifications or agricultural experience, living
in the area of commune where at least one real property consisting his/her farm is
Basically, the new APA took over the Agricultural Property Agency of the State
Treasury’s tasks and its strategic objective to privatise the state’s agricultural property.
The property entrusted to the Agency forms Agricultural Property Stock of the State
Treasury (APS). Almost 80 % of APS land comes from liquidated state farms.
APA can sell the property to one purchaser if the transaction does not result in the
total area of agricultural land owned by the purchaser exceeding 500 ha. Moreover, a
separate authorisation from the APA president is required for the conclusion of sale
contract concerning real estate larger than 50 ha, as well as real estate with value
exceeding the equivalent of 2000 tons of rye, defined pursuant to provisions on
agricultural tax.
How to Do Business in Poland
In accordance with existing regulations the APA may sell or lease agricultural property
to foreigners who have obtained the required permit. By the end of 2005, the APA had
sold 1,177 ha and leased 202,525 ha of land to foreigners. During the same period,
Polish companies with a minority foreign stake purchased 41,333 ha and leased 126,688
ha of land from the Agency.
The APA performs its tasks as a state legal person in accordance with the principle of
self-financing. After the assets of a liquidated state agricultural enterprise have been
taken over, restructuring programmes determine their use or disposal. These include:
• sale;
• lease or rent;
• contribution in kind into other companies (including companies established by the
• transfer for management to the state entities without legal personality;
• transfer of management administration;
• conversion of stock.
The following table summarises APA activities up to date.
Land Taken over into APA Stock and its Redistribution by Province
as at the End of 2005 (thousand hectares)
Land taken
over into
free of charge
Land remaining in APS
of which
Source: APA, 2006
IV. Privatisation
Real estate belonging to the Agricultural Property Stock of the State Treasury may also be
transferred free of charge to territorial self-governments, the Polish Academy of Sciences,
the chambers of agriculture or the National Board of Chambers of Agriculture, state
universities, polytechnics and academies, as well as state R&D institutions. Farmland of
low quality may be transferred free of charge to the State Forests, or lie fallow.
Apart from those assets that are agriculturally productive, the State Treasury Stock
contains assets of historical or national importance, acknowledged as being part of the
cultural heritage. Assets of historical and national importance include land together with
buildings, facilities, trees, etc. These assets are often offered for sale at discounted prices
in order to facilitate their renovation.
The Agency is headed by its president. In order to perform its tasks efficiently, the APA
has set up 11 regional branches and 5 subsidiary offices. Some regional branches have
set up smaller field units.
The Agency sells or leases assets following a public open tender (auctions or bidding by
written offer). The list of APA assets offered for sale or lease, as well as announcements
regarding tenders, are posted in the relevant commune’s (gmina) office, and in the
appropriate APA regional branch, or other organisational unit. An advertisement of the
intended sale of property whose estimated value exceeds the equivalent of 10,000
quintals of rye – fixed according to the regulations on agricultural tax – must be
published in newspapers having at least region-wide circulation. The list of assets for
sale or lease is announced at least 14 days before the invitation for tender.
The Agency may also organise closed tenders addressed to a defined groups of tenderers
and may sell real estate at a price determined by law to certain categories of purchasers,
who have the right of first purchase of given pieces of real estate.
The Mass Privatisation Programme
The MPP was devised as the most appropriate and expedient way of privatising and
restructuring a large number of Poland’s state-owned enterprises, thereby accelerating
the transformation of Polish industry. Each adult Polish citizen was eligible to take part
in the MPP, which was approved by Parliament on 30 April 1993 under the Law on
National Investment Funds and was finally launched at the end of 1994. The MPP
encompassed 512 mostly medium-size companies (some 10 % of Polish industry).
As a first step, 15 National Investment Funds (NIFs) were established to hold shares in
those enterprises. Shares in each NIF were initially represented by Universal Share
Certificates (USC), which were bearer securities. Each NIF is controlled by a
How to Do Business in Poland
Supervisory Board charged with representing the interests of shareholders, who were
initially all Polish citizens holding USCs. The law requires that two-thirds of the
Supervisory Board members, including its chairman, are Polish citizens.
The distribution of the USCs started in November 1995 and by end of the distribution
period 25.8 million out of 28.3 million eligible adult Poles had picked them up. The
conversion of the USCs into NIF shares (one USC for 1 share of each of the 15 NIFs)
took place in 1997 and 1998. Since June 1997, NIF stocks are traded on the WSE.
Market consolidation processes have led to a decrease in the number of NIFs. Currently
(May 2006) there are 13 National Investment Funds.
By the end of 2005, according to the Ministry of the Treasury, out of 512 companies
participating in the NIF programme, 273 were completely privatised and the State
Treasury still supervised 173 companies. Out of these, proceedings in bankruptcy were
initiated in 83 companies and a further 7 were put into liquidation.
An institutional, strategic and private investor from abroad can participate in the MPP in
a variety of ways, for example:
• Investors can purchase and trade in NIFs’ shares.
• Financial and strategic investors may actively participate in the restructuring of
individual participating companies by purchasing their shares when they are
offered by NIFs, by providing equity or non-equity finance, by acquiring
companies entirely, or by forming joint ventures.
• Institutional investors may choose to purchase shares in individual participating
The nationalisation that took place in Poland shortly after World War II was based on
a series of nationalisation decrees, which empowered the State Treasury to take over real
estate from private owners. Since the beginning of the political and economic
transformations in Poland it has been clear that it is the country’s obligation to
compensate the owners, whose interests were violated. This need results from the basic
principles and values contained in the Polish constitution, such as the principles of
a democracy under the rule of law, of social justice, and of respect for private property.
However, the problem of re-privatisation, i.e., the restitution of nationalised property to
its original owners, has not yet been resolved, as there are no restitution regulations in
force (as of May 2006).
Parliamentary work on restitution has taken many years. There has been universal
agreement to the principle that not all nationalised property could be returned to its
original owners, either in kind or in the form of compensation. Unfortunately, that was
IV. Privatisation
where the consensus ended. Presently, there is a draft restitution law, developed by the
Ministry of the Treasury and approved by the Council of Ministers in February, 2005.
It envisages compensation amounting to 15 % of the value of the real estate lost. Real
estate located in Warsaw and abroad is to be covered by separate legislation.
Nonetheless, nationalisation decisions that were issued with no legal basis or with
infringement of the law can still be challenged on the grounds of constitutional legality.
This process started in the 1990s along with the political and economic reforms. On the
grounds of the Code of Administrative Procedure thousands of former owners have had
their property returned or have been paid compensation. Thousands of others are still
awaiting a court decision. Therefore, despite the lack of general legalisation, a process
comprising some elements of property restitution to the former owners or a payment of
compensation is in force.
Passing restitution regulations is not only a moral obligation, but also has significant
practical value, as in some cases unresolved restitution claims have been hampering the
privatisation process. The government has been retaining 5 % of the stock of privatised
companies as a ‘reserve’ to satisfy re-privatisation claims.
Capital Markets
The first Stock Exchange in Warsaw was opened on 12 May 1817. In the nineteenth
century, it was mostly bonds and other debt instruments that were traded on the Warsaw
bourse. Before the Second World War, there were seven Stock Exchanges operating in
Poland, with Warsaw accounting for more than 90 % of the total trading.
In 1989, along with the political changes, the new non-communist government began
creating a capital market structure. The new legal framework, the Act on Public Trading
in Securities and Trust Funds was adopted in March 1991, and the State Treasury
established the Warsaw Stock Exchange joint-stock company in April 1991. At the same
time, the Polish Securities Commission, with its chairman appointed by the prime
minister, was created.
Both the structure and the legal regulations of the Polish capital market were modelled
on the most modern and efficient systems used elsewhere in the world that were relevant
to Poland’s situation. Following a thorough review of several contemporary markets,
a system based on French experience was adopted and implemented.
The Securities Act of 21 August 1997, effective from 4 January 1998, facilitated the
further development of Polish capital markets. Among the changes were further
reconciliation of the Act with the regulations of the OECD and the European Union, the
How to Do Business in Poland
introduction of securities lending and borrowing mechanisms, and the definition of the
rules of underwriting.
On 21 February 1998, the Act on Investment Funds was adopted, making the creation of
new kinds of investment vehicles possible. The pension reform (see Chapter II, Pension
System) resulted in the establishment of pension funds, thus increasing the institutional
investors’ base.
Presently, the legislative framework for Stock Exchange operations is formed by the
• The Law on Public Offerings, Conditions Governing the Introduction of
Financial Instruments to Organised Trading, and Public Companies of 29 July
• The Code of Commercial Companies of 15 September 2000,
• The Law on Trading in Financial Instruments of 29 July 2005,
• The Law on Capital Market Supervision of 29 July 2005,
• The Warsaw Stock Exchange Statutes,
• The Rules and Regulations of the Warsaw Stock Exchange,
• The Rules and Regulations of the Stock Exchange Court.
The Warsaw Stock Exchange, the only securities exchange in Poland, is a non-profit
joint-stock company. Its share capital stands at PLN 42 million, divided into 60
thousand registered shares. The shares of the WSE may be purchased by banks,
brokerage houses, the State Treasury, trust fund companies, insurance companies, and
the issuers of securities approved for public trading and listed on the WSE.
The structure of the Warsaw Stock Exchange is as follows:
The General Meeting
The General Meeting is the WSE’s highest decision-making body. Its role is to put
changes to the Statutes and Rules into effect and to elect members of the Supervisory
Board. It consists of all WSE shareholders.
The Supervisory Board
The Supervisory Board controls the operation of the exchange, admits securities for
trading, and grants and recalls stock exchange membership. It consists of 12
members appointed by the General Meeting, representing the shareholders.
The Management Board
The Management Board co-ordinates the day-to-day operations of the WSE and
introduces securities to exchange trading. The Management Board consists of five
members. The President, elected by the General Meeting for a three-year term,
directs Management Board activities.
IV. Privatisation
The high standard of the regulations and operations of the Warsaw Stock Exchange
has been recognised by the international community. In October 1994, the Warsaw
Stock Exchange was admitted as a full member to the International Federation of
Stock Exchanges, presently the World Federation of Exchanges (WFE). In June 2004
the WSE became a full member of the Federation of European Securities Exchanges
WSE trading takes place on two separate markets, governed by separate rules:
• the main (regulated official) market;
• the parallel (regulated unofficial) market.
Moreover, a Plus segment has been established on the main market. The conditions
for inclusion of companies in this segment comprise not only measurable
requirements, but also certain qualitative features, such as the adoption of all corporate
governance best practices.
Similarly, a Prim segment has been created within the parallel market, with
membership requirements containing appropriate issuer-investor communication
standards, as well as the obligation to publish a wider range of financial data in
consolidated quarterly reports.
2005 was the most successful year in WSE history. As a result of the bull market,
several all-time highs were set. Equity session trading on the Polish bourse increased
substantially, reaching over PLN 175 billion, up from PLN 110 billion in 2004. This
translates roughly into USD 215 million a session, in comparison to approximately
USD 120 million a session in the previous year. Taking into account off-session
trading, the total annual turnover value for equities amounted to almost PLN 197
billion. The trade in futures almost doubled in 2005, reaching PLN 238 billion, up
from PLN 125 billion in 2004. However, stock exchange trading in bonds reached just
over PLN 5 billion, a third less than the year before.
In 2005 all the major WSE indices reached their new highest values. In the course of
the year, the WIG index set its new all-time high 45 times, while the WIG20
outperformed itself 11 times and the MIDWIG index 36 times. End of the year values
of the main WSE indices are presented in the following table.
How to Do Business in Poland
Major WSE Indices
End of the Year Index Value
Rate of Return
43.11 %
41.25 %
34.85 %
33.94 %
22.02 %
12.52 %
40.47 %
Source: WSE, 2006
The basic statistics of WSE turnover during the last year are presented in the following
two tables, which contain information on the equity and futures markets’ performance.
WSE Equity Market Trade in 2005 (PLN billion)
Change (%)
Number of listed companies
Number of newly-listed companies
Domestic companies’ market capitalisation (PLN billion)
Total market capitalisation (PLN billion)
Annual session trading (PLN billion)
Average trading per session (PLN million)
Annual off-session trading (PLN billion)
Includes block trades, invitations to sell shares, and public offerings carried through the WSE
Source: WSE, 2006
WSE Futures Market Trade in 2005 (PLN billion)
Number of series
Total turnover volume - number of contracts (thousand)
Annual trading (PLN billion)
Average trading per session (PLN million)
Open interest at the end of the year (thousand)
Change (%)
Source: WSE, 2006
The impressive dynamics of the WSE’s development are best reflected in the growing
number of companies listed and in its booming capitalisation, which has more than
quadrupled over the past four years, to reach PLN 425 billion (approximately USD 130
billion) at the end of 2005. Domestic companies accounted for PLN 308 billion. By the
end of 2005, there were 255 companies listed on the WSE, including 7 foreign ones.
This number encompassed 240 quoted in continuous trading, and the remaining 15 in
the single-price auction system.
IV. Privatisation
221 225
Capitalisation at year-end
(PLN billion)
Number of listed
Warsaw Stock Exchange - Number of Listed Companies
and Capitalisation at Year-end
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: WSE, 2006
More information on trading in shares and bonds on the WSE in 2005 is contained in
Appendices 12 and 13, respectively.
No restrictions are placed on foreign investors. Rules on taxation for foreign investors
are regulated by inter-governmental treaties on the avoidance of double taxation, or
agreements on reciprocity treatment. Such treaties have been signed with a vast
majority of OECD countries (see Appendix 6). The rule of free entry and exit exists in
Poland in terms of foreign investment. Capital gains can be repatriated without
obtaining any permission.
In 2005, based on a survey of WSE members, foreign investors’ share in the trading of
Polish companies’ stock on the WSE was estimated at 41 %. Polish individual investors
accounted for 26 % of this trade and Polish institutional investors for the remaining
33 %. Polish individual investors dominated trade on the futures market (75 %) with
Polish institutional investors accounting for 20 % of futures trading and foreign
investors accounting for just 5 %.
The sectoral structure of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange as of May
2006 is presented in the following table.
How to Do Business in Poland
WSE Main Market Sector Figures as of 11 May 2006
No. of Share in Total
companies Market Value
Light Industry
Wood & Paper
Oil & Gas
Building Materials
Electrical Engineering
Wholesale & Retail
Sector name
indicator for companies with earnings
(PLN mil) (PLN mil)
385,443 153,439
Source: WSE, 2006
The Polish Securities Commission (PSC) is the only administrative body authorised to
bring securities into public trading. An entity that wants its shares or bonds to be
publicly traded is obliged to prepare an issue prospectus. The PSC ensures that the
prospectus fulfils detailed conditions specified by law and grants permission for public
trading. The issuance of GDRs and ADRs also requires the approval of the PSC.
The PSC also exercises administrative supervision over the activities of brokerage
houses and grants permits for each specific area of a brokerage house’s activities. At the
end of 2005, there were 43 brokerage houses operating in Poland, of which 9 were bankowned and 34 independent. All securities brokers are licensed by the Polish Securities
Commission. At the end of 2005 their number reached almost 1,800.
As of 31 December 2005, there were 23 Investment Fund Corporations operating on the
Polish market, managing 190 funds. As of May 2006 there were 97 entities authorised to
distribute funds’ participation certificates, and 6 transfer agents.
IV. Privatisation
One great achievement of the WSE was to attract millions of ordinary Poles, as well
as a large number of foreign investors. This was possible in part due to a long-lasting
bull market on the bourse, but most of all it was due to fast economic growth, political
stability, and to the market’s efficiency and transparency and to the clear and
comprehensive rules which govern it.
The challenge is to complete the development of the WSE into a fully-fledged capital
market, playing an important part in the economy. Following European trends, the WSE
is preparing for some important, strategic changes, including privatisation, and
transformation from a non-profit to a profit organisation.
Finally, one should mention that there were 103 securities, including 18 stocks, 35
corporate bonds and 41 treasury bonds, listed on the regulated off-exchange market
(MTS-CeTO S.A.) in May 2006.
How to Do Business in Poland
Companies and individuals from EU and EFTA
countries – members of the European Economic
Area operate in accordance with the principles
applicable to domestic entrepreneurs
State aid for new investments compatible with the
EU public aid standards
Investment incentives in 14 Special Economic Zones
Assistance from the Polish Information and Foreign
Investment Agency and from other entities
The most important reasons for investing in Poland:
economic growth prospects, size of the market, low
labour costs
Foreign direct investment of USD 75.8 billion
Over 54 thousand companies with foreign
The most popular sectors: insurance, the car
industry, and the hotel and restaurant business
Minor Polish investments abroad
How to Do Business in Poland
Legal Considerations
As of 21 August 2004, business activities conducted by Polish residents, as well as nonresidents in Poland, are subject to the Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004 and the
Code of Commercial Companies of 15 September 2000. However, some provisions of
the previous Law on Commercial Activity of 19 November 1999 (art. 7 - 7i, concerning
registration) still apply, until 31 December 2006.
The Law on Economic Freedom defines non-residents and foreign entities (foreign
persons) as well as foreign entrepreneurs: a foreign person is a natural person residing
abroad, without Polish citizenship, a legal person with its seat (registered office) abroad,
or an organisational unit not being a legal entity but having legal capacity, with its seat
abroad; a foreign entrepreneur is defined as a foreign person running a business abroad.
Foreign persons from the EU and EFTA states – members of the European Economic
Area – may operate in Poland in accordance with the principles applicable to domestic
entrepreneurs. The same applies to citizens of other countries, who:
• received a permit for settlement in Poland, or
• received residence permit for a specified period (only certain, specified cases), or
• obtained an EC long-term residence permit for the territory of Poland, or
• obtained consent for a tolerated stay, or
• obtained refugee status in the Republic of Poland, or
• enjoy temporary protection within the territory of Poland.
Other foreign persons may conduct their operations solely (unless stated otherwise in
international agreements) in the following legal forms:
• a limited partnership (Spółka komandytowa);
• a limited joint-stock partnership (Spółka komandytowo-akcyjna);
• a limited liability company (Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością – Sp. z o.o.);
• a joint-stock company (Spółka Akcyjna – S.A.).
They may also enter into such partnerships or companies and acquire their shares.
Furthermore, foreign entrepreneurs may establish branches and representative offices.
A company registered in Poland acquires legal personality upon being entered in the
Register of Companies at the National Court Register of the Economic Court having
jurisdiction over the seat of the company that is being formed. The obligation to be
registered rests on companies operating under commercial law, state-owned enterprises,
co-operatives, and other entities, as specified in the Law on the National Court Register
V. Foreign Investment
of 20 August 1997. This also applies to natural persons undertaking business activities in
Setting up a company is one way of doing business, buying an already operating one is
another. Foreign investors may receive or acquire shares in companies already existing
in Poland. Shares may be acquired in public sales, through the Stock Exchange or, if the
company is not listed on the Stock Exchange, through individual negotiations with the
existing owners.
The Law on Economic Freedom enumerates six areas in which economic activity may
be undertaken only if an appropriate license (koncesja) is granted. These are:
• prospecting, identifying, and extracting of mineral deposits, tankless storage and
waste disposal in formations, including unused underground mining excavations;
• manufacturing and trading in arms, ammunition, or explosives as well as in
military and/or police products and technologies;
• manufacturing, processing, storing, transmitting, distributing, or trade in energy
and fuels;
• personal and property protection;
• radio and TV broadcasting;
• air transportation.
The licenses are granted for a period of no less than five and no more than fifty years,
unless the entrepreneur applies for a shorter period. Another type of license (licencja),
which is easier to obtain, is required in order to provide road or rail transportation
services. Furthermore, operating in some other areas requires a permit (zezwolenie) on
the grounds of other legislation. The Law on Economic Freedom enumerates almost
thirty such areas through direct reference to the respective laws. These include the
production of alcohol and tobacco, toxic, or poisonous substances, pharmaceuticals,
intoxicants, and radioactive materials, as well as the operation of banks, insurance
companies, brokerage houses, and casinos.
A positive decision concerning the granting of a permit depends solely on the
applicant’s compliance with the appropriate statutory conditions. This eliminates the
arbitrariness of decisions concerning the granting of permits for commercial activity.
Applying the same rules to domestic and foreign investors means that there is
no minimum value set on the contribution to be made by a foreign party (subject to
overall minimum share capital requirements for companies) and no provisions either for
the minimum or maximum percentage share of foreign participation in the equity of
a company. Nevertheless, just as in other EU countries, in rare cases a company may be
excluded from a specific field of activity when the share of foreign parties in its total
equity exceeds a certain proportion (e.g., broadcasting).
How to Do Business in Poland
According to the Polish Code of Commercial Companies, the minimum founding capital
• A limited liability company amounts to PLN 50,000 (approx. USD 15,000) and
must be fully paid up on incorporation. The minimum value of each share is PLN
50 and the minimum number of founders is one person;
• A joint-stock company amounts to PLN 500,000 (approx. USD 150,000). At least
25 % of the founding capital must be contributed on incorporation (and at least
25 % of the cash capital). The minimum nominal value of each share is PLN 0.01
and the minimum number of founders is one person. However, a joint-stock
company can not be established exclusively by a limited liability company.
For more information on how to establish the above-mentioned types of companies
please refer to Chapter X.
Contributions by a foreign investor to the company’s capital may be made in-kind, in
cash (in PLN obtained from documented sources), or in foreign currency transferred by
the foreign investor through a foreign bank. Contribution in-kind to a joint-stock
company is reviewed by court-appointed experts.
After the annual balance sheet has been approved by the shareholders (and audited if the
company is subject to a statutory audit) a foreign shareholder is entitled to transfer
abroad the whole of his share of the after tax profit. Foreign investors are also allowed to
transfer abroad proceeds from the sale of stocks and shares, and other assets or
compensations received.
Companies are free to employ whomever they may choose, including a foreign national
(subject to work permit requirements), with pay terms at the discretion of the company
(subject to minimum wage legislation). Foreign employees are allowed to buy foreign
currency for the PLN they earn in Poland and transfer the currency abroad. Alternatively,
the employer may transfer the net pay directly to the employees’ foreign bank account.
The interests and rights of foreign investors, as well as their property, are protected by
law. Poland has signed bilateral agreements on the protection and promotion of foreign
investment with a number of countries (see Appendix 7). Foreign investors are
guaranteed compensation in the case of the nationalisation or expropriation of their
property. Poland is an EU country and a member of MIGA and OECD.
Following EU regulations, special (more favourable) treatment is granted to small and
medium-size enterprises. This applies in particular to public aid measures described in
the next sub-chapters. As of 1 January 2005, pursuant to Commission
Recommendation 2003/361/EC of 6 May 2003, the category of micro, small, and
medium-size enterprises (SMEs) is defined as follows:
V. Foreign Investment
• employ fewer than 250 persons, and
• have an annual turnover not exceeding EUR 50 million, and/or
• an annual balance sheet total not exceeding EUR 43 million.
It is worth noting that in comparison to the previous definition, the financial ceilings
have been raised, thus encompassing more companies in this category. The data to
apply to the headcount of staff and the financial amounts are those relating to the
latest approved accounting period and calculated on an annual basis. They are taken
into account from the date of closure of the accounts. The amount selected for the
turnover is calculated excluding value added tax (VAT) and other indirect taxes.
Where, at the date of closure of the accounts, an enterprise finds that, on an annual
basis, it has exceeded or fallen below the above headcount or financial ceilings, this
will not result in the loss or acquisition of the status of medium-size, small or microenterprise unless those ceilings are exceeded over two consecutive accounting periods.
The headcount corresponds to the number of annual work units (AWU), i.e. the
number of persons who worked full-time within the enterprise in question or on its
behalf during the entire reference year under consideration. The work of persons who
have not worked the full year, the work of those who have worked part-time,
regardless of duration, and the work of seasonal workers are counted as fractions of
AWU. The staff consists of:
• employees;
• persons working for the enterprise being subordinated to it and deemed to be
employees under national law;
• owner-managers;
• partners engaging in regular activity in the enterprise and receiving financial
advantages from the enterprise.
Apprentices or students engaged in vocational training pursuant to an apprenticeship
or a vocational training contract are not included as staff. The duration of maternity or
parental leaves is not counted.
How to Do Business in Poland
State Aid for New Investments
It is important to note that financial investment incentives, fully compatible with the
EU legislation besides the exceptions granted to Poland within the framework of
transition periods (e.g. regulations concerning Special Economic Zones in the
following sub-chapter) come from many sources and that there is no specific single
act which regulates granting aid to investors.
As of the date of Poland’s accession to the European Union (1 May 2004) the grounds
for allowing public aid in Poland are the same as in other EU countries. These grounds
are laid out in art. 36, art. 73, art. 86-89 and art. 296 of the European Treaty. The local
legal framework is formed by the Law on Public Aid Procedure of 30 April 2004 and
the Law on Financial Assistance for Investments, passed by the Parliament on 20 March
2002. This law was substantially changed by the aforementioned Law on Public Aid
Procedure, due to Poland’s EU membership requiring conformity with the EU public aid
policy. The public aid is monitored by the president of the Office for Competition and
Consumer Protection.
Basically, investors in Poland can benefit from regional aid, sectoral aid for
investments in sensitive sectors, excluded from the regulations of the Law on Financial
Assistance for Investments, and horizontal aid. Horizontal aid schemes provide for
further assistance, over the limits of regional aid, in case of specific projects, such as
projects in R&D, or environmental protection.
The Law on Financial Assistance for Investments defines the basis for, forms of, and
particular conditions for granting regional aid to companies operating in Poland. It does
not apply to financial assistance for entrepreneurs operating in the following sectors:
• synthetic fibres;
• coal mining;
• the iron and steel industry;
• shipbuilding;
• fishing;
• production, processing and trade in agricultural products listed in Enclosure 1 to
the European Treaty.
According to the above mentioned law, financial assistance for new investments may be
granted to an entrepreneur in the following cases:
• the value of the new investment equals at least EUR 10 million;
• the value of the new investment equals at least EUR 500 thousand and the
investment pertains to the development or modernisation of an existing company
and is connected with maintaining at least 100 jobs for at least 5 years;
• the new investment results in the creation of at least 20 jobs for at least 5 years;
V. Foreign Investment
the new investment introduces a technological innovation;
the new investment has a favourable environmental impact;
the new investment is located in an industrial, or technology park.
Financial assistance for a projected investment may be granted to an entrepreneur if, in
addition to one of the above, the investment meets all of the following criteria:
• the entrepreneur’s own financing equals at least 25 % of the investment outlay;
• economic activity resulting from the assisted investment will be carried out for at
least five years from the investment’s completion;
• if financial assistance is earmarked for creating new jobs, the newly created jobs
are to be maintained for at least five years from the investment’s completion;
• application for financial assistance of a new investment is submitted before the
investment begins.
Financial assistance to entrepreneurs embarking on new investments can be granted in
various forms and amounts, defined in art. 5 and 6 of the law. It is granted by the
Minister of the Economy, upon reviewing the following general criteria:
• location of the new investment;
• value of the new investment;
• employment;
• impact of the new investment on the environment;
• impact of the new investment on the regional economic development;
• innovativeness of technology applied in the new investment to produce goods
and/or provide services;
• the new investment’s conformity with directions acknowledged as priorities.
The maximum amount of financial assistance granted to entrepreneurs basically depends
on the sector, location of the investment, and size of the company applying for assistance.
The state assistance is limited to 50 % of either eligible investment outlays, or the twoyear labour costs of newly hired employees (whichever is higher), except in:
• Warsaw and Poznań (30 % limit), and
• Gdańsk-Sopot-Gdynia, Cracow and Wrocław (40 %).
A higher ratio (+15 %) applies to small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), bringing the
public aid ceiling up to 65 % of the investment. However, this higher ratio does not apply
to companies operating in the transportation sector. On the other hand, the assistance limits
for the car industry and for large investments (over EUR 50 million) are lower.
It is also worth mentioning that there are about one hundred assistance programs of
diverse scopes and amounts offered by various authorities. The up to date list of these
programs is available at the website of the Office for Competition and Consumer
How to Do Business in Poland
R&D Support
Industrial research projects and pre-competitive developments conducted by companies
and groups of companies may benefit from public aid (subsidies) on the grounds of the
Law on the Principles for Financing Science of 8 October 2004 and Commission
Regulation (EC) No 364/2004 of 25 February 2004 amending Regulation (EC) No
70/2001 as regards the extension of its scope to include aid for research and
development. The latter regulation defines industrial research and pre-competitive
development, as follows:
• industrial research means planned research or critical investigation aimed at the
acquisition of new knowledge, the objective being that such knowledge may be
useful in developing new products, processes or services or in bringing about a
significant improvement in existing products, processes or services;
• pre-competitive development means the shaping of the results of industrial research
into a plan, arrangement or design for new, altered or improved products, processes
or services, whether they are intended to be sold or used, including the creation of
an initial prototype which could not be used commercially. This may also include
the conceptual formulation and design of other products, processes or services and
initial demonstration projects or pilot projects, provided that such projects cannot
be converted or used for industrial applications or commercial exploitation.
However, pre-competitive development does not include the routine or periodic changes
made to products, production lines, manufacturing processes, existing services and other
operations in progress, even if such changes may represent improvements.
Maximum public aid, as percentage of eligible costs, amounts to:
• 50 % for industrial research, 60 % in the case of SMEs, and 70 % in the case of
SMEs applying jointly with a R&D institution;
• 25 % for pre-competitive development, 35 % in case of SMEs, and 45 % in case of
SMEs applying jointly with a R&D institution.
Eligible costs are defined as follows:
• personnel costs (researchers, technicians and other supporting staff to the extent
they are employed on the research project);
• costs of instruments and equipment to the extent and for the duration they are used
for the research project. If such instruments and equipment are not used for their
full life for the research project, only the depreciation costs corresponding to the
life of the research project, as calculated on the basis of good accounting practice,
are considered eligible;
• costs for buildings and land, to the extent and for the duration they are used for the
research project. With regard to buildings, only the depreciation costs
corresponding to the life of the research project, as calculated on the basis of good
V. Foreign Investment
accounting practice, are considered as eligible. For land, costs of commercial
transfer or actually incurred capital costs are eligible;
• costs of consultancy and equivalent services used exclusively for the research
activity, including research, technical knowledge and patents bought or licensed
from outside sources at market prices, where the transaction has been carried out at
arm's length and there is no element of collusion involved. These costs are only
considered eligible up to 70 % of total eligible project costs;
• additional overheads incurred directly as a result of the research project;
• other operating expenses, including costs of materials, supplies and similar
products incurred directly as a result of the research activity.
Applications for co-financing industrial research projects and pre-competitive
developments are to be submitted to the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The
application form and more specific information (in Polish), including selection criteria,
can be found at the ministry’s website.
Special Economic Zones
The Law on Special Economic Zones of 20 October 1994 created the grounds for
establishing and operating Special Economic Zones (SSE). It provided the investors
operating in the zones with various incentives and tax breaks. The most important ones
included a partial or a complete exemption from corporate income tax on revenue
coming from business operations carried out in a given zone, and counting some part of
investment expenses as an income-generating cost.
The law specifies the aims of Special Economic Zones and how to establish them, the
rules and conditions applying to investments within the zones, and the benefits for
investors. All investors who started business operations in SSEs before the end of 2000
are subject to the provisions applicable till then. Those who started business operations
in 2001 or later are subject to the provisions of the amended Law of 16 November 2000
and the Public Aid Law of 30 June 2000, the latter having been replaced by the Law on
Public Aid Procedure of 30 April 2004.
An investor, in order to take advantage of regional assistance has to obtain a permit for
conducting business operations in a zone and must first meet its terms and conditions.
The permit is granted by the zone’s management (see Appendix 21 for the list of Special
Economic Zones) through a tender or through negotiations undertaken on the basis of
a public invitation. Such a permit specifies a field of activity, the size of the investment,
and future employment.
How to Do Business in Poland
Procedures for obtaining a permit vary from one zone to another, however a typical
procedure involves the following steps:
• the investor contacts the SSE’s management, gathering information on investment
terms and conditions and available locations;
• the investor visits the SSE, defining possible locations, submitting a formal letter of
intent and/or preliminary application/offer;
• the SSE’s management analyses and evaluates the preliminary offer, the land plot is
• further negotiations are carried out;
• the SSE’s management announces a tender concerning the permit and finalises its
terms of reference;
• the tender procedure takes place, investors purchase the terms of reference, pay the
tender deposit and submit their tenders, which are subsequently opened and
evaluated by the tender commission and the winning bidder is selected;
• the SSE’s management grants the permit to the winning bidder.
Permits are not granted and public assistance is not offered for some types of business
activity. These include: manufacturing of explosives, production of tobacco products,
bottling and processing of spirits and other alcoholic beverages, processing of engine
fuels, running game centres, offering services connected with the installation, repair, or
maintenance of machinery and equipment used to carry out business operations in the
zone, certain types of construction services, services connected with retail and wholesale
trade, repair of motor vehicles and household and personal-use articles, hotel and
catering services, financial mediation services, services connected with real estate,
renting, education and business operations, services in the area of public administration,
national defence, obligatory social insurance, education, health care and social welfare,
municipal services, and some licensed business activities. The exclusions are defined for
each SSE separately in the decree of the Council of Ministers concerning particular SSE.
Regional assistance in SSEs is offered in the form of income tax exemptions. The
amount of state aid available is calculated either on the basis of eligible expenditure, or
on the basis of two-year employment costs of the newly employed personnel, multiplied
by the maximum intensity of the aid. However, in the latter case it can not exceed EUR
4000 per job created.
Maximum assistance is offered in all the zones, except for the Cracow Technological
Park. Generally speaking, the value of assistance may not exceed 50 % of the initial
investment outlays, or 50 % of two years’ labour costs. To qualify for assistance based
on the amount of initial investment outlays, these outlays must equal at least EUR
100,000. More advantageous treatment is offered to small and medium-size companies.
In this case, the maximum value of public assistance is increased to 65 %. In the above
V. Foreign Investment
mentioned Cracow SSE, the maximum value of assistance amounts to 40 % in the case
of large companies, and 55 % in the case of small and medium-size companies.
Euro-Park Mielec was the first Special Economic Zone established. By the end of 1998
there were 17 Special Economic Zones in Poland. Since two of them did not manage to
attract any investors, they were shut down in 2001. Moreover, two SSEs (SSE Tczew
and SSE śarnowiec) merged to form the Pomorska SSE in 2001.
Currently there are 14 SSEs encompassing an area of 7,558 hectares (as of 31 December
2005), with an additional 442 hectares available for large investments (over EUR 40
million, or over 500 jobs). The zones will be in operation till 2015-2017.
The following table summarises the effects of the operations of the 14 SSEs in Poland in
terms of investment, employment, and the number of permits as of 31 December 2005.
Results of Operations in SSEs
Kamiennogórska SSE
Katowicka SSE
Kostrzyńsko-Słubicka SSE
Krakowska SSE
Legnicka SSE
Łódzka SSE
Mielecka SSE
Pomorska SSE
Słupska SSE
Starachowicka SSE
Suwalska SSE
Tarnobrzeska SSE
Wałbrzyska SSE
Warmińsko-Mazurska SSE
issued in
(PLN million)
% of total
investments Employment
in SSEs
Source: Ministry of the Economy, 2006
Considering both the legislation and the practical results up to date, it must be noted that
conducting business in special economic zones in Poland has proven to be very
advantageous for investors. Poland’s accession to the European Union significantly
accelerated foreign direct investments in SSEs, which attracted 34 large projects in
2005. The most important of these included investments by LG Electronics Mława,
which created 2,150 new jobs, Johnson Controls (909 jobs), and MAN Trucks (650
jobs). In terms of investment value, the largest project of 2005 came from Michelin
Polska (523 jobs and PLN 982.2 million invested).
How to Do Business in Poland
By the end of 2005, companies operating in Polish SSEs invested almost PLN 26 billion
and employed over 112,000 persons. In 2005, 175 permits were issued (in comparison to
98 in 2004), indicating a growing interest in starting up activities in Polish SSEs.
Some incentives may differ from zone to zone, especially those regarding local taxes
and services offered to investors by the zones’ managing companies. Therefore,
a detailed knowledge of the regulations regarding the particular zone is essential in order
to make the most of the incentives offered. Generally, apart from tax exemptions
(corporate income tax, local taxes) investors benefit from free assistance with the red
tape, as well as from acquiring developed land for investment purposes at competitive
Special Economic Zones represented one of the toughest issues in Poland’s accession
negotiations with the European Union. The European Commission accepted the state aid
measures applied as of 1 January 2001, but could not accept the extensive investment
privileges granted to companies investing in the zones on the grounds of the old
regulations (i.e., those from before 2001), which the SSEs’ investors were naturally
reluctant to give up. Finally, in December 2002, at the end of the accession negotiations
the following compromise was negotiated:
• a transition period (i.e., respecting the acquired rights) for small enterprises, till the
end of 2011, and for medium-size enterprises till the end of 2010;
• for big enterprises that had obtained their permits by the end of 1999, the
maximum state aid amounts to 75 % of investment costs, and for permits issued in
2000, 50 % of investment costs;
• for enterprises in the automotive industry the maximum state aid amounts to 30 %
of investment costs.
The above provisions are part of the Accession Treaty.
Institutional Structure for Foreign Direct Investments
Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency (PAIiIZ) was established in June
2003 through a merger of Polish Agency for Foreign Investment (PAIZ S.A.) and
Polish Information Agency (PAI S.A.). It took over the responsibilities of both
institutions. The Agency’s role is to stimulate the inflow of foreign direct investment
into Poland, to provide comprehensive services to foreign investors in Poland, to offer
individually-tailored information about the Polish economy and to support exports by
promoting a positive image of Polish goods and services. PAIiIZ is also responsible
for general economic promotion of Poland abroad.
V. Foreign Investment
The agency acts as an intermediary, serving individual and corporate foreign
investors. PAIiIZ offers foreign companies its know-how and helps them to establish
contacts with government institutions and the business community. The range of
services includes:
• quick and tailored information on the economic and legal environment in Poland;
• help in identifying reliable Polish partners and the most convenient locations for
business activities;
• facilitating the initial stages of the investment process;
• guidance through all the formal procedures by handling contacts with authorities
on both central and local levels;
• updated publications, including papers regarding foreign investments, in-depth
analyses of particular sectors of the Polish economy, and others.
PAIiIZ offers a wide range of information, advice, and guidance services to prospective
foreign investors free of charge.
There are several state entities responsible for the privatisation of the Polish economy,
and thus dealing with foreign investors taking part in it. Naturally, the most important of
these entities is the Ministry of the Treasury; another, dealing with agricultural property,
is the Agricultural Property Agency (APA). Both of these are described in Chapter IV.
In addition, the Ministry of Transport is in charge of the privatisation of Polish
Railways, and Nafta Polska S.A. (a state corporation) leads the privatisation of the oil
and heavy chemistry sectors.
Quite often potential foreign investors abroad first contact the Polish commercial
counsellor’s offices and the economic divisions of Polish embassies. These can facilitate
initial contacts with Polish counterparts, as well as provide some very useful economic
data and information.
To some extent, the promotion of foreign investment in Poland is also carried out by the
Polish Chamber of Commerce and other sectoral and bilateral chambers.
The Warsaw Office of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO), which offers its assistance to individual potential foreign investors, also plays
an important role in the promotion of foreign direct investment. By opening its
Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Warsaw in 1983, UNIDO became one
of the first international organisations to establish close relations with Poland.
The UNIDO Office in Warsaw has been very active in attracting foreign investors to
Poland. Already in the late 1980s it was organising International Investors’ Forums,
which enabled the international business and financial community to get acquainted with
the investment environment and opportunities in Poland.
How to Do Business in Poland
For further information on UNIDO’s current activities, and especially on UNIDO’s
Warsaw Office, please refer to Chapter II, the sub-chapter on UNIDO and its activities
in Poland.
Why Invest in Poland?
The high inflow of foreign direct investments is a clear proof of the country’s
investment rating in the eyes of foreign entrepreneurs. Sixteen years after the
introduction of successful economic reforms, Poland remains the leader in Central and
Eastern Europe in terms of attracting FDI.
Furthermore, a global awareness and recognition of foreign direct investment
opportunities in Poland is growing. This is visibly reflected in various rankings of the
most attractive investment target countries. According to the latest FDI Confidence
Index, an annual survey of executives from the world's largest companies conducted
by global management consulting firm A.T. Kearney, Poland is ranked as the fifth
most favoured investment location (second in Europe).
Poland enjoys the attention of foreign investors for various reasons. The features that
particularly appeal to foreign entrepreneurs include:
continued, stable, and fast economic growth,
the size of the Polish market of 38.2 million inhabitants, 40 % more than the
Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary put together,
EU membership as of 1 May 2004, providing a market of 460 million
consumers, as well as assuring a more transparent and predictable business
ease of entry and of doing business,
a productive, well motivated, highly skilled, and relatively cheap labour force,
competitive operational costs, such as land and construction and utility costs,
already established industrial clusters in the automotive and home appliance
sectors, with others taking shape,
Poland’s location in the heart of Europe, a very good ‘bridging position’
assuring easy access of goods manufactured in Poland both to other EU
countries and to Eastern markets,
the success of foreign companies that have already entered the market since the
early 1990s, thus encouraging others,
specific investment incentives,
the support of and positive appraisals from international institutions, such as
the IMF and the World Bank.
V. Foreign Investment
For more information on various kinds of tax and non-tax incentives, available to
foreign and domestic entities alike, please refer to the sub-chapter “Special Economic
Zones” and “State Aid for New Investments”. Economic development perspectives
are further described in Chapter II, sub-chapter “Outlook for 2006 and Beyond”.
What the Investors Say
The areas of foreign investment in Poland are just as diversified as the Polish economy,
although investors’ opinions tend to be quite similar, regardless of the sector or their
country of origin. Let’s take a look at a few examples, collected by PAIiIZ.
General Motors decided to make one of the largest ever foreign investments in Poland. The new
Opel Polska factory located in Gliwice was opened in October 1998. It is to produce 150,000
cars a year. With an investment of USD 360 million at the end of 1998, it is in the ‘top twenty’
in PAIZ ranking of the largest foreign investors in Poland. At the end of 1998 the factory
employed approximately 1200 people. After reaching full production capacity, employment
will grow to almost 3000.
General Motors’ representatives say that the plant will make it possible to enhance Opel’s
presence on Central and Eastern European markets. They revealed that the decision to invest in
Poland had been a result of a comprehensive site selection study, which had reviewed different
locations in Central Europe, including Hungary and the Czech Republic and others and 75
different locations in Poland.
As a result of this comprehensive study, they decided to locate the new facility in Gliwice,
based mainly on the excellent support they had received from the government, the infrastructure
that would be available, the benefits of locating in the Special Economic Zone, and, very
importantly, the large component suppliers’ base that was available in the Gliwice area.
“Motorola Global Software Group selected Kraków, Poland as the site for its first European
software development centre after reviewing numerous sites on the continent.
It based its selection on the availability of highly qualified talent, excellent universities, as well
as the positive attitude and assistance of national and local authorities. Since its establishment
the Kraków software centre has become one of Motorola’s premier software development
facilities and has achieved a best-in-class rating, SEI Level 5, from the Software Engineering
Institute of the United States, an authority on software quality.
With Poland’s entrance into the EU, Motorola believes the Kraków centre will play an even
more important role in the company’s software”. (Ryszard Łada, Chairman of the Board,
Motorola Polska Sp. z o.o.)
How to Do Business in Poland
“As a leading provider of petrol and lubricants, naturally, BP Amoco wants to be where our
customers are. Poland is definitely such a place. With almost forty million people, Poland offers
a major domestic market, and excellent opportunities to expand the sales of our products.
Moreover, the relatively young Polish population means a growing customer base. And they are
buying more cars every year! Beyond that, the country is located at a very centre of Europe, on
the crossroads between East and West, North and South. This is especially important for a
company that serves transportation.
Another thing that drew us to Poland was the labour force. Not only is the Polish workforce
large, young and competitive in terms of labour costs, but potential employees also boast high
levels of technical skills, good work habits and an uncommon degree of flexibility, and the best
of them work for firms like BP Amoco.
Then there is the new Poland itself. Many people refer to Poland as Europe’s tiger economy,
because of its extremely rapid and sustained economic development. This is a unique business
opportunity. After the long years of neglect, the infrastructure is developing rapidly,
telecommunication gets better by the day. Old roads are being upgraded and new roads built at
a rapid rate. Investing in Poland exemplifies a classic ground floor opportunity”. (W. Heydel,
Business Development Director, BP Poland).
“The decision of IKEA to invest in Poland was influenced by a few factors:
• Our long-term co-operation,
• Well-educated workforce and long traditions in furniture production,
• Low labour costs,
• The market size and its considerable potential,
• The entrepreneurial spirit of the Poles and their willingness to learn, develop and raise
their qualifications.
Poland has other advantages, significant for IKEA:
• Geographical location, facilitating both export of products and import of raw materials,
• Large internal market.
Poland ’s accession to the EU can bring even more benefits for the development of IKEA
operations in Poland, with regard to:
• An increased dynamics of economic growth,
• The easier and more efficient flow of goods and accurate supplies thanks to lack of border
• The opportunity to implement long-awaited infrastructure investments, which in turn can
create new jobs and improve Poland ’s economic efficiency”.
(Jan Musiolik, Director General, IKEA Polska Group.)
“Eurocash entered the Polish market in 1995. Then, as now, the main drivers to our investment
were the size of the market and the excellent growth prospects. The political stability and the
economic growth generate an excellent investment climate. We currently employ 1,200 people
directly in this country. Overall, the human resources meet our requirements: people have no
V. Foreign Investment
problem with learning a foreign language and are proud to work for a foreign company.
Moreover, personally, I was very much surprised with the quality of life Poland offers”. This is
an opinion of Luis Amaral, Country Manager for Eurocash JMB Poland.
„Poland - as one of the fastest growing markets in Europe - represents a crucial geographic
location for Whirlpool’s European strategy, offering significant potential for the development of
our regional operations and growth of our business. From the European business perspective
Poland is a very convenient place for investment. It is situated between the highly developed
Western European countries and Eastern Europe with such growing markets as Russia,
Ukraine. This geographic location creates a number of opportunities, attracts investment from
the Western Europe as well as from the US and Asia. It facilitates also the logistics activities
related to the export of goods to all locations in Europe and to countries outside of Europe.
Whirlpool Corporation took over Polar, the Wrocław home appliance producer, in 2002. In
2005 Whirlpool invested again in this city opening a new Cooking Factory and a logistics
centre. This new cooking production line is a symbol of our ongoing commitment in the
Wrocław area, it further strengthens Whirlpool’s position in Poland and provides new
opportunities to serve consumers in a variety of markets throughout Europe. Whirlpool also
further develops its technology centre of excellence and prototyping shop in Wrocław. Their
significance continuously grows and engineers who work here design products not only for the
Wrocław site but also for the needs of the whole Corporation.
Employees' high educational level, the internationally regarded university base in Wrocław,
central location of the city in Europe, investment incentives offered by the Polish government
and strong support of local authorities, were all convincing reasons to invest in Wrocław.
Our investment in Wrocław is another milestone in the Whirlpool’s long-standing presence in
Poland stretching back to 1993. Whirlpool was one of the first companies that decided to invest
in Poland. In the past years many foreign companies established their seats and production
facilities in Poland. However, with a growing number of investors, their needs are changing.
The positive effect of investing is followed by the necessity to cope with higher demands which
result from the increasing competitiveness”. (Artur Wojciechowski, Chairman of the
Management Board, Polar S.A. / Whirlpool Wrocław).
“Toyota Motor Manufacturing Poland is proud to be a company which is involved in building
the new Polish economy. Toyota will invest EUR 400 million in Wałbrzych by 2005 and
employ 1,700 people. Our goal is to create an efficient and environmentally friendly factory
producing transmissions and engines, capable of competing with other units of our company.
We are on the right track to achieve this goal thanks to our employees’ involvement and good
cooperation with the local authorities and Polish government. We appreciate the positive
approach to Toyota's investments in Poland. In return TMMP would like to be a good member
of the local community”. (Yutaka Miyamoto, President, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Poland
Sp. z o.o.).
How to Do Business in Poland
“The following factors decided about Matsushita taking the decision to invest in Poland:
• The socio-economic transformations after 1989,
• The resources of good quality zinc – the key raw material for our production,
• The potential of qualified local staff,
• The favourable geographical location – access to the markets of all the sides of Europe, the
facility of logistics solutions,
• The perspectives of a future potential of the Central Eastern Europe markets,
• The ethnic and religious homogeneity of the Polish nation,
Poland ’s advantages relevant with regard to the type of the company ’s activity are:
• The zinc deposits,
• The geographical location in the centre of Europe,
• The level of personnel: the education of experts, engineers and managers, the experience
and good qualifications of mechanics,
• The constantly improving quality of local (Polish) suppliers,
• The large and developing domestic market,
• The country’s constant development (changes in regulations, infrastructure, society’s wealth
and education, technological progress).
The company’s development perspectives, in the context of Poland’s EU accession are good,
with regard to the following:
• The free movement of goods (no custom barriers for purchase and sale within the EU),
• Legal regulations fully harmonised with the community law (less legal barriers),
• No need to commit resources for VAT (which used to be deducted after payment and no
longer exists since 1 May 2004),
• Lower tariff rates for raw materials and components for battery production after the
• Poland, as one of the 25 EU members, will be able to influence the regulations concerning
the market at which Matsushita Battery operates”.
(Toshiaki Kimura, President, Matsushita Battery Poland S.A.).
V. Foreign Investment
Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is one of the key factors contributing to the long-term
economic development. It increases employment, raises productivity, assists in the
transfer of skills and technology and boosts foreign trade operations. It is important to
note that one-third of global trade is already intra-firm trade and that its share
continues to increase. Therefore, countries at all levels of economic development
strive to leverage FDI for its benefits. Poland is arguably the most successful at this in
Central and Eastern Europe.
According to the OECD, Poland’s foreign direct investment stock amounted to USD
109 million in 1990. The National Bank of Poland (NBP) estimates that from the
beginning of 1991 to the end of 2005, foreign businesses invested directly a total of over
USD 75.7 billion in Poland, bringing the total foreign direct investment stock to USD
75.8 billion at the end of 2005.
Foreign Direct Investment in Poland in million USD (1991-2005)
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: NBP, OECD 2006
The year 2004 witnessed a record-breaking amount of USD 12.87 billion of FDI inflow
to Poland and once again proved that Poland remains a very attractive target country for
foreign investors. In 2005 the inflow of foreign direct investments to Poland reached
USD 7.72 billion, still a respectable amount, but 40 % less in comparison to the previous
How to Do Business in Poland
An important feature of the foreign investment process in Poland is that companies
already well established in Poland usually reinvest most of the profits generated in this
country to support and develop local operations. Increasingly, more foreign companies
are choosing a green-field investment instead of buying into existing Polish companies.
Green-field investment often takes the modified form of buying or leasing land and
buildings and just installing machinery and equipment. This is sometimes called ‘brownfield’ investment. This approach is due to the abundance of land with unused buildings
in Poland.
The following table presents the FDI inflow to Poland during the last two years, with an
indication of investment components.
Foreign Direct Investment Inflow in 2004-2005
FDI inflow components (USD million)
Stock / Shares Reinvested earnings Other capital
Source: NBP, 2006
It is worth to note that reinvested earnings accounted for some 50 % of annual values in
both years. In 2005, a positive balance of inter-company loans increased the FDI
inflow by almost USD 1.5 billion, while in 2004 this balance was negative and
amounted to USD 0.9 billion.
In terms of foreign direct investment stock, Poland remains the regional leader. On the
other hand, when considering the size of the population, with under USD 2,000 of
foreign direct investment per capita, Poland lags behind. By comparison, foreign direct
investment per capita in the Czech Republic and Hungary is approximately twice as
The dynamic development of foreign investment in Poland is well reflected by an
increase in the number of commercial companies with foreign capital (CCFC), as
presented in the following table.
V. Foreign Investment
Commercial Companies with Foreign Capital
Commercial Companies with
Foreign Capital
Share of Commercial Companies with
Foreign Capital in the Total Number of
Companies in Poland* (%)
excluding enterprises run by natural persons and civil partnerships
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
As of the end of 2005, the number of commercial companies with foreign capital set up
in the country surpassed 54,300, increasing by 5.5 % during the year. The total number
of commercial companies in Poland reached 230,588, a 4.7 % increase over 2004.
The share of CCFC in the number of commercial companies in the insurance business
(49.3 % – including pension insurance, excluding social security), automotive industry
(46.5 %), and hotel and restaurant business (33.3 %) was especially high, as illustrated
on the following graph.
How to Do Business in Poland
Share of Commercial Companies with Foreign Capital in the Number of Commercial
Companies in Selected Sectors and Branches
Automotive industry
Hotels and restaurants
Agriculture, hunting & forestry
Rubber & plastic products
Chemical products
Trade and repairs
Transport, storage & communications
Quarrying and mining
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
Data concerning 2005 FDI values by country and by industrial sector has not been
available at the time of publishing. It is to be released by the NBP in its annual report
Zagraniczne inwestycje bezpośrednie w Polsce w 2005 roku (Foreign Direct Investments
in Poland in 2005) to be published in December 2006. However, the sector breakdowns
of the number of CCFC and of their share in the number of commercial companies also
reflect, to some extent, the relative attractiveness of individual sectors. Furthermore,
foreign investments in banking and in insurance are described in respective sub-chapters
of Chapter II.
Commercial Companies with Foreign Capital by Sector
Agriculture, hunting & forestry
Real estate and business services
Trade and repairs
Transport, storage & communications
Hotels and restaurants
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
V. Foreign Investment
The importance of foreign companies for the Polish economy arises from the fact that
these companies not only create new jobs, but through the introduction of modern
technologies and management techniques, they achieve much higher operational
efficiency. This is reflected, for example, in their labour productivity.
The Polish economy has a high capacity for the absorption of foreign capital and it is
hoped that over the next few years, foreign investment in Poland will continue to grow.
In particular, an increase in the USA’s direct investments is anticipated, due to the offset agreement concluded for the purchase of fighter planes for the Polish Army.
Moreover, as Poland joined the EU in 2004, more direct investments from these
countries are expected as well.
However, even though Poland remains the regional leader in terms of foreign direct
investment stock, 2004 and 2005 indicated that foreign investors often prefer other
countries in the region, especially the Czech Republic and Hungary. In the opinion of
some foreign managers, these countries, albeit with smaller internal markets, offer better
incentives, including a more efficient legal and institutional framework.
Finally, it is worth noting that Polish companies are also investing abroad, although on a
very small scale so far. Nevertheless, their foreign direct investments have been
increasing during the past few years. According to NBP estimates, Polish FDI amounted
to approximately USD 1.5 billion in 2005, as compared to USD 0.8 billion in 2004. For
more information on Polish foreign direct investments, please refer to the next section.
Polish Direct Investment Abroad
The export of capital has been the fastest growing segment of international economic
co-operation in recent years. The growth in importance of international capital flows
has been particularly pronounced in the last decade, when the annual growth of
foreign direct investments in the world was greater than the growth of world trade.
The value of the foreign production of transnational corporations grew considerably
faster than the value of their exports.
The growing internationalisation of production and services is a way of fighting
against ever-tougher competitors to secure markets for one’s own products and
services. More and more often it turns out that an effective way to compete on foreign
markets is to locate one’s production or service-related activities there. In order to face
the growing competition, Polish companies, even if their means are limited, embark
on the conquest of those markets where they enjoy a competitive advantage over their
How to Do Business in Poland
rivals.* These are the markets of East-Central European countries, Poland's closest
neighbours. Unfortunately, it is only to a very limited extent that the Polish economy
is engaged in the global internationalisation process. This is indicated both by
Poland’s small share in the world’s trade and by its limited foreign direct investments,
in comparison to other countries.
Polish FDI in 1995-2005 (USD million)
World total
600,658 1,186,838 721,501 652,181 616,923 730,257
Share (%)
In 2004, according to NBP, the outflow of the Polish FDI amounted to USD 778 million. Data
contained in the WIR 2006 will most certainly be revised in the report for the following year.
Source: World Investment Report, United Nations, 2001; 2002; 2003; 2004; and 2005.
NBP, Poland: Balance of Payments 2006.
Poland is a traditional net recipient of foreign direct investment. Polish foreign direct
investment in 1995-2004 amounted to a mere 1.4 % of the FDI flowing into Poland
during the same period.
In 2001, for the first time, the value of Polish FDI abroad decreased, which means that
the value of investments withdrawn was greater than the value of investments newly
made. The withdrawal of Polish foreign direct investments was related to the sale of
USD 70 million worth of stock and shares held in foreign companies by Polish direct
investors, and to the repayment of loans by foreign firms to Polish direct investors, in
the amount of USD 50 million. Both the sale of stock and the repayment of loans
arose mainly from the reduction of direct investments abroad by Polish banks.
For further information concerning Polish companies and their business activity abroad, see:
K. Studzińska, ‘Konkurencyjność polskich przedsiębiorstw w warunkach globalizacji (na
przykładzie Toruńskich Zakładów Materiałów Opatrunkowych S.A.),’ in: Bezpośrednie
inwestycje zagraniczne w podnoszeniu konkurencyjności polskiej gospodarki, W. Karaszewski,
Ed., Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń, 2005.
V. Foreign Investment
FDI Outflow by type in 1995-2004 (USD million)
FDI outflow,
of which:
- acquisition of stock and shares and
non-cash contributions
- conversion of loans and dividends
n. a.
into shares
- re-invested profits (net)*
- investor loans
Until 1996, reinvested profits did not include balance sheet losses.
Source: "Balance of payments on the basis of transactions in the years 1998-2002", NBP;
"Polskie inwestycje bezpośrednie za granicą w 2003roku”, NBP, 2004.
In 2004, the outflow of Polish FDI abroad was estimated at USD 778 million, USD
584 million more than in 2003. The countries with the largest amount of Polish
investments were: Switzerland (USD 238 million), Netherlands (USD 180 million),
and Germany (USD 106 million).
According to the National Bank of Poland, in 2005 the largest outflow of Polish
capital in the form of FDI was reached. The cause of such a high level of capital
outflow was the increase of purchases of stock and shares in companies whose
headquarters were located abroad and the growth of loans granted by Polish
entrepreneurs to companies in which they had invested directly.
At the end of 2004, the total value of Polish FDI abroad amounted to USD 3,221
million, which included foreign shares held by Polish banking, non-governmental, and
non-banking sector institutions – USD 2,978 million, and by the Polish government –
USD 243 million. Of the capital invested abroad by Polish companies (direct
investment in enterprises), not counting investments made by the government, 66 %
was own capital, and 34 % was loans and liabilities on drawn credits. As far as the
own capital of Polish FDI investors in the banking, non-governmental and nonbanking sectors is concerned, the share of the capital invested in the Netherlands
amounted to 21 %, Germany – 13 %, France – 12 %, and Switzerland – 12 %.
At the end of 2004 FDI of the Polish government was made up of shares of the
International Economic Cooperation Bank and of the International Investment Bank.
Out of the total Polish FDI, the largest part was invested in: manufacturing – 18.4 %;
financial mediation – 17.4 %; trade and repairs – 13.5 %; and real estate services, IT,
science, machinery rental and other business services – 13.4 %.
How to Do Business in Poland
Overview of the integration process
Temporary provisions for Poland include:
investor compensation scheme
capital requirement concerning co-operative credit
acquisition of secondary residences
purchase of agricultural land and forests
state aid for environmental protection
reduced VAT rate on restaurant services,
construction, foodstuffs, and agricultural inputs
recovery and recycling targets for certain packaging
Current economic developments in Poland as
compared to the European Union average: twice as
high GDP growth and unemployment rate, with
inflation much lower than average
How to Do Business in Poland
Integration Process Overview
Since the political and economic transformations started in 1989, the single most
important objective of Polish policy has been political and economic integration with the
European Union, meaning both joining the Common Market and NATO. On 12 March
1999, the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Bronisław Geremek, submitted the
ratification treaty to the North Atlantic Treaty’s Depository Office and Poland became
a NATO member. Integration with the EU was completed five years later. On 1 May
2004 Poland, along with nine other countries, joined the European Union.
For Poland, the EU membership means, most of all, an opportunity to accelerate the
country’s economic and social development. The most important benefits include:
• better access for Polish goods and services to the EU market, not only through the
abolition of tariff barriers, but also due to the removal of the requirement for
additional testing and product certification,
• increasing the investment attractiveness of Poland,
• improving Poland’s ratings on international financial markets,
• the import of modern technologies, thus improving quality and cost-effectiveness,
• more possibilities for business co-operation and contacts with EU partners.
For the Poles, it means equal opportunities with other European nations, opportunities
to work, to travel and to enjoy a similar economic status.
Poland started negotiations on economic integration with the European Union right
after its economic liberalisation in 1990. In March 1992, a transition agreement
concerning trade between Poland and the European Union became effective. On 1
February 1994, the transition agreement with the EU was replaced by the Association
Treaty and on 8 April of the same year, Poland formally applied for EU membership.
The objective of the Association Agreement was to establish a free trade zone
between the EU and Poland. Initially, quota restrictions on Polish industrial exports
into the Community were abolished, except for sensitive products, that is, five
categories of textile and agricultural products, which were not subject to general
liberalisation under the Association Agreement. As of 1 January 1998, all Polish
industrial exports benefit from completely unrestricted access to the EU market. As of
1 January 2002, Poland lifted all the remaining customs’ barriers for EU member
states’ industrial exports to Poland. The lowest degree of liberalisation and the
smallest concessions applied to agricultural products such as milk, meat, and
VI. Poland in the European Union
One of the major tasks involved in joining the European Union was the obligation to
harmonise Polish laws with those of the EU. The process of screening Polish laws
from the point of view of their compatibility with those of the EU started in 1994 and
finished by 1 May 2004.
In July 1996, Poland became the 28th OECD member, joining the most developed
countries in the world. The accession of Poland to this organisation was an important
milestone in its integration with the EU. It strengthened Poland’s credibility and
improved its quotations on financial markets, stimulating the inflow of foreign capital.
In the same year, in order to accelerate the pace of adjustment and integration of the
Polish economy with the European Union, the Committee for European Integration
was created as an office of central state administration headed by the prime minister.
The tasks of the Committee included the preparation and co-ordination of the
adjustment to EU requirements, as well as the co-ordination of central administration
activities in the area of foreign assistance.
The formal negotiations on Poland’s full membership started on 31 March 1998. The
negotiations were based on the position papers prepared by task teams of the InterMinisterial Team for Preparing the Accession Negotiations with the EU. The
negotiations have been divided into 31 negotiation areas, or chapters.
Poland successfully concluded accession negotiations on 13 December 2002 and on
16 April 2003 signed the Accession Treaty in Athens, along with nine other countries
joining the EU in 2004. Finally, on 7 and 8 June 2003, a nationwide referendum was
held on Poland’s accession to the European Union. 59 % of Poles participated in this
historical event, with 77 % voting Yes to the integration. This clear outcome once
again confirmed the consistency and commitment with which Poland went through the
years of transformation to become a modern democracy, a functioning market
economy, and, at last, a member of the European Union as of 1 May 2004.
The Accession Treaty
The Accession Treaty is the most complex international agreement ever concluded.
It consists of many parts, such as the proper Accession Treaty, Accession Act, and
a number of protocols and enclosures, which are all binding. Moreover, there are also
some declarations attached, which are unilateral and even though they do not have
force of law, they serve for the Treaty’s interpretation. The proper Accession Treaty is
common for all ten countries joining the EU in 2004, while other documents of the
Treaty have parts that are common for all countries, as well as parts referring to
individual countries. Declarations refer to individual countries only.
How to Do Business in Poland
It is worth noting that the Accession Treaty itself contains just three Articles. The first
one states that the ten countries accede to the EU and the two others define the
languages of the Treaty and the date it comes into force. The Accession Act is the core
document of the Treaty, specifying all the particulars pertaining to accession, such as
transitional arrangements and changes in EU legislation resulting from accession.
The Treaty of Accession 2003 of the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, and Slovakia, signed in Athens on 16
April 2003, as well as the Accession Act, its annexes, protocols and enclosures can be
consulted and downloaded in the EU languages from the European Parliament website
Temporary Provisions
Annex XII to the Accession Act contains temporary provisions and transitional
measures regarding Poland. Among these, it is worth noting the following:
Freedom to provide services:
• With reference to the investor compensation scheme, Poland has been granted
transitional arrangements until the end of 2007 to reach the minimum level of
compensation. In this period the Polish investor-compensation scheme will
provide for cover of not less than EUR 7,000 until 31 December 2004, of not
less than EUR 11,000 from 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2005, of not
less than EUR 15,000 from 1 January 2006 until 31 December 2006 and of
not less than EUR 19,000 from 1 January 2007 until 31 December 2007.
• With reference to the initial capital requirement concerning co-operative
credit institutions, the EU regulations will not apply until 31 December 2007
to co-operative credit institutions already established in Poland at the date of
accession. However, the initial capital requirement for these co-operative
credit institutions in Poland are to be not less than EUR 300,000 until 31
December 2005, and not less than EUR 500,000 from 1 January 2006 until
31 December 2007.
Free movement of capital:
• Poland is granted a five-year transitional arrangement during which it can
maintain the national legislation regarding the acquisition of secondary
residences. However, nationals of the Member States and nationals of the
States which are a party to the European Economic Area Agreement and who
have been legally resident in Poland for four years on a continuous basis are
not included in the above arrangement and can not be subjected to any
procedures other than those to which nationals of Poland are subject.
VI. Poland in the European Union
Moreover, there is a twelve-year transitional arrangement during which Poland
can maintain its national legislation regarding the purchase of agricultural land
and forests. Nationals of the Member States, who are self-employed farmers in
Poland are excluded from the transitional period regulations, in accordance
with specific provisions. For more information please refer to Chapter VIII.
Competition Policy:
• Transitional arrangements are agreed with Poland with regard to state aid for
environmental protection, along the following lines: For investments that
relate to standards for which a transitional arrangement has been granted
under the Environment Chapter and for the duration of that transitional
arrangement, the aid intensity is limited to the regional aid ceiling with
a 15 % supplement for SMEs. For existing IPPC installations covered by
a transitional arrangement under the Environment Chapter, an aid level of
30 % is agreed upon until the end of 2010. For IPPC-related investment not
covered by a transitional arrangement under the Environment Chapter, an aid
level of 30 % is agreed upon until 31 October 2007. For large combustion
plants, an aid level of 50 % was agreed upon for investments that relate to a
transitional arrangement granted under the Environment Chapter.
• Poland may apply corporate tax exemptions granted before 1 January 2001
on the basis of the Law on Special Economic Zones of 1994, under the
following conditions:
a. for small enterprises, as defined in accordance with the Community
definition of such enterprises and in conformity with Commission
practice, up to and including 31 December 2011;
b. for medium-size enterprises, as defined in accordance with the
Community definition of such enterprises and in conformity with
Commission practice, up to and including 31 December 2010.
In the event of a merger, acquisition or any similar event which involves the
beneficiary of a tax exemption granted under the aforementioned legislation,
the exemption from corporate tax shall be discontinued. For more
information on investment incentives and Special Economic Zones please
refer to Chapter V.
• Moreover, a transitional arrangement is agreed upon whereby the
restructuring of the steel industry is to be completed by 31 December 2006.
• Poland is granted a three-year transitional period from the date of accession
during which the minimum requirements for the preliminary recognition of
producer organisations shall be set at five producers and at EUR 100,000. The
duration of the preliminary recognition may not exceed a period of five years
starting from the date of acceptance by the competent national authority.
How to Do Business in Poland
The requirements relating to fat content shall not apply to drinking milk
produced in Poland for a period of five years from the date of accession.
Drinking milk which does not comply with the requirements relating to fat
content may be marketed only in Poland, or exported to a third country.
By way of derogation from Article 1 of Regulation (EEC) No 3118/93 and until
the end of the third year following the date of accession, carriers established in
Poland are excluded from the operation of national road haulage services in the
other Member States, and carriers established in the other Member States are
excluded from the operation of national road haulage services in Poland. Before
the end of the third year following the date of accession, Member States will
notify the Commission whether they will prolong this period for a maximum of
two years, or whether they will fully apply Article 1 of the Regulation
henceforth. In the absence of such notification, Article 1 of the Regulation shall
apply. Only carriers established in those Member States in which Article 1 of the
Regulation applies may perform national road haulage services in those other
Member States in which Article 1 also applies. As long as Article 1 of the
Regulation is not applied, Member States may regulate access to their national
road haulage services by progressively exchanging cabotage authorisations on
the basis of bilateral agreements. This may include the possibility of full
Poland is allowed to maintain the reduced VAT rate on restaurant services and
construction until the end of 2007. Poland is also allowed to maintain the VAT
zero rate on books, and a super-reduced VAT rate on foodstuffs and agricultural
inputs, excluding machinery, until 31 December 2007, and until 30 April 2008,
respectively. All countries joining can maintain a higher turnover threshold than
the level provided for in the acquis to exempt SMEs from VAT, and can exempt
international passenger transport from VAT.
Poland is granted a transitional period till 31 December 2007 for attaining the
EU recovery and recycling targets for the following packaging materials, with
the following intermediate targets:
a) recycling of plastics: 10 % by weight by the date of accession, 14 % for 2004
and a minimum of 15 % for 2005;
b) recycling of metals: 11 % by weight by the date of accession, 14 % for 2004
and a minimum of 15 % for 2005;
c) overall recovery rate: 32 % by weight by the date of accession, 32 % for
2004, 37 % for 2005 and 43 % for 2006.
VI. Poland in the European Union
Current Economic Developments
This section aims at a brief description of some major economic developments and
trends in the enlarged European Union and the euro-zone, i.e., the twelve EU member
states that use the euro as a common currency. It also indicates the performance of
Poland, so it can be viewed against the wider economic background. For information
on financial flows between Poland and the European Union, please refer to Chapter II, the
sub-chapter on co-operation with international organisations.
The following information is based on the latest publications and data provided by
Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Communities. Some figures for the
year 2005 and the first months of 2006 are partly estimated and might be revised by
Eurostat at a later date.
Please note that some figures for Poland contained in this section may differ slightly
from those presented elsewhere in the guide. The different statistical definitions and
methodology employed by Eurostat and some data providers in Poland required the
adjustment of these figures in order to ensure their comparability.
On 1 January 2005, the population of the European Union was 459.5 million and that
of the euro-zone 310.9 million, according to Eurostat estimations. The population of
Poland (38.2 million) accounts for 8.3 % of the EU population. The population of the
European Union increased by 2.3 million in 2004, an annual rate of 0.5 %, mainly due
to a net migration of 1.9 million, while the natural increase was 0.4 million. The
European Union accounts for some 7.1 % of the world’s population.
In 2005, GDP grew by 1.3 % in the euro-zone and by 1.6 % in the European Union,
compared to 2.0 % and 2.4 % respectively for 2004. In Poland, GDP grew more than
twice as fast (3.4 % in 2005 and 5.3 % in 2004).
GDP grew by 0.6 % in the euro-zone and by 0.7 % in the European Union during the
first quarter of 2005, compared to the previous quarter. This growth was accompanied
by accelerating private consumption and external trade. In Poland it grew by 1.2 % in
the corresponding period. In the fourth quarter of 2005, growth rates were 0.3 % in the
euro-zone and 0.4 % in the European Union. In the first quarter of 2006, compared to
the same quarter of the previous year, GDP grew by 1.9 % in the euro-zone, by 2.2 %
in the European Union, and by 4.6 % in Poland, following the increase of 1.7 %,
1.9 %, and 4.7 % respectively in the previous quarter.
In 2005, the general government deficit of the euro-zone and the European Union
improved compared to 2004, while the general government gross debt increased. In
the euro-zone, the government deficit decreased from 2.8 % of GDP in 2004 to 2.4 %
How to Do Business in Poland
in 2005, and in the European Union it fell from 2.6 % in 2004 to 2.3 % in 2005. In the
euro-zone the government debt to GDP ratio rose from 69.8 % in 2004 to 70.8 % in
2005, and in the European Union from 62.4 % to 63.4 %.
In 2005 the largest general government deficits in percentage of GDP were recorded
by Hungary (6.1 %), Portugal (6.0 %), and Greece (4.5 %). Poland registered 2.5 %
deficit, only slightly higher than the EU average. Eight Member States registered a
government surplus in 2005. In all, eighteen Member States recorded an improved
public balance relative to GDP, while seven Member States registered a worsening.
In 2005 the lowest ratios of general government gross debt to GDP were recorded in
Estonia (4.8 %), Luxembourg (6.2 %), Latvia (11.9 %), and Lithuania (18.7 %). In
Poland the government debt equalled 42.5 % of GDP. Nine Member States had a
government debt ratio higher than 60 % of GDP in 2005, the same number as in 2004.
First Eurostat estimates indicate that the euro-zone trade recorded a surplus of EUR
23.4 billion in 2005, compared to EUR 71.5 billion in 2004. The European Union
recorded a trade deficit of EUR 106.4 billion in 2005, increasing from the EUR 62.9
billion deficit in 2004. Taking into consideration the total trade of Member States, the
largest trade surplus was noted in Germany (EUR 149.0 billion in January-November
2005), while the United Kingdom registered the largest deficit, EUR 93.4 billion, in
the same period. Poland also noted a trade deficit, amounting to EUR 8.4 billion in
January-November 2005.
In March 2006 compared to March 2005, seasonally adjusted industrial production
rose by 3.8 % in the euro-zone and by 3.7 % in the European Union. In Poland it
grew substantially more, by 14.1 %.
Euro-zone seasonally adjusted unemployment rate stood at 8.0 % in April 2006, just
as in the previous month, compared to 8.7 % in April 2005. The European Union
unemployment rate was 8.3 % in April 2006, unchanged compared to March, down
from 8.9 % in April 2005. Poland’s unemployment rate was twice as high, as it
equalled 16.5 % in April 2006.
Euro-zone annual inflation rose from 2.2 % in March to 2.4 % in April 2006. A year
earlier the rate was 2.1 %. European Union annual inflation was 2.3 % in April 2006,
up from 2.1 % in March. A year earlier the rate was 2.1 %. Annual inflation in Poland
was much lower, reaching 1.2 % in April 2006, up from 0.9 % in March.
How to Do Business in Poland
19 % Corporate income tax, losses carried forward
for up to 5 years
22 % VAT with reduced rates at 7 %, 3 %, and 0 %
Excise duty; harmonized excise goods in line with EU
directives and generally 65 % on non-harmonised
excise goods
Progressive personal income tax (19 - 40 %)
Individuals conducting business activity have the
option to choose a flat 19 % rate
19 % tax on dividends, subject to international
Local real estate taxes subject to the maximum rates
set by the government
Expenditures up to PLN 3,500 are treated as costs
Transfer pricing definitions follow OECD guidelines
Agreements on the avoidance of double taxation
signed with 81 countries
How to Do Business in Poland
All taxes in Poland are approved by Parliament. The Polish taxation system has in recent
years been undergoing substantial changes aimed at creating a more transparent system
and at conforming to taxation standards existing in the European Union. Although
Polish tax legislation itself is relatively straightforward, its application in practice can be
difficult. In particular, the law leaves some areas open to interpretation and it may
happen that officials within the same tax district will come to two different conclusions
as to the tax consequences of a particular set of circumstances. Moreover, some areas of
tax legislation refer to concepts that either lack a legal definition or have a different
meaning from that adopted in other legislation.
However, it is important to note that on the grounds of art. 260 of the Tax Ordinance
Law of 29 August 1997 taxpayers are entitled to a full compensation for damages
incurred due to unlawful decisions of the tax authorities. Moreover, the compensation
may encompass the value of lost benefits.
Taxpayers should note that all taxes are payable monthly on account and that interest
penalties of 11.0 % per annum (June 2006) apply to the late payment of tax.
The main taxes in Poland are:
Corporate Income Tax (CIT), regulated by the Act on Income Tax on Legal
Persons of 15 February 1992: With the exception of partnerships having no legal
personality, all legal persons and organisational units having a legal personality are
subject to corporate income tax. The base of taxation is profit taken as surplus of income
over the cost of acquiring it. Starting from 2004, the rate of this tax equals 19 %.
Poland has been constantly improving conditions for entrepreneurs, in order to stimulate
competition and the creation of new jobs in the economy. This is also clearly reflected in
the reduction of the tax burden. The following graph illustrates reductions in the CIT
rate in the period of 1997-2006.
VII. Taxation System
Corporate Income Tax Rates (%)
Source: Act on Income Tax on Legal Persons of 15 February 1992, with subsequent amendments
Corporate income tax does not apply to:
- revenues earned on agricultural activity, with the exception of income from special
branches of agricultural production,
- revenue earned on forestry activities within the limits of the Forestry Act,
- revenue earned on activities, which cannot constitute the subject of a legally
effective contract.
Corporate taxpayers having their seat or the location of their board of directors, within
the territory of the Republic of Poland are liable to tax on the whole of their income,
irrespective of the place where it was earned. Taxpayers having neither a seat nor
a board of directors within the territory of Poland are liable to tax only on income earned
within the territory of the Republic of Poland.
Losses can be carried forward for up to five years, though no more than 50 % of the loss
can be written off in any year. There is no concept of the carry back of losses.
The Act very precisely enumerates expenditures that are not treated as costs.
Furthermore, the last major revision of the CIT Act of November 1999 incorporated
depreciation and amortisation issues, previously regulated in a decree.
Transfer pricing: Companies and individuals entering into transactions with related
entities or individuals (both domestic and foreign), as well as with entities or individuals
located in tax havens, have to possess full transfer pricing documentation. Such
documentation has to be made available within 7 days of request by a tax inspector.
Profits assessed under a transfer pricing investigation are subject to a penalty tax at 50 %
plus interest (currently 11.0 % per annum). Related entities and persons are defined as
having 5 % or more direct or indirect ownership as well as direct or indirect participation
in management or control. Transfer pricing definitions follow the OECD guidelines.
How to Do Business in Poland
VAT (Tax on Goods and Services), regulated by the Act on Value Added Tax of
11 March 2004: The new act on VAT came into force on 1 May 2004, following
Poland’s accession to the EU. The basic rate amounts to 22 %. Apart from the basic rate
there is a preferential rate of 7 % applicable to sales of certain agricultural goods,
foodstuffs, books, newspapers, some goods for children, goods connected with health
protection, etc. A complete list forms Annex 3 to the act.
There is also a zero rate applicable to exports. Moreover, some services are VATexempt. Examples include education and health services, as well as postal services. A
complete list is found in Annex 4 to the act. Intra-Community transactions are zero
rated, provided that the required EU VAT number has been allocated to the recipient of
the goods or services.
The VAT rate on unprocessed products is 3 %. Normally, the principle of VAT liability
on sales of agricultural products is that a farmer who is a non-VAT payer (who is subject
to lump-sum payments), selling his products, beside the sales price will receive a lumpsum VAT refund from the buyer of these products. This refund will amount to 3 % of
the sum due for the sold products less the lump-sum tax return. See Annex 6 to the act
for a complete list of products.
Companies and individuals must register for and charge VAT if their annual turnover
exceeds EUR 10,000. VAT is chargeable on supplies of goods and services unless they
are specifically relieved by way of exemption or zero rating. Just like in most European
countries, VAT is refundable to foreign tourists leaving Poland and exporting products
from Poland. Foreign tourists are eligible for VAT reimbursement for purchases
exceeding PLN 200 (incl. VAT) only if the customs authorities confirm that the goods
have left the Polish territory intact and no later than on the last day of the third month
following the month the goods were purchased in.
VAT legislation causes the most problems to taxpayers, particularly where goods and
services are involved that are not adequately classified in the official register.
Excise Duty, regulated by the Act on Excise Duty of 23 January 2004: In addition
to VAT some commodities are subject to excise duty. This applies to over 60 commodity
groups, encompassing goods such as passenger cars, fire-arms used for hunting, fuels and
lubricants, alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, furriery, perfumes, etc.
The Act groups excise goods into two categories; harmonised excise goods, and nonharmonised excise goods. Harmonised excise goods are subject to excise duty following
specific rules, based on the regulations contained in related EU directives and
incorporated into the Act. This group contains fuels and lubricants, tobacco products,
alcoholic beverages, and some other products containing alcohol. Harmonised excise
goods are listed in Annex 2 to the Act.
VII. Taxation System
Generally, non-harmonised excise goods are taxed at 65 % of the taxable base, except
for electric energy, taxed at PLN 0.02 per kWh. However, the Minister of Finance is
empowered to set lower rates by decree. All excise goods are listed in Annex 1 to the
Act. There are also some exemptions from excise duty provided for in the legislation,
such as the exemption of exported excise goods, or of electric energy generated from
renewable resources.
Tax on Dividends, regulated by the Act on Income Tax on Legal Persons of 15
February 1992: This tax applies to legal and natural persons, who are shareholders in
companies. Income of holding companies coming from other Polish registered
companies of the holding is taxed at 19 % with the withholding tax borne being
deductible from the total amount of corporation tax due. Thus under current tax rates
dividends received will not suffer any further taxation in the hands of the recipient. The
tax rate is equal to 19 % unless agreements on avoiding double taxation state otherwise.
Please note that any double taxation agreement relief at lower rates of withholding tax
may not be available on the ‘pass-through’ of a dividend abroad from a Polish trading
company via an intermediate Polish holding company if the Polish holding company does
not have sufficient taxable income in its own right to offset the tax on dividend received.
Dividends received by a resident corporation from a non-resident corporation are subject
to the full rate of corporate income tax. Allowance will be made for withholding tax
borne subject to the provisions of any double taxation treaties in force. The amount of
foreign tax deductible cannot, however, exceed the amount of Polish corporate income
tax due on the foreign dividend income (on a due proportion basis). Polish corporations
holding at least:
- 75 % of the share capital in a foreign company not registered in the EU for more
than two years;
- 20 % of the share capital in a foreign company registered in the EU for more than
two years;
may also deduct from due Polish corporate income tax any underlying tax incurred.
In order for a Polish payer to withhold tax at the reduced rates set by the relevant
agreement for the avoidance of double taxation, the dividend transferring entity will
have to provide the tax payer with a certificate of tax residence issued by the tax
authorities of the transferee. The certificate confirms that the taxpayer’s headquarters,
for tax purposes, are located in the country where the dividend is paid.
Revenues from dividends and those related to share from profits by corporate entities,
paid by a Polish company to an entity being a resident of any EU country other than
Poland, are exempt from withholding tax, if the taxpayer’s direct holdings in the basic
share capital of the dividend payer are:
How to Do Business in Poland
from 1 January 2005 to 31.12.2006 – not less than 20 %;
from 1 January 2007 to 31.12.2008 – not less than 15 %;
after 1 January 2009 – not less than 10 %.
The minimum number of shares must have been held for at least 2 years.
Personal Income Tax (PIT), regulated by the Act on Income Tax on Natural
Persons of 26 July 1991 and the Act on Lump-sum Income Tax on Some Income
Derived by Natural Persons of 20 November 1998: The tax is assessed on the income
of natural persons, independently of the source of origin. The income tax scale is
progressive. In 2006, the following tax scale was applied.
Tax Base (PLN)
up to 37,024
Income Tax (PLN)
19 % less 530.08
from 37,024 to 74,048
6,504.48 + 30 % of income exceeding 37,024
from 74,048
17,611.68 + 40 % of income exceeding 74,048
Source: Act on Income Tax on Natural Persons of 26 July 1991, as amended
However, enterprises run by a natural person (individuals conducting business activities)
have the option to chose a flat tax rate of 19 %. In such a case though they can not
benefit from some of the mechanisms allowing for a reduction of the tax burden that are
available to natural persons.
The Law on Personal Income Tax specifies altogether more than one hundred types of
income exempt from personal income tax, as well as several deductions from the tax
base and from the tax.
A husband and wife may be taxed separately or together, dividing their combined
income by two. A similar regulation applies to single parents and their children. Among
the tax deductibles the most important are interest payments on loans financing housing
needs, internet expenses, certain types of gifts, and social security contributions. The
above are deducted from the tax base. Further, health insurance contributions (only up to
7.75 % of its calculation base) are deducted from the tax.
Inheritance and Gifts Tax, regulated by the Act on Inheritance and Gifts Tax of
28 July 1983: The base of taxation is the market value of goods and property rights
acquired through inheritance, donation and prescription. The rate is progressive and its
level depends on the relation between the donor and the recipient.
Tax on Civil and Legal Proceedings, regulated by the Act on Tax on Civil and
Legal Proceedings of 9 September 2000: A taxpayer who must pay this tax, is obliged,
without being called to do so by the tax authorities, to submit the appropriate
VII. Taxation System
declaration, calculate and pay the tax to the tax office, or transfer it to its bank account,
within 14 days from the date of the commencement of tax obligation.
Stamp Duty, regulated by the Act on Stamp Duty of 9 September 2000:
A taxpayer who must pay this stamp duty, is obliged, without being called to do so by
the tax authorities, to submit the relevant declaration, calculate and pay the stamp duty
to the tax office or transfer it to its bank account, within 14 days from the date of the
commencement of tax obligation.
Local Taxes, regulated by the Act on Local Taxes and Charges of 12 January
1991: Local authorities are empowered to set the level of rates and the scope of relief in
local taxes. Their rates, however, cannot exceed the maximum levels determined by the
government. Local taxes and fees include: real estate tax, vehicle tax, dog tax, and fair
Real Estate Tax, regulated by the Act on Local Taxes and Charges of 12
January 1991: All real estate is subject to real estate tax within the limits defined in the
official announcement of the Minister of Finance published every year in Monitor
Polski. As specified, annual tax rates are determined by resolutions of the local
communal level government (gmina) and may be different in each administrative area.
The 2006 maximum real estate tax rates for selected types of real property are listed in
the following table:
Type of Real Estate
Annual Tax Rate per Square Meter
Residential buildings
0.56 PLN
Commercial buildings
18.43 PLN
Other buildings
6.17 PLN
Commercial land
0.68 PLN
Other land
0.33 PLN
Source: Official Announcement of the Minister of Finance of 27 October 2005
There have been plans to replace this tax, which is related to the size of property, with a
cadaster tax, related to the property’s value. Although certain preparatory measures have
already been taken in this respect, these plans have now been halted.
How to Do Business in Poland
Capital Allowances
As of 1 January 2000, depreciation and amortisation rates as well as their application are
governed by the Act on Corporate Income Tax of 15 February 1992 (with later
Taxpayers are free to treat as costs any expenditure up to PLN 3,500. Current
depreciation and amortisation rates are specified in Annex 1 to the Act on Corporate
Income Tax. There are eight groups of depreciation and amortisation rates. For certain
categories of real estate and plant and machinery the reducing-balance method of
depreciation may be applied, in such a way that depreciation can be charged at a higher
rate. These rates are calculated by multiplying the normal rate by a certain factor. The
factors provided by the Act generally vary between 1.2 and 2.0. On the other hand, it is
also possible to reduce the listed depreciation and amortisation rates.
The major depreciation rates applied in 2006 are as follows:
Machinery and equipment (general)
Other machinery and equipment
Office equipment
Computer systems
Depreciation Rate
2.5 %
4.5 %
10 %
7 % - 25 %
14 %
20 %
30 %
Source: Annex 1 to the Act on Income Tax on Legal Persons of 15 February 1992, as amended
The act regulates in detail the amortisation of intangible fixed assets, such as licenses,
copyright, goodwill, etc. It is also possible to amortise productive R&D costs (i.e., R&D
ending with a positive result that may be used in the taxpayer’s business operations),
providing that:
• a product (or a manufacturing technology) is precisely defined and the related
R&D costs reliably determined, and
• the taxpayer has appropriately documented the technical usability of the
product/technology and on this basis the taxpayer has decided to manufacture the
products or make use of the technology, and
• it results from the R&D documentation that the R&D costs will be recovered from
the expected sales of the products / use of the technology.
VII. Taxation System
Double Taxation Treaties
Poland follows the model of the OECD convention in negotiating its tax treaties. As of
June 2006, Poland has signed agreements on avoiding double taxation with 81 countries.
These treaties are based on a reciprocity principle; they may actually reduce or eliminate
various taxes. The list of countries with which Poland has signed such agreements is
presented in Appendix 6.
How to Do Business in Poland
Two forms of property ownership; ownership
equivalent to freehold and perpetual usufruct – both
can be used as loan guarantees
Purchase of real estate by EU / EEA citizens does not
require any permits, except for temporary provisions
Real estate transaction costs depend on the real
estate’s type and value and include notary fees, the
tax on civil and legal proceedings, VAT, agent’s fees,
permit fees, and court registration fees, though not all
of these apply to each transaction
Office market rents for prime office space in Warsaw
stand at EUR 10 - 18 / sq.m /month
Retail market rents for the best shopping centre
locations are EUR 30 - 90 / sq.m / month
Warehouse space rents average EUR 3 - 4 / sq.m /
How to Do Business in Poland
Legislative Framework Governing Real Estate
The basic regulations governing foreigners’ usage and ownership of real estate in Poland
are as follows:
The Law on the Acquisition of Real Estate by Foreigners of 24 March 1920
The Law on the Management of Real Estate of 21 August 1997
The Law on the Formation of the Agricultural System of 11 April 2003
Appropriate regulations of the Polish Civil Code, administrative laws, and decisions of
the Supreme Court, apply to all issues not regulated by the above laws. Various aspects
of spatial zoning system are regulated by the law on Spatial Zoning of 27 March 2003.
The construction sector is regulated by The Construction Law of 7 July 1994, as
Forms of Real Estate Ownership
The Polish legal system differentiates between three groups of rights pertaining to
holding of real estate: ‘real rights’, ‘limited real rights’, and ‘contractual rights’. The
grounds for this differentiation is the scope of rights and obligations to which entities
holding and using real estate are entitled.
There are two forms of property ownership in Poland similar to those existing in other
• Ownership – equivalent to ‘freehold’, absolute right in rem,
• Perpetual usufruct (minimum 40 years – maximum 99 years, renewable) – a type
of in rem right, which corresponds to ‘leasehold’. The holder of this type of right is
charged with perpetual-usufruct fees, paid to an owner (the commune or the State
Treasury) on an annual basis. Buildings and structures constructed on the land in
perpetual usufruct become the property of the perpetual usufruct holder.
Both forms of property ownership can be used as loan guarantees (mortgage) under
Polish law.
Ownership of real estate is freely transferable, although the transfer must be executed in
the form of a notarial deed. The deed must be entered in the Land and Mortgage
Register. The Polish Civil Code provides for a number of limited rights in rem, for
instance: usufruct rights over the property of another, mortgages, ownership rights to cooperative flats, co-operative commercial premises, and co-operative single family
VIII. Real Estate
Contractual property rights (leases) include:
• Najem – The landlord grants the tenant the use of premises for a fixed period of
time (not longer than 10 years) or for an unspecified period, in exchange for rent,
• DzierŜawa – The landlord agrees to grant the tenant the use of the land and the
right to collect the profits (raw resources are excluded) of property for a fixed
period (not longer than 30 years) or for an unspecified period, in exchange for rent.
Purchase of Real Estate by Foreigners
Ownership rights on land and real estate concerning foreigners are governed by the act
of 1920 (The Law on the Acquisition of Real Estate by Foreigners), as amended. The
most recent amendments stemmed from Poland’s accession to the EU on 1 May 2004.
Therefore, the law provides for a favourable treatment of EU and other European
Economic Area (EEA) citizens.
For the purposes of this act a foreign person is defined as:
1. a natural person who is not a Polish citizen,
2. a legal entity with its registered seat abroad,
3. a partnership with no legal personality between the above mentioned persons, or
entities with their registered seat abroad, established on the grounds of a foreign law,
4. a legal entity or a commercial partnership that has no legal personality and
a registered seat in Poland, controlled directly, or indirectly, by any of the above.
Purchase by Foreigners, EU / Other EEA Citizens
Purchase of real estate by EU/EEA citizens does not require any permits. Still, there are
some noteworthy exceptions during the transition periods. These are:
• Purchase of agricultural and/or forest real estate, during the first 12 years of
Poland’s membership in the EU;
• Purchase of ‘second houses’, during the first 5 years of Poland’s membership in
the EU.
However, even in the above mentioned periods it is not necessary to obtain a permit in
the following cases:
• For the acquisition of agricultural real estate located in the Dolnośląskie, KujawskoPomorskie, Lubuskie, Opolskie, Pomorskie, Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Wielkopolskie,
Zachodnio-Pomorskie provinces, upon 7 years of concluding a lease agreement with
stated date, if during this period the foreigner conducted agricultural activities in
person and lived legally on the territory of the Republic of Poland;
• For the acquisition of agricultural real estate located in the Lubelskie, Łódzkie,
Małopolskie, Mazowieckie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Śląskie, Świętokrzyskie
How to Do Business in Poland
provinces, upon 3 years of concluding a lease agreement with stated date, if during
this period the foreigner conducted agricultural activities in person and lived legally
on the territory of the Republic of Poland;
For the acquisition of ‘second houses’:
- if the buyer has legally, continuously been residing for at least 4 years on the
territory of the Republic of Poland, or
- in order to engage in economic activity involving the provision of tourist services.
Purchase by Foreigners, Who Are Not EU / Other EEA Citizens
Generally, a purchase of real estate, or taking it over in perpetual usufruct, as well as a
purchase or taking over shares in a company having its registered seat in the territory of
Poland and holding title to, or the right of perpetual usufruct to real estate (if such an
action results in the company becoming controlled by a foreign person), requires
a permit from the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration. However, acquiring
stock in publicly traded companies does not require a permit.
Permits are issued by the director of the Department of Permits and Licences
(Departament Zezwoleń i Koncesji) in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and
Administration, acting on the authorisation from the Minister of Internal Affairs and
Administration. A permit is issued in the form of an administrative decision, pursuant to
an application having been filed by a foreigner. The permit is valid for two years from
the date of issue. Provisions of the Code of Administrative Procedure apply to the
purchase of real estate.
Currently, a foreigner does not have to apply for a permit in the following cases:
• The purchase of an independent residential property, as defined in the Law on
Ownership of Premises of 24 June 1994, including purchase of separate premises
destined for garages, or of shares in such premises;
• The purchase of real estate by a foreigner who has lived in Poland for at least five
consecutive years from the date of issuance of a permanent residency card, or EC
long-term residence permit for the territory of Poland;
• The purchase of real estate by a foreigner who is the spouse of a Polish citizen and
who has lived in Poland for at least two consecutive years from the date of
issuance of a permanent residency card, or EC long-term residence permit for the
territory of Poland when the real estate will become part of the matrimonial estate;
• The purchase of real estate by a foreigner, if legally entitled to inherit from the
property title holder on the day of the purchase, when the property title holder had
been the owner or perpetual user of the property for at least five years;
• The purchase by a legal entity or a commercial partnership that has no legal
personality and a registered seat in Poland, controlled directly, or indirectly by any
VIII. Real Estate
entity mentioned in 1, 2, or 3 above, in accordance with its statutory objectives,
when the total area of undeveloped land does not exceed 0.4 ha within city zones;
The purchase of real estate by a foreign entity that is simultaneously a bank and
a mortgage debtor, as a result of an unsuccessful auction being a part of an
execution process;
The purchase or acquisition by a bank being a legal person defined in art. 1
paragraph 2 item 4 of the law, of shares in a company, as mentioned in art. 3e of
the law, in connection with that bank’s pursuance of claims arising from banking
activities performed.
The above listed exemptions from the permit requirement do not apply to property
located in the border zone, or when the total area of land zoned for agricultural use
exceeds 1 ha.
A permit may be refused only if such a refusal is justified by national security, public
order, social policy, or public health concerns.
Permits Issued
In 2005, the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration issued 592 permits for
foreigners to buy land or real estate. Most of these (419 permits) were issued to natural
persons. Furthermore, 33 permits for acquiring shares or stakes in Polish companies that
own real property in Poland were issued. The number of permits issued for purchase of
land and real estate as well as the total amount of land covered by the permits is
presented on the following graph.
Land Acquisition Permits Granted to Foreigners
Number of permits
Total area of land in ha
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2005, one hundred and seventy three foreign companies received permits for the
purchase of approximately 1,500 ha, while foreign natural persons received permits
encompassing just 290 ha. The permits were issued primarily for lands in northern and
central Poland. In 2005, the largest amount of land was bought by companies and
individuals from Germany, France and the Netherlands. According to the Ministry of
Internal Affairs and Administration, the permits allowed foreigners to purchase 43,360
ha in Poland in 1990-2005.
As of 1 May 2004 foreign companies and individuals from the European Economic
Area do not require permits to purchase real estate in Poland, save for the
aforementioned exceptions. There are also numerous exclusions from the permit
requirement for non-EEA foreigners, listed in the previous sub-chapter. Consequently,
foreign persons purchased 2,457 landed properties, encompassing 2,792 ha, without the
need for permits in 2005.
Transaction Costs
Purchasing a company: tax on civil and legal proceedings on company shares: 1 %
Purchasing a property
- Land not zoned for development: no VAT payable, tax on civil and legal
proceedings: 2 %
- Buildings with land or a vacant development site:
Sale by VAT Payer: 22 % VAT, no other taxes
Sale by non-VAT Payer: tax on civil and legal proceedings 2 %, no VAT
Leasing a property: 22 % VAT
Additional Transaction Costs
Permit fee: PLN 1,400, if applicable
Notary fees: varies, based on the value of the real estate, maximum rates are as
- Over PLN 10,000 to PLN 30,000:
PLN 310 + 2 % of an amount in excess of PLN 10,000
- Over PLN 30,000 to PLN 60,000:
PLN 710 + 1 % of an amount in excess of PLN 30,000
- Over PLN 60,000 to PLN 1,000,000:
PLN 1,010 + 0.5 % of an amount in excess of PLN 60,000
- Over PLN 1,000,000:
PLN 5,710 + 0.25 % of an amount in excess of PLN 1,000,000
Notarial Application for registering in the Land and Mortgage Register: PLN 200
Registering in the Land and Mortgage Register: PLN 200
VIII. Real Estate
Agent’s fees:
- Purchase: 1 - 3 % of transaction value + 22 % VAT, usually paid by the owner
- Lease: 10 - 15 % of the annual rent + 22 % VAT, usually paid by the owner
Please note that notary fees are subject to 22 % VAT and that the maximum notarial fee
for a single notarial transaction is PLN 14,282.
Property Tax
Real estate tax – the rate is determined by the local authority, subject to maximum
rates set by the Minister of Finance every year. For more information please refer
to Chapter VII.
Annual perpetual usufruct tax is assessed as 3 % of the value of perpetual usufruct
land for commercial premises and 1 % for residential land.
Owners of certain types of property, including owners of land zoned for
agricultural use, must pay an agricultural tax. Its amount depends on the size of the
property, the type, the class of the agricultural land and the tax district within
which it is situated.
Professional Services on the Real Estate Market
The Law on Management of Real Estate (passed on 21 August 1997) and the executive
acts issued by the Council of Ministers regulate professional activity on the real estate
Licensed Valuer
As of 1 January 1998, only licensed valuers are allowed to perform property valuations
in Poland. To qualify for this profession, a person must:
• be able to conduct legal activity,
• have not been convicted of an offence that could undermine the profession,
• possess a university degree,
• pass a postgraduate course in property valuation,
• have relevant work experience,
• pass the qualification proceedings conducted by the State Designation Committee,
• obtain a licence from the Minister of Construction.
The law requires licensed valuers to maintain a high level of knowledge through
continuing education and makes them responsible and accountable to the Professional
Ethics Committee. There are about four thousand real estate valuers in Poland. They are
accredited by the local offices of the Polish Federation of Valuers’ Associations. The
How to Do Business in Poland
Polish Federation is a member of The European Group of Valuers’ Associations
(TEGoVA) and of the International Valuation Standard Committee (IVSC).
Real Estate Agent / Broker
The Law on Management of Real Estate mandates that only licensed professionals may
conduct real estate transactions. The following set of criteria must be fulfilled in order to
become a real estate agent:
• be able to conduct legal activity,
• have not been convicted of an offence that could undermine the profession,
• possess a university degree,
• completion of an applicable college or speciality course,
• practical experience gained while employed by a real estate agency,
• passing qualification proceedings conducted by the State Designation Committee,
• obtaining a licence from the Minister of Construction.
A real estate agent is obliged to conduct business in accordance with the applicable laws
and regulations, adhere to professional standards and professional conduct, and maintain
an adequate level of knowledge. Real estate agents are accountable for their business
conduct to the Professional Ethics Committee. The Polish Real Estate Federation is the
organisation of real estate agents. It establishes standards for the profession, including
ethical business practices. The federation co-operates closely with a number of similar
societies throughout the world.
Real Estate Manager
The law defines a real estate manager as a person who possesses the required
qualifications and is licensed to manage properties on behalf of the owner. Owners
managing their own properties do not require a licence. The criteria for licensing
professional managers are similar to those for real estate agents. The Polish Federation
of Property Managers represents this profession.
VIII. Real Estate
Real Estate Market by Segments
Office Market
The office market is focused on Warsaw; other cities are still characterised by a
limited supply of high quality modern office space. In 2005, the office market was
very strong, with the annual transaction volume exceeding EUR 1 billion. The
cumulative volume of office investment transactions is just under EUR 2.49 billion,
for the period 1998 - 2005.
Non-central locations (NCL) hold 60 % of the total supply of modern offices in
Warsaw, as compared to 40 % in the central business district (CBD). The supply of
new modern offices in Warsaw decreased by 17 % in 2005, to approximately 120,000
sq.m, the lowest amount since 1997, with only 29,000 sq.m in the CBD. With a large
number of buildings under construction it is expected that completions in NCL will
exceed 113,000 sq.m, in comparison to 112,000 sq.m in the CBD, in 2006. The most
significant developments in Warsaw, e.g., Rondo 1 and Złote Tarasy (together over
100,000 sq.m), are bound to reverse the falling trend in new supply and to cause a
transitory increase in CBD vacancy.
Office Market – Cumulative Stock and Annual Supply
Stock (thousand sq.m)
CBD Cumulative
Annual Supply CBD
Annual supply (thousand sq.m)
NCL Cumulative
Annual Supply NCL
Source: Cushman & Wakefield Advisory Services, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
2005 was strong in terms of occupational demand for office space, as annual gross
take-up reached over 373,000 sq.m in Warsaw. More importantly, net absorption has
also grown in comparison with the previous year, reaching the level of just under
190,000 sq.m. Demand in 2005 was driven not only by relocations and renegotiations
of existing leases, but also by expansion requirements.
Growing absorption has lowered vacancy rates to about 5.5 % in NCL and about
12.2 % in CBD. This helped to stabilise rental levels in NCL and to reduce the
incentives offered by landlords, whereas in the CBD this stabilisation is yet to be seen,
especially given the competition of large projects to be delivered in 2006.
The convergence of rents between the CBD and NCL is making central locations
more competitive, which should help boost the demand for central locations and
effectively reduce vacancy.
In 2006, rents in Warsaw are expected to remain at the 2005 level, as presented on the
following graph.
Office Market – Warsaw Rents
EUR/sq.m per month
NCL Average
NCL Prime
CBD Average
CBD Prime
Source: Cushman & Wakefield Advisory Services, 2006
VIII. Real Estate
Retail Market
Retail development has continued in all the main cities across Poland as well as in
Warsaw. Polish high street facilities are still at an early stage of development and
supply is limited to old stock (mainly in existing residential buildings). In 2005 the
total volume of modern retail stock in Poland exceeded 5.8 million sq.m, with only
30,000 sq.m of new space delivered to the Warsaw market (extensions of Centrum
Okęcie and M1 Marki). Over 900,000 sq.m of retail space is currently under
construction across the country.
Most of the projects are located in out of the city centres and around large
supermarkets and retail warehouse units from DIY (do-it-yourself) and home ware
sectors. Following the dynamic development of stand-alone retail warehouses from
the DIY sector, a process of concentration into retail warehouse parks, led by IKEA, is
taking place all over Poland. However, since the year 2000 the growth of new
generation city centre projects has been observed in most Polish cities, with the top
project being Złote Tarasy in Warsaw, presently under construction.
Poland has more shopping centre space in the pipeline than almost any other country
in Europe, exceeding 1.2 million sq.m in 2006-2007, with most developments being
located outside Warsaw. It is worth noting that development activity is also growing
in smaller cities (of between 100,000 to 400,000 inhabitants), creating more
investment opportunities across Poland. The total stock and annual supply of modern
retail space is presented on the following graph.
Modern Retail Market – Cumulative Stock and Annual Supply
Total stock (thousand sq.m)
4 000
3 500
3 000
2 500
2 000
1 500
1 000
T o ta l sto c k in W a rsa w
A n n u a l su p p ly in W a rsa w
Annual supply (thousand sq.m)
4 500
2 0 0 6 /7 *
T o ta l sto c k in 7 o th er m a jo r c ities
A n n u a l s u p p ly in 7 o th er m a jo r c ities
Source: Cushman & Wakefield Advisory Services, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
Third generation shopping centres are still prevalent in terms of supply and demand,
and there is a growing interest in new retail concepts such as retail warehouse parks
and factory outlet centres. Older schemes are refreshing their tenant mix and
repositioning in their markets in order to respond to growing competition.
Demand for retail space remains at a healthy level and the activity of foreign retailers
has increased, with new players looking to enter the market as Poland joined the EU.
The most common requirements are for high-standard units located close to strong
natural pedestrian flows. The demand is caused mainly by established retailers looking
to speed up their expansion while limiting their overall capital investment and by new
retailers requiring faster market entry opportunities. Most of the existing shopping
centres are leased at 100 %, with just a few instances of vacant space.
Developers compete aggressively to secure anchor tenants, offering incentives such as
rent-free periods, fit-out contributions, and turnover rents. The difference between
effective and headline rent is becoming substantial, especially on the more
competitive submarkets. Rental levels in the majority of centres have remained stable,
although the arrival of third generation shopping centres has pushed them slightly up.
Rents for the best locations in shopping centres have diversified, and depending on the
centres’ quality and location are at the level of EUR 30-90/sq.m/month. Such growth
in prime rents in some markets (Warsaw, Cracow) was caused by the development of
a new generation of shopping centres in city centre locations. At the same time a drop
in rents for older properties was recorded.
EUR/sq.m per month
Retail Market – Rents
High Street Average
Shoping Centres Average
High Street Prime
Shoping Centres Prime
Source: Cushman & Wakefield Advisory Services, 2006
VIII. Real Estate
Industrial Market
The year 2005 saw continued growth of interest in industrial space outside Warsaw,
with increased supply and demand in emerging regional industrial markets. Poland is
benefiting from the continuing move of European production from Western Europe,
helped by the country’s low costs, the expansion of the region’s logistics markets, the
growth of the retail sector, and improving transport networks.
Still, the Polish industrial market remains the least mature in comparison with the
other two commercial sectors, with a limited number of modern industrial parks in
Poland being the main barrier. Nevertheless, investment activity has grown and almost
doubled in terms of the number of transactions and volume of investments in 2005.
By the end of 2005, the volume of modern industrial stock in Poland exceeded 2
million sq.m. This included approximately 574,000 sq.m in regional cities, accounting
for 28 % of total modern stock in Poland. The most active markets outside Warsaw
are Central Poland, Poznań and the Silesia region, whose development has been
triggered by the improvement to the motorway infrastructure. In 2006, new supply
may exceed 300,000 sq.m, subject to demand.
Industrial Market – Cumulative Stock and Annual Supply
2 5 00 00 0
350 000
300 000
250 000
1 5 00 00 0
200 000
1 0 00 00 0
150 000
100 000
Annual supply sq.m
Total stock sq.m
2 0 00 00 0
5 00 00 0
50 0 00
200 1
2 003
Total stock in W arsaw
A nnual supply in W arsaw
2 004
20 05
2 006*
Total stock in other cities
A nnual supply in other cities
Source: Cushman & Wakefield Advisory Services, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
As some regional projects were developed speculatively, the overall vacancy has
grown to about 14 % at the end of 2005, keeping rents at a low level. Demand is
anticipated to remain healthy in 2006, both for industrial built-to-suit space (relocation
from older stock) and for logistic space. An increase of activity in the production
space market is expected, strongly fuelled by EU accession.
During the last two years rents have remained at around EUR 4/sq.m/month for prime
industrial warehouses in Warsaw (smaller units) and approximately EUR
3/sq.m/month for logistic space. Growing competition among landlords has resulted in
offering more incentives to attract tenants, which has put pressure on effective rental
levels. Rental growth is unlikely to be seen through 2006, especially given the builtto-suit capacity in Poland and the growing number of lease renegotiations.
Industrial Market – Prime Rents and Vacancy
Prime rents
Vacancy (%)
EUR / sq.m per month
Vacancy rate
Source: Cushman & Wakefield Advisory Services, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
Member of the Stockholm Text of the Paris
Convention on the Protection of Industrial Property
Member of the Madrid Agreement Concerning the
International Registration of Marks
Industrial and intellectual property is protected by
the Industrial Property Law of 30 June 2000
Copyright is protected by the Law on Copyright and
Related Rights of 4 February 1994
The rights to any manifestation of creative activity of
an individual character in any form, regardless of its
value, purpose, and manner of expression are
Registered patents are valid for 20 years from the
date of filing
The protection of utility models lasts for 10 years
How to Do Business in Poland
Industrial and intellectual property is protected on the grounds of the Industrial Property
Law of 30 June 2000, which came into force on 22 August 2001, replacing four previous
pieces of legislation. The law regulates inventions, utility models, industrial designs,
trademarks, geographical indications and topographies of integrated circuits, as well as
the principles on which entities may accept rationalisation proposals and remunerate the
creators thereof.
Patent Legislation
Poland is a member of the Stockholm Text of the Paris Convention on the Protection of
Industrial Property. Since 1990, Poland is also a signatory to the Patent Co-operation
Treaty. Protection of inventions by patents and utility models is provided by the above
mentioned Industrial Property Law of 30 June 2000. However, if obligatory European
Union regulations, or international agreements provide for special procedures for
granting protection in the subject matter, the provisions of this law apply only to the
subject matter not governed by that agreement or falling within the responsibilities of
national authorities.
Foreign persons benefit from the rights granted by the Industrial Property Law on the
grounds of international agreements. Further, foreign persons may benefit from the
rights granted by this law on the basis of reciprocity, if it does not violate international
agreements. Applications are filed with the Polish Patent Office. Foreign applicants
must be represented by a patent attorney whose registered seat is in Poland.
Registered patents are valid for 20 years from the date of filing. A patent granted for
a manufacturing process also covers products directly obtained through this process. The
protection right of a utility model is valid for 10 years. To keep a patent or protection
right in force annuities must be paid.
Patents are not granted for:
• inventions whose application would be contrary to the principles of public order or
• new plant varieties or animal breeds, or purely biological methods for the
cultivation of plants or breeding of animals, although this does not apply to the
micro-biological cultivation of plants or breeding of animals, nor to its results;
• surgical and therapeutic methods of medical or veterinary treatment, or diagnostic
methods in the fields of medicine or veterinary science, although this does not
apply to products used in diagnosis or treatment.
IX. Industrial and Intellectual Property
Patents are granted after an examination as to whether an invention is new, involves
original research, and is commercially viable. A utility model is to be new and useful and
to relate to the shape, construction, or arrangement of an object that has a durable form.
The patent or protection right of a utility model gives the owner the exclusive right to
exploit the invention on the territory of Poland while it is valid. The exclusive right
cannot, however, be abused, especially by applying prohibited monopolistic practices.
In particular, patent rights will not apply where its exploitation by a third party is
necessary to satisfy a domestic market need and in particular when the public interest
requires so and supply and/or the quality of the product concerned is insufficient, and/or
its price is unduly inflated. This provision, however, does not apply in the first three
years following patent registration.
Abusing patent rights, as well as the need to prevent or eliminate a state of national
emergency, may be a reason for applying for a compulsory licence.
There are no special terms on licences. The owner of a patent or exclusive licence has
the right to sue for an injunction on account of profits and/or damages. Criminal
penalties are foreseen for false marking and infringement. Marking products with
a patent number is commonly used but not obligatory.
It is worth noting that on the grounds of the Law on Changing Industrial Property Law
of 6 June 2002 a whole new chapter on supplementary protection rights was introduced.
It came into force on the date of Poland’s accession to the European Union. From that
date supplementary protection rights are granted on the territory of the Republic of
Poland following the conditions laid down in the regulations concerning the creation of
supplementary protection certificates for medicinal products and plant protection
products in the European Union.
Poland is a member of the Madrid Agreement on the registration of trademarks and the
prevention of false or deceptive indications of the origin of goods. Since 1991, Poland has
also been a member of the Madrid Agreement on the international registration of
trademarks and became a member of the Protocol to this Agreement in the spring of 1997.
The following kinds of mark may be registered:
• trademark,
• service mark,
• collective mark,
• mutual quality assurance trademark.
How to Do Business in Poland
An application must define the goods and services that are to be marked by the
registered trademark. The application procedure, the rights conferred, and the forms of
registerable and unregisterable marks are regulated by the aforementioned Industrial
Property Law. The applications are filed with the Polish Patent Office. Priority under the
Paris Convention may be claimed.
A registered trademark is valid for 10 years from the date of filing. However, there are
several instances where the right of protection for a trademark shall lapse earlier, for
example, if it is proved that for five consecutive years the mark has not been used. The
registration may be renewed for the next 10-year period. After registration, the owner of
the trademark may grant the licence to a third party. In case of infringement, the
proprietor or licensee can take legal steps.
Protection is extended to the names of geographical places and regions, where the name
refers to a specific locality or area which is associated with a particular product and
where there is a particular characteristic of the product associated with the name.
Foreign applicants have to be represented in Poland by a patent attorney whose
registered seat is in Poland. A list of such attorneys is available from the Polish Chamber
of Patent Attorneys (at A list of European patent
attorneys in Poland is also available from the European Patent Office (
Copyright in Poland is protected by the Law on Copyright and Related Rights of
4 February 1994. The law, following amendments resulting from joining the European
Union, meets contemporary international standards and corresponds to the principles of
free trade in intellectual property.
The scope of copyright protection is quite extensive. The law covers not only the
protection of traditionally understood author’s rights, but also related rights. The law
provides for new rights and allows copyright owners to decide how their work is to be
used and to derive financial benefit from it. The owners include producers of sound and
video recordings, TV and radio stations, as well as artist-performers. The law provides
protection for intellectual property in the areas of science, technology, and
manufacturing, including computer programmes, industrial designs, etc. The protection
mechanism for computer software is similar to that used in other EU countries.
IX. Industrial and Intellectual Property
The rights to any manifestation of creative activity of an individual character in any
form, regardless of its value, purpose, and manner of expression are protected. The term
during which intellectual property rights are protected was expanded to 70 years after
the author’s death or, in cases were the copyright belongs to somebody else, 70 years
after its distribution.
The law also provides for a general compensation mechanism for losses incurred by
authors, performers, and producers due to uncontrolled mass reproduction for personal
use (at home). Producers and importers of VCRs, tape recorders, other audio and video
equipment, scanners, copying machines, as well as clean tapes, CDs, etc. must pay
a surcharge to the artists, performers, and manufacturers amounting to up to 3 % of the
sales income generated by these products.
The law provides grounds for an efficient enforcing of copyright protection. Illegally
obtained benefits may be confiscated and returned to the true owner. Any equipment
used for the infringement may also be confiscated, even if it does not belong to the
perpetrator. The law also envisages penalties for the infringement of intellectual
property rights by fines and prison sentences of up to 5 years.
Moreover, a separate piece of legislation, The Law on Suppressing Unfair Competition
of 16 April 1993 defines unfair competition as an illegal activity, or an activity contrary
to good practises, violating or threatening the interests of another entrepreneur or
customer. It protects Polish and foreign companies from such activities, and specifically
• attempts to convince the public that goods or services originate from someone
other than the true producer or supplier,
• damaging the company’s image by providing unchecked information or publishing
its trade or technological service information, etc.,
• violating business secrets,
• inciting cancellation, or non-performance, of a contract,
• product imitation,
• impeding market access,
• organising pyramid selling schemes.
Upon coming into force the Law on Copyright and Related Rights and the Law on
Suppressing Unfair Competition have considerably strengthened copyright protection in
Poland and contributed to curtailing piracy. EU membership required amendments of
both laws, in order to implement EU directives in this area. The amendments have been
duly introduced and have resulted in the establishment of a legal framework concerning
copyright protection which is similar to that present in other EU countries.
How to Do Business in Poland
A variety of legal forms available, to suit any type
and size of business
How to establish basic types of companies:
♦ joint stock company
♦ limited liability company
♦ limited partnership
♦ limited joint-stock partnership
Regulations concerning subsidiaries; branch offices
and representative offices
Merger regulations
Criteria for simplified financial reports for smaller
Obligatory audit criteria
Public procurement tender procedures and exclusions
Creditors’ protection
Employment contracts
Social security charges amount to 48 % of the salary
Countries whose citizens do not require a permit to
work in Poland
Various exclusions from the obligation of obtaining
a work permit
How to Do Business in Poland
Forms of Business Entities
Polish regulations allow the following legal forms of businesses:
enterprises run by a natural person; these are small businesses run by private
civil partnerships established under the regulations of the Polish Civil Code,
commercial companies, established by natural or legal persons under the
regulations of the Polish Code of Commercial Companies,
co-operatives established by natural or legal persons,
state-owned enterprises,
societas europaea (SE) and European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) can be
set up in Poland as of 19 May 2005 (in accordance with EU Council regulations).
The Code of Commercial Companies of 15 September 2000 regulates two groups of
partnerships (registered partnership, limited partnership, professional partnership
and limited joint-stock partnership),
corporations (joint-stock company and limited liability company).
Societies, foundations, and trade unions may also carry out economic activity.
Operations in some business areas require a license or a permit, on the grounds of the
Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004, or may be carried out following the
company’s entry in the register of regulated activities, regardless of whether the
company is domestic or foreign. For some basic information on corporations, as well as
licensing and permits, please refer to Legal Considerations in Chapter V.
On the basis of the Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004, foreign persons (as
defined by the aforementioned law) from EU and EFTA states – members of the
European Economic Area – may operate in Poland in accordance with the principles
applicable to domestic entrepreneurs.
Other foreign persons may conduct their operations solely (unless stated otherwise in
international agreements) in the form of a limited partnership, limited joint-stock
partnership, limited liability company, and joint-stock company. Moreover, foreign
persons may open branch offices and representative offices in Poland. For more
information on subsidiaries please refer to the next sub-chapter.
X. Operating in Poland
Establishing a Company
Joint-Stock Companies and Limited Liability Companies
Before the registration procedure for a company may be started, the company charter
(joint-stock company) or the articles of association (limited liability company) must be
prepared and duly signed and notarised. Prior to their finalisation in consultation with
a notary, a draft should be prepared by the legal advisers of the company’s founders.
In the case of a joint-stock company, the notarial deed should contain the following:
• business name and company seat,
• type of activity,
• duration of the company, if limited,
• amount of share capital, capital paid-in before registration, the nominal value of the
shares and their number, the indication whether they are registered shares or bearer
• number of each type of shares and rights associated with specific share types, if
• names and addresses of the founders,
• number of members of the governing and supervisory bodies, or at least a minimum
or a maximum number and an entity authorised to appoint the members,
• a newspaper/periodical for publishing announcements, if the company intends to
publish announcements in other than the Court and Economic Monitor (Monitor
Sądowy i Gospodarczy).
Apart from the above, the charter should include provisions concerning the number and
type of instruments that entitle the holder to participate in the profits or in the division of
company assets, along with the rights associated with these instruments, any additional
obligations related to the purchase of the shares (other than the requirement to pay for
the shares), the conditions and manner in which the shares may be re-deemed, any
limitations concerning the shares’ transfer or sale and any extra rights granted to specific
shareholders, as well as at least an approximation of the costs resulting from the
company’s formation.
In the case of a limited liability company, the notarial deed should contain the following:
• business name and company seat,
• type of activity,
• duration of the company, if limited,
• amount of share capital,
• whether a shareholder is entitled to one or more shares,
• number and nominal value of shares held by individual shareholders.
How to Do Business in Poland
Apart from the above, the deed should include provisions concerning in-kind
contributions and stipulations concerning additional shareholder benefits and/or
obligations, if applicable.
Other documents required at the notary office are:
• a list of names of shareholders and the value and number of shares held by the
• a draft of the appointment of the Board of Management,
• a draft of the appointment of the Supervisory Board (obligatory for joint-stock
companies) and Control Committee, if provided by law or the articles of association.
If the shareholder is a legal person, he is required to submit:
• a copy of the company’s entry in the commercial register (valid for three months),
• a resolution of the appropriate body of the company agreeing to the company’s
participation in the new company to be formed,
• notarialy authorised proxies, if the persons authorised to sign on behalf of the
shareholder are not appearing in person and are to be represented by a proxy.
Documents in a foreign language must be accompanied by a certified translation.
It should be noted that for limited liability companies the founding capital must be fully
paid up on incorporation, while for joint-stock companies at least 25 % of the founding
capital must be paid up or contributed on incorporation and at least 25 % of the cash
capital must be paid up.
The next step is to register the company in the National Court Register. This is
performed by the Registry Court, which acts after receiving an application for
registration submitted by the Board of Management and containing information on:
• business name and company seat, and scope of business,
• the value of the initial capital (and the number of shares and their nominal value
for joint-stock companies),
• the names of Board of Management members and how the company is
represented (and members’ addresses for limited liability companies),
• the names of Supervisory Board members (obligatory for joint-stock companies)
and Control Committee, if required by law, or the articles of association,
• the duration of the company, if limited,
• a newspaper/periodical for publishing announcements, if indicated in the
charter/articles of association,
• a statement on in-kind contributions made by the partners,
• whether a shareholder is entitled to one or more shares (limited liability
• number of privileged shares and type of privileges (joint-stock companies),
X. Operating in Poland
final share capital amount, if provided by the charter (joint-stock companies),
amount of capital paid-in before registration (joint-stock companies),
any extra rights granted to specific shareholders, if provided by the charter (jointstock companies).
Other documents required upon registration include:
• The company charter or articles of association;
• Documents appointing the company’s governing bodies, with a specification of
appointed members. In the case of a limited liability company only when these
were not defined in the articles;
• A statement from all members of the Board of Management that the contributions
towards initial capital have been made by all shareholders in full (limited liability
companies), or that the share payments and contributions in kind envisaged by the
charter have been effected lawfully (joint-stock companies);
• A list, signed by all members of the Board of Management, giving the names of the
shareholders (individuals and companies) and the number and nominal value of
shares held (limited liability companies);
• Specimens of the signatures of the Board of Management members, certified by a
notary or made in person in the presence of the Court;
• Notarial deeds on establishing the company and on the subscription of shares
(joint-stock companies);
• A receipt for the share payments, certified by a bank, or an investment company. If
there are contributions in kind to be made after the registration, a statement from
all members of the Board of Management that the contributions are ensured, as
required by the law (joint-stock companies).
There are some further requirements concerning documents required upon registration
of a joint-stock company, specified in the Code of Commercial Companies, article 320.
There is a registration fee amounting to PLN 1,000.
The registration has to be officially announced, as required by the law, in the Court and
Economic Monitor. The announcement fee is PLN 500.
After its registration in the Court, each company must obtain its statistical number
(REGON) from the local statistical office (free of charge). To receive it the company is
required to fill-in and submit a simple RG-1 form, accompanied by a copy of the articles
or charter and a certified copy of the entry in the Commercial Register. Although statistical
offices are obliged to issue the REGON within seven days, if you show up in person it can
take as little as twenty or thirty minutes, depending on the length of the queue.
Finally, the company must be registered with the Social Security Institution (ZUS) and
the local tax office (after opening a bank account).
How to Do Business in Poland
Limited Partnership
A limited partnership is a partnership wherein at least one partner is fully liable against
creditors (general partner) and the liability of at least one partner (the limited partner) is
limited. The partnership agreement must be notarised and it should contain:
• business name and company seat,
• type of activity,
• duration of the company, if limited,
• contributions made by each partner and their value,
• liability of each limited partner against creditors (value),
• if a limited partner contributes in kind, the contribution must be specified, along
with its value and the name of the contributing partner.
The next step is to register the company in the National Court Register. The same
registration and announcement fees apply as in the case of other commercial companies.
A limited partnership’s registration application should contain:
• business name and company seat,
• type of activity,
• name(s) of general partners and, separately, names(s) of limited partners, as well as
circumstances pertaining to limitations on partners’ active capacity, if applicable,
• names of persons authorised to represent the company, and how the company is
represented, and, should general partners entrust the running of the company to
some of their number alone, this circumstance should be mentioned,
• amount up to which the limited partners are liable.
A limited partnership is established upon its registration. After this, just as for
corporations, the company must obtain its statistical number, and register with the Social
Security Institution (ZUS) and with the local tax office (after opening a bank account).
Limited Joint-Stock Partnership
A limited joint-stock partnership is a partnership wherein at least one partner is fully
liable against creditors (the general partner) and at least one of the partners is the
company’s shareholder. The minimum share capital of a limited joint-stock partnership
amounts to PLN 50,000. The partnership agreement must be notarised and it should
• business name and company seat,
• type of activity,
• duration of the company, if limited,
• contributions made by each partner and their value,
• amount of share capital, how it was collected, the nominal value of the shares and
their number, an indication whether they are registered shares or bearer shares,
X. Operating in Poland
number of each type of shares and rights associated with specific share types, if
name(s) of general partners, with their seats/addresses,
structure of the General Meeting and of the Supervisory Board, if establishment of
the Supervisory Board is required by law, or the partnership agreement.
The next step is to register the company in the National Court Register. The same
registration and announcement fees apply as in the case of other commercial companies.
A limited joint-stock partnership’s registration application should contain:
• business name and company seat,
• type of activity,
• duration of the company, if limited,
• amount of share capital, the nominal value of the shares and their number,
• number of privileged shares and type of privileges, if envisaged in the partnership
• amount of capital paid-in before registration,
• name(s) of general partners, as well as circumstances pertaining to limitations on
partners’ active capacity, if applicable,
• names of persons authorised to represent the company, and how the company is
represented, and, should general partners entrust the running of the company to
some of their number alone, this circumstance should be mentioned,
• a statement on in-kind contributions of the shareholders, if applicable.
A limited joint-stock partnership is established upon its registration. After this, just as
for corporations, the company must obtain its statistical number, and register with the
Social Security Institution (ZUS) and with the local tax office (after opening a bank
Subsidiaries of Foreign Companies
Foreign companies may open branch offices and representative offices in Poland
pursuant to the provisions contained in the Law on Economic Freedom of 2 July 2004.
Branch Office
Foreign companies may establish branch offices in Poland, on the basis of reciprocity,
subject to the provisions of international agreements ratified by Poland, in order to
conduct business activity in Poland within the scope of their business objectives,
How to Do Business in Poland
Foreign persons (as defined by the aforementioned law) from EU and EFTA states –
members of the European Economic Area – may establish branch offices in Poland in
accordance with the principles applicable to domestic entrepreneurs.
Branch offices are obliged to use the name of the mother company in the language of the
country where it is registered, along with the name of its legal form translated into
Polish and the words oddział w Polsce (branch in Poland) added.
A foreign entity setting up its branch office is obliged to appoint a person at the branch
who is authorised to represent this entity. A branch may commence its operations only
after it has been registered with the National Court Register.
Branch offices are to maintain separate accounting books in Polish, pursuant to Polish
accounting regulations. Another requirement stipulates that branch offices are required
to notify the Polish Minister of the Economy of:
• the commencement of liquidation of the foreign entity that has opened the branch
in Poland,
• the loss by that foreign entity of the right to conduct business activity.
Liquidation of branch offices is carried out following the liquidation procedure for
limited liability companies contained in the Code of Commercial Companies of 15
September 2000.
Representative Office
Foreign companies may establish representative offices in Poland solely in order to
promote and advertise the company establishing the office. Establishment of
a representative office requires registration in the Register of Representative Offices of
Foreign Business Entities kept by the Minister of the Economy. Registration is effected
based on an application from the foreign company concerned.
The application, in Polish, should contain the following:
• name, place of registration, and legal form of the foreign company opening its
representative office,
• scope of the business activity of the foreign company opening its representative office,
• name and address in Poland of a person in the representative office authorised to
represent the foreign company,
• representative office’s address in Poland.
The above-mentioned application should be accompanied by the documents listed below:
• deed of formation (articles of association, charter) of the foreign company, if
X. Operating in Poland
copy of its entry in the Commercial Register or its equivalent, if applicable,
statement of the foreign company on establishing its representative office in Poland,
document certifying the foreign company’s rights to the real estate wherein its
representative office will carry out the activities.
The enclosures in a foreign language contained in this list should be accompanied by
a certified translation into Polish.
Representative offices are obliged to use the name of the mother company in the
language of the country where it is registered, along with the name of its legal form
translated into Polish and the words przedstawicielstwo w Polsce (representative office
in Poland) added.
Just like branch offices, representative offices are required to maintain separate
accounting books in Polish, pursuant to Polish accounting regulations. Furthermore,
representative offices are obliged to notify the Polish Minister of the Economy of:
• the commencement or end of liquidation of the foreign entity that has opened
a representative office in Poland,
• the loss by that foreign entity of the right to conduct business activity,
• the loss by that foreign entity of the right to dispose of its assets, as well as
• any change pertaining to the information contained in the application for
registering of the representative office.
Liquidation of representative offices is conducted following the liquidation procedure
for limited liability companies contained in the Code of Commercial Companies of 15
September 2000.
Competition and Consumer Protection
The Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (UOKiK) is the Polish
competition authority guarding freedom of competition and consumer interests. Its
major mission is to examine conformity with the Competition and Consumer
Protection Law of 15 December 2000 (in force as of 1 April 2001), which forms the
legal basis for competition and consumer protection in Poland.
The UOKIK’s head-office is located in Warsaw and there are 9 branch-offices in major
Polish cities. Its key activities include acting against monopolistic practices, merger
control, consumer protection, and public aid monitoring. As of 1 May 2004 the UOKiK
is a part of the European Competition Network, formed by the European Commission
and competition protection authorities of the member countries. From a foreign
investor’s point of view probably the most interesting activities of the Office for
How to Do Business in Poland
Competition and Consumer Protection and its regional agencies are the ones pertaining
to mergers.
It should be noted that concentrations having a Community dimension fall into the
jurisdiction of the European Commission, on the grounds of Council Regulation (EC)
No 139/2004 of 20 January 2004 on the Control of Concentrations Between
Undertakings (the EC Merger Regulation).
A concentration has a Community dimension where:
• the combined aggregate worldwide turnover of all the undertakings concerned is
more than EUR 5 billion; and
• the aggregate Community-wide turnover of each of at least two of the
undertakings concerned is more than EUR 250 million,
unless each of the undertakings concerned achieves more than two-thirds of its
aggregate Community-wide turnover within one and the same Member State.
In specific cases a concentration that does not meet the above thresholds has a
Community dimension, providing that the combined aggregate worldwide turnover of
all the undertakings concerned is more than EUR 2.5 billion.
A merger of companies is subject to the UOKiK’s approval if the companies’ combined
turnover in the preceding year exceeded EUR 50 million. This obligation refers, in
particular, to:
• the merger of two or more independent companies;
• the takeover, through acquisition or by entering into the possession of stocks, other
securities, shares, of the entirety or a part of the property, or in any other way
obtaining direct or indirect control over one or several companies;
• the creation of a joint venture;
• the takeover or acquisition of stocks or shares of another company resulting in
gaining at least 25 % of the votes at the general assembly or assembly of partners;
• the same person assuming the function of a member of the managing or controlling
body of competing companies.
There are some exclusions from the obligation of obtaining the UOKiK’s approval, most
notably these pertaining to taking over companies with an annual turnover below EUR
10 million (in the territory of Poland, during each of the two accounting years
immediately preceding the merger), to companies of the same holding, and to acquiring
only temporary control.
However, the exclusion based on an annual turnover below EUR 10 million does not
apply to mergers that would result in creating, or strengthening, a dominating market
position, as defined by the law. It is assumed that a company has the dominating
X. Operating in Poland
position, if its market share exceeds 40 %. A merger can take place if UOKiK grants
a favourable decision.
In order to increase the efficiency of the UOKiK, in cases where a company’s practice
may be restricting competition, an explanatory investigation may be instituted instead of
the more complex and costly anti-monopoly proceedings, and a decision may be made
on the evidence gathered in the shorter proceedings.
Furthermore, the question arose as to the obligation of notification of trans-national
mergers. It was decided that, on the basis of Article 1 of the Act on Competition and
Consumer Protection, which provides that the act will apply to all anti-competitive
practices “which cause or may cause effects within the territory of the Republic of
Poland”, the parties to trans-national mergers are obliged to notify the UOKiK of their
intention to merge if:
• any of the enterprises has subsidiaries in Poland; or
• they have distribution networks in Poland; or
• they conduct permanent sales on the territory of Poland.
It should be noted that as of 1 May 2004, art. 13 clause 2 of the Competition and
Consumer Protection Law, providing an exemption from the obligation to notify the
UOKiK about mergers as a result of which the joint market share of the merging
partners will not exceed 20 % is no longer in force. Therefore, all mergers that had not
been effected by 1 May 2004 and that were excluded from the obligation to obtain the
UOKiK approval on the grounds of the aforementioned clause, need to obtain such an
approval regardless of the partners’ market share.
The same law prohibits agreements that aim at, or result in, the elimination, restriction,
or any other infringement of competition on the relevant market, and in particular, those
agreements consisting in:
• fixing, directly or indirectly, prices and other conditions for the purchase or sale of
• limiting or controlling production or supply, or technical development or investments;
• sharing markets of supply or purchase;
• applying onerous, or different contract terms in like transactions with third parties, thus
creating different conditions of competition for these parties;
• making the conclusion of an agreement subject to the acceptance or fulfilment by the
other party of another performance, having neither substantial nor customary relation
with the subject of the agreement;
• limiting access to the market or eliminating from the market entrepreneurs who are not
party to the agreement;
• fixing the conditions of offers to be submitted by entrepreneurs participating in a tender,
in particular in relation to the scope of works or price.
How to Do Business in Poland
There are, however, some exclusions from the above, most notably pertaining to
companies with a joint market share of below 5 %. Abusing a dominant market position,
as defined in art. 8 of the law, is also prohibited.
In 2005, the UOKiK issued 144 decisions on the grounds of anti-monopoly regulations
regarding practises limiting competition. Of this number, 16 cases involved horizontal
agreements (in 4 cases practises limiting competition were discovered), 11 cases
involved vertical agreements (in 2 cases practises limiting competition were discovered),
and 117 cases involved abuse of a dominant position (in 41 cases practises limiting
competition were discovered).
In the same year the UOKiK examined 378 cases pertaining to mergers and completed
329. In 265 instances, the decision was favourable to the merging companies. In two
cases the favourable decision was conditional. No intended mergers were banned.
Accounting and Auditing
The accounting and auditing regulations are based on the Accounting Law of 29
September 1994, as amended. The law does not apply to the State Treasury and the
National Bank of Poland.
All businesses having their registered seat, or the seat of management in Poland must
adhere to Polish accounting and auditing regulations. However, as of 1 January 2005,
entities keeping accounts in line with International Accounting Standards (IAS) and
following International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the related
interpretations announced as directives of the European Commission are required to
apply the Accounting Law only to the matters not regulated therein.
Application of the law by the following business entities is voluntary, providing that
their net sales do not exceed EUR 800,000:
• enterprises run by a natural person,
• civil partnerships established by natural persons,
• registered partnerships established by natural persons, and
• professional partnerships.
The required accounting procedures are based on a double-entry system. Each company
must establish its own book of accounts. Except for state organisations, no uniform book
of accounts is imposed. Nevertheless, a book of accounts must still meet certain
requirements, such as the ability to show the company’s assets, the cost of production,
and the profitability of the company. The accounting records, the annual balance sheet,
and the profit and loss account must be maintained in Polish currency and prepared in
the Polish language.
X. Operating in Poland
The requirements regarding the correctness and clarity of accounting records and
vouchers do not differ from those normally applied in other European Union countries.
Accounting records, documentation, reports, etc., have to be kept for 5 years.
The accounting law provides for the (optional) application of Polish Accounting
Standards (only a few exist, presently), and where there is no Polish standard, the
appropriate International Accounting Standard (IAS) may be used. In practise, this
means that many companies will not comply with IAS where the accounting law is
silent on a particular issue.
In light of the commercial activity regulations, if a transaction is concluded between
entrepreneurs, it is always to be done via a bank account. In the case of transactions
between entrepreneurs and other parties, this obligation arises only if the amount of the
transaction exceeds EUR 15,000, regardless of the number of payments.
The entrepreneur must notify the appropriate tax office of his intention to operate a bank
account for business purposes. If he has opened more than one bank account, he is
obliged to indicate one of them as basic and to inform both the bank and the relevant tax
office which is the principal bank account.
The law specifies information to be included in financial reports. There is also a
provision allowing for simplified financial reports. Such reports can be used by
companies meeting at least two of the following three criteria in the year to be reported
and in the previous year:
• the average number of employees (in full-time terms) does not exceed 50,
• balance sheet assets at the end of the financial year do not exceed EUR 2 million,
• net income does not exceed EUR 4 million.
However, simplified reports are not allowed in the case of banks and insurance
Holdings, joint-stock companies (excluding companies in the process of organisation),
banks and insurers, and entities operating according to the provisions concerning the
public turnover of securities, the organisation and operation of pension funds, and
investment funds, are required to hold an annual audit. Other companies must be audited
if two of the following three conditions are met in the preceding year:
• the average number of employees (in full-time terms) exceeds 50,
• balance sheet assets at the end of the financial year exceed EUR 2.5 million,
• net income exceeds EUR 5 million.
How to Do Business in Poland
The auditor’s report must be submitted to the company’s local tax office, as well as to
the registration court. The report is available for public inspection. All auditors must be
members of, and are governed by, the National Registered Auditors’ Chamber and the
list of auditors entitled to perform audits may be obtained there.
Public Procurement
The Polish public procurement system is governed by the Law on Public Procurement of
29 January 2004, as amended. It came into force on 2 March 2004, in order to
harmonize the Polish law on public procurement with EU requirements. The law
specifies the rules and procedures for awarding public contracts, law enforcement
measures, monitoring of the award of public contracts and the competent authorities
with respect to matters addressed therein. Public procurement activities are supervised
by the Public Procurement Office (UZP).
Generally, the law applies to all public contracts with a value exceeding EUR 6,000,
including for example, those awarded by state and local governments, co-operatives,
public health care centres and all other entities which use public funds to finance at
least 50 % percent of a given project. Entities from some sectors, such as water
management, power, transport and telecommunications are subject to the law if they
operate on the basis of special or exclusive rights, or if they are subordinated to
dominant entities from the public finance sector. However, it should be noted that
defence related purchases are excluded from public tender requirements. Moreover,
there are other exclusions, including contracts related to the performance of an
international obligation, and labour and real estate transactions.
Depending on the value and nature of the tender, one of seven tender procedures
envisaged by the law is to be applied. The seven are:
• public tenders,
• limited tenders,
• published competitive negotiations,
• unpublished competitive negotiations,
• open orders,
• price inquiries, and finally,
• internet auctions.
Public tenders and limited tenders are the primary procedures. The others may be used
only in cases specified in the aforementioned law.
X. Operating in Poland
Generally, public contracts involving the sale of goods and/or services up to EUR
60,000 may be carried out using simplified tender procedures, and thus avoid the need
to follow all public tender requirements. If a value of tender for the sale of goods
and/or services exceeds EUR 130,000 (EUR 5,000,000 in the case of construction
services), public tender announcements are published in the Official Journal of the
European Union. However, a public agency administering the tender is allowed
a certain degree of discretion to utilize the limited tender procedure as opposed to the
formal public tender, regardless of the value of the contract.
Specifying the subject of a contract by identifying trademarks, patents, or origin is not
allowed. Still, if such a degree of specification necessarily arises out of the very nature
of the contract, or the ordering party cannot describe the contract in any other manner,
this ban can be avoided.
A bidder is entitled to correct obvious mistakes in his tender, including mistakes in
calculations. In such case the bidder is obliged to inform all the other bidders
accordingly. Moreover, regardless of the value of the tender, an unsuccessful bidder
has the right to appeal. Even if just one bid is received, the tender may continue
without the need to cancel it, or call for a new one. Polish entities no longer receive
preferential treatment as compared to their EU counterparts. On the other hand, nonEU based entities may find themselves at a competitive disadvantage.
Bankruptcy and Insolvency
Bankruptcy and insolvency are governed by the Law on Corporate Insolvency and
Recovery of 28 February 2003. The Law applies to all types of economic entities,
including state enterprises, companies, and natural persons conducting business activity.
The aim of the Law on Corporate Insolvency and Recovery is to create greater
protection for creditors and also to encourage reorganisation schemes during the course
of the insolvency process. The primary objective is to ensure that the entity can
continue its economic activities, with the objective of maintaining employment and the
integrity of the enterprise.
Moreover, the law aims at the corporate recovery of the enterprise, creditor satisfaction,
the prevention of further insolvency, debt rescheduling, and the encouragement of
responsible business practices amongst entrepreneurs. The legislation applies to
entrepreneurs, limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, partners in
partnerships, and branches of foreign banks operating in Poland.
How to Do Business in Poland
Insolvency of any business may be declared when a business entity has ceased to pay its
debts. However, if the situation is short-lived only, due to some temporary difficulties, it
does not give grounds to declare bankruptcy.
In the case of state-owned enterprises, co-operatives, joint-stock companies, limited
liability companies, other legal persons conducting economic activity, liquidated general
partnerships, registered partnerships, professional partnerships, or limited joint-stock
partnerships, bankruptcy is also declared if the assets of such subjects cannot satisfy
existing debts. In all cases, the court always closely supervises proceedings.
An insolvent debtor is obliged to lodge a formal application within 14 days of the
occurrence of conditions of insolvency. Failure to comply can lead to civil law
consequences, prohibition from conducting economic activity by the individual and
prohibition from acting as a director or supervisory board member of any entity. In
addition, persons acting dishonestly or impeding the process of insolvency can be
prosecuted under criminal law.
The legislation has a restrained scope of application to individuals, where its application
is limited to personal insolvency caused by factors outside the control of the individual.
This law does not apply to non-commercial entities.
The insolvency process is divided into two phases. The first concerns the declaration and
publication of insolvency and the process of establishing whether there are grounds for
declaring insolvency. The second phase regards the execution of the insolvency process,
ending in the complete or partial satisfaction of creditors, or in some compromise
The choice of the method to satisfy creditors’ claims is determined by the court.
A creditor of the company may also file a motion for bankruptcy, as well as any of his
creditors. Further, in the case of general partnerships, registered partnerships,
professional partnerships, or limited joint-stock partnerships, any partner or shareholder
is entitled to file a motion for bankruptcy, while in the case of legal persons and other
organisational units this right is granted to any person representing such an entity.
There are the following types of insolvency procedures:
• bankruptcy,
• arrangements within bankruptcy proceedings,
• voluntary agreements,
• banking arrangements.
X. Operating in Poland
The bankruptcy of a company results in the sale of all assets, the meeting of all
commitments, and the collection of all debts. Where possible, companies with no
financial liquidity should be sold as going concerns. The law aims to avoid the
bankruptcy of economic entities that are facing short-term liquidity problems.
Under the legislation it is not possible to place the following into insolvency:
• The State Treasury,
• Local authorities and their entities,
• Public health service units,
• Institutions and legal entities set up by an act of Parliament, or those set up under
delegated authority arising from legislation,
• Farmers,
• Education establishments.
Recovery of a business entity which, as a result of exceptional circumstances beyond its
control, has ceased to pay its debts or foresees that its payments will cease, may demand
the opening of proceedings for arrangements with creditors in order to make a voluntary
Entrepreneurs should note, however, that bankruptcy proceedings are very slow and do
not give creditors protection at a level foreign investors may be used to.
The law introduced the concept of securing the assets of an insolvent entity. The aim is
to ensure that the insolvent entity does not dispose of its assets in the period between the
declaration of insolvency and the moment of appointment of a liquidator/administrator
or the appointment of a court official.
The law provides for the possibility to conduct a process of corporate restructuring. The
process is designed to ensure speed of action and in practise is carried out by the insolvent
enterprise itself. It is designed to be applied to enterprises which are still capable of
meeting some of their liabilities, but which are in danger of becoming insolvent.
Conducting this process is subject to presenting a restructuring plan. Restructuring,
however, can only be conducted by enterprises entered in the National Court Register.
The law also extends the application of cross-border insolvency and restructuring. When
a foreign entity is put into liquidation, its Polish registered branches and representative
offices become subject to the insolvency law. The Polish law imposes the model legal
solutions of the 1997 UNCITRAL rules. However, as at the date of Poland’s accession
to the European Union, intra-EU insolvency became subject to the EU law. The main
consequence of the above is that the insolvency process of a branch or a representative
office is conducted on the grounds of the law of the country of registration of the parent
How to Do Business in Poland
All major employment issues are regulated by the Labour Code of 26 June 1974, as
amended. These include employer-employee relations, working conditions, salaries and
wages, holidays, etc. Another important act concerning employment, and employment
of foreigners in particular, is the Law on the Promotion of Employment and Labour
Market Institutions of 20 April 2004.
An employer must conclude a written employment contract with an employee. The
contract should describe the type of work to be carried out, the commencement date,
place of work, working hours, and the salary. The employment contract may be for an
unlimited or limited period of time or can be limited to the carrying out of a specific
task. There are several types of employment contracts:
• unlimited duration contract, which is a permanent employment contract,
• limited duration contract, concluded for a probationary period. The term of this
contract can not exceed three months. Often it leads to the conclusion of an
unlimited duration contract, for which the contractual conditions may be
renegotiated. If the parties do not reach an agreement concerning future contract
terms, the contract expires at the end of the probationary period,
• limited duration contract,
• personal service contract (umowa zlecenie) is a fixed term contract concluded for
the performance of a specified activity. This type of contract is regulated by the
provisions of the Civil Code,
• specific task contract (umowa o dzieło) is a fixed term contract concluded for the
performance of a commissioned activity, which is to bring specified results. This
type of contract is regulated by the provisions of the Civil Code.
Employers are allowed to forbid employees from co-operating with rival companies.
Non-competition clauses in the contract may take the form of an absolute ban on
co-operation with companies with a similar business profile or a ban on working in
a rival company after the employee leaves the job. If an employee violates such a clause,
he or she is financially liable.
The employee is bound to work with due care, to comply with the hours of work laid
down within the company and to use such time effectively, always to have in mind the
benefit of the company, and to obey those instructions of his superiors that relate to his
work. The employment contract can be cancelled without previous notice if the
employee commits a serious breach of contract, commits a crime, or, through his own
fault, loses any licence required for the carrying out of his or her work.
X. Operating in Poland
Generally, employees must be at least 18 years old. There are, however, specific rules
for employing minors. Employees who have less than 4 years to work before attaining
pensionable age and pension rights (65 years for men and 60 years for women) may only
be dismissed in the event of the bankruptcy or liquidation of the company. This is also
true for employees during periods of vacation, illness, pregnancy, maternity leave, or
leave of absence requested in advance by the employee.
Upon termination of the employment contract the company must complete a reference
with respect to the employee. The reference should include information on the
employment period, the type of work carried out, the positions given to the employee,
the type of termination or circumstances leading to termination of the employment
contract, as well as other information indispensable for a new employer in determining
social and other employee benefits. The employee is entitled to request a reference. If
the employee is not satisfied with the reference, he or she can request a correction: if
necessary, by applying to the labour courts.
Wages and salaries are paid in Polish currency at least once a month. There is a
minimum salary requirement, obligatory for all business entities in Poland. In 2006,
the minimum gross salary for any full-time employee amounts to PLN 899.10,
approximately USD 300. However, the minimum gross salary in the first year of work
is set at 80 % of the above mentioned amount.
Working hours are to amount to an average of 8 hours a day and 40 hours in an average
five-day week. There are twelve public holidays: New Year (January 1), Easter Sunday
and Easter Monday, May 1 and 3, Whitsunday, Corpus Christi, August 15, All Saints
Day (November 1), Independence Day (November 11), and Christmas (December 25
and 26).
In specific cases, working 12 hours a day is permitted. The overtime work relates to
duties performed during the time beyond the limit set by the Labour Code’s regulations.
The circumstances under which such work may be done are thoroughly specified, and
include, in particular:
• an emergency action to protect human life, or health, or property, or the natural
environment, or to eliminate breakdowns, failures, etc.
• a case of the specific needs of the employer.
The number of overtime hours worked in the second above-mentioned circumstance can
not exceed 150 hours per person in the calendar year.
How to Do Business in Poland
For working overtime an employee, beside his or her usual wages, is entitled to a bonus
in the amount of:
• 100 % of remuneration for overtime work at night, on Sundays and on holidays
which are non-working days for the employee concerned, and during non-working
days granted to the employee in exchange for his work carried out on Sundays and
on holidays;
• 50 % of remuneration for overtime work in periods other than those mentioned
Employees have a right to annual leave, paid in accordance with their remuneration. An
employee starting a job acquires a right to annual leave in the same calendar year after
each month of work in the amount of 1/12 of the annual leave. The right to the next
annual leave is acquired in each following calendar year. The length of annual leave
depends on the length of employment. It amounts to 20 days (up to 10 years of
employment), or to 26 days (10 years or over of employment).
Women are entitled to paid maternity leave of 16 weeks after the first birth and
18 weeks after the second or any subsequent birth, and 26 weeks for giving birth to more
than one child at a time. Employees who have been employed for at least six months are
also entitled to a 3 year leave (paid by the Social Security Institution – ZUS) to raise
their children of up to 4 years of age. This leave may be taken in up to 4 separate
periods. In addition, 2 extra work-free days are permitted to take care of children up to
14 years old.
As of 1 April 2006, the total average social security charges amount to 48.07 % of the
salary. This amount is split as follows: the social insurance contribution, constituting
the major charge and accounting for 36.77 % (encompassing pension insurance –
19.52 %, disability pension insurance – 13 %, insurance against sickness – 2.45 % and
accident insurance – average 1.8 %), health insurance, accounting for 8.75 %, the
Labour Fund contribution, accounting for 2.45 %, and the FGŚP fund (Fundusz
Gwarantowanych Świadczeń Pracowniczych) contribution of 0.10 %. The Social
Security Institution (ZUS) transfers 7.3 % out of the 19.52 % of the pension insurance
collected to the open pension funds for all employees that are pension fund members.
Please note that the accident insurance contribution rate ranges between 0.90 and
3.60 %, depending on the company’s size and activities. Moreover, the health insurance
contribution rate is to increase by 0.25 %, to reach 9 % in 2007.
Some of these contributions are paid by the employer, some by the employee, and some
are divided between them. Employers are obliged to pay for accident insurance, as well
as the Labour Fund contribution and the FGŚP fund contribution. The employee pays
for insurance against sickness, and for health insurance, while pension insurance and
X. Operating in Poland
disability pension insurance charges are split between them equally. Therefore, taking
into account the average accident insurance of 1.8 %, the social security contribution
paid by the employer amounts to 20.61 % of the salary. The maximum base for
calculating most elements of the social security contribution is limited to 30 times the
average monthly wages envisaged for a given year by the budgetary law. In 2006, the
maximum base is equal to PLN 73,560.
It is important to note that a company must register with the ZUS department
responsible for the region in which the company is located within 7 days after the first
employee has started work.
Employment of Foreigners
Foreigners from Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary,
Ireland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden and the United Kingdom are allowed to work in Poland without any permits.
Moreover, foreigners who meet any of the following criteria do not need a permit to
work in Poland:
• a permit for settlement in Poland was received, or
• an EC long-term residence permit for the territory of Poland was obtained, or
• a consent for tolerated stay was obtained, or
• a refugee status granted in the Republic of Poland was obtained, or
• temporary protection within the territory of Poland was granted.
Further exclusions from obtaining a work permit are listed in art. 87 of the Law on the
Promotion of Employment and Labour Market Institutions of 20 April 2004. Other
foreign employees require a work permit issued by the district authorities, however
foreigners from other EU countries than those already mentioned have easier access to
work permits in comparison to non-EU citizens.
Still, there are numerous instances where the work permit is not required. These
include, but are not limited to:
• foreigners resident abroad and delegated by their foreign employer to Poland for
up to 3 months for:
- the assembly, maintenance and repair of machinery, equipment, constructions,
etc., produced by their employer,
- the acceptance of machinery, equipment, etc., ordered from a Polish producer,
- the training of staff of the Polish employer accepting machinery, equipment,
constructions, etc., produced by their employer in servicing and operations thereof,
- the assembly and disassembly of fair stalls, if their foreign employer is the exhibitor.
How to Do Business in Poland
foreign language teachers and teachers teaching in a foreign language, working
within the framework of international agreements executed by the Minister of
foreigners – spouses of Polish citizens, resident in Poland on the grounds of
a residence permit for a specified time, granted because of marriage,
NATO military and civil staff,
actors, singers, conductors, etc., performing in Poland for up to 30 days a year,
students attending regular courses in Poland, for up to 3 months during holidays.
No permit is needed from the Polish authorities for employees who work outside Poland
for the Polish employer. Furthermore, subject to meeting certain conditions, employees
from EU and EFTA countries – members of the EEA – delegated to work in Poland do
not require a work permit on the grounds of Directive 96/71/EC of the European
Parliament and of the Council concerning the posting of workers in the framework of
the provision of services. Foreign companies can also accept unpaid assistance from
persons delegated by a foreign business partner. Such persons would be neither
employed nor paid by the foreign company.
Living in Poland
Standards of living in Poland have improved vastly since the political and economic
transformations started in 1989. Accommodation of various types is readily available.
Most native city dwellers live in blocks of relatively small apartments; however, the
newly constructed flats are usually quite spacious. Houses tend to be considerably more
expensive, but there are a lot to choose from on the real estate market. The options range
from relatively small semi-detached buildings to grand estates with swimming pools and
tennis courts. There are many real estate agencies all over Poland, offering a wide range
of properties. In Warsaw alone there are well over a hundred licensed real estate
agencies in operation. For more information on the real estate market, please refer to
Chapter VIII.
For tourists and visitors, Poland offers a whole range of accommodation, from modern
hotels to bed-and-breakfast in private houses. The best hotels offer excellent rooms,
restaurants, and room service, but just as everywhere they tend to be expensive.
Reservations can be made through travel agencies or directly with a chosen hotel. For
more information on tourist accommodation in Poland, please refer to Chapter XI. There
are hundreds of travel agencies that provide accommodation, transport, and other
logistical services.
X. Operating in Poland
Most worldwide best-selling foreign newspapers are on sale in Poland, as well as Polish
periodicals published in foreign languages, such as the weekly The Warsaw Voice, and
Warsaw Business Journal. In the largest cities there are bookshops with books in foreign
languages, though the languages are often limited to English.
In some larger cities there are schools for foreign children, where lessons are taught in
a language other than Polish. In Warsaw, for example, there are American, English,
French, and German schools, as well as some others.
Most cities offer a well-developed bus and tram system. Usually, tickets must be bought
beforehand and punched, or stamped, or placed close to an electronic device in the
bus/tram (or the underground) to validate them. However, in some cities, in Warsaw for
example, those who are forgetful can buy a ticket directly from the driver. Crowded in
peak hours, buses and trams tend to run quite frequently until ten or eleven in the
evening. Bus and tram routes are shown on most city maps. In many cases it is also
possible to find them, as well as the schedules, on the net.
The number of cars in Warsaw, as well as in other major cities, has been rapidly
increasing over the past few years and traffic jams are an everyday reality now. In some
city zones finding a place to park can be quite challenging. Inter-city train connections,
as well as international ones are good and reliable. In fact, due to a dense railway
network and the rather poor condition of Polish roads, it is often more convenient to
travel by train than to drive.
The private medical sector is booming with many small and medium-size private clinics
opening throughout the country at a rapid rate. Some of them provide fully
comprehensive services supported by English speaking staff. Home visits are among the
variety of health care services designed to give foreign guests reassurance while staying
in Poland. It is advisable to carefully examine insurance policies to find out exactly what
risks are involved and to find a provider whose services cover prevention and cure.
Poland has regular direct air connections with most major European countries, as well as
some intercontinental connections provided by the national airline LOT and foreign
carriers. Charter flights to popular holiday destinations are available. There are also
domestic flights between the major cities in Poland. Competition in the Polish sky is
rapidly increasing, and with several low-cost carriers already on the market the prices
are falling fast, to the passengers benefit.
Visitors travelling by car can enter Poland through many border crossings. Please refer
to the next Chapter XI, sub-chapter “Visiting Poland” for visa and currency
requirements. Rent-a-car services are at hand; cars can be rented in major cities or at the
How to Do Business in Poland
airports. Generally, to rent a car one has to be 21 and have a valid driving licence, a
passport, and a credit card.
A foreigner must register within 2 days of crossing into Poland. However, individuals
staying in hotels, motels, camping grounds, etc., are relieved from this responsibility, as it
is done for them by the facility. The registration procedure for a stay of up to two months
is extremely simple and requires only a few minutes of time. There are no applications to
be filled, however a person having legal title to the accommodation where the foreigner is
staying must be present. The registered person receives an official document of
registration, which is required upon leaving Poland at the border. In the case of longer
trips, exceeding two months, the procedure is only slightly longer, requiring an application
to be filled. The registration takes place in the Office of the Commune (Urząd Gminy) in
which the foreigner is staying, in the Division of Citizens’ Affairs.
Opening hours vary, but generally shops are open from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. Groceries
usually start much earlier and some are open round the clock. Shopping is easy.
Everything is now more or less available, just as in any other European Union country.
In small shops payment is usually possible in cash only, especially in the country. Larger
shops and restaurants, especially these in cities and tourist resorts, increasingly accept
internationally recognised credit cards, such as Visa, American Express, MasterCard,
etc. Their opening hours are usually longer, too. There are also many large supermarket
chains in Poland, including Auchan, Carrefour, Castorama, E.Leclerc, Geant, Real,
Tesco, etc.
All in all, there are approximately 140,000 places accepting credit card payments, as the
use of credit cards is becoming increasingly popular in Poland (see Chapter II, the end of
the section on banking). In the country, it is considerably more difficult to do without
cash, but the prices are substantially lower.
As far as prices are concerned, Warsaw is certainly cheaper for foreigners than New
York, Moscow, or St. Petersburg, but probably more expensive than Prague or
Budapest. Everything depends on what one wants to do, and how.
After a hard day at the office, a little relaxation is very welcome. Restaurants offering
various cuisine, charm, and quality abound. One can find many restaurants offering
foreign cuisine, often run by expats. On the other hand, Polish traditional food is also
delicious and tasting traditional Polish dishes, such as bigos and various types of pierogi,
is a must. The number of pubs and clubs with various types of music is growing rapidly,
so it is not difficult to find something to one’s taste, especially in larger cities. However,
some clubs have a proper dress code.
X. Operating in Poland
Cinemas have an extensive and up-to-date repertoire, and they are all non-smoking.
Films are usually shown in their original version, with Polish subtitles. There are also
many theatres worth visiting. The Teatr Wielki (Grand Theatre) in Warsaw has an
impressive ballet and opera programme, and there are often very good concerts at the
Warsaw Philharmonic, and, in the summer time, outdoors at the Chopin monument in
the beautiful Royal Łazienki Park. Warsaw and Cracow are also famous for their art
galleries, with frequently changing exhibitions ranging from the old masters to
contemporary experimental artists.
However, despite very good macro-economic results and many advantages, Poland and
its capital, Warsaw, still face a number of problems. The number of underground
parking lots, and the supply of financial, recreational, and exhibition centres are still
insufficient. The road network is quite extensive, but the very few highways and the
large amount of roads in need of major repairs slow down car travel considerably.
Companies, both Polish and foreign alike, often complain of the ever-changing legal
environment and less than clear executive provisions and administrative procedures.
The European Union membership acquired in 2004 should assist substantially in
dealing with the shortcomings mentioned, especially in the area of infrastructure and
the legal environment.
Living in Poland presents its own difficulties, as in all different cultures. There are many
contradictions in Polish society, but with persistence it is easy to be accepted and make
many lasting friendships. Everything considered, Poland is a very nice place to live.
How to Do Business in Poland
Border requirements; EU and EEA citizens are
required just to present a valid travel document or
other document attesting to their identity and
Residence permits are valid for five years with the
possibility of extension for further five-year periods
12 Polish sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List
65 million foreign arrivals
Total foreign currency receipts from tourists and
same-day visitors of USD 6.2 billion
12 % of Poles over 15 years of age took part in tourist
travels abroad
7 thousand tourist accommodation facilities offering
600,000 beds
How to Do Business in Poland
The intention of including a chapter on tourism in a guide that deals with business and
economy is twofold. First of all, it is to introduce the reader to the numerous and varied
qualities of Poland as a tourist location, to show that it is a perfect place not only to do
business, but also to have a good time and to rest afterwards. Secondly, as it is an
important sector of the Polish economy, our intention is to give an overview of the
Polish tourism industry in order to indicate the market potential and thus to unfold the
opportunities for business.
With the above in mind, this section has two parts. The first deals with the country as
a tourist destination from the point of view of the holidaymaker. It is addressed most of
all to people who do not seek to explore business opportunities in the sector, but would
simply like to rest, be it in a more or less active way. It contains some practical
information and a very brief outline of selected aspects or areas of Poland that are
widely considered as ‘must see’ sites and are praised by tourists and visitors alike.
Please keep in mind, however, that due to the character of this guide the material
enclosed had to be severely limited.
In fact, it was very difficult to decide on how to compose this section: whether it should
cover, more or less, all geographical areas and points of interest or should it focus on
some selected ones. Finally, the latter approach has been favoured, since considering the
space assigned in this guide for tourist information, one would otherwise end up with
just a bare list that would still not be exhaustive.
Should you plan a holiday in Poland, please do consult some of the specialist tourist
guides that are widely available in many languages both in Poland and abroad. The
section that you are about to read is nothing more than a flash, therefore even if you do
not find anything here that really appeals to you, it would only mean that, unfortunately,
our focus has not included your areas of interest. However, if you take our advice and
take a closer look at some specialised guides, you are bound to find places you would
like to see and events you would like to attend.
The second section of this chapter is intended for businessmen who would like to take
a look at the tourist industry in Poland. It was written based on the newest research
carried out by the Polish Institute of Tourism. If you are looking for possibilities to
invest in the sector or to establish some kind of business co-operation, consulting this
part will reveal the market potential and provide much valuable data. Nonetheless, it is
recommended that the first section of this chapter be read as well, even if just to have
some background information and to be able to place the data in the right frame, so to
XI. Tourism in Poland
Visiting Poland
Information for EU and Other EEA Citizens
The following information applies to EU citizens and their family members as well as
citizens of states of the European Economic Area (Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein,
Switzerland), which do not belong to the EU, but pursuant to agreements with the EU
enjoy free movement of persons and their families members (spouses, children below
the age 21, being their legal wards, direct relatives who are their dependants or share
their household).
In order to cross the border into Poland a citizen of the EU needs a valid travel
document or other document attesting his/her identity and citizenship. The visitor’s
family members who are not citizens of the EEA are able to enter the territory of
Poland on the basis of a valid travel document and visa – if required.
Stays beyond three months’ duration require obtaining a residence permit or a
temporary residence permit. This requirement does not apply to persons who perform
work or a ‘free profession’ on the territory of Poland, or conduct business activity
here, provided they retain permanent residence in another EU state, to which they
return at least once a week. Decisions concerning residence permits and residence
cards for EU citizens, and residence documents (also with regard to their prolongation
and revocation), are issued by the governor of the province (voivode) where the EU
citizen intends to reside.
A residence permit is granted to a EU citizen on condition that he/she:
• intends to perform or performs work, a ‘free profession’ or business activity on
the territory of Poland for a period exceeding 12 months, or
• has health insurance and sufficient resources to cover his/her expenses without
needing social security support.
Residence permits are valid for five years with the possibility of extension for further
five-year periods. For more details on granting EU citizens residence permits see
Article 5 of the Law on the Terms and Conditions of Entry and Stay on the Territory
of Poland of Citizens of EU States and Members of Their Families of 27 July 2002, as
Temporary residence permits are granted to EU citizens who have health insurance
and sufficient resources to cover their expenses without needing social security
support and who, when in Poland:
• take up studies – a temporary residence permit for one year, extendable with
further one-year periods until completion of the studies,
How to Do Business in Poland
perform or intend to perform work, a ‘free profession’, or business activity for
a period from 3 to 12 months for the duration of such occupation, or for
6 months for those seeking employment.
Residence and temporary residence permits issued to EU citizens include family
members (excluding relatives in the case of students). An EU citizen and members of
his/her family may be denied a residence permit solely in the event of a need to
protect public order and security, protect public health, or due to a threat to state
security or defence.
If the application for granting or extending a residence permit or a temporary
residence permit covers family members, then the EU citizen is obliged to enclose the
following documents with the application:
• a document certifying marriage or kinship with the family member,
• a document certifying that the family member is his/her dependent, or member of
the same household in the state from which he/she has arrived (does not apply to
a spouse, a EU citizen, who is not a dependent),
• written consent of a family member who is over 16.
Any documents attached to the application and issued by foreign authorities or
institutions, should be translated into Polish by a certified interpreter.
Permanent and temporary residence registrations are issued by Gmina Offices
appropriate to the place of residence. To obtain the residence registration, a EU citizen
or members of his/her family needs to present personal data and produce a residence
card, residence document, or residence permit.
Information for Foreigners, Who Are Not EU / Other EEA Citizens
Passport: a valid passport is required to enter Poland. If a Polish visa is required,
the passport’s expiry date should not be less than three months from the expected
date of arrival in Poland.
Visa: a Polish visa is required, except for tourists coming from the countries listed
in Appendix 8.
Currency requirements: PLN 100 per day, no less than PLN 500, persons under 16
PLN 50 per day, no less than PLN 300. In transit – PLN 300, persons under 16 half
of the amount.
Health insurance: an insurance policy covering medical expenses in Poland is
required. Alternatively, an additional PLN 300 per day to cover possible medical
expenses is necessary, or other proof of being able to meet medical costs.
If driving a car, you are obliged to carry a civil liability insurance.
XI. Tourism in Poland
Practical Information
Currency, arrival: you must fill a currency declaration form and have it stamped by
a customs officer if you are bringing in cash or cash equivalents in an amount
exceeding EUR 10,000.
Currency, departure: upon departure you are allowed to export your personal
belongings, souvenirs, and foreign currency up to a total amount of EUR 10,000,
as well as foreign currency imported to Poland with a currency declaration form
confirmed by the customs authorities.
Money exchange: in Poland you can change money either at a bank or at currency
exchange offices, labelled Kantor. You can find them at the airports and most
hotels, but usually you can find better rates at the independent exchange offices
that can be found almost everywhere.
Credit cards: Visa, American Express, Diner’s Club, and MasterCard are widely
Transport from Okęcie airport in Warsaw: city buses 175 and 188 and a night bus,
the 611. There is also an Airport City Hotels Bus leaving the airport every hour or
so and stopping at several major hotels and the Warsaw Central train station.
Taxi: at Okęcie Airport beware of taxi drivers stopping you in the airport hall, they
are very likely to charge you excessive rates. All you need to do is to go out and
take a cab from the queue parked in front of the entrance; they are all licensed by
the airport. As far as other trips are concerned, a list of telephone numbers of
reliable taxi corporations can be found in the most popular newspaper in Poland:
Gazeta Wyborcza, or just ask for advice. These taxis will pick you up at no extra
charge from any place in Warsaw, usually within a few minutes of your call.
Rent a car: some of Europe’s largest rent a car companies have their offices in the
arrival halls of Polish airports, as well as in some hotels.
Electricity: 230 volts / 50 cycles.
Public phones require a phone card. Phone cards (of different values) are available
at post offices and local kiosks.
Emergency numbers: Ambulance: 999; Fire-brigade: 998; Police: 997; and
finally, 112 is a mobile phone all-emergency number. However, do not count on
them to speak any foreign language.
An Overview of the Country
Poland can satisfy the needs both of the tourist who wants to spend a long holiday here
and the traveller who is looking for an interesting place to spend one or more weekends.
One can enjoy the country during every season and whenever you come, you are bound
to find something new.
How to Do Business in Poland
The castles call to mind the stormy history of Poland. The most important ones are the
Wawel Royal Castle in Cracow and the Royal Castle in Warsaw, destroyed during
World War II and rebuilt afterwards. The old quarters of Warsaw, Cracow, Gdańsk,
Lublin, Poznań, and Wrocław have witnessed centuries of history.
A thousand years of Catholic religion in Poland is reflected in its numerous churches,
chapels, and monasteries. The shrine of Jasna Góra in Częstochowa, where the image of
the Black Madonna attracts millions of pilgrims from all over the world each year and
the Church of St. Mary in Cracow are among the most famous. However, hundreds of
sanctuaries and rural churches, some of them built of wood, are also full of mystic
atmosphere and well worth visiting.
Poland is one of those rare countries that offer a great variety of landscapes. The
southern part of Poland is surrounded by the Sudetic and Tatra Mountain ranges, perfect
for walking all year round, and for winter sports during the season. Trekking and
excursions are possible in all seasons and are especially recommended in summer and
autumn, when the country is in full bloom. In winter you can go skiing, for example, in
Szczyrk and Zakopane, tourist resorts famous for their mountain folklore.
Moving from the mountains to the north, one will find large plains, nests of storks in
spring, small rural villages, and forests – the most famous being the National Park in
BiałowieŜa, close to the eastern border, which, with its unique charm, is home to the
European bison. All in all, there are 23 National Parks in Poland, covering over 314
thousand ha, or 1 % of the country’s surface area. Horse riding and hunting fans will
discover numerous opportunities in Poland to follow their favourite hobby.
Further north there are lakes, including those of the Mazurian Lake District, which is
also known as ‘the country of a thousand lakes’, and contains a series of lakes stretching
for more than 750 km. It is possible to sail through the lake district’s rivers and network
of canals for days. This is a paradise for those who enjoy water sports and fishing,
thanks to the clear waters of the lakes, the green landscape, and its wilderness.
Moreover, in winter, as the temperature often drops to well below 0 °C, the frozen lakes
are often suitable for ice-sailing.
Finally, there is the northern frontier – the Baltic coastline. A very long strip of golden
sand, beaches and dunes, Rozewie promontory, Hel peninsula, the gulf of Gdańsk and
Wolin island, are just some of the countless views which will fascinate any tourist
travelling along the coast. Furthermore, in this region you can enjoy saline thermal baths
and healing mud-baths, particularly in the town of Kołobrzeg, all year round.
XI. Tourism in Poland
Polish Cities, Art, and Culture
Polish art and culture has always been a part of Western Europe, though at the same
time it is a bridge to the East.
Among the most famous Polish contributions to European culture are the genius of
Copernicus, the science of Marie Skłodowska-Curie, the art of Chopin, the music of
Krzysztof Penderecki, the movies of Andrzej Wajda and Krzysztof Kieślowski, the
theatre of Tadeusz Kantor, and the poetry of Adam Mickiewicz and of the Polish Nobel
prize-winners, Czesław Miłosz and Wisława Szymborska.
Besides, Poland houses the works of artists and architects from all over Europe, such as
the Italian painter Bernardo Bellotto (Il Canaletto), the architects Bernardo Morando and
Domenico Merlini, the German sculptor Veit Stoss (Wit Stwosz), and the Dutch
architect Tylman van Gameren.
There are many cities in Poland worth visiting, and most of them are well described in
the leading tourist guides. Here we will limit ourselves to just a brief outline of Warsaw
and Cracow, which are undoubtedly the most famous cities in Poland.
Warsaw is the capital of Poland. You need to keep in mind that Warsaw, which was one
of the most lively and cosmopolitan cities in Europe before the Second World War, was
destroyed in 1945 and 90 % of it was completely in ruins. It was rebuilt after the War,
arising from the rubble thanks to the determination and sacrifice of its surviving citizens.
Although sightseeing in the centre of the city will let you take a look at some modern
architecture, one can discover the best of Warsaw only through exploration of the old
town, where, besides the old restored buildings and villas, here and there the pre-war
architecture miraculously survived. Walking about the old town and plunging into the
magic atmosphere of the past, thanks to an amazing reconstruction which took place in
the fifties and which brought to life again the Warsaw of the 17th and 18th centuries, is a
truly remarkable experience. There is enchantment in its parks and gardens, the wide
course of the Vistula River, and the rich cultural life of this city, which is cosmopolitan
without losing its particular, native charm.
While visiting the Royal Castle one can admire its interiors and its works of art,
including some works of the world’s finest painters. Another ‘must see’ is the Polish
portrait gallery in Wilanów Palace, the beautiful Baroque residence of Jan III Sobieski.
Then there is the Grand Theatre, a remarkable example of classicist architecture; the
Łazienki Park, a beautiful 18th century park, one of everybody’s favourite places to
have a stroll and rest from all the excitement; the National Museum, featuring precious
collections of Polish art; and much, much more.
How to Do Business in Poland
The uniqueness of Cracow is primarily due to the rare cultural heritage contained within
its walls. Here, the Royal Castle, presently housing the crown jewels and a collection of
Flemish tapestry, was constructed on Wawel Hill, and became the site for the coronation
and burial of kings, as Cracow was the capital of Poland for hundreds of years, from the
11th to the 17th century. Here, in 1364, the Cracow Academy was established, the first
Polish university (today known as the Jagiellonian University).
The city’s image has changed during the past centuries. During the Middle Ages,
Cracow was a safe, rich, fortified city surrounded by walls with 55 towers (fragments of
the city fortification have been preserved to this day). During the Renaissance, Cracow
became a centre of progressive ideas, with a culture that brought together outstanding
humanists, writers, architects, and musicians.
City life focuses around the Market Square, which is the second largest square in Europe
after St. Mark’s Square in Venice. Tradition interlaces with modern times nearly
everywhere you go, and it can truly be said that each stone has its own history. There is
a multitude of architectural monuments, estimated at 6,000 buildings and structures.
Furthermore, there are approximately 2.5 million artefacts collected and displayed in
museums, churches, and other public places. In 1978, thanks to this extraordinary
accumulation of cultural heritage, the city’s historic centre was registered as the first of
the 12 Polish sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
XI. Tourism in Poland
Tourism Industry
The number of foreign arrivals to Poland has been steadily increasing since the
beginning of the 90’s. At the turn of the century a disruption in this favourable trend was
noted, albeit lasting only three years. In 2005, Poland registered 64.6 million foreign
arrivals (4.3 % more than in 2004), including both tourists and same-day visitors.
Foreign Arrivals
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
As far as the country structure of arrivals to Poland is concerned, a domination of
arrivals from Germany must be noted, accounting for over half of all arrivals and
increasing by 10 % in comparison to 2004. Arrivals from other ‘old’ EU countries
increased by almost 13 %, and from ‘new’ EU countries decreased by almost 14 %.
In 2005, arrivals from the following countries registered the highest growth (over 20 %,
countries with over 50,000 arrivals, only): Canada, Great Britain, Israel, the Netherlands,
Spain, and the USA. On the other hand, the largest decline (over 20 %, countries with
over 50,000 arrivals, only) was recorded in arrivals from the Czech Republic, Latvia,
and Slovakia.
While analysing tourist arrivals in 2003 and later one must take into account that as of
October 2003 legal regulations introducing visa requirements concerning countries
bordering with Poland in the east came into force (due to Poland’s entering the EU).
Thus October 2003 witnessed a very sharp decline in arrivals from these countries. In
the following two months arrivals from the aforementioned countries further
decreased, although not by so much. In 2004, arrivals from Belarus declined by 8 %,
from Russia by 7 %, and from Ukraine by 6 %, in comparison to 2003. In 2005,
however, arrivals from these countries increased by 4, 13, and 17 %, respectively, in
comparison to 2004.
How to Do Business in Poland
In 2005, according to the Institute of Tourism’s estimates, the number of tourist arrivals
(i.e., of visitors staying in Poland for at least one night, but no longer than one year)
amounted to approximately 15.2 million, which is 6.4 % more than the year before.
Mazowieckie province, as it boasts Warsaw, the capital of Poland, attracted 3.4 million
tourists, more than the next in line, Wielkopolskie (1.6 million) and Małopolskie (1.5
million) provinces together. Over the period of 1992-2000, the average duration of stay
for foreign tourists remained at a level of 4.8 to 5.1 nights. Over the period of 2001-2005
it decreased to 3.9 - 4.6 nights (4.4 nights in 2005).
In 2005, business was the primary reason for tourist arrivals (27 %), closely followed by
leisure tourism (25 %). However, if visiting friends and relatives (18 %) is included in
the leisure category, then it still dominates the motives of foreigners visiting Poland.
The structure of tourist arrivals by purpose of visit is reflected in the following graph.
Tourist Arrivals to Poland in 2005 by Main Purpose
25 %
Leisure tourism
27 %
18 %
Visiting friends and relatives
13 %
10 %
Source: Institute of Tourism, Warsaw, 2006
In 2005, total foreign currency receipts from tourists and same-day visitors amounted to
approximately USD 6.2 billion, approximately 8 % more in comparison to 2004. This
increase in receipts resulted in part from the growth in tourists’ spending (in USD
terms), but most of all it was due to a further appreciation of the Polish currency.
Nonetheless, this amount still does not include the spending of foreign visitors who get a
job in Poland, and their number is estimated at some 500,000.
In 2005, average expenditure per tourist using accommodation services in Poland
amounted to approximately USD 150 per person, 6 % less than the year before. The
average expenditure per tourist per day remained at the 2004 level, and amounted to
XI. Tourism in Poland
USD 34. It ranged from USD 24 for overseas tourists to USD 43 for tourists from
The average expenditure by same-day visitors, who are visitors that come to Poland
mainly for shopping, also decreased, albeit very slightly. In 2005, the average
expenditure by same-day visitors amounted to USD 58 (a 3 % decrease over the
previous year), ranging from USD 19 (Czech Republic) to USD 78 (Ukraine).
All in all, tourist receipts increased by nearly 15 %, while same-day visitors’ receipts
remained at the 2004 level.
In 2005, the structure of tourist expenditures slightly changed in comparison to the
previous year. Accommodation still remains the most important expense, accounting for
36.8 % of spending (31.2 % in 2004). Less money was spent on shopping (22.4 %), and
food (19.3 %), while more was spent on transport (13.0 %), and recreation (6.8 %). Just
as in the past, shopping (including shopping for resale) constitutes an important item in
the expenditure of tourists from Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, and Lithuania.
In the past few years changes in the average expenditure levels of same-day visitors, as
well as the number of same-day visitors has had a significant impact upon the structure
of total currency receipts generated by inbound travel, as indicated below.
Foreign Currency Receipts (in USD billion)
4.3 4.4
3.3 3.3
3.1 3.0
2.9 2.9
Expenditures of same-day visitors
Expenditures of tourists
Source: Institute of Tourism, Warsaw 2006
In 2005, the volume of Polish outbound travel reached 40.8 million, i.e., increased by
9.7 % in comparison to the previous year, thus signalling a possible comeback to the
growth trend visible from the early 90’s, with outbound trips almost tripling in the
period of 1991-2000. This trend is very well reflected in the following graph.
How to Do Business in Poland
Outbound Trips by Polish Residents
55.1 56.7 53.1
34.3 36.4
29.3 31.4
48.6 49.3
38.7 37.2 40.8
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Source: Central Statistical Office, Border Control, 2006
In 2005, according to preliminary estimates of the Institute of Tourism, tourist trips
accounted for 6.2 million (a decrease of some 2 %) out of a total of 40.8 million trips. As
in the case of inbound tourism to Poland, Germany accounts for the majority of
outbound tourist trips (1.85 million). Italy (0.55 million), the Czech Republic
(0.55 million), and Slovakia (0.55 million) are the other most favoured destinations.
Nonetheless, it should be noted that many tourists trips to Germany, the Czech Republic,
and Slovakia are related to further trips to other countries located in Western and
Southern Europe. Leisure and recreation remains the major motive of Poles travelling
abroad (47 %) and business trips account for a fifth of foreign travels. All in all, 12 % of
Poles over 15 years of age took part in tourist travels abroad in 2005.
As far as domestic tourism is concerned, it is worth mentioning that approximately 29 %
of Polish residents took long-term domestic trips (i.e., at least 5 days) and 24 % made
short term trips in 2005. It is interesting to note that while the long-term trips are
concentrated in the summer, with the remaining shares spread almost evenly over the
other three seasons, the short trips are spread more or less in a uniform manner
throughout the year, as presented in the figure below. Poland really is a country for all
Seasonal Breakdown of Domestic Tourist Travel in 2005
Long term trips
Short term trips
Source: Institute of Tourism, 2006
XI. Tourism in Poland
Finally, a few words about accommodation facilities in Poland. In the past two decades
their number has been slowly decreasing, however this decrease results mainly from the
closing-down of low-quality facilities. Facilities offering better standards of
accommodation are growing in number. For example, the number of hotels almost
doubled in the period of 1990 (499 hotels) – 2000 (924 hotels).
In 2004, according to the Central Statistical Office, there were 6,972 facilities, offering
almost 600,000 beds, including 1,202 hotels, with almost 123,000 beds, in Poland. The
following table presents the structure of hotel rooms in Poland in terms of hotel
Hotels and Hotel Beds in 2003-2004
Obtaining rating
Beds (thousand)
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
In 2005, 16.55 million tourists (including 4.30 million foreign tourists) stayed in various
tourist accommodation facilities in Poland, including hotels, motels, campgrounds,
tourist resorts, etc. The majority of foreigners (almost 80 %) stayed in hotels.
The market’s size, political stability, and impressive economic growth encourage
investment. At the end of 2005, according to data collected by GUS, there were 1,679
commercial companies with foreign capital operating in the hotel and restaurant
business (out of 5,049 commercial companies operating in the sector).
How to Do Business in Poland
Original settlement
The Piast Dynasty – Corona Regni Poloniae
♦ Christianity and Early Statehood
♦ Territorial Fragmentation
♦ Consolidation of the State
The Jagiellonian Dynasty – Ad mari usque ad mare
♦ The Lithuanian Connection
♦ The Golden Age
The Elective Kings – Respublica Sarmatiae
♦ The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
♦ The Swedish Connection and the ‘Deluge’
♦ Sobieski and the Siege of Vienna
The 18th Century – Finis poloniae
♦ The Saxon Connection
♦ King Stanisław and the Reform Party
♦ The Partitions of Poland
The 19th century – The Crossing of the Desert
♦ The Grand Duchy of Warsaw
♦ The Congress of Vienna
♦ The November and January Uprisings
The 20th Century – To the Abyss and Back
♦ WW I and the Rebirth of Poland
♦ The Second Republic
♦ The People’s Republic of Poland
♦ Solidarity, NATO, and the EU
How to Do Business in Poland
“How to Do Business in Poland” is a publication whose purpose is to assist foreign
business people – particularly those considering direct investments – in getting to know
Poland’s investment environment and legal framework. It is also meant as a source of
the latest available information about Poland’s economic performance.
Business activities in any country lead to negotiations with its people, whose customs,
habits and mentality it is desirable to know, as the understanding of one’s business
partners, their values, and backgrounds may prove to be a key element of a successful
One of the keys to understanding the Poles is their history. With this in mind, we have
included a chapter summarising over a thousand years of history of the Polish nation in
this year’s edition of our guide. This chapter intends to provide a concise description of
the evolution of the Polish state and of its people, from proto-Slavonic times to the
restoration of democracy following communist rule.
The following material is an abbreviated version of “Polish History in Brief”,
commissioned and copyrighted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, that can be found in
its unabridged form on Poland’s official website
Proto-Slavonic Origins
The earliest signs of human presence in the Vistula and Oder river basins date back to
about 100,000 B.C. The earliest settlements of Homo Sapiens in Poland go back to the
Mesolithic Age (8,000 to 5,500 years B.C.). These settlements were established by
migrant peoples belonging to the Danubian group of cultures.
In time (partly due to the incursions of warring tribes from Asia) the inhabitants of
present-day Polish territories began to organise into larger social groups and to build
fortified strongholds. An example of this type of construction, an island settlement from
the 8th century BC surrounded by palisades, can be found in Biskupin. The settlement in
Biskupin had a population of around 1,000 to 1,200 people.
Later, from the 6th century B.C. onwards, Poland became the target of raids by Scythian
and Sarmatian tribes from the east, and Celtic and Germanic tribes from the west. Often
the invaders would assimilate with the indigenous inhabitants and settle in the conquered
territories, and although they wrought a great deal of destruction, they also brought the
achievements of the civilised world to Poland and encouraged trade: the earliest traces of
the ‘Amber Route’, linking the Baltic Sea with Rome and the Mediterranean basin, date
back to the 5th century B.C.
XII. History of Poland
Arrival of Slavonic Tribes
The earliest references to Polish territories appear in the works of Roman and Byzantine
authors of the 1st and 2nd century A.D (Tacitus, Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, Jordanes, and
Procopius of Caesarea). In the 6th century, Slavonic tribes arrived in the territories of
present-day Poland and subsequently became the dominant group in the area. Not only
were they able to establish strong administrative centres like Wiślica, Poznań, and
Gniezno (with power structures based on tribal assemblies under a chieftain), trading
settlements like Szczecin or Wolin, and focal points for religious worship like Mt. ŚlęŜa,
but they also withstood invasions by nomadic tribes from Asia and attacks by the
neighbouring principality of Greater Moravia.
Around 850, in Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagem Danubii
(A Description of the Cities and Regions North of the Danube), Geographus Bavarus
mentioned several Slavonic tribes – the Goplanians, the Dziadoszanians, the Silesians,
the Bobrzanians, the Opolanians, the Vislanians and the Ledzianians – inhabiting the
Vistula and Oder river basins. A rising volume of trade contributed to the growth of
settlements along trade routes. In time, and on account of wars, these settlements were
fortified, while the role of the chieftain, and later of the tribal prince, increased. This
process was most visible in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), where the Polanian tribe
quickly gained the ascendancy and by the mid-tenth century was expanding to lands
adjoining its territories to the east (Mazovia) and west (the Lubusz Region and Lusatia).
The Polanians gradually subjugated the neighbouring Slavonic tribes and created a
uniform principality with an efficient administrative system.
The Beginnings of Statehood
In the middle of the 10th century the Piast dynasty, rulers of the Polanian tribe, adopted
Christianity. The Vislanians had already established links with Christendom earlier.
However, the Polanian Prince Mieszko decided that conversion to Christianity –
providing a common religion for all the subject tribes, and supremacy for the anointed
prince – would raise his own and his country’s status not only at home but also in
foreign affairs. Poland would join the civilised kingdoms, and the German thrust to
bring Christianity to the Slavs would be halted. The year 966, when Mieszko was
baptised, is regarded as marking the beginning of Poland as an independent, Christian,
unified state, following the model set up in Western Europe.
How to Do Business in Poland
Mieszko I and Bolesław Chrobry (Boleslaus the Brave)
The reigns of Mieszko I (?-992) and his son Bolesław Chrobry (Boleslaus the Brave),
mark the period when the Polish tribes, brought together in a united and internally wellknit realm, began to make an active contribution to European politics. Assisted by the
ecclesiastical authorities, the principality of Poland grew in the years between 972 and
990, absorbing Pomerania, Lesser Poland (Małopolska – Polonia Minor), and Silesia
through military conquest, the pursuit of trade, marriage alliances, and the establishment
of a system of administration. Most importantly, the new state gained a foothold on the
international scene. The wars skilfully conducted by Mieszko and Boleslaus gained
Poland not only new territories (the Czerwień strongholds and, temporarily, Moravia
and Lusatia), but also the reputation of being a power to be reckoned with even by the
Holy Roman Empire. A major success of early Piast foreign policy was the Congress of
Gniezno (1000), during which the Emperor Otto III recognised Boleslaus as his
principal ally in his plan to unite Europe under his own rule, approved the erection of an
independent Polish metropolitan see, and permitted Boleslaus’ coronation, which took
place in 1025.
Mieszko II
When Mieszko II, Boleslaus I’s son, assumed the throne, Poland was already a vast
country run by an efficient administrative system and a well-developed Church structure
with a metropolitan see in Gniezno and dioceses in Cracow, Poznań, Wrocław, and
Kołobrzeg. Unfortunately, the civil wars which ravaged the country in the following
century severely undermined Poland’s position. Neighbouring states joined in the
conflict (Gniezno was plundered by the Czechs in 1038), which led not only to the loss
of the crown but also to the loss of part of Poland’s domains, temporary submission to
the Empire, internal disorder, including an attempted secession by Mazovia, and a pagan
rebellion after Mieszko’s death.
Kazimierz Odnowiciel (Casimir the Restorer) and Boleslaw Śmialy
(Boleslaus the Bold)
It was not until the reign of Casimir, Mieszko II’s son, that stability was restored. The
Restorer reunified the country administratively, recuperating Silesia, Mazovia and
Pomerania thanks to the help of Emperor Conrad and through skilful alliances,
especially with Kievan Rus. Poland rose in international standing. Casmir’s son,
Boleslaus the Bold, continued his policies.
Thanks to Boleslaus’ military talents and the support he gave the Pope in the investiture
conflict with the Emperor, he managed to regain the crown. He influenced the
installation of princes in Ruthenia (Kievan Rus) and Hungary, and halted the eastward
XII. History of Poland
expansion of the Holy Roman Empire. However, in 1079 he lost his throne in
consequence of a rebellion supported by the Empire and Bohemia. A factor contributing
to the rebellion was the conflict between the King and Stanislaus, Bishop of Cracow,
a conflict which led the Church to withdraw its support for Boleslaus.
Bolesław Krzywousty (Boleslaus the Wry-mouthed) and Fragmentation
The reign of Boleslaus the Wry-mouthed (Boleslaus the Bold’s nephew) could not stop
the country’s decline. Boleslaus gained renown for his military achievements (victory
against the Empire in 1109, and the defeat of Pomerania in 1113-19), but on his
deathbed in 1138 he divided up his realm, distributing a province to each of his sons.
This ushered in a period of feudal dismemberment that lasted for over a century and
a half, during which Poland’s status diminished. Its former standing would not be
recovered until the mid-14th century.
However, Boleslaus’ reign was a period of social stability and rapid advancement,
despite several devastating Mongol invasions. Issues of land tenure were regulated;
knights were enfeoffed (granted property in exchange for feudal service to the prince);
thousands of new villages and many towns were founded. Numerous settlers came from
Germany, and others, who settled on the Baltic Coast, came from the Low Countries.
Scores of monasteries and priories – mostly Cistercian and Dominican – sprang up.
A Reunified Realm: the Last Piast Monarchs
In the reigns of the last two Piast kings, Władysław Łokietek (Vladislaus the ElbowHigh), and Kazimierz Wielki (Casimir the Great), most of the Polish lands were
Poland became a strong, well-run kingdom that participated actively in the political,
economic, and cultural life of Europe. In 1364 a university was founded in Cracow, the
second university established in Central Europe, after that of Prague. Cracow served as a
major diplomatic centre: in 1364 it hosted a congress of European monarchs. The
country’s main problems lay in its incessant conflicts with the Czechs (disputes over
Silesia) and, after 1226, with the Teutonic Order, which had managed to set up a strong
state in Prussia and constantly threatened the Polish borders. As Casimir had no male
heir, the Piast dynasty ended in 1370, and the Polish throne passed to the Piast’s
relatives and allies, the Hungarian branch of the House of Anjou (1370-1384, King
Louis the Hungarian and his daughter Jadwiga). The threat from the Teutonic Order
induced Poland to enter into an alliance with Lithuania. The alliance led to the marriage
of Jadwiga, (who had ascended the throne of Poland while still in her minority) with
Jagiełło (Iogaila) Grand Duke of Lithuania; Lithuania’s conversion to Christianity; and
the dynastic union of both countries at Krewo in 1385.
How to Do Business in Poland
The Jagiellons
For the next two hundred years the Jagiellonian dynasty ruled the two states of Poland
and Lithuania, forming together one of the vastest domains in Europe. At one point in
the late 15th century, Bohemia and Hungary also had a Jagiellonian monarch.
One of the highlights of Vladislaus Jagiełło’s reign was his victory over the Teutonic
Order at Grunwald (1410). Unfortunately, Poland did not take full advantage of the
victory: the Teutonic Order was allowed to keep its principal fortress at Marienburg
(Malbork) and, in spite of further defeats in battle, retained much of its military power. It
is only when war broke out again several decades later (1454-1466) that Poland succeed
in recovering the part of Pomerania surrounding Gdańsk and in freeing itself from the
Teutonic menace. In 1525 the monastic state of the Teutonic Order was secularised and
became a fief of the king of Poland. However, another danger was arising: the Grand
Duchy of Moscow, an ascendant power with which Poland’s fortunes would be
inseparably linked for the next 500 years. Nor were the Jagiellons able to save Hungary,
which fell to the Turks in 1526 and remained under Ottoman rule for 200 years.
Growth of Parliament and Privileges for the Nobility
By ancient custom the kings of Poland convened general assemblies called sejms
attended by legati terrestres, representatives of the noble or equestrian (knights’) estate.
By the late 15th century, under King Jan I Olbracht (Ioannes Albertus, John Albert), a
national assembly had emerged consisting of the king, the senate (or royal council), the
lower house consisting of legati terrestres delegated by regional dietines (sejmiki), and
of a few representatives from the richest cities. It was one of Europe’s earliest
From the reign of Louis of Hungary and the Koszyce Privileges of 1374, the kings of
Poland solicited the support of the politically and economically ascendant nobility by
granting privileges, especially tax exemptions and by the famous Neminem
Captivabimus Nisi Jure Victum (We Shall Not Imprison Anyone Unless He Be Proved
Guilty Under the Law) statute of 1432. These privileges gradually curtailed the
monarch’s prerogatives, culminating in the Nihil Novi statute (1505), which prevented
the King from making any important decisions without the approval of the Sejm.
Cultural Advancement
The Jagiellonian period witnessed a tremendous cultural flowering. Poland became one
of the main centres of the Renaissance. Spectacular achievements in the arts and
sciences were made under Kazimierz Jagiellończyk (Casimir the Jagiellonian) and
Zygmunt I Stary (Sigismund I). These were the times of Jan Długosz’s and his Annals
XII. History of Poland
of the Kingdom of Poland, Veit Stoss and his sculptures, the Italian humanist writer
Callimachus (Filippo Buonaccorsi), and the writings of native-born literati like Mikołaj
Rej, Jan Kochanowski, and Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski. Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus
Orbium Coelestium, 1543 – itself a revolution in the sciences – reflected the high
standards in Polish scholarship under the Jagiellons. Its luminaries made Polish the
language of the educated in this part of Europe.
The Polish Reformation
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Poland was a country open to new religious trends. Unlike
other European countries, there were no religious wars here. Not only could heterodox
religionists find sanctuary here, they were also protected by the kings and lords of
Poland. As a result, culture and scholarship experienced an influx of new ideas and
literary works, and Poland came to be seen as a country of tolerance. This latter was
particularly true in relation to the Confederation of Warsaw, ratified in 1573, which gave
all major religions equal rights with Catholics. The last Jagiellonian monarch, Zygmunt
August (Sigismundus Augustus), said to the Sejm: “I do not rule your consciences”.
Not surprisingly, contemporaries and later generations called the Jagiellonian era,
especially the 16th century, Poland’s Golden Age.
Kingdom and Grand Duchy
As with the Piasts, the Jagiellonian dynasty became extinct through lack of a male heir
(1572). In 1569 King Zygmunt August effected the statutory union of Poland and
Lithuania, up till then joined by a personal union. Henceforth the Kingdom of Poland
and Grand Duchy of Lithuania would be an elective monarchy, with members of the
entire gentry (equestrian) estate enjoying the right to elect their king.
The First Elected Monarchs
The first royal election was held in the spring of 1573. The contenders to the throne of
Poland included Ivan (IV) the Terrible, Tsar of Muscovy, Archduke Ernest Habsburg,
and Henri de Valois, brother of Charles IX of France. Henri won, but turned out a bad
choice. He did not understand the country he was expected to rule, and after only four
months, as soon as he learned of his brother’s death, he fled from Poland to assume the
throne of France as Henri III. After a new interregnum lasting a year, the nobility elected
Anna, sister of Zygmunt August, to be the new monarch. She was required to marry the
successful candidate in the royal election, Stefan Batory (István Báthory) of
Transylvania. Batory proved to be an energetic ruler. After a swift campaign, he
successfully concluded the conflict with Russia for the contested territory of Livonia. He
also managed to put internal affairs in order and strengthen the royal powers.
How to Do Business in Poland
The Swedish Dynasty on the Polish Throne
The election following Batory’s death went to the grandson of Sigismund I, Sigismund
Vasa of Sweden, the first king of the Vasa dynasty to ascend the Polish throne. The
Vasas – Sigismund III, Vladislaus IV, and Ioannes Casimirus (John Casimir) – ruled
until 1668; and although they maintained Poland’s status as a respected European
power, they also entangled the kingdom in a series of wars, failed to prevent a civil war
in Ukraine, and tolerated the growth of the magnates’ power.
A War-Ravaged Country
From the early 17th century, Poland was in a constant state of war with one or another of
its neighbours. Military successes (victory over Sweden at Kircholm in 1605, Russia at
Kłuszyn in 1610, and Turkey at Chocim in 1621) were intertwined with disasters: failed
intervention in Russia in 1612, disastrous defeat at the hands of the Turks in the Battle of
Cecora in 1620, and a series of setbacks during the Khmelnytsky (Chmielnicki) Cossack
uprising in Ukraine in 1648.
The outcome at home was inevitable: the country was nearly ruined, the treasury
emptied, the nobility in ever-growing opposition to royal prerogatives. Beginning in
1652 several sejms were stopped by obstructionists. The nadir of disaster came with the
Swedish Deluge (1655-1660), when the country had to face a simultaneous invasion by
Swedish, Russian, Cossack, Prussian, and Transylvanian armies. Although this war
ended in victory, Poland emerged from it devastated and weakened internally. Religious
toleration waned in the climate of the Counter-Reformation and wars with heterodox
neighbours (Orthodox Russia and Protestant Sweden). On several occasions the nobility
withdrew its allegiance to the Crown. Finally, a civil war broke out in 1665, leading to
the abdication of Jan Kazimierz in 1668.
The Siege of Vienna
After the short reign of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, the throne of Poland passed to
Hetman Jan Sobieski, hero of the Turkish wars. He had to reign over a country rent by
rival factions of magnates and territorially diminished by a temporary Turkish
occupation of Podolia. Though from the military standpoint he was the glorious victor of
the relief of Vienna in 1683, he could not live up to the challenging task of putting the
affairs of state in order. He was not successful on the diplomatic front either, losing half
of Ukraine to Russia, and making shaky alliances with France and Austria. With
Sobieski’s death in 1696, the Sarmatian period of the Polish Noblemen’s
Commonwealth wound to a close. From then on, the predominant role in the country
would be played by factions of magnates. Polish military triumphs also became a thing
of the past.
XII. History of Poland
Association with Saxony
The reigns in Poland of Augustus the Strong and Augustus III, Electors of Saxony of the
House of Wettin, brought further military and political decline. Poland’s involvement in
the Great Northern War (1702-1721) was the next calamity, the time when neighbouring
powers started to meddle in Poland’s internal affairs (e.g., the Swedish “appointment” of
Stanisław Leszczyński to the Polish throne, 1704-1709). However, in a situation where
maintaining neutrality in the face of a Russo-Swedish conflict proved impossible, the
Wettins not only managed to keep the country intact territorially, but also prevented its
social and cultural degradation. Although weak and dependent on her neighbours,
Poland was still a dynamically developing European state. However, any attempts to
remedy the domestic situation were doomed to fail not only due to behind-the-scene
interventions by Russia, Prussia and Austria, but most of all because of the feuding
factions of the great lords (the Potockis, Czartoryskis, and Sapiehas), who looked more
and more to foreign powers for (mostly financial) support.
The Last King – A Patron of the Arts
The reign of Stanisław August Poniatowski, last king of Poland-Lithuania, was full of
contradictions. On the one hand, he was submissive towards Russia, to whose support he
owed his victory in the elections, and depended on the Czartoryski Familia; on the other,
he made it possible for Poland to flourish culturally. His reign saw the publication of
Adam Naruszewicz’ works of history and of Bishop Ignacy Krasicki’s satires and
novels, as well as the launch of the national theatre, established by Wojciech
Bogusławski. Warsaw, Poland’s capital since the times of Sigismund III, became one of
the centres of the Neo-Classical style in architecture, as exemplified by the king’s
residence at Łazienki. Michał Ogiński contributed to Diderot’s famous Encyclopaedia.
The political writings of the times, by outstanding thinkers like Stanisław Staszic and
Hugo Kołłątaj, spread Enlightenment ideas originating in England and France. The
Enlightenment period witnessed a reform of education conducted under the supervision
of the world’s first modern ministry of education, created in 1773.
The Collapse of the State
The debilitated state was not capable of defending itself against attack by the
neighbouring powers. In 1772, against a backdrop of increasing internal chaos, Russia,
Prussia and Austria accomplished the First Partition of Poland, which lost 1/3 of its
territory. In the 1790s Poland underwent radical domestic reform. The Constitution of
the Third of May was passed (1791). Alarmed at the prospect of a strong Poland, Russia
and Prussia decided to intervene.
How to Do Business in Poland
Despite its resistance, Poland was vanquished by an overwhelming military force, which
resulted in the Second Partition in 1793. This time, the aggressors were assisted by
domestic dissenters united under the banner of the Targowica Confederacy of magnates.
The final blow to Polish independence was dealt after the failure of the Kościuszko
Insurrection, an anti-Russian uprising in 1794. After several initial successes, the
popular and brave national leader, General Tadeusz Kościuszko (a hero of the American
War of Independence, like his compatriot General Kazimierz Pułaski) lost the decisive
battle at Maciejowice and was taken prisoner by the Russians.
In 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria divided what remained of Poland-Lithuania among
themselves, forcing Stanisław August to abdicate. From that moment, the name Poland
disappeared from the maps of Europe for over a century.
Napoleonic Times – Hopes for Poland
The turn of the 19th century brought hope for the restoration of independence in the
wake of Napoleon’s military triumphs. The Polish Legions formed in Italy fought in
many of Napoleon’s battles (Trebia, Hohenlinden, Marengo).
Meanwhile Prince Adam Czartoryski, then Russia’s foreign minister, was planning the
restoration of the Polish state under the rule of the Russian Tsar Alexander I. This
division of the country into those who favoured co-operation with the West and those
who favoured the East lasted for decades and affected Polish history on numerous
occasions. Napoleon did partly fulfil the hopes vested in him. After defeating Austria
and Prussia, he created the Duchy of Warsaw out of part of the former Polish territories.
He helped the Poles to raise their own army, under Prince Józef Poniatowski, nephew of
the last king. The Polish army fought in all Napoleon’s campaigns and major battles,
including Borodino and in the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig, where Prince
Poniatowski perished. However, the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1811-12 and
Napoleon’s downfall changed the fate of Poland and indeed all of Europe. The Duchy of
Warsaw was replaced by a Kingdom of Poland linked to Russia through a personal
union (the Tsar of Russia was made King of Poland), with its own constitution, sejm,
army, and treasury. The remaining territories of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw were
placed under Prussian rule as the Grand Duchy of Poznań, with the Free City of Cracow
being ‘supervised’ by the 3 partitioning powers.
XII. History of Poland
Fighting for Independence
The Poles did not give up their hopes of full independence. Already in 1830, on the
wave of European-wide protests against the decisions of the Congress of Vienna, an
armed insurrection, the November Uprising, broke out in the Russian Partition on 29
November 1830. The Tsar was dethroned and a National Government was established.
Despite initial success, the uprising ended in failure. The Kingdom was abolished and its
territories annexed to the Russian Empire, and the economic and political concessions of
1815-1830 were lost. The Sejm was disbanded.
Subsequent uprisings brought more disasters. One occurred in Cracow in 1846. The
authorities put it down with the help of Polish peasants, and the Free City was annexed
by the Austrian Empire. Another uprising in 1848, in Greater Poland, was crushed as
well. During the Revolution of 1848, Poles were present wherever battles were fought
against the Holy Alliance: in Italy (under the leadership of Adam Mickiewicz and
Wojciech Chrzanowski), in Germany (Wiktor Heltman, Ludwik Mierosławski, and
Franciszek Sznajde), in Austria (Józef Bem) and in Hungary (Bem, Henryk Dembiński,
and Józef Wysocki). In the debate over whether to struggle or to co-operate with the
aggressors, the idea of an uprising carried the day again in the 1860s. But the January
Uprising (1863-1865) met with a defeat so severe that the vision of national restoration
by force of arms was subsequently shelved for many years.
Polish Émigrés
After each uprising a wave of political exiles left the Polish territories. After the
November Uprising, more than ten thousand were forced to emigrate. This tide was
called the Great Emigration on account both of its volume and the intellectual potential
of the émigrés, who included the statesman Prince Adam Czartoryski, the national bards
Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Słowacki, the historian Joachim Lelewel, and almost the
entire general staff of the Uprising. Most of the émigrés became involved in European
politics, while continuing to strive for Polish independence. Some, like Prince
Czartoryski, tried to further the cause by diplomatic means, others by military service,
others still by participating in secret European organisations like Young Europe. The
best-known masterpieces of Polish literature were created in France, notably the national
epic Pan Tadeusz by Adam Mickiewicz. Poles were ever present in world events, not
only as soldiers or politicians: Ignacy Domeyko laid the foundation of geology in Chile;
Ernest Malinowski built railways in Peru; Paweł Edmund Strzelecki explored Africa and
Australia for the British Crown. There were also the Polish writers and artists: Joseph
Conrad (Józef Konrad Korzeniowski) made a mark in world literature, Henryk
Rodakowski won gold medals at Paris art exhibitions, while in music Frédéric Chopin
and Ignacy Paderewski became world-famous as composers and virtuoso performers.
How to Do Business in Poland
The ‘Polish Question’
After the January Uprising, increasingly oppressive measures were introduced in the
Russian zone of partitioned Poland, and another wave of politicians, artists and soldiers
was forced to emigrate. As efforts intensified to turn the Poles into Russians, the Polish
language was barred from a growing number of schools and institutions. The situation
was similar in the territories under Prussia, where the authorities sometimes resorted to
brutal methods in a drive to Germanise the population. The Catholic Church was
severely repressed both in Russia and Prussia. Only Galicia (the Austrian partition zone)
enjoyed a measure of autonomy after 1867, with its own national assembly, and a Polish
run administrative and educational system. But unlike the Prussian and, to an extent, the
Russian partition zones, it was deeply impoverished and, except for the cities,
economically depressed.
Politics, Parliament, Parties
The second half of the 19th century saw a more vibrant Polish political life. Not only did
Poles participate in the politics of the three occupying empires – Polish deputies held
seats in their parliaments – and were appointed to the highest offices (Kazimierz Badeni
was Prime Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), they also set up their own,
modern political parties (e.g. the Proletariat, 1882; the Polish Socialist Party, 1892; the
National-Democratic Party, 1897; the People’s Party, 1895, to name but a few). These
groups made a signal impact on partitioned Poland, and would affect future
developments at the restoration of independence.
Literature, Science and the Arts
Thanks to the struggle to keep the national spirit alive, and to the dissemination of the
ideal of work for the good of society, in the late 19th century Polish culture enjoyed a
period of dynamic growth. This was an age highlighted by the work of writers like
Bolesław Prus, Eliza Orzeszkowa, Stefan śeromski, and Adam Asnyk, and of painters
like Jan Matejko, Józef Chełmoński, Henryk Siemiradzki, and Stanisław Wyspiański,
who was also an outstanding playwright. In 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz received the
Nobel Prize in literature. Advances were being made in science: Zygmunt Wróblewski
and Karol Olszewski were the first to liquefy atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen (1886).
In 1853 Ignacy Łukasiewicz developed an industrially efficient method for the
distillation of petroleum oil and constructed the world’s first practicable paraffin lamp,
while Ludwik Zamenhof created Esperanto and published his manual for this language.
The crowning achievement by a Polish scientist was the discovery of radioactivity and
the isolation of the first radioactive isotopes by Maria Skłodowska- Curie (in
collaboration with her husband Pierre), for which she was awarded two Nobel Prizes
(1903 and 1911).
XII. History of Poland
With Russia or with Germany?
The dream of independence returned with the 1905 Revolution in Russia. Although no
significant political changes were achieved within the ‘Kingdom’ (the Russian zone of
partitioned Poland) or in Russia itself, Polish hopes and memories of bygone national
uprisings revived. Some political groups opted for armed struggle leading to
independence, while others preferred a policy of negotiations with the partitioning
powers. However, everybody knew that it would take a Pan-European conflict, a war
between the partitioning powers, for a chance for the Polish cause to succeed. The main
problem lay in the choice of an ally; some campaigners (Józef Piłsudski and the
independence group) called for co-operation with Austria and Prussia Germany; others
(Roman Dmowski and the nationalist groups) saw an opportunity in alliance with Russia
and the Entente Powers (France and United Kingdom, joined later by the United States).
The Road to Independence
The First World War brought the solution to the Polish Question. Józef Piłsudski,
Commander of the Polish Legions, put forward a political concept calling for a proAustrian orientation, which proved to be the most effective. He bet that Germany and
Austro-Hungary would beat Russia, and would in turn be defeated by France and United
Kingdom, the defeat of the partitioning powers allowing an independent Poland to arise.
This was indeed what happened: after the Revolution of 1917 Russia withdrew from the
War, while Germany and Austro-Hungary capitulated. The Treaty of Versailles, which
ended the Great War, sanctioned Poland’s independence. By October 1918 Polish forces
were already disarming German and Austrian units in Poland. On 7 November, the first
Polish interim government was created under the leadership of the Socialist Ignacy
Daszyński. Following Piłsudski’s return (he had been arrested by the Germans in July
1917), the army and the interim government deferred to the Commander of the Legions.
Piłsudski was appointed National Commander-in-Chief (Naczelnik).
Border Conflicts
Fighting broke out in Ukraine in 1918, and an anti-German uprising in Greater Poland
(27 December 1918-14 February 1919) led to that region’s return to Poland. Under the
Treaty of Versailles, Poland was granted access to the Baltic Sea, although Gdańsk was
to remain a Free City. A plebiscite was held in the contested territories of Upper Silesia
and Mazuria, which went against Poland (1920 and 1921). Eventually three uprisings
induced the League of Nations to grant 30 % of Silesia to Poland. Another danger
loomed in the east: in the Polish-Soviet war of 1920, Russia’s Bolshevik armies
narrowly missed the chance for a ‘revolutionary march across Europe’, having reached
the outskirts of Warsaw. The battle fought there on 13-18 August was dubbed by Lord
D’Abernon, a British diplomat, “the eighteenth decisive battle of the world”. The people
How to Do Business in Poland
of Poland called it the ‘Miracle on the Vistula’. The war was concluded with a peace
treaty which proved relatively favourable for Poland (Riga, 18 March, 1921).
Difficult Beginnings in an Independent Country
Three months after independence, the Legislative Sejm opened its session. The Small
Constitution had already been passed (February 1919), agricultural reform introduced,
national administrative bodies created, and the educational system and war-damaged
industry were being reconstructed by the time the Silesian Uprisings and the war with
Soviet Russia broke out. By March 1921 Poland could boast a modern constitution.
However, in the first years of independence the domestic situation was uneasy. Gabriel
Narutowicz, the first President of the Republic, was assassinated one week after his
election (16 December 1921) by an ultra-conservative fanatic. Numerous political conflicts
and a growing economic crisis brought about a loss of credibility for the state authorities.
Even the radical and successful state finance reform of 1924 did not alleviate tensions.
Piłsudski Assumes Power
In May 1926, with the assistance of loyal military units, Józef Piłsudski, who had kept out
of politics for four years, carried out what has come down in history as the May Coup. His
adherents, the Sanacja group, intended to ‘sanitise’ the country (hence the name). After
several days of fighting, President Wojciechowski and the Cabinet of Prime Minister
Witos resigned. Although Piłsudski was elected President by the Sejm, he turned down
this option, and put forward the candidacy of Professor Ignacy Mościcki. Poland entered a
period called the Sanacja régime or the ‘government of the colonels’, as most of
Piłsudski’s colleagues in this government were either active or retired army officers.
The Sanacja régime brought Poland economic stability, but also meant a drift from
democracy towards authoritarianism. Marshal Piłsudski governed with a heavy hand,
tolerated no opposition, and did not hesitate to use drastic methods to curb defiant
politicians (as exemplified by the bringing of police into the Sejm assembly hall in March
1928). This state of affairs was manifest especially in the 1930s, when Poland was affected
by the crash on the New York stock market, and the ensuing economic crisis brought a
tense atmosphere. In September 1930 Piłsudski dissolved Parliament and had many
members of the opposition arrested, sentencing them to prison terms during a ‘trial’ that
was a travesty of justice. In 1934 a camp was set up at Bereza Kartuska, where
“individuals who posed a threat to security and order” were to be detained. Before his
death on 12 May 1935 Piłsudski managed to approve the authoritarian April Constitution
which significantly curtailed the powers of the Sejm in favour of the president’s
prerogatives. After Piłsudski’s death, the Sanacja group split into two rival factions (the
followers of Marshal Śmigly-Rydz and the supporters of President Mościcki). Deputy
Prime Minister Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski proved to be the only notable politician of the
XII. History of Poland
Sanacja era; he was the creator of an economic development project for Poland, involving
the Central Industrial Region and the new port of Gdynia.
A Flowering of Independent Culture
Alongside the political and economic unrest, interwar Poland also experienced
a veritable burst of artistic activity. In 1924 Władysław S. Reymont received the Nobel
Prize in literature for his novel Chłopi (The Peasants, 1924-25). The jury also
considered the candidacy of Stefan śeromski, another novelist. In music Poland was
represented by Ignacy Jan Paderewski and Karol Szymanowski. But perhaps the greatest
claim to international fame was staked by the actress Pola Negri (Apolonia Chałupiec),
who captivated Hollywood and silent movie fans.
Disaster: the End of the Short Spell of Independence
The life of the Second Republic of Poland was interrupted by the outbreak of the Second
World War. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, and on 17 September the
Soviet Union attacked from the east. After a month of fighting, Germany and the USSR
enacted another partition of Poland. A portion of the Polish territories under German
control were turned into what became known as the ‘General-Government’ and the rest
was simply annexed directly to Nazi Germany.
Poland’s eastern territories remained under Soviet occupation. Both powers pursued
deliberate policies of an extreme harshness and cruelty towards the Polish population,
albeit in different ways. German concentration camps and Soviet labour camps filled up;
Large numbers of Polish intellectuals were shot in the Palmiry woods, at Wawer, and at
many other mass execution sites. On Stalin’s orders, 21,000 reserve officers (mostly
officials and intellectuals) held as POWs were executed in Katyn, Kharkov, and
elsewhere in the USSR. The Nazis murdered 3 million Polish Jewish citizens, and over 2
million non-Jewish Poles. Over a quarter of a million Polish civilians of all ethnic
backgrounds were deported east by the Soviet authorities, where many of them died.
The Polish Government did not give up the struggle. President Władysław Raczkiewicz,
and General Władysław Sikorski, who was Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief,
were in exile in London, from where the government-in-exile ran the underground
organisations at home. A fully operational, clandestine Polish administrative system
known as the ‘Underground State’ was established and conducted its affairs, including
an extensive clandestine education system at the secondary (grammar school) and
university level, as the Nazis had closed down all education for Poles except elementary
schools. The ranks of the armed resistance movement reached over 400,000 combatants,
and their sabotage operations and undercover campaigns were carried out on the largest
scale in occupied Europe.
How to Do Business in Poland
Fighting on the Frontlines and Conducting the Ideological Battle
Polish forces fought on every European front during the Second World War (Narvik, the
French campaign and the Battle of Britain in 1940, Tobruk in 1941/42, Normandy and
Monte Cassino in 1944). The biggest Polish Army unit in the West was General Anders’
Second Corps, which fought in Italy. This unit was created in 1941 in the USSR,
following an agreement between Sikorski and Stalin, and consisted mainly of Polish
POWs and deportees freed from Stalin’s camps. Poles made a major contribution to the
Allied effort in intelligence. (Two Polish mathematicians broke the German Enigma
code). But, for the future of Poland, the political decisions were the most important.
Diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union were broken off after the discovery of the
Katyn massacre, while the death of Gen. Sikorski in a mysterious plane crash in 1943
weakened the Polish position on the international arena. Neither Prime Minister
Mikołajczyk nor Commander-in-Chief Sosnkowski managed successfully to put
Poland’s case to Churchill and Roosevelt, who left Poland under Soviet influence in
exchange for the USSR’s continued participation in the war against Nazi Germany. The
military campaigns of the Polish underground movement in the eastern territories were
of no avail in securing a favourable attitude from the Western powers, and neither was
the Warsaw Uprising (63 days of fighting). The Allied conferences in Tehran (1943) and
Yalta (1945) sealed the fate of Poland: the Republic’s eastern territories were ceded to
the USSR, and Poland found itself in the Soviet sphere of influence. The only
concession on the part of Stalin was his agreement to grant Poland territories along the
River Oder, together with part of former East Prussia. It was a sop to the government of
Polish communists which was being formed in the USSR under Stalin’s tutelage (two
Polish armies were fighting side by side with the Red Army under Russian command).
Once again, a war between the superpowers left Poland devastated (a loss of 1/5 of its
pre-war territory; a population diminished by a third, and national economic assets
depleted by 38 %).
Communist Rule
With the help of Polish communists, the Soviet authorities quickly managed to crush all
overt opposition. Combatants who were members of the AK (the ‘Home Army’) and
WiN (‘Freedom and Independence’) independent underground resistance organisations
were murdered, deported to Russia, or sent to prisons or labour camps; their leaders
were imprisoned in Moscow and tried in a showcase trial. A condition was formally set
by the Western Allies that democratic elections be held, but members and associates of
Mikołajczyk’s PSL – an independent peasant party – were arrested, intimidated, and
assassinated. The results of a referendum of 30 June 1946 and parliamentary elections in
January 1947 were rigged. Mikołajczyk, a Deputy Prime Minister of the Interim
Government, fled the country.
XII. History of Poland
Thereafter Poland would be ruled by the PPR (the Polish Workers’ Party, which in 1948
forcibly absorbed a pre-war socialist party and changed its name to PZPR, or Polish
United Workers’ Party). Between 1948 and 1956, the Stalinist era, Poland was under the
absolute rule of the PZPR Communist Party, assisted by the secret police and Soviet
‘advisers’. Repressive measures were directed not just against political opponents, but
the general public. Former AK combatants and Catholic priests filled the prisons.
Cardinal Wyszyński, Primate of Poland, was interned in 1953. Inconvenient PZPR
members (like Party Secretary Władysław Gomułka) were imprisoned too. Poland was a
satellite of the USSR. There was next to no private business, and economic specialists
were all Communists; there was an attempt to collectivise agriculture; and enforced
industrialisation caused a significant drop in the standard living and severe discontent.
The October '56 thaw and "Our Little Stabilisation"
The people of Poland had to wait until 1956 for the political terror to wane. In that year
Stalinism was officially repudiated in the USSR, and after the death of the PZPR leader
Bolesław Bierut and workers’ strikes and protests in Poznań (28 June), changes occurred
in the regime.
In October of that year, after a sharp conflict within the Party and difficult
negotiations with the USSR, Władysław Gomułka once again became leader of the
Party and head of state, initially with the support of the nation. The new First
Secretary used the new situation to reduce Poland's dependence on the USSR.
Gradually political prisoners were released from jail, the Primate was freed from
house arrest. Enforced agricultural collectivisation was dropped; a negligible volume
of private business was tolerated. Recovering from the wartime devastation, Poland
now entered the "little stabilisation" period. However, Gomułka soon backed out of
the liberal course. The PZPR was still the absolute power in Poland. The conflict
between the government and society became more and more patent. The clash
between State and Church during Poland's millennium celebrations (1966), and
student strikes (March 1968), as well as the anti-Semitic campaign started by the Party
in 1968 underpinned the nation's disenchantment with the Gomułka government.
Gierek and the "propaganda of success"
The end of Gomułka's rule, much like his rise to power in 1956, was brought about
largely due to workers' discontent.
In December 1970, after a price rise, there were strikes in several coastal cities, and
street fights between dockers and the police and army, in which several dozen
protesters were killed. Eventually, an opposition group within the Party removed
Gomułka and appointed Edward Gierek the new First Secretary. In the 1970s the
How to Do Business in Poland
People's Republic of Poland enjoyed a period of phoney prosperity. Thanks to foreign
credit, the shops were full of consumer goods, new companies sprang up and the
standard of living rose. The first sign of crisis came in 1976, with riots in Radom and
at the Ursus industrial plant. The Communist economy was highly inefficient, and real
wages fell and the supply of consumer goods dwindled. More strikes and workers'
protests followed. Repressions directed against the 1976 rioters led to the creation of
an illegal workers' defence committee (KOR). Other illegal opposition groups and
clandestine publications began to appear. The Church played a significant role,
organising widespread educational activities and addressing the most urgent social
needs. Widespread strikes also engulfed other regions, especially Szczecin and the
coal mines of Silesia. Throughout the country, the totalitarian regime found itself in
serious danger. This was the beginning of a general strike.
The end of the ‘success propaganda’ period (as the 70s decade was dubbed) came in
1980. An extremely strong wave of strikes engulfed Poland after another price increase,
and the working people of Gdańsk organised a trade union strike committee. This time
the Party did not resort to violence, and the subsequent negotiations resulted in the
signing of the August Agreements (31 August 1980) and the emergence of Solidarity, an
independent trade union organisation, headed by a Gdańsk shipyard worker, Lech
Wałęsa. Momentous events in the Catholic Church also encouraged an atmosphere of
freedom and change, and an increasing boldness on the part of the working people. In
1978, Cardinal Karol Wojtyła, Metropolitan Archbishop of Cracow, had been elected
Pope, assuming the name John Paul II, and 8 months later had made a pilgrimage to his
home country. Solidarity quickly became a widespread social movement uniting over 9
million members, including a large number from the ruling Communist Party. It was an
unprecedented phenomenon in the entire Soviet bloc, essentially irreconcilable with the
political system. Despite the fact that, in general, it did not express any revolutionary
political goals and only called for the ‘rationalisation of the existing system’, it enjoyed
the widespread support of political and trade-union circles in the West, and became an
inspiration to other independence minded groups in the Communist bloc. Another
symbolic event in 1980 was the awarding of the Nobel Prize for literature to an émigré
Polish poet, Czesław Miłosz.
Martial Law
In the face of economic crisis and the growing influence of Solidarity, and under
pressure from the USSR, General Jaruzelski decided to adopt drastic measures. On 13
December 1981 Martial Law was introduced in the People’s Republic of Poland.
Several thousand opposition activists were interned, and strikes were crushed with the
help of the army and special riot police units. On 16 December nine miners were killed
XII. History of Poland
at the Wujek Coal Mine. Many members of the opposition and underground tradeunionists were sentenced to prison terms, others were forced to emigrate. Martial Law,
which was officially lifted in July 1983, did not solve Poland’s problems. The Polish
economy still could not emerge from the crisis; opposition to the government did not
diminish but was kept alive by the Pope’s subsequent pilgrimages in 1983 and 1987, and
the awarding in 1983 of the Nobel Peace Prize to Lech Wałęsa, Solidarity’s leader.
Under Wałęsa’s leadership, the Solidarity trade union continued to operate illegally, as
evidenced by the regular publication and distribution of several hundred clandestine
periodicals and bulletins. Solidarity campaigners received support from the Church,
which had maintained its strong position in society. By 1983 the scale of the repressions
as well as that of the opposition activities was relatively modest compared to the earlier
The Round Table Agreements and the Polish Road to Democracy
In 1988, PZPR Communist party leaders started negotiations with representatives of the
then unofficial opposition. In the early months of 1989, as a result of the Round Table
talks, an agreement was signed calling for partially free elections to the Parliament. The
opposition was to have 35 % of the seats in the Sejm, and an entirely free election to the
Senate. The election held on 4 June 1989 brought a landslide victory to Solidarity.
Although the Parliament, dubbed the ‘contractual Parliament’, elected Gen. Jaruzelski
President of the Republic, the office of Prime Minister was entrusted to a Solidarity
candidate, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, who had been chief adviser to the Gdańsk strike
committee in 1980. On 29 July 1989 the Parliament changed the country’s name and
constitution. The People’s Republic of Poland became a thing of the past. The events in
Poland precipitated the fall of the entire Communist block. The Yalta arrangement
finally collapsed.
How to Do Business in Poland
Polish embassies and embassies in Poland
Polish institutions to turn to include the Polish
Information and Foreign Investment Agency,
Ministry of the Treasury, and Central Statistical
English language newspapers: The Warsaw Voice,
The Warsaw Business Journal, Polish Market
Internet: Poland’s official web pages, Polish Export
Promotion Portal, BMB Promotions, websites of the
ministries, Polish embassies and UNIDO Warsaw
Office website
Web lists of trade fairs in Poland
How to Do Business in Poland
Considering information distribution methods and accessibility, one can basically group
sources of business information into three categories:
newspapers, magazines, and other printed publications,
internet pages.
Usually an institutional source of information provides access to its information in many
ways: direct consultation, publications, and information on its website.
For English speaking foreigners, accessing business and financial news in Poland is
quite easy. Nowadays state and research institutions employ highly-qualified staff and
finding somebody who speaks English there is not a problem. Whether this particular
person will be an expert in the issues you would like to discuss is another matter.
English-language publications pertaining to the Polish economy cover the whole
spectrum of information, from daily stock market news and reports, to the legal aspects
of setting up a business in Poland, and market analysis. Finally, one can always order
a specific report to be prepared in a language of choice from Poland’s many consulting
and corporate intelligence companies. Last but not least the easiest and cheapest way of
accessing a wealth of information is surfing the web. There are many exclusively
business and finance oriented websites and if one is patient enough one will find most of
the information required right there.
State and research institutions are among the most reliable sources of information.
Appendix 14 provides a list of central institutions and ministries with contact
information (including websites). Nearly all of them issue various publications (some in
English) and maintain websites, usually with an English language version.
Of course, a foreigner’s obvious first choice is his/her embassy in Poland, or a Polish
embassy abroad. A list of embassies in Poland is contained in Appendix 26 and a list of
the economic and commercial sections of Polish embassies and consulates abroad is
presented in Appendix 27. Next, there are various bilateral chambers of commerce,
some of which are listed in Appendix 25.
XIII. Sources of Business Information in Poland
Obviously, which institution to contact depends on the nature of one’s business in
Poland, therefore it is not possible to indicate the single best contact that would suit
everyone’s needs. However, if one considers direct investment, PAIiIZ (the Polish
Information and Foreign Investment Agency) is a prime choice. PAIiIZ produces a
series of high quality English-language titles under different headings, covering areas
ranging from the construction sector to banking, and offers a whole range of free of
charge services to foreign investors. For more information on PAIiIZ see the
Institutional Structure for Foreign Direct Investments in Chapter V. The Warsaw
UNIDO Office, publisher of this guide, is also helpful.
For a company wanting to participate in the privatisation processes in Poland, the
Ministry of the Treasury (described in Chapter IV) is the institution to turn to, while the
Ministry of the Economy deals with state economic policy, foreign trade regulations,
investment incentives, state aid, etc., and will provide useful general and specific
information. It is also worth to note that the Ministry of Finance supervises the customs
system. Some information in English, regarding customs regulations one may find via
their website (Customs Service). An outline of basic functions of some major
government institutions is provided in Chapter I.
The Central Statistical Office (GUS) disseminates a wide range of detailed data covering
all aspects of the economy. Some of it is readily available in English in their bilingual
publications, such as the Statistical Bulletin, published monthly. Accessing the
information is very simple. The best way is to visit the Inquiry Office, which has a small
reading room and a very helpful staff, ready to help you find the required publications,
or to assist you in searching their databanks. A fair range of information is also available
through the website.
The National Bank of Poland (NBP) is an invaluable source of reliable information
concerning the Polish financial system, system of payments, and, obviously, the
banking sector. Up to date information includes the balance of payments, foreign
reserves, and foreign debt, not to mention monetary policy and exchange rates.
The Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (UOKiK) protects freedom of
competition and consumer interests. It counteracts monopolistic practices, controls
mergers, and monitors public aid. The register of dangerous products can also be found
on their website, as well as reports concerning the above mentioned activities. For more
information on UOKiK please refer to Chapter X.
The Insurance and Pension Funds Supervisory Commission (KNUiFE) provides detailed
information regarding the insurance sector and pension funds. This includes insurance
agents, pension societies, individual pension accounts, employee pension plans, etc.
Information on the Polish insurance sector is contained in Chapter II.
How to Do Business in Poland
In the case of the tourism industry, the Institute of Tourism is highly recommended.
It provides a lot of current information regarding the tourism sector in Poland free of
charge, and in-depth analyses of particular aspects of the market are available through
their publications. Moreover, it also offers consulting services, such as compiling
specific reports upon request, at very reasonable prices.
Trade and co-operation offers are collected and distributed by, among other institutions,
the Polish Chamber of Commerce, which also offers corporate due diligence services.
This organisation produces regular bulletin-type publications on business trends and
financial news in Poland.
The Polish Press Agency (PAP) offers an informative and comprehensive, if somewhat
expensive, guide to Polish politics and business, as well as general issues. It provides
Warsaw Stock Exchange and currency rate listings. The English is not free of lapses,
although it serves its purpose.
International news agencies, like Reuters, Bloomberg, and the German Press Agency
(dpa) are all accessible for in-depth daily and weekly financial news, although for the
uninformed they pose the problem of little or no contextual analysis, and for the average
news seeker they pose questions of price.
There are also many international organisations and institutions present in Poland,
usually based in Warsaw, which are willing and able to provide various facts and
figures. Some of them are listed in Appendix 16.
Finally, business reports from corporate intelligence companies are becoming
increasingly popular in Poland. The companies undertaking to draw up such reports will
take an in-depth look at a given company on your behalf and offer confidential, if often
costly, advice on the company’s financial credibility, in Polish or in a foreign language.
For the potential business partner in search of company details, such information may
prove to be well worth its price.
XIII. Sources of Business Information in Poland
Newspapers, Magazines and Other Publications
English-language newsprint publications in Poland cover a broad selection of areas for
the English-speaking foreigner, from the general interest weekly, The Warsaw Voice, the
oldest and highest circulation newspaper, to the purely entertainment-based Warsaw
Insider ( The Voice also produces a Business and
Economy Yearbook, which is available on request from the Warsaw Voice office.
The Warsaw Business Journal provides perhaps the most comprehensive coverage of
financial and business news, although the Voice has decent weekly reports on the stock
market and currency, and often in-depth studies of key markets and industries. The
Warsaw Business Journal publishes its well-known Book of Lists, which is a useful
database for companies. Book of Lists is also available on-line as a paid service. The
WBJ web page,, contains some articles from the Warsaw Insider, as
well as from Poland A.M., a morning news digest published by the same house. There is
also Polen am Morgen, a German version of Poland A.M.
The Warsaw Voice’s internet site, is well presented, easy to
access, and offers comprehensive coverage of financial and business stories. Its weekly
updates on the currency market, Warsaw Stock Exchange, and the odd feature or news
article on sectors of industry in the news, are found on these pages, free of charge. There
is also an extensive archive available, with a search option.
The Polish Market, a business focused monthly, presents a valuable compendium of data
and information about the government’s economic policy. It covers investment,
commodity and service markets’ issues, and provides information on leading Polish
companies and high quality prize-winning products. It promotes various Polish regions,
presenting their development strategies and investment offers. One may also notice
articles on Polish business leaders and the biggest Polish and foreign investors. Many
interesting articles from current and past issues are available at their website Accessing most of the materials requires a free
Several other sources of business and financial news are published outside Poland and
can be found in Poland at any of the major hotels, English-language book shops, and, if
one is lucky, at kiosks.
For the upper end of the business information market, one may look towards The
Economist Intelligence Unit’s Quarterly Business Report on Poland, updated monthly.
Other sources include the reports of international organisations such as the IMF, World
Bank, OECD, and the European Commission, which are usually published at least once
a year and are available through their respective websites.
How to Do Business in Poland
A real flurry of internet pages has appeared (and sometimes, vanished) in recent years
on Polish business and finance, each new one stepping on the toes of the last, while
offering something slightly different, in format as well as content. The following are
outlines of the main sources of internet business and financial news from Poland. For
those in search of current data and hard economic news, as well as commercial and
business offers and practical guidance concerning legal, tax, or, for example, insurance
matters, the internet is an ideal source of information, especially for the Englishspeaking persons, and persons not based in Poland, who don’t have access to other
From the point of view of reliability of information, and of its being up to date, it is
certainly best to hear it ‘straight from the horse’s mouth’. Speaking in terms of the
internet, this translates into seeking information on the pages of the information
providers. Anyone seeking reliable business information on Poland is best advised to
turn to the official pages of various Polish ministries and other government and quasigovernment institutions. Most of their websites have an English language version
covering if not all, then at least the major topics available on the Polish site. However,
quite often the information in English is not quite up to date, so it is highly advisable to
verify whether the information presented reflects the current state of affairs. Frequently
this can be done by a simple phone call to the institution involved, or by checking the
part of the website in Polish.
As far as business information is concerned, the sites especially recommended include
the ones administered by the Ministry of the Economy, the Ministry of the Treasury, the
Ministry of Finance, PAIiIZ, and the Central Statistical Office. Furthermore, one may
find specific business information on the pages of the Warsaw Stock Exchange, the
National Bank of Poland, and other financial institutions. Please refer to Appendix 14
for the web pages of various state institutions.
Below, there is a short description of a few general sites on Poland and on doing
business in Poland. However, please remember that the internet is a very dynamic
medium and by the time this information reaches the reader, there may be many other,
equally good, websites.
Poland Home Page
This page is the official web-site of Poland. It offers some general information on
Poland, as well as the latest news. Moreover, it provides access to a wide range of
information through redirecting to various specialised sites. The major topics include the
economy, science and education, the natural environment, tourism and recreation,
XIII. Sources of Business Information in Poland
culture and art. The site provides access to business, financial and economic news,
although not all the pages to which one is redirected have their English versions.
However, each link is marked with flags indicating the available language versions. It is
highly recommended as a good starting point for anyone who wants to learn about
Poland, for business, leisure, or any reason.
There is also, another high quality and easy to navigate official
website of Poland, managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Its considerable
advantage is that apart from Polish and English, it is also available in French, German,
Russian and Spanish. The information is divided into three sections: for travellers, for
businessmen, and for info-seekers. The content covers both current news, and general
information concerning the economy, tourism, culture, and the history of Poland. It is
particularly focused on tourism and culture and provides a lot of interesting material,
such as information on the most famous Poles, Polish traditions and customs, interesting
castles and landscapes, etc.
Polish Export Promotion Portal,
This useful service is provided by the Ministry of the Economy. It contains some general
economic reports, as well as brief and up to date information on the Polish economy,
including facts and figures pertaining to industry, agriculture, foreign trade, prices,
salaries and wages, etc. Furthermore, the portal contains a database of Polish exporters,
with an option to search for particular products. It is also probably the best place to
submit your enquiry concerning Polish products and services. As is often the case, the
Polish language version offers more information and material to download.
BMB Promotions
This internet service is a window onto the world of Polish exports. The service enables
users to access thousands of offers of Polish firms looking for export and import
opportunities. It is available in seven language versions, including English, French, and
German. The service is run by BMB Promotions, which also offers a CD-ROM version.
Furthermore, BMB Promotions has prepared and included in this service a general
access database containing information about the economic potential and investment
environment of all local self-government units. It contains thousands of investment
projects in Polish districts, towns, communes, etc. The site contains a very useful feature
which ranks communes based on a selected set of criteria. It is also available in several
languages and on CD-ROM.
In addition, there are some very good pages created by the economic and commercial
divisions of various Polish embassies and consulates. The ones well-worth visiting
certainly include (Austria), (Canada),
How to Do Business in Poland
243 (Germany), (United Kingdom), and (both USA). Of course there are many
other useful websites. For a complete list of the economic and commercial sections of
Polish embassies and consulates please refer to Appendix 27. An updated list is also
available at the Polish Export Promotion Portal,
Finally, anyone interested in commercial relations will be glad to take a look at Targi
i Wystawy w Polsce ( which lists all the major trade fairs in Poland. This
site is simple to navigate, it is updated on a regular basis, and provides information on
some 400 trade fairs organised in Poland each year. There are also information and/or
links to some 130 fair organisers. The information is available in Polish and in English.
Alternatively, one can use the Polish Trade Fair Corporation (,
which offers a similar service, available in the same languages. It also offers some basic
statistics on trade fairs in Poland, albeit only in Polish.
How to Do Business in Poland
1. Main Economic Indicators ............................................................................................247
2. Establishment of a Limited Liability Company ............................................................248
3. Establishment of a Joint-Stock Company......................................................................250
4. Fundamental Business Regulations ................................................................................252
5. Basic Tax Liabilities .....................................................................................................254
6. Agreements on Avoiding Double Taxation.....................................................................255
7. Agreements on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments........................257
8. List of Countries Whose Citizens Do Not Require a Polish Visa..................................259
9. Top 50 Companies by Sales Revenue.............................................................................260
10. Output of Major Goods and Raw Materials ...................................................................262
11. Average Retail Prices of Selected Food Products and Other Articles .............................263
12. WSE – Equity ..............................................................................................................264
13. WSE – Bonds ...............................................................................................................265
14. Central Institutions and Ministries ...............................................................................266
15. Regional Offices of the Ministry of the Treasury.........................................................270
16. International Organisations and UN Agencies in Poland................................................271
17. Local Authorities – Provincial Governments .................................................................273
18. Economic Divisions of District Courts (Registering Companies)...................................274
19. Regional Branches and Subsidiary Offices of APA .....................................................275
20. Polish Technologies and Technology Providers.............................................................276
21. Special Economic Zones ...............................................................................................285
22. Banks ...........................................................................................................................286
23. Representative Offices of Foreign Banks.....................................................................289
24. National Investment Funds ..........................................................................................290
25. Selected Bilateral Chambers of Trade and Industry .....................................................291
26. Embassies and Commercial Counsellors’ Offices in Poland........................................292
27. Economic and Commercial Sections of Polish Embassies and Consulates..................297
28. UNIDO Established Networks ......................................................................................308
How to Do Business in Poland
Gross Domestic Product growth
Gross fixed capital formation
Industrial output growth
Productivity growth
Construction growth
Unemployment rate
Inflation rate
Rediscount rate (December)
Budget deficit
Foreign debt
Public debt
Foreign trade, SAD and INTRASTAT statistics:
Export revenue
Import expenditures
Trade deficit
Liquidity – import coverage
Foreign debt/export ratio
Foreign reserves (December)
Foreign direct investments
Cumulative foreign direct investments
(NBP data)
Average exchange rate
Wages (average gross monthly)
Minimum gross salary (as of 1 Jan. 2005)
3.4 %
6.5 %
3.8 %
2.9 %
17.6 %
2.1 %
4.75 %
2.9 % of GDP
42.9 % of GDP
47.7 % of GDP
USD 95.8 bn
USD 98.5 bn
USD 2.7 bn
5 months
USD 42.6 bn
USD 7.72 bn
USD 75.8 bn
3.2348 PLN/USD
4.0254 PLN/EUR
PLN 2,380.29
PLN 899.10
Gross Domestic Product growth (first quarter)
Industrial output growth (January-April)
Unemployment rate (end of April)
Inflation rate (January-April)
Rediscount rate (June)
Foreign trade, SAD and INTRASTAT statistics
Export revenue
Import expenditures
Trade deficit
Foreign reserves (May)
Average exchange rate (May)
5.2 %
10.8 %
17.2 %
0.6 %
4.25 %
USD 32.10 bn
USD 35.32 bn
USD 3.22 bn
USD 48.5 bn
3.0491 PLN/USD
3.8941 PLN/EUR
XIV. Appendices
Stage of Company
1. Signing of Articles Notarial Office
of Association / Deed
of Formation
2. Company
National Court Register
According to the provisions of the
Code of Commercial Companies,
Articles of Association or Deed of
Formation of a limited liability
company must be executed as
a notarial deed.
The registration takes place at the
Economic Court having jurisdiction
in the principal place of business of
the company being formed. Upon
being entered into the register the
company acquires a legal
Office for the publishing
of “Monitor Sądowy i
Gospodarczy”, Ministry
of Justice - through the
secretariat of the
competent economic
4. Assigning the
Provincial Statistical
company’s statistical Office
(Wojewódzki Urząd
1. Notarial fee.
2. Tax on civil and
legal proceedings.
The amount of both
charges depends on
the amount of the
company’s initial
Fixed charge of
PLN 1,000.
3. Announcement of
the company’s
registration in
“Monitor Sądowy
i Gospodarczy”
The charge is paid in
advance to the
Office account in an
amount not lower
than PLN 500.
Applications for the company’s
registration in the REGON system
are to be submitted at the Provincial
Statistical Office that has
jurisdiction in the company’s
principal place of business.
5. Company’s
Social Security Institution Within seven days of employing the
registration with the (Zakład Ubezpieczeń
first employee the company should
Social Security
register in the district office of the
Institution (ZUS)
Social Security Institution (ZUS).
6. Obtaining
Competent licensing body A list of business activities requiring
a licence or permit, if
licences or permits is available at
No charge.
7. Opening
the company’s bank
A company is obliged to open
a bank account in Polish złotys and
may also hold foreign currency
accounts with a bank authorised to
deal in foreign currency.
No charge.
Stamp duty in an
amount depending
on the type of
licence or permit.
According to the
bank’s regulations.
How to Do Business in Poland
Stage of Company
8. Registration of the Local Tax Office
company with the
Tax Office in respect
of income tax and
Upon commencing business activity,
that is issuing the first invoice, the
company is obliged to register with
the competent tax office.
Tax Identification
Number (NIP) no charge.
VAT registration stamp duty PLN 152.
Source: Various acts
Notarial Fees – maximum rates determined by the Minister of Justice
Company’s Initial Capital
To PLN 3,000
Over PLN 3,000 to PLN 10,000
Over PLN 10,000 to PLN 30,000
Over PLN 30,000 to PLN 60,000
Over PLN 60,000 to PLN 1,000,000
Over PLN 1,000,000
PLN 100
PLN 100 + 3 % of an amount in excess of PLN 3,000
PLN 310 + 2 % of an amount in excess of PLN 10,000
PLN 710 + 1 % of an amount in excess of PLN 30,000
PLN 1,010 + 0.5 % of an amount in excess of PLN 60,000
PLN 5,710 + 0.25 % of an amount in excess of PLN 1,000,000
Please note:
• the maximum notarial fee for an individual service is PLN 14,282.
• the above fees are subject to 22 % VAT.
Tax on Civil and Legal Proceedings – the Company’s Deed of Formation
Tax on civil and legal proceedings with respect to a company’s deed of formation
amounts to 0.5 % of the company’s initial capital.
XIV. Appendices
Stage of Company
1. Signing the Deed of Notarial Office
Formation and Charter
2. Accumulation of
the company’s share
The Securities
Commission (in
certain cases)
3. Company
National Court
4. Announcement of
the company’s
registration in
“Monitor Sądowy
i Gospodarczy”
Office for the
publishing of
“Monitor Sądowy i
Ministry of Justice through the Secretariat
of the competent
economic court
Provincial Statistical
(Wojewódzki Urząd
5. Assigning the
company’s statistical
6. Company’s
registration with Social
Security Institution
7. Obtaining a licence
or permit, if required
Social Security
(Zakład Ubezpieczeń
Competent licensing
According to the provisions of the
Code of Commercial Companies, the
Deed of Formation and Charter of
a joint-stock company must be
executed as a notarial deed.
1. Notarial fee.
2. Tax on civil and
legal proceedings.
The amount of both
charges depends on
the amount of the
company’s share
- Immediate formation (through
subscription for shares by the founders
and third parties).
- Consecutive formation (through
public subscription of shares; in which
case a permit from the Securities
Commission is required).
The registration takes place at the
Fixed charge of
Economic Court having jurisdiction in PLN 1,000.
the principal place of business of the
company being formed. Upon being
entered into the register the company
acquires legal personality.
The charge is paid in
advance to the Office
account in an amount
not lower than
PLN 500.
Applications for the company’s
registration in the REGON system are
to be submitted at the Provincial
Statistical Office that has jurisdiction
in the company’s principal place of
Within seven days of employing the
first employee the company should
register with the district office of the
Social Security Institution (ZUS).
A list of business activities requiring
licences or permits is available at
No charge.
No charge.
Stamp duty in an
amount depending on
the type of licence or
How to Do Business in Poland
Stage of Company
8. Opening
the company’s bank
9. Registration of the
company with the Tax
Office in respect of
income tax and VAT
Local Tax Office
A company is obliged to open a bank
account in Polish złotys and may also
hold foreign currency accounts with a
bank authorised to deal in foreign
Upon commencing business activity,
that is issuing the first invoice, the
company is obliged to register with the
competent tax office.
According to the
bank’s regulations.
Tax Identification
Number (NIP) no charge.
VAT registration stamp duty PLN 152.
Source: Various acts
For notarial fees and taxes on civil and legal proceedings please refer to Appendix 2.
XIV. Appendices
Published in Journal of Laws (Dz. U.)
Law of 29 September 1994
Acquisition of Real Estate by Foreigners
Law of 24 March 1920
Administration of Foreign Trade in Goods
Law of 16 April 2004
Law of 29 August 1997
Civil Code
of 23 April 1964
Code of Commercial Companies
of 15 September 2000
Commercialisation and Privatisation of State
Law of 30 August 1996
Competition and Consumer Protection
Law of 15 December 2000
Law of 7 July 1994
Copyright and Related Rights
Law of 4 February 1994
Corporate Insolvency and Recovery
Law of 28 February 2003
Law of 19 March 2004
Economic Freedom
Law of 2 July 2004
Financial Assistance for Investments
Law of 20 March 2002
Financial Restructuring of Banks and
Law of 3 February 1993
Foreign Exchange
Law of 27 July 2002
Formation of the Agricultural System
Law of 11 April 2003
Industrial Property
Law of 30 June 2000
Law of 22 May 2003
Dz. U. No. 76, item 694 of 2002 – uniform text
Dz. U. No. 167, item 1758 of 2004 – uniform
Dz. U. No. 97, item 963 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 72, item 665 of 2002 – uniform text
Dz. U. No. 16, item 93 of 1964
Dz. U. No. 94, item 1037 of 2000
Dz. U. No. 171, item 1397 of 2002 – uniform
Dz. U. No. 122, item 1319 of 2000
Dz. U. No. 89, item 414 of 1994
Dz. U. No. 24, item 83 of 1994
Dz. U. No. 60, item 535 of 2003
Dz. U. No. 68, item 622 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 173, item 1807 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 41, item 363 of 2002
Dz. U. No. 18, item 82 of 1993
Dz. U. No. 141, item 1178 of 2002
Dz. U. No. 64, item 592 of 2003
Dz. U. No. 49, item 508 of 2001
Dz. U. No. 124, item 1151 of 2003
How to Do Business in Poland
Published in Journal of Laws (Dz. U.)
Labour Code
of 26 June 1974
National Investment Funds and their
Law of 30 April 1993
Promotion of Employment and Labour
Market Institutions
Law of 20 April 2004
Public Aid Procedure
Law of 30 April 2004
Public Procurement
Law of 29 January 2004
Refinancing the Interest on Fixed Interest
Rate Export Credits
Law of 8 June 2001
Spatial Zoning
Law of 27 March 2003
Special Economic Zones
Law of 20 October 1994
State Enterprises
Law of 25 September 1981
Suppressing Unfair Competition
Law of 16 April 1993
Tax Laws
Dz. U. No. 21, item 94 of 1998 – uniform text
Dz. U. No. 44, item 202 of 1993
Dz. U. No. 99, item 1001 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 123, item 1291 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 19, item 177 of 2004
Dz. U. No. 73, item 762 of 2001
Dz. U. No. 80, item 717 of 2003
Dz. U. No. 123, item 600 of 1994
Dz. U. No. 112, item 981 of 2002 – uniform
Dz. U. No. 47, item 211 of 1993
See Appendix 5
XIV. Appendices
income tax
19 %
Legal persons
Revenue earned abroad is also
subject to this tax
22 %
Legal and
natural persons
Excise duty
Legal and
natural persons
Indirect tax
22 % - basic rate
7 % - preferential rate
3 % - unprocessed products
0 % - export rate
some goods & services are
Indirect tax limited to some 60
commodity groups
Tax on
19 %
income tax
19 %
30 %
40 %
Legal Base
Act on Income Tax on Legal
Persons (Dz.U. of 2000 No.
54, item 654, as amended)
Act on Value Added Tax
(Dz.U. of 2004 No. 54 item
Act on Excise Duty (Dz.U.
of 2004 No. 29 item 257, as
Shareholders in Holdings are effectively exempted. Act on Income Tax on Legal
Rate may be reduced by Agreements Persons (Dz.U. of 2000 No.
legal and
on Avoiding Double Taxation. Tax 54, item 654, as amended)
natural persons residence certificate for shareholder
required if lower rate to be applied
Natural persons Foreigners staying temporarily in
Act on Income Tax on
Poland pay tax only on the income
Natural Persons (Dz.U. of
earned in Poland and from work
2000 No. 14 item 176, as
carried out in Poland (limited tax
Act on Lump-sum Income
Tax on Some Income
Derived by Natural Persons
(Dz.U. of 1998 No. 144
item 930, as amended)
Legal and
Calculated on the area of land on
Act on Agricultural Tax
natural persons which agricultural activity is carried (Dz.U. of 1993 No. 94 item
out. The rates vary according to the 431, as amended)
category of land.
Real estate
Real estate
legal and
natural persons
Rates determined by local
authorities, per m2
Act on Local Taxes and
Charges (Dz.U. of 1991 No.
9 item 31, as amended)
Source: Various acts
How to Do Business in Poland
Signed on
6. Azerbaijan
7. Bangladesh
8. Belgium
Czech Republic
21. France
22. Georgia
23. Germany
24. Greece
25. Hungary
26. Iceland
27. India
28. Indonesia
29. Iran
30. Ireland
31. Israel
32. Italy
33. Japan
34. Jordan
35. Kazakhstan
36. Kuwait
02.10 1998
Entry into
Published in
Dziennik Ustaw
1994/No 101, item 492
2005/No 66, item 576
1992/No 41, item 177
1975/No 24, item 129
2005/No 224,item 1921
1975/No 31, item 163
1982/No 1, item 1
2005/No 12, item 90
1991/No 120, item 524
1995/No 125, item 602
2002/No 108, item 946
1999/No 79, item 890
1990/ No 8, item 46
1994/No 46, item 187
1996/No 29, item 129
1992/No 28, item 124
1989/No 62, item 374
1983/No 12, item 60
1999/No 61, item 654
1995/No 121, item 586
2000/No 69, item 811
2000/No 106, item 1121
1978/No 24, item 109
2004/No 211, item 2139
1993/No 120,item 534
1995/No 137, item 679
1990/No 38, item 216
2004/No 193, item 1976
1989/No 13, item 65
1996/No 78, item 370
1993/No 117, item 523
1994/No 47, item 189
2003/No 43, item 368
2003/No 78, item 690
1995/No 77, item 388
1979/No 12, item 84
1995/No 106, item 517
1977/No 1, item 5
Income tax collected at source - on income derived starting from 1 January 2006, other income
taxes / taxes on assets - on income derived in each fiscal year starting on 1 January 2006, or later
XIV. Appendices
Signed on
37. Kyrgyzstan
66. Switzerland
67. Syria
68. Tajikistan
Macedonia FYR
New Zealand
South Africa
South Korea
Sri Lanka
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Entry into
Published in
Dziennik Ustaw
2004/No 228, item 2304
1995/No 53, item 285
2004/No 244, item 2445
1995/No 51, item 277
1996/No 110, item 527
2002/No 206, item 1744
1979/No 10, item 62
1995/No 49, item 256
2003/No 13, item 131
1996/No 38, item 166
2002/No 206, item 1746
1996/No 110, item 529
2003/No 216, item 2120
1979/No 27, item 157
1976/No 9, item 47
1997/No 127, item 817
1998/No 48, item 304
1995/No 109, item 530
1993/No 125, item 569
1994/No 38, item 139
1996/No 30, item 131
1998/No 35, item 198
1996/No 28, item 124
1992/No 28, item 126
1982/No 17, item 127
1988/No 5, item 38
1977/No 13, item 51
2006/No 26, item 193
1993/No 22, item 92
2004/No 193, item 1972
2005/No 12, item 92
1976/No 31, item 178
1995/No 116, item 560
1995/No 49, item 258
2001/No 101, item 1137
1995/No 62, item 318
1983/No 37, item 170
1994/No 78, item 357
1997/No 11, item 58
1994/No 63, item 269
1994/No 81, item 373
1978/No 7, item 20
Source: Ministry of Finance, 2006
Income tax collected at source
Other taxes
How to Do Business in Poland
No. Country
Czech Republic
Signed on
Entry into
Published in
Dziennik Ustaw
1993/No 122, item 547
1993/No 124, item 567
1992/No 39, item 166
1989/No 54, item 321
1999/No 61, item 656
2000/No 43, item 492
1993/No 122, item 545
2001/No 15, item 153
1995/No 62, item 322
1991/No 27, item 114
2000/No 21, item 265
1989/No 13, item 67
1995/No 28, item 126
1993/No 117, item 521
1994/No 97, item 469
1992/No 28, item 122
1998/No 48, item 302
1995/No 39, item 196
1998/No 54, item 342
1990/No 38, item 220
1991/No 27, item 116
2006/No 13, item 84
1995/No 51, item 275
1995/No 113, item 542
1998/No 34, item 186
1994/No 46, item 185
2002/No 22, item 217
1993/No 124, item 562
2004/No 41, item 381
1994/No 42, item 157
2001/No 143, item 1603
1995/No 121, item 584
1994/No 50, item 199
1993/No 122, item 549
1993/No 122, item 543
1997/Nr 63, item 393
1994/No 78, item 359
1995/No 118, item 568
2004/No 216, item 2193
1999/No 76, item 858
1994/No 57, item 235
1990/No 84, item 488
XIV. Appendices
No. Country
Serbia and Montenegro
South Korea
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
60. Uzbekistan
61. Vietnam
Signed on
Entry into
Published in
Dziennik Ustaw
1995/No 19, item 90
1995/No 77, item 386
1997/No 39, item 236
1994/No 57, item 237
1996/No 55, item 246
2001/No 106, item 1119
1990/No 8, item 48
1993/No 124, item 563
1990/No 38, item 218
1990/No 63, item 366
1994/No 8, item 26
1994/No 8, item 28
1994/No 112, item 539
1993/No 125, item 575
1994/No 81, item 371
1988/No 12, item 93
1995/No 55, item 291
1994/No 97, item 467
2005/No 3, item 14
1995/No 116, item 561
1995/No 41, item 209
Source: Ministry of the Economy, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
Countries A - G
Costa Rica
Czech Republic
Countries G - N
Countries N - Z
Hong Kong
San Marino
South Korea
United Kingdom
United States of America
New Zealand
Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2006
Citizens from other countries, not listed above, need to have a Polish visa when visiting Poland.
For further information, also concerning studies, work and stay of over 3 months, please contact
your nearest Embassy or Consulate of Poland.
XIV. Appendices
(in thousand PLN)
Name of Company
1. Polski Koncern Naftowy
2. Telekomunikacja Polska SA GK,
3. Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne
SA, Warszawa
4. PZU SA GK, Warszawa
5. PGNiG SA, Warszawa
6. Metro AG Polska, Warszawa
7. Grupa PKP SA, Warszawa
8. Grupa Lotos S.A., Gdańsk
9. KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. GK,
10. Volkswagen Poznań Sp. z o.o.,
11. Kompania Węglowa, Katowice
12. Fiat Auto Poland S.A.,
13. Mittal Steel Poland S.A. GK,
14. PKO BP S.A. GK, Warszawa
15. BOT Górnictwo i Energetyka
S.A. GK, Łódź
16. Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa
Sp. z o.o. GK, Warszawa
17. BP Polska Sp. z o.o., Kraków
18. Polkomtel S.A. Warszawa
19. PTK Centertel Sp. z o.o.
20. Poczta Polska PPUP, Warszawa
21. Bank Pekao SA, GK Warszawa
22. Jeronimo Martins Dystrybucja
Sp. z o.o., Poznań
23. Tesco GK, Kraków
24. Lasy Państwowe PP, Warszawa
25. Bank BPH S.A. GK, Kraków
26. Energia Koncern Energetyczny
S.A., Gdańsk
Net Sales
42 804 215 45 344 017
5 457 825
4 670 483
18 342 000
3 005 000
2 316 000
16 768 808 17 149 342
1 159 675
860 138
16 713 901
12 552 802 13 265 544
11 700 000
10 710 000
9 646 474 9 968 833
9 029 496 9 045 082
3 991 847
1 187 311
1 148 634
2 739 766
3 214 792
812 017
-707 000
976 023
2 112 015
8 827 125
833 295
668 790
8 611 039 10 022 438
8 569 307 8 740 670
245 685
283 003
295 815
8 367 726
8 692 944
311 806
258 701
7 979 579
7 454 893
8 238 279
7 655 507
2 075 900
638 418
1 675 500
527 335
6 723 301
6 975 741
1 469 475
1 189 410
6 543 227
6 495 963
6 423 730
4 780 064
-42 967
6 818 910 1 3100 746
6 648 056 1 279 912
-75 287
1 067 105
1 043 237
6 141 937
5 781 323
5 370 000
6 177 046
6 066 299
427 570
1 873 599
268 387
1 534 852
5 300 000
5 130 323
5 107 241
5 097 918
5 199 505
5 228 433
5 265 979
126 787
1 294 445
319 061
119 380
1 027 436
220 709
8 707 558
How to Do Business in Poland
Name of Company
27. Grupa Energetyczna Enea S.A.,
28. Węglokoks S.A., Katowice
29. Grupa Shell Polska, Warszawa
30. Carrefour Polska, Warszawa
31. Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa
S.A. Jastrzębie Zdrój
32. Polski Koks S.A. Katowice
33. J&S Energy S.A. Warszawa
34. Volkswagen Motor Polska
Sp. z o.o., Polkowice
35. Enion SA, Kraków
36. Auchan Polska, Warszawa
37. Ruch SA, Warszawa
38. Polska Grupa Farmaceutyczna
S.A. GK, Łódź
39. Grupa Vattenfall Poland,
40. Fiat-GM Powertrain Polska
Sp. z o.o. Bielsko-Biała
41. Geant Polska Sp. z o.o.,
42. Południowy Koncern
Energetyczny SA, Katowice
43. EnergiaPro Koncern
Energetyczny S.A., Wrocław
44. Commercial Union TUnś SA,
45. Ahold Polska sp. z o.o. Kraków
46. Farmacol SA GK, Katowice
47. Katowicki Holding Węglowy
SA, Katowice
48. Tele-Fonika Kable SA, Kraków
49. LG Electronics Mława Sp. z o.o.,
50. Grupa śywiec SA GK, śywiec
n.a. – not available
Net Sales
4 807 111
4 828 128
56 060
45 905
4 779 157
4 722 184
4 700 000
4 554 329
5 021 072
4 813 746
144 178
1 101 743
99 088
800 379
4 511 906
4 470 839
4 358 102
4 519 011
4 484 762
4 401 336
13 045
28 966
127 124
11 045
22 681
126 642
4 252 530
3 965 000
3 946 553
3 891 462
4 407 570
3 964 498
3 902 004
190 082
71 138
126 395
53 322
3 837 486
4 130 909
572 535
467 813
3 704 189
3 707 581
205 682
205 682
3 625 000
3 564 567
3 687 898
420 725
283 469
3 289 934
3 355 147
56 891
55 473
3 131 411
428 391
364 671
3 060 000
3 052 879
3 027 129
3 104 886
3 205 378
91 267
116 415
72 572
81 650
2 934 278
2 930 618
2 985 684
2 963 322
66 674
-23 508
52 853
-14 700
2 867 630
2 927 144
416 807
333 053
Source: Rzeczpospolita, 26 April 2006
XIV. Appendices
Hard coal
Brown coal
Fuel oils
Petrol (incl. aviation)
Diesel oil
Crude steel
Refined copper
Pure sulphur
Passenger cars
Farm tractors
TV sets (incl. monitors
other than for computers)
Sawn timber
Natural gas
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
million tons
th. tons
th. tons
th. tons
million hectolitres
cubic decametres
cubic hectometres
Data for companies employing over 49 persons
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
AND OTHER ARTICLES (as of April 2006)
Milk, fat content 3 - 3.5 %
Wheat-rye bread
Wheat flour
Fresh butter, fat content 82.5 %
Beef, boneless (gammon)
Pork ham, boiled
White sugar, crystallised
Price (PLN)
1 litre
0.5 kg
1 kg
0.2 kg
1 kg
1 kg
1 kg
Men’s suit, polyester staple fibres and wool
Men’s shirt, long-sleeve, polyester staple fibres
and cotton
Women’s suits, wool
Fridge-freezer, approx. 300 l capacity
Washer-dryer machine
TV-set, 21 inch
Washing powder for washing machines
Toilet soap 100 g.
Shampoo 200 ml.
Toothpaste 125 ml
Electricity, for households
Natural gas for households
Hot water supply
Central heating, for dwellings
Petrol, Euro-Super
Regular fast train ticket, 2nd class, 181-200 km
Regular long-distance bus ticket, 41-50 km
Taxi, daily fare, 5km
Regular ticket, urban bus
Regular cinema ticket
0.6 kg
1 m3
1 m3
1 m2 of usable
floor area
1 litre
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2006
XIV. Appendices
WIG (end of period)
35,600.79 26,636.19 20,820.07 14,366.65 13,922.16
WIG20 (end of period)
2,654.95 1,960.57 1,574.04 1,175.64 1,208.34
MIDWIG (end of period)
2,207.74 1,730.10 1,269.34
950.24 1,020.49
PLN return on the WIG index (%)
PLN return on the WIG20 index (%)
PLN return on the MIDWIG index (%)
Number of listed companies
(end of period)
Capitalisation at year-end
(PLN million)
Total turnover value
(PLN million)
Number of sessions
Number of investment accounts
at end of period (thousand)
Number of listed companies
(end of period)
Number of transactions per session
Total turnover value (PLN million)
Number of listed companies
(end of period)
Number of transactions per session
Total turnover value (PLN million)
Number of transactions
Average value of transaction
(PLN million)
Total turnover value (PLN million)
Source: WSE, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
Number of bonds at the year-end
Turnover value (PLN mill)∗
Average turnover per session (PLN mill)
Number of transactions per session
Average transaction value (PLN)
5,059 7,820 7,840 3,986 5,093
48,052 37,287 38,130 24,222 19,386
Number of transactions (single-counted)
Average value of transaction (PLN mill)
Total turnover value (PLN mill)
Source: WSE, 2006
Excluding block trades
XIV. Appendices
Chancellery of the President
of the Republic of Poland
Kancelaria Prezydenta RP
ul. Wiejska 10; 00-902 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6952900; fax: 6951109
Sejm Chancellery
Kancelaria Sejmu RP
ul. Wiejska 4/6/8; 00-902 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6942500; fax: 6942252
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi
ul. Wspólna 30; 00-930 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6231000; fax: 6231788
Ministry of Construction
Ministerstwo Budownictwa
ul. Wspólna 2/4; 00-926 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6281718; fax: 6295389
Senate Chancellery
Kancelaria Senatu RP
ul. Wiejska 6; 00-902 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6942500; fax: 6942224
Ministry of Culture and National Heritage
Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego
Krakowskie Przedmieście 15/17
00-071 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4210100; fax: 8269148
Chancellery of the Prime Minister
Kancelaria Premiera
Al. Ujazdowskie 1/3; 00-583 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6946000; fax: 6218827
Ministry of Defence
Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej
ul. Klonowa 1; 00-909 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6280031 ... 34; fax: 8455378
Constitutional Tribunal
Trybunał Konstytucyjny
Al. Szucha 12a; 00-918 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6574531; fax: 6574532
Ministry of the Economy
Ministerstwo Gospodarki
Plac Trzech KrzyŜy 3/5; 00-507 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6935000; fax: 6934048
Supreme Administrative Court
Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny
ul. Jasna 6; 00-013 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5516000; fax: 8276687
Ministry of Education
Ministerstwo Edukacji
Al. Szucha 25; 00-918 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6280461; fax: 3474100
Supreme Chamber of Control
NajwyŜsza Izba Kontroli
ul. Filtrowa 57; 00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22)4445000; fax: 8257376
Ministry of the Environment
Ministerstwo Środowiska
ul. Wawelska 52/54; 00-922 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5792900; fax: 5792224
National Bank of Poland
Narodowy Bank Polski
ul. Świętokrzyska 11/21; 00-919 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6531000; fax: 6208518
Ministry of Finance
Ministerstwo Finansów
ul. Świętokrzyska 12; 00-916 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6945555; fax: 6943816
How to Do Business in Poland
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych
Al. Szucha 23; 00-580 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5239000; fax: 6298635
Ministry of Transport
Ministerstwo Transportu
ul. Chałubińskiego 4/6; 00-928 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6301000; fax: 8300063
Ministry of Health
Ministerstwo Zdrowia
ul. Miodowa 15; 00-952 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6349600; fax: 8311212
Ministry of the Treasury
Ministerstwo Skarbu Państwa
ul. Krucza 36/Wspólna 6; 00-522 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6958000; fax: 6280872
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration
Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administracji
ul. Batorego 5; 02-591 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6212020, ; fax: 6227933
Agricultural Market Agency
Agencja Rynku Rolnego
ul. Nowy Świat 6/12; 00-400 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6617272; fax: 6289353
Ministry of Justice
Ministerstwo Sprawiedliwości
Al. Ujazdowskie 11; 00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5212888;
Agricultural Property Agency
Agencja Nieruchomości Rolnych
ul. Dolańskiego 2; 00-215 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6358009; fax: 6350060
Ministry of Labour and Social Policy
Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej
ul. Nowogrodzka 1/3/; 00-513 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6610100; fax: 6611124
Office of Technical Inspection
Urząd Dozoru Technicznego
ul. Szczęśliwicka 34; 02-353 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 572 21 00; fax: 8227209
Ministry of Maritime Economy
Ministerstwo Gospodarki Morskiej
ul. Chałubińskiego 4/6; 00-928 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6301870
Central Office of Measures
Główny Urząd Miar
ul. Elektoralna 2; 00-139 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5819399; fax: 6208378
Ministry of Regional Development
Ministerstwo Rozwoju Regionalnego
ul. Wspólna 2/4;
00-926 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4613000
Central Statistical Office
Główny Urząd Statystyczny
Al. Niepodległości 208; 00-925 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6083000; fax: 6083001
Ministry of Science and Higher Education
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa WyŜszego
ul. Wspólna 1/3; 00-529 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5292718; fax: 6280922
Ministry of Sport
Ministerstwo Sportu
Al. RóŜ 2, 00-559 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5223399; fax: 8262172
Office for Competition and Consumer Protection
Urząd Ochrony Konkurencji i Konsumenta
Pl. Powstańców Warszawy 1; 00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5560800; fax: 8265076
General Administration of Domestic Roads
and Highways
Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad
ul. śelazna 59; 00-848 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3758888; fax: 3758763
XIV. Appendices
Government Centre for Strategic Studies
Rządowe Centrum Studiów Strategicznych
ul. Wspólna 4; 00-926 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6618600; fax: 6212550
State Mining Authority
WyŜszy Urząd Górniczy
ul.Poniatowskiego 31; 40-956 Katowicze
tel.: (+48-32) 2511471; fax: 2514884
Industrial Development Agency
Agencja Rozwoju Przemysłu S.A.
ul. Domaniewska 41; 02-672 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4603799; fax: 4603701
Institute of National Remembrance
Instytut Pamięci Narodowej
ul. Towarowa 28; 00-839 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5818542; fax: 5818543
National Broadcasting Council
Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji
Skwer Kard. Stefana Wyszyńskiego Prymasa Polski 9
01-015 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5973000; fax: 5973180
National Police Headquarters
Komenda Główna Policji
ul. Puławska 148/150; 02-514 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6210251; fax: 8488494
Office of the Committee for European Integration
Urząd Komitetu Integracji Europejskiej
Al. Ujazdowskie 9; 00-918 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4555500; fax: 4555348
Office for Veterans and Repressed Persons
Urząd ds. Kombatantów i Osób Represjonowanych
ul. Wspólna 2/4; 00-926 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6618129; fax: 6618740
Polish Academy of Sciences
Polska Akademia Nauk
00-901 Warszawa, Plac Defilad 1; PO Box 24
tel.: (+48-22) 6204970; fax: 6204910
Polish Information and Foreign Investment
Polska Agencja Informacji i Inwestycji
ul. Bagatela 12; 00-585 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3349800; fax: 3349999
Polish Agency For Enterprise Development
Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości
ul. Pańska 81/83; 00834 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4328080; fax: 4328620
Polish Chamber of Commerce
Krajowa Izba Gospodarcza
ul. Trębacka 4; 00-074 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6309600; fax: 8274673
Polish Committee for Standardisation
Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny
ul. Świętokrzyska 14; 00-050 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5567755; fax: 5567416
Polish Centre for Testing and Certification
Polskie Centrum Badań i Certyfikacji
ul. Kłobucka 23a; 02-699 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4645200; fax: 6471222
Polish Patent Office
Urząd Patentowy RP
Al. Niepodległości 188/192
00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8258001; fax: 8750680
Public Procurement Office
Urząd Zamówień Publicznych
Al. Szucha 2/4; 00-582 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4587777; fax: 4587700
State Atomic Agency
Państwowa Agencja Atomistyki
ul. Krucza 36; 00-522 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6959800; fax: 6290164
How to Do Business in Poland
State Hygiene Department
Institute of Scientific Research
Państwowy Zakład Higieny
Instytut Naukowo-Badawczy
ul. Chocimska 24; 00-791 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5421400; fax: 8497484
State Environmental Protection Inspectorate
Główny Inspektorat Ochrony Środowiska
ul. Wawelska 52/54; 00-922 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5792900; fax: 8250465
State Inspection of Labour
Chief Labour Inspectorate
Państwowa Inspekcja Pracy
Główny Inspektorat Pracy
ul. Krucza 38/42; 00-926 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4203723; fax: 6254770
Stock Exchange Commission
Komisja Papierów Wartościowych i Giełd
Pl. Powstańców Warszawy 1
00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3326600; fax: 3326793
Insurance and Pension Funds Supervisory Office
Komisja Nadzoru Ubezpieczeń i Funduszy
ul. Niedźwiedzia 6E; 02-737 Warszawa
tel. (+48-22) 5487240; fax: 5487245
---------------------------------------------------Export Credit Insurance Corporation
Korporacja Ubezpieczeń Kredytów Eksportowych
ul. Sienna 39; 00-121 Warszawa
tel. (+48-22) 3568300; 3130110; fax: 3130119
Foreign Investors’ Chamber of Industry and
Commerce in Poland
Izba Przemysłowo-Handlowa Inwestorów
Zagranicznych w Polsce
ul. Pańska 73, 00-834 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3147575; fax: 3147576
Institute of Tourism
Instytut Turystyki
ul. Merliniego 9a; 02-511 Warszawa
tel. (+48-22) 8446347; fax: 8441263
Polish Chamber of Patent Attorneys
Polska Izba Rzeczników Patentowych
ul. Madalińskiego 20 lok. 2.; 02-513 Warszawa
tel/fax: (+48-22) 6464143; tel./fax: 6464012
Polish Federation of Valuers’ Associations
Polska Federacja Stowarzyszeń Rzeczoznawców
ul. Nowogrodzka 50, 00-695 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6270717; fax: 6270779
Polish Real Estate Federation
Polska Federacja Rynku Nieruchomości
ul. Śliska 52, 00-826 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6545869; fax: 8253495
Polish Tourism Organisation
Polska Organizcja Turystyczna
ul. Chałubińskiego 4/6; 00-928 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6301736; fax: 6301742
Warsaw Stock Exchange
Giełda Papierów Wartościowych
ul.KsiąŜęca 4; 00-498 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6283232; fax: 6281754
XIV. Appendices
15-085 Białystok
ul. Branickiego 17a
06-400 Ciechanów
ul. 17 Stycznia 7
Tel.: (+48-85) 7327981, 7328053
Fax: 7322387
e-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+48-23) 6722393
Fax: 6722463
e-mail: [email protected]
80-852 Gdańsk
Tel.: (+48-58) 3013306, 3012972, 3016035
ul. Dyrekcyjna 6
Fax: 3012972
e-mail: [email protected]
40-038 Katowice
Tel.: (+48-32) 2552601, 2552617, 2553065
ul. Powstańców 34
ext. 324
Fax: 2552585
e-mail: [email protected]
25-955 Kielce
Tel.: (+48-41) 3445287, 3421295, 3421763
ul. IX Wieków Kielc 3
Fax: 3444008
31-503 Kraków
Tel.: (+48-12) 4120726, 6197459
ul. Lubicz 25
Fax: 4210015
e-mail: [email protected]
20-072 Lublin
Tel.: (+48-81) 5323424, 7424521, 7404527,
ul. Lubomelska 1-3
Fax: 5323424
e-mail: [email protected]
90-051 Łódź
Tel.: (+48-42) 6363409, 6362277
ul Piłsudskiego 8
Fax: 6363809, 6370237
e-mail: [email protected]
60-734 Poznań
Tel.: (+48-61) 8654023, 8654441, 8654442
ul. Głogowska 26
Fax: 8654443
e-mail:[email protected]
35-959 Rzeszów
Tel.: (+48-17) 8627384
ul. Grunwaldzka 15
Fax: 8627199
e-mail:[email protected]
70-603 Szczecin
Tel.: (+48-91) 4623923, 4623924, 4623925
ul. Bytomska 9
Fax: 4623924
e-mal:[email protected]
87-100 Toruń
Tel.: (+48-56) 6224786, 6221352
ul. Szosa Chełmińska
Fax: 6222936
e-mail: [email protected]
53-333 Wrocław
Tel.: (+48-71) 3350311
ul. Powstańców Śląskich Fax: 3350313
e-mail: [email protected]
Source: Ministry of the Treasury, 2006
How to Do Business in Poland
The World Bank
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5208000; fax: 5208001
International Monetary Fund
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5207100; fax: 5207101
European Bank for Reconstruction and
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warsaw
(Warsaw Financial Centre, 13th floor)
tel.: (+48-22) 5205700; fax: 5205800
International Finance Corporation
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warsaw
(Warsaw Financial Centre, 9th floor)
tel.: (+48-22) 5206100; fax: 5206101
Delegation of the European Commission
ul. Emilii Plater53; 00-113 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5208200; fax: 5208282
Organization for Security and Co-operation
in Europe
Al. Ujazdowskie 19; 00-557 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5200600; fax: 5200605
e-mail: [email protected]
Council of Europe
Al. Niepodległości 22; 02-653 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8535773; fax: 8535774
e-mail: [email protected]
IOM International Organization for Migration
ul. Mariensztat 8; 00-302 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5389103; fax: 5389140
e-mail: [email protected]
United Nations Development Programme
Al. Niepodległości 186; 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259245; fax: 8254958
e-mail: [email protected]
United Nations Industrial Development
Al. Niepodległości 186; 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259186; fax: 8258970
e-mail: [email protected]
United Nations International Drug Control
United Nations House
Al. Niepodległości 186, 1st Floor, 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259245, fax: 8254958
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
Trans-European North-South Motorway Central
ul. Golędzinowska 10; 03-302 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6145397; fax: 6145401
e-mail: [email protected]
Environmental Information Centre
United Nations Environment Programme
GRID Warsaw
ul. Sobieszyńska 8; 00-764 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8406664; fax: 8516201
e-mail: [email protected]
United Nations Population Fund
United Nations House
Al. Niepodległości 186, 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259245; fax: 8254958
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Branch Office in Poland
Al. RóŜ 2; 00-556 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6286930; fax: 6256124
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
United Nations Information Centre in Warsaw
United Nations House
Al. Niepodległości 186, 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8252557, 8259245; fax: 8254958
World Food Programme
United Nations House
Al. Niepodległości 186, 1st Floor, 00-608 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8259245; fax: 8254958
World Health Organization
Liaison Office in Poland
ul. Długa 38/4; 00-238 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6359496; fax: 8310892
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish FAO National Committee
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Department for Foreign Relations
ul. Wspólna 30; 00-930 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6231303; fax: 6212326
Polish Committee for UNICEF
Pl. Defilad 1; 00-901 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6566610; fax: 6566613
e-mail: [email protected]
The Polish National Commission for UNESCO
and the Permanent Secretariat of the
Pałac Kultury i Nauki; 7th Floor; 00-901 Warsaw
tel./fax: (+48-22) 6203355, 6203362
e-mail: k[email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Dolnośląski Urząd Wojewódzki
Pl. Powstańców Warszawy 1, 50-951 Wrocław
tel.: (+48-71) 3406273; fax: 7907119
Podkarpacki Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Grunwaldzka 15, 35-959 Rzeszów
tel.: (+48-17) 8671000; fax: 8671950
Kujawsko-Pomorski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Jagiellońska 3, 85-950 Bydgoszcz
tel.: (+48-52) 3497913; fax: 3497460
Podlaski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Mickiewicza 3, 15-213 Białystok
tel.: (+48-85) 7439315; fax: 7429231
Lubelski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Spokojna 4, 20-914 Lublin
tel.: (+48-81) 5324543; fax: 7424319
Pomorski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Okopowa 21/27, 80-810 Gdańsk
tel.: (+48-58) 3077695; fax: 3011417
Lubuski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Jagiellończyka 8, 66-400 Gorzów Wlkp.
tel.: (+48-95) 7215600; fax: 7223680
Śląski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Jagiellońska 25, 40-032 Katowice
tel.: (+48-32) 2077777; fax: 2654245
Łódzki Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Piotrkowska 104, 90-926 Łódź
tel.: (+48-42) 6641000; fax: 6641040
Świętokrzyski Urząd Wojewódzki
Al. IX Wieków Kielc 3, 25-516 Kielce
tel.: (+48-41) 3421800; fax: 3421833
Małopolski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Basztowa 22, 31-156 Kraków
tel.: (+48-12) 3921527; fax: 6160438
Warmińsko-Mazurski Urząd Wojewódzki
Al. Piłsudskiego 7/9, 10-575 Olsztyn
tel.: (+48-89) 5232200; fax: 5237754
Mazowiecki Urząd Wojewódzki
Pl. Bankowy 3/5, 00-950 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6956997; fax: 6203704
Wielkopolski Urząd Wojewódzki
Al. Niepodległości 16/18, 61-713 Poznań
tel.: (+48-61) 8541071; fax: 8527327
Opolski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Piastowska 14, 45-082 Opole
tel.: (+48-77) 4524100; fax: 4544575
Zachodniopomorski Urząd Wojewódzki
ul. Wały Chrobrego 4, 70-502 Szczecin
tel./fax: (+48-91) 4303500
XIV. Appendices
XII Wydział Gospodarczy
15-017 Białystok ul. Łąkowa 3
tel.: (0-85) 7408980, 7326655
XX Wydział Gospodarczy Rejestrowy
90-928 Łódź ul. Pomorska 37
tel.: (0-42) 6305200 ext. 207
VIII Wydział Gospodarczy
43-300 Bielsko-Biała ul. Bogusławskiego 24
tel.: (0-33) 4997912
VIII Wydział Gospodarczy
10-523 Olsztyn ul. Partyzantów 70
tel. (0-89) 5211754
XIII Wydział Gospodarczy
85-023 Bydgoszcz ul. Toruńska 64A
tel.: (0-52) 3262736
VIII Wydział Gospodarczy
45-057 Opole ul. Ozimska 19
tel. (0-77) 4543834
XVII Wydział Gospodarczy KRS
42-200 Częstochowa ul. Rejtana 6
tel.: (0-34) 3779930
XXI / XXII Wydział Gospodarczy
61-752 Poznań ul. Grochowe Łąki 6
tel. (0-61) 6473466, 6473464
VII / VIII Wydział Gospodarczy
80-169 Gdańsk ul. Piekarnicza 10
tel.: (0-58) 3213785, 3213835
XII Wydział Gospodarczy
35-324 Rzeszów ul. Trembeckiego 11a
tel. (0-17) 8628933
X Wydział Gospodarczy
44-100 Gliwice ul. Kościuszki 15
tel.: (0-32) 3380212
XVII Wydział Gospodarczy
70-485 Szczecin ul. Królowej Korony Polskiej 31
tel.: (0-91) 4224999
VIII Wydział Gospodarczy
40-040 Katowice ul. Lompy 14
tel.: (0-32) 7313469
VII Wydział Gospodarczy Rejestrowy
87-100 Toruń ul. MłodzieŜowa 31
tel.: (0-56) 6105864
X Wydział Gospodarczy
25-312 Kielce ul. Warszawska 44
tel. (0-41) 3495701
XII / XIII / XIV Wydział Gospodarczy
02-315 Warszawa ul. Barska 28/30
tel. (0-22) 5705112; 5705514; 5705116
IX Wydział Gospodarczy Rejestrowy
75-626 Koszalin ul. Wł. Andersa 34
tel.: (0-94) 3428260
VI / IX Wydział Gospodarczy
53-234 Wrocław ul. Grabiszyńska 269
tel. (0-71) 3348210; 3348220
XI / XII Wydział Gospodarczy
31-547 Kraków ul. Przy Rondzie 7
tel.: (0-12) 6195172; 6195178
VIII Wydział Gospodarczy
65-364 Zielona Góra ul. KoŜuchowska 8
tel.: (0-68) 3220263
XI Wydział Gospodarczy
20-340 Lublin ul. Garbarska 20
tel.: (0-81) 7454711
How to Do Business in Poland
Head Office
Subsidiary office
Gorzów Wlkp.
Subsidiary office
Subsidiary office
Subsidiary office
Subsidiary office
00-215 Warszawa
ul. Dolańskiego 2
00-095 Warszawa
Plac Bankowy 2
91-420 Łódź
ul. Północna 27/29
85-039 Bydgoszcz
ul. Hetmańska 38
83-000 Pruszcz Gdański
ul. Powstańcow Warszawy 28
66-400 Gorzów Wlkp.
ul. Jagiellończyka 8
65-225 Zielona Góra
ul. Lwowska 25
20-027 Lublin
ul. Karłowicza 4
10-448 Olsztyn
ul. Głowackiego 6
16-400 Suwałki
ul. Sportowa 22
45-068 Opole
ul. 1 Maja 6
61-701 Poznań
ul. Fredry 12
64-920 Piła
ul. Motylewska 7
35-959 Rzeszów
ul. 8 Marca 13
70-500 Szczecin
ul. Wały Chrobrego 4
75-411 Koszalin
ul. Partyzantów 15a
54-610 Wrocław
ul. Mińska 60
Phone / E-mail
(0-22) 6358009
[email protected]
(0-22) 6351000
(0-42) 6362972, 6365326
[email protected]
(0-52) 3493773
[email protected]
(0-58) 3004841, 3023817
[email protected]
(0-95) 7215340
[email protected]
(0-68) 3254641, 3272389
[email protected]
(0-81) 5325967, 5322112
(0-89) 5235029
(0-87) 5651847, 5663591
(0-77) 4000900
(0-61) 8560601
[email protected]
(0-67) 2123001
[email protected]
(0-17) 8537800
[email protected]
(0-91) 8144200
[email protected]
(0-94) 3433930, 3474100
[email protected]
(0-71) 3563900
XIV. Appendices
Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology, Warsaw University, Warsaw
Bivalent Chicken Vaccine: Anti-Campylobacter / Salmonella
Inventors: A group of researchers at the Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology,
Warsaw University, headed by Prof. E. K. Jagusztyn-Krynicka, in co-operation with Biowet Ltd.,
Puławy and the Laboratory of Bio-Informatics and Protein Engineering of the IIMCB.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In
developed countries, Campylobacteriosis is a food borne disease, while poultry is the major source
of human Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. The vaccine is meant to prevent chicken
flocks from acquiring Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. Chickens that were orally
immunised with the developed avirulent Salmonella strain expressing Campylobacter antigens
developed serum IgG and mucosal IgA responses against Campylobacter. Moreover, this
approach greatly reduced the ability of the heterologous wild-type Campylobacter strain to
colonize the bird cecum.
Live, genetically defined and attenuated strains of bacterial enteropathogens able to stimulate both
innate and adaptive immune responses are good candidates for the development of mucosal
multivalent vaccines. S. enterica sv. Typhimurium χ3987 is a derivative of χ3985 which induced
protective immunity, when administered orally to chickens and is a licensed chicken vaccine
(Megan Health Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA). The research was based on several new and innovative
technologies of molecular biology and immunology employed to study the molecular basis of
bacterial pathogenesis. The introduction of the bivalent chicken vaccine antyCampylobacter/Salmonella should decrease the Campylobacter and Salmonella related morbidity
rate, improve human health, and reduce health care costs.
This technology is the winner of the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition
in the Product of the Future category.
Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Warsaw and Rokita-Agro S.A., Brzeg Dolny
2,4-D Herbicide Ecological Production Technology
Inventors: Wiesław Moszczyński and Arkadiusz Białek from the Institute of Industrial Organic
Chemistry, and Edward Makieła, Bolesław Rippel, Edward Listopadzki, and Zdzisław Okulewicz
from Rokita-Agro S.A.
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is an active substance in selective hormonal weed killing
preparations used in the growing of grain, rice, and other crops.
According to the EU Directive 2001/103/EC of 28 November 2001, the standard of 96 % for
active isomer in 2,4-D preparations is required in EU countries. The traditional production
technology is based on technical 2,4-dichlorophenol which is a compound of phenol mono-, diand trichloroderivatives. 2,4-D acid of 89 % purity is obtained, and is then refined by
crystallisation to a maximum of 96 % of active 2,4-D isomer.
Rokita-Agro S.A. has been producing the 2,4-D acid by using a new technology in the new 98 %
standard since 2004. The selective reaction of phenol chlorination and the new method of exuding
and refining 2,4-D acid were elaborated and introduced on an industrial scale. In 2004 the new
technology won a prize in Master of Technology Competition organised by the Rzeczpospolita
daily and the Main Technical Organization (NOT), as well as in the Złoty Orbital competition
How to Do Business in Poland
organised by the Rynek Chemiczny journal. The technology is protected by patent No. P354552/2002.
In addition to the 2,4-D acid of 98 % purity, Rokita-Agro S.A. produces 2,4-D natrium salt
monohydrate with a 92.5 % active isomer purity level. The research team at the Institute and
Rokita-Agro elaborated a new 95 % purity monohydrate production technology. In this new
technology, which is to be introduced in industry, chlorination by selective complex was
employed. The complex residues and vestigial organic and mineral impurities are eliminated
during the production process. In the new technology, in addition to the high quality of
- chlorination selectivity increases by 6 %,
consumption of raw materials decreases by 6.5 %,
waste chemical oxygen demand levels decrease by 60 %.
The new acid and monohydrate of natrium salt of 2,4-D technologies are based on original
chemical and technological solutions:
- 2,4-dichlorophenol synthesis with the use of the selective chlorination complex,
- recovery and full utilisation of 2,4-dichlorophenol residue,
- combination of chemical and physical methods in the process eliminating complex residues
and vestigial organic mineral impurities.
The acid and monohydrate of natrium salt of 2,4-D are of the highest standard.
This technology is the winner of the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition
in the Technology of the Future category.
METALCHEM Plastics Processing Institute, Toruń
Production of Polymer Road Posts Using the Extrusion - Blow Moulding Method
Inventors: Stanisław Lutomirski, Jan Szumny, Jan Gołębiewski, and Tadeusz Sobczak.
This single-process manufacturing technology includes solutions for in-mould decorating,
accommodating reflecting, numbering and description elements. The plastic profile is continuously
extruded, put into the mould and then blown up using a blowing mandrel and compressed air to
achieve the required shape, so such operations like welding or gluing are no longer necessary. The
characteristics of the road posts leaving the mould are:
- low mass,
- closed profile with no welding points,
- durable adhesion of reflecting elements to the body,
- aesthetic appearance of the product,
- good range and stability of colours.
The process is controlled by a microprocessor system and it guarantees the high stability of
processing parameters, reliability, simple maintenance, and the high quality of the elements
produced. The technology as well as the product are protected by patents. The products conform to
the relevant Polish Standards and the requirements of the General Direction of Domestic Roads
and Highways.
This technology won a distinction in the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
XIV. Appendices
BLACHOWNIA Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis, Kędzierzyn-Koźle
Kotamina Plus – a Multi-Functional Correction Preparation for Boiler Water in Energy Systems
Inventors: Marian Kozupa, Wojciech Jerzykiewicz, Maria Majchrzak, Sławomir Twardowski,
Marian Maciejko, Marek Szymonik, Barbara Haliniak, Artur Zdunek.
The use of thermo-stable synthetic amines for water treatment in the power industry has many
economic and ecological advantages, as it considerably improves water quality and reduces the
consumption of raw materials as well as the emission of contaminants into the environment.
Moreover, it enables the elimination of hydrazine, which has a carcinogenic effect.
The thermal stability, adsorption and surface protection efficiency of branched amines is much
higher than that of the alkylamines used so far. The use of Kotamina Plus results in an increase of
convective heat transfer by about 55 %, an increase of boiler heat flux by more than 120 %, and an
increase of condenser heat flux by more than 120 %, as compared to the use of demineralised
water. This in turn improves the efficiency of the energy system and reduces the temperature of
boiler tubes, helping to prevent overheating. The high efficiency of boiler steel passivation with
Kotamina Plus increases with temperature: at 400oC the corrosion rate is 0.63 µm/year.
Industrial tests in the electric power stations of Połaniec and Chorzów, and the thermal-electric
power stations of Białystok, Elbląg and Zofiówka indicate that the use of the new product resulted
in very efficient corrosion protection and a significant reduction of ammonia concentration. The
ammonia concentration was more than three times lower than the upper limit of 0.5 mg/dm3. This
is of great importance for the corrosion protection of brazen elements, especially that of
condensers. The significant improvement of heat exchange in the boiling and condensation
processes, the reduction of operating and corrosion deposits on heat exchange surfaces, the
reduction of losses in wet steam turbines due to improved stream dispersion, the reduction of
boiler desalination to a value below 1 %, and fast boiler start-up after banking enable savings of
0.35g of fuel per 1 kWh of energy generated.
The use of tert-alkylamines (C16÷C20) as a base for correction preparation for chemical treatment
of boiler water in energy systems is a world-scale innovation. Amine agents offered by other
producers do not contain polyamines, or contain only small amounts of alkylamines, which are
necessary to raise pH to levels ensuring good corrosion protection. Kotamina Plus in turn
provides shield protection of construction materials against corrosion, eliminates operating and
corrosion deposits on surfaces, and helps prevent erosion within the system, especially within
turbine blades. The product is protected by patent.
This technology won a distinction in the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Product of the Future category.
KOMAG Mining Mechanisation Centre, Gliwice
Labyrinth Dust Collector LDCU-630
Inventors: A group of project engineers under the direction of Zbigniew Szkudlarek.
Designers: Marcin Steindor and Wiesław Turejko.
The LDCU-630 labyrinth dust collector was constructed at the KOMAG Mining Mechanisation
Centre, a R&D organisation in Gliwice. It is produced by KOWENT S.A. in Końskie, an
environmental protection equipment industry company.
The LDCU-630 labyrinth dust collector is designed for cleaning, using the wet method, of dust
laden air which is generated during manufacturing processes, especially in the metallurgical,
How to Do Business in Poland
foundry, and mining industries. In addition to the above-mentioned broad area of application, the
fixed nozzle labyrinth dust collector can also be used in the control of combustion gas dust and
other high temperature gases, as it lacks a rigid rotating component and an electric motor placed in
the air stream.
The dust collector can operate with both axial-flow and centrifugal fans, installed in front or
behind it. Due to this, it can operate in exhaust and combined ventilation systems.
In technical solutions designed so far, the breakdown of rotating nozzle type motors would
seriously limit the efficiency of the whole installation and increase operational costs. The labyrinth
dust collector has a fixed nozzle, thus not only reducing the length of the dust control system, but
also providing for significantly higher reliability, due to the elimination of the rotating nozzle
Due to the use of the labyrinth, the overall dust control efficiency in double-stream and two-stage
dust control systems reaches 99 %. The unique and innovative solutions used in the dust
collector’s components result in high dust control efficiency, low energy consumption,
dependability, and easy maintenance and servicing.
This technology won a distinction in the 2004 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Product of the Future category.
Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements, Warsaw
The SMR - 100 Expert Anti-Terrorist Neutralisation and Assistance Robot
Inventors: A group of project engineers under the direction of Piotr Szynkarczyk made up of Adam
Andrzejuk, Mariusz Kozak, Tomasz Krakówka, Sebastian Pawłowski, Ignacy Bojanek, Michał
Kulawiec, Sławomir Kapelko, Stanisław Nycz, Rafał Czupryniak, Wiesław Zalewski, and
Przemysław Wieczorek, with the participation of Prof. Andrzej Masłowski.
The SMR-100 Expert Anti-Terrorist Neutralisation and Assistance Robot has been designed
within the framework of the Polish National Science Foundation program. During the project
engineers consulted with various specialists from the Police, the Government Protection Office,
the Security Department of Warsaw Airport, and the National Border Guard. The principal
purpose of the robot is the identification and neutralisation of hazardous explosive devices (IED)
in tight indoor environments and in mass transit vehicles such as aircrafts, buses, and railroad cars.
With the use of the robot it is possible to carry out a remote inspection of a threatened area, the
recognition of IEDs, the removal or destruction of IED, and negotiations with terrorists. The robot
can be send to area threatened by an explosion (or subject to other dangers, such as chemical
contamination) instead of a person.
The SMR-100 Expert is made up of a crawler mounted mobile platform, with a manipulator with
gripping device mounted on top, and an operator’s station. The collapsible operator’s station is
designed in the form of a suitcase resistant to mechanical damage. The mobile base moves on
caterpillar tracks. The additional front mini-track angle position can be remotely altered. The robot
is stabilised by two movable lateral stabilisers. The manipulator, with six degrees of freedom, is fitted
with a gripping device. It can be easily equipped with a variety of accessories. The robot is remotely
controlled by radio or cable. It is equipped with a set of colour cameras and lighting devices.
The miniaturisation of electronic devices designed in SMT technology, a distributed
multiprocessor controller architecture, unconventional stabilisation of the mobile base (providing
XIV. Appendices
for a wide manipulator reach) contribute to the robot’s efficiency. To the best of the robot’s
designers knowledge, the SMR-100 Expert is the only robot in the world capable of carrying out
comprehensive assignments inside aircrafts.
This technology is the winner of the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition
in the Product of the Future category.
P.P.U.H MARBET-WIL Sp. z o.o., Bielsko-Biała
MARWIL®-REFBET® - Technology of Applying Protective Layers on Concrete and Reinforced
Concrete Surfaces
Inventor: Włodzimierz Mysłowski
The MARWIL®- REFBET® technology created to apply protective layers on concrete and
reinforced concrete surfaces, uses SULCEM®, a sulphur polymer. The SULCEM® sulphur
polymer production technology was developed by the MARBET®-WIL company (the first
industrial application in Europe). The technology is based on the modification of waste sulphur
generated in the process of removing sulphur from natural gas and oil in Claus-type installations.
The development of the MARWIL®- REFBET® technology, required the construction of the
SULSPRAY® system, a device unique in the world that is used to spray SULCEM® sulphur
polymer on concrete surfaces. SULCEM® sulphur polymers and the SULSPRAY® device
facilitated the development of the MARWIL®- REFBET® technology, which protects road curbs
and other concrete road elements against the destructive action of salt and frost.
Through the addition of reflective particles and luminescent material, the MARWIL®- REFBET®
system enhances road aesthetics and traffic safety by improving visibility both day and night. The
system seals and reinforces the structure of concrete through surface and deep sealing injection,
making it water-repellent and smooth.
The SULSPRAY® device is designed for the application of a sulphur polymer layer on concrete
and reinforced concrete structures to impregnate and seal them as well as to protect the surface
against corrosion. The SULSPRAY® device can also be used as a sulphur polymer batcher when
reeling the aggregate in mixing devices.
The MARWIL®-REFBET® system ensures high resistance to aggressive media, high sealing
properties, good adherence to concrete surfaces, a water and oil repellent surface, an increased
resistance to frost and abrasive agents. It also hampers the growth of bacteria, mould, lichen, and
fungi on the coating. The SULCEM® system is available in a wide range of colours.
Innovativeness of the technology consists in a novel use of sulphur polymers that is less expensive
than the agents commonly used so far, and in that thermoplastic properties ensures better concrete
impregnation. So far, sulphur polymer has not been applied as a protective coating for concrete
and reinforced concrete elements, nor as a surface sealing, impregnation, and corrosion-proofing
This technology is the winner of the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future competition
in the Technology of the Future category.
How to Do Business in Poland
Plastic Waste Processing System
Inventors: Stanisław Lewandowski and Izabella Bogacka, with the cooperation of Piotr Banaszuk
from the Białystok Institute of Technology.
Today’s waste disposal sites contain plastics mixed with other types of waste. This system,
designed to process such waste into liquid fuels, is small and efficient. It can be used to produce
most types of benzines and oils, as well as larger quantities of paraffins and heavy hydrocarbons.
The system is made up of three elements: a loading device, a depolymeriser, and a vapour
The loading device feeds plastics into the system on a continual or intermittent basis. The
depolymeriser, heart of the system, is a diaphragm-heated reservoir. Unsegregated plastics are
transformed here. This process generates depolymerisate vapour. The nature of this solution allows
for effective and quick transmission of the burning fuel energy without a loss. The combustion
method and its duration results in unusually pure combustion gases. Moreover, the leftover
combustion energy is used to dry, heat and de-oxidise the charge. The vapour condenser allows for
the zonal out-dropping of the depolymerisate, which enables good isolation of products in the form
of a broad fraction of oil-like hydrocarbons, or its division into relevant fractions. Incondensable
high-energy gases can be used for the generation of any type of energy for the needs of the system
(thermal, rotational, or electric energy). This makes the system usable anywhere, without the need
to connect it to electricity and water.
This system’s innovativeness consists in a highly-efficient and fast transmission and distribution of
burned fuel energy, thanks to which the heating elements are not subject to coking. It makes it
possible to set-up and operate a very efficient installation operating continuously, with no need to
shutdown for cleaning. Impurities loaded along with the plastics can be evacuated without
interrupting the system’s operation.
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
Hydromega Sp. z o.o., Gdynia
Pulsation Method for Swilling Oil Pipelines
Inventors: Zbigniew Zienowicz and a group of consultants from the Gdańsk Polytechnic directed
by Prof. Andrzej Osiecki
The pulsation method for the swilling of oil pipes technology combines two flows of hydraulic oil.
The final effect is achieved by combining the pulsation flow with the constant capacity flow of
specific technical parameters. This method allows to define the distribution of pollutants along and
across the pipeline, which in turn was vital for setting of parameters of the swilling processes and
for the construction of a new swilling device. On the basis of results obtained in laboratory, a new
swilling device was designed, the HM/MR-500, followed by another one, the HM/MR-50, for
swilling pipelines of a diameter from 8 to 168 mm. Both devices are designed to monitor changes
in oil purity. This method allows for the reduction of swilling time to a minimum, and it was
shown that it ensures real pipeline cleanliness.
The technology has been tested in the field. The failures of pressurised hydraulic systems caused
by assembly-related contamination were eliminated. Moreover, the life of all the hydraulic
elements was prolonged. Considering that heavy industry widely employs hydraulic power and
control units, pulsation swilling of oil pipes has considerable market potential. Its innovativeness
consists in a combination of two swilling methods, constant capacity and pulsation methods,
XIV. Appendices
which ensures the removal of contaminants left over from the assembly process. It considerably
reduces swilling time, even to a few hours, thus eliminating the need to shut down assembly lines
on account of post-assembly contamination.
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
Road and Bridge Research Institute, Warsaw
GUFI Modified Bituminous Mix for Laying of Crack-Resistant and Sound-Absorbing Pavements
Inventors: Dariusz Sybilski, Andrzej Wróbel, Janusz Kopaniewski, Renata Horodecka, Wojciech
Bańkowski, and Krzysztof Mirski
The GUFI bituminous mix, in addition to standard components such as mineral aggregate and
bituminous binder, contains granulated rubber and polymer fibres, giving the mix many unique
and useful properties, which make it very different from ordinary bituminous mixes. Specifically,
it consists of plain bitumen or polymer modified bitumen, mineral aggregate with coarse and fine
particles (sand), granulated rubber and polymer fibres (preferably polyester) with melting
temperature of no less than 200°C.
The mix’s production process consists of adding – either continuously or in portions – granulated
rubber and polymer fibres to the heated mineral aggregate and, after mixing, binder is added after
which the mixture is mixed to consistency. Additives, such as rubber and fibres, in combination
with the modified-polymer binder, make for specific properties of pavements made of the GUFI
mixture, such as resistance to cracking. The mixture can be used as an anti-crack membrane on the
road pavement. It presents very good adherence properties with regards to all kinds of base
surfaces, including concrete, stone slabs and blocks, paving stones, etc. It also leads to a reduction
in tire-pavement contact noise. The result of applying the GUFI mix to pavements is twofold:
Technical – longer pavement durability, and environmental – lower traffic noise (silent pavement)
and the use of industrial waste material (granulated used tire rubber). Traffic noise reduction is of
the order of 3 to 5 dB (A), which is equivalent a reduction of road traffic intensity by half.
Furthermore, this mixture is suitable for bicycle paths, sports fields, and playgrounds, as the
granulated rubber in the mix decreases the hardness of the pavement, making it safer in case of a
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future contest in
the Product of the Future category.
Industrial Chemistry Research Institute
Reactive Extrusion Technology for the Production of PET Bottle Based Structural Elements
Inventors: Regina Jeziórska, Jacek DzierŜawski, Teresa Jaczewska, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Piotr
Chrzanowski, GraŜyna Chrzanowska, Marek Borensztejn, Stanisław Kalinowski, Piotr
KrzyŜanowski, Zbigniew Wielgosz, Witold Zieliński, and Maria Zielonka
As a result of chemical reactions taking place during the reactive extrusion process between
functional PET groups and the modifier’s functional group, stable chemical bonds are created. The
polymer thus obtained has structural properties. Structural plastics sold under the trademark of
Reylan® and produced by King-Plast Ltd. on the basis of waste can be applied in a variety of
leading branches of industry, such as mechanical and electrical engineering, the automotive and
electronic industries, etc.
How to Do Business in Poland
The environmental impact of this technology is also very important. A single production line uses
1,200 tons of plastic waste annually, that’s approximately 240 million PET bottles. This project
takes advantage of the newest achievements in the field of chemical modification of thermoplastic
polymers and results in the production of structural plastics with unique, high quality parameters
with a wide range of uses. This technology is patented (PL 183 370).
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future
competition in the Technology of the Future category.
VIGO System S.A., Warszawa
The V-20 Thermographic Camera
Inventors: Prof. Józef Piotrowski, Mirosław Brudnowski, Maciej Rzeczkowski, and Robert Słomka
The V-20 thermographic camera serves for remote temperature measurement and visualisation of
its distribution without physical contact. The camera records infrared radiation that is emitted by
all bodies with a temperature of above 0 K. The device operates within a 3-5µm range and uses a
high-sensitivity detector (NEDT @20°C:0.05°C) made by VIGO Systems SA.
The camera is controlled by two microprocessors, using 16-bit analog-to-digital conversion. The
measurement data collected in the camera’s memory is sent to a computer, typically through a
USB 2.0 port. A user can connect any type of computer to the camera. If the camera is used for
laboratory measurements on measuring stands, a traditional PC or laptop is used. In other cases,
where measurements are taken in the field and when the camera is carried from one measuring
point to another, it is recommended to use a palmtop. It acts as a display device, playing a role
similar to that of a large video-camera viewfinder.
In the camera, measuring ranges were defined in the 10 to 1,500ºC range. The user can assign
colours from the colour palette corresponding to selected temperatures. Measurement results in a
set of data presented in a form of a colour map, the thermogram. The thermogram consists of
57,600 measuring points (240 points on 240 lines). The user can select a point and read out its
coordinates and temperature. The built-in laser indicator makes framing easier, indicating precisely
the point that lies in the camera’s optical axis (the point of coordinates x=120, y=120) and
peripheral points in the field of vision.
The V-20 camera finds an application in various fields, such as preventive inspections of power
grid equipment, diagnostics of machines in industrial plants, and searching for sources of heat loss
from buildings. Thanks to its high sensitivity, it can also be used in medical and veterinary
diagnostics and various types of research into slow-change thermal processes.
The heart of the camera is a relatively cheap, ultra-fast, un-cooled and high-sensitivity detector,
also designed by VIGO System S.A. on the basis of its own infrared detector manufacturing
technology that makes it possible to obtain high parameters without the necessity of using
expensive liquid nitrogen cooling systems. A single element detector is used in combination with a
mechanical scanning system. An advantage of this design is that the temperature of each
elementary field of vision area of the camera is measured by means of the same detector, thus
increasing the measurement’s accuracy. In the case of matrix cameras, which make it possible to
obtain real-time images, there are sensitivity differences between the matrix pixels that lead to
errors in measurements. Presently, the V-20 Camera is the cheapest device for temperature
distribution measurement without physical contact offered on the market.
This technology won a distinction in the 2003 edition of the Polish Product of the Future contest in
the Product of the Future category.
XIV. Appendices
ChemTech - ProSynTech
ul. Podwalna 23, 41-260 Sławków
tel./fax: (+48-12) 6542255
e-mail: [email protected]
KOMAG Mining Mechanization Centre
ul. Pszczyńska 37; 44-101 Gliwice
tel.: (+48-22) 2374100, fax: (+48-22) 2310843
e-mail: [email protected]
HYDROMEGA Spółka z o.o.
ul. Wrocławska 93; 81-553 Gdynia
tel.: (+48-71) 6647704, fax: (+48-71) 6647292
e-mail: [email protected]
MARBET-WIL Sp. z o.o.
ul. Chocholowska 28, 43-346 Bielsko-Biała
tel: (+48-33) 8127100, fax: (+48-33) 8127103
Industrial Chemistry Research Institute
ul. Rydygiera 8; 01-793 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5682000, fax: (+48-22) 6338295
e-mail: [email protected]
Pharmaceutical Research Institute
ul. Rydygiera 8; 01-793 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4563900, fax: (+48-22) 4563838
e-mail: [email protected]
Industrial Research Institute for Automation
and Measurement - PIAP
Al. Jerozolimskie 202, 02-486 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8740000, fax: (+48-22) 8740220
e-mail: [email protected]
POLATOM Radioisotope Centre
05-400 Otwock – Świerk
tel.: (+48-22) 7180713, fax: (+48-22) 7180738
Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis
ul. Energetyków 9, 47-225 Kędzierzyn-Koźle
tel.: (+48 77) 4873199, fax: (+48 77) 4873060
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry
ul. Annopol 6, 03-236 Warszawa
tel.: (+48 22) 8111231, fax: (+48 22) 8110799
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Microbiology, Warsaw University
Department of Bacterial Genetics
ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa
tel.: (+48 22) 5541403, 5541216
e-mail: [email protected]
Institute of Plastics Processing
ul. M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 55; 87-100 Toruń
tel.: (+48-56) 6500044, fax: (+48-56) 6500333
e-mail: [email protected]
Road and Bridge Research Institute
ul. Jagiellońska 80; 03-301 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8113231, fax: (+48-22) 8111792
e-mail: [email protected]
Rokita-Agro S.A.
ul. Sienkiewicza 4, 56-120 Brzeg Dolny
tel.: (+48 71) 7942040, fax: (+48 71) 7942150
e-mail: [email protected]
Łąkowa 15, 05-092 Łomianki
tel.: (+48-22) 7511916, fax: (+48-22) 7511916
e-mail: [email protected]
VIGO System S.A.
ul. Świetlików 3; 01-389 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6660145, fax: (+48-22) 6660159
e-mail: [email protected]
Association of Polish Inventors
Stowarzyszenie Polskich Wynalazców
i Racjonalizatorów
ul. Rydygiera 8; 01-793 Warszawa
tel./fax: (+48-22) 6338482, 6339511 ext.2105
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Special Economic Zone in Kamienna Góra
Kamiennogórska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
Małej Przedsiębiorczości S.A.
ul. Jana Pawła II 11a; 58-400 Kamienna Góra
tel.: (+48-75) 6451503 do 06; fax: 7442017
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Olsztyn
Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna S.A.
ul. Mickiewicza 21/23; 10-508 Olsztyn
tel.fax: (+48-89) 5350241
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Katowice
Katowicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna S.A.
ul. Sienkiewicza 28; 40-032 Katowice
tel.: (+48-32) 2510736; fax: 2513766
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Słupsk
Słupska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
Pomorska Agencja Rozwoju Regionalnego S.A.
ul. Poznańska 1a; 76-200 Słupsk
tel./fax: (+48-59) 8412892, fax: 8413261
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Kostrzyn-Słubice
Kostrzyńsko-Słubicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
ul. Orła Białego 22; 66-470 Kostrzyn n. Odrą
tel.: (+48-95) 7219800; fax: 7524167
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Kraków
Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
Krakowski Park Technologiczny
Centrum Zaawansowanych Technologii-Kraków
ul. Jana Pawła II 37; 31-864 Kraków
tel.: (+48-12) 6401940; fax: 6401945
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Legnica
Legnicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna S.A.
ul. Kardynała B. Kominka 9; 59-220 Legnica
tel.: (+48-76) 8522446/7; fax: 8522443
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Łódź
Łódzka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
ul. Ks. Tymienieckiego 22/24; 90-349 Łódź
tel./fax: (+48-42) 6762753; fax: 6762755
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Mielec
Agencja Rozwoju Przemysłu Oddział w Mielcu
ul. Partyzantów 25; 39-300 Mielec
tel.: (+48-17) 7887236; fax: 7887769
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Starachowice
Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna Starachowice S.A.
ul. Radomska 29; 27-200 Starachowice
tel.: (+48-41) 2754101; fax: 2754102
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Suwałki
Suwalska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna S.A.
ul. Noniewicza 49; 16-400 Suwałki
tel/fax: (+48-87) 5652217
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Tarnobrzeg
Agencja Rozwoju Przemysłu S.A.
Tarnobrzeska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
EURO-PARK Wisłostan
ul. Zakładowa 48; 39-405 Tarnobrzeg-Machów
tel.: (+48-15) 8229999 tel/fax: 8236888 ext. 108
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Wałbrzych
Wałbrzyska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
Invest-Park Sp. z o.o.
ul. Uczniowska 21; 58-306 Wałbrzych
tel.: (+48-74) 6649164; fax: 6649162
e-mail: [email protected]
Special Economic Zone in Gdańsk
Pomorska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna
ul. Władysława IV 9; 80-703 Sopot
tel.: (+48-58) 5559700; fax: 5559711
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
(Head Offices – Excluding Co-operative Banks)
Name of Bank
Narodowy Bank Polski
00-919 Warszawa
ul. Świętokrzyska 11/21
02-134 Warszawa
ul. 1 Sierpnia 8A
02-134 Warszawa
ul. 1 Sierpnia 8A
00-450 Warszawa
ul. Przemysłowa 26A
31-548 Kraków
ul. Pokoju 1
01-211 Warszawa
ul. Kasprzaka 10/16
00-955 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 7
00-923 Warszawa
ul. Senatorska 16
00-184 Warszawa
ul. Dubois 5A
02-017 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 123A
00-950 Warszawa
Al. Jana Pawła II 12
00-113 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 53
85-959 Bydgoszcz
ul. Jagiellońska 17
00-950 Warszawa
ul. Grzybowska 53/57
01-231 Warszawa
ul.Płocka 9/11B
02-117 Warszawa
ul. Racławicka 131 lok.2U
60-959 Poznań
ul. Mickiewicza 33
02-135 Warszawa
ul. IłŜecka 26
53-128 Wrocław
ul. Sudecka 95/97
50-950 Wrocław
Rynek 9/11
00-095 Warszawa
pl. Bankowy 2
ABN AMRO Bank (Polska) SA
ABN AMRO Bank N.V. S.A. oddział w Polsce
AIG Bank Polska SA
Bank Gospodarki śywnościowej SA
Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego
Bank Handlowy w Warszawie SA
Bank Inicjatyw Społeczno-Ekonomicznych SA
Bank Millenium SA
Bank Ochrony Środowiska SA
Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi (Polska) SA
Bank Pocztowy SA
Bank Polska Kasa Opieki SA
Grupa Pekao SA
Bank Polskiej Spółdzielczości S.A.
Bank Rozwoju Budownictwa Mieszkaniowego SA
Bank Rozwoju Cukrownictwa SA
Bank Svenska Handelsbanken AB SA(Polska)
Bank Współpracy Europejskiej SA
Bank Zachodni WBK SA
Banque PSA Finance S.A. Oddział w Polsce
0-22 6531000
0-22 5730500
0-22 5730500
0-22 5235300
0-12 6187411
0-22 8604000
0-22 5229112
0-22 6577200
0-22 8601100
0-22 5981050
0-22 8508735
0-22 5208165
0-52 3499100
0-22 6560000
0-22 5395100
0-22 8238824
0-61 6629786
0-22 8787387
0-71 3349105
0-71 3701000
0-22 5311811
How to Do Business in Poland
BNP - Paribas S.A. oddział w Polsce
BNP-Paribas Bank Polska SA
BPH Bank Hipoteczny SA
BRE Bank Hipoteczny SA
Calyon Bank Polska SA
Cetelem Bank SA
DaimlerChrysler Services Bank Polska SA
Danske Bank Polska SA
Deutsche Bank PBC SA
Deutsche Bank Polska SA
Dresdner Bank Polska SA
Dresdner Bank AG S.A. Oddział w Polsce
DZ Bank Polska SA
EFG Eurobank Ergasias S.A. oddział w Polsce
Euro Bank SA
FCE Bank Polska SA
Fiat Bank Polska SA
Fortis Bank Polska SA
GE Money Bank SA
Getin Bank SA
GMAC Bank Polska SA
Gospodarczy Bank Wielkopolski SA
HSBC Bank Polska SA
00-078 Warszawa
pl. Piłsudskiego 1
00-078 Warszawa
pl. Piłsudskiego 1
00-805 Warszawa
ul. Chmielna 132/134
00-609 Warszawa
Al. Armii ludowej 26
00-950 Warszawa
ul. Senatorska 18
00-950 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 65/79
03-738 Warszawa
ul. Kijowska 1
02-460 Warszawa
ul. Gottlieba Daimlera 1
00-688 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 28
00-609 Warszawa
al.Armii Ludowej 26
00-609 Warszawa
al. Armii Ludowej 26
59-300 Lubin
ul. Księci Ludwika I 3
00-499 Warszawa
pl.Trzech KrzyŜy 18
00-499 Warszawa
Pl.Trzech KrzyŜy 18
Pl. Piłsudskiego 3
00-078 Warszawa
00-560 Warszwa
ul.Mokotowska 19
50-126 Wrocław
ul. Świętego Mikołaja 72
02-222 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 181
02-678 Warszawa
ul. Szturmowa 2
02-676 Warszawa
ul. Postępu 15
80-894 Gdańsk
ul. ElŜbietańska 2
40-479 Katowice
ul. Pszczyńska 10
02-515 Warszawa
ul. Puławska 15
61-725 Poznań
ul. MielŜyńskiego 22
00-073 Warszawa
ul. Piłsudskiego 2
0-22 6972308
0-22 6972300
0-22 6562169
0-22 5797500
0-22 8290000
0-22 6306888
0-22 5118888
0-22 3127800
0-22 3377100
0-22 5799800
0-22 5799000
0-76 8404100
0-22 5253112
0-22 5253000
0-22 5057000
0-22 3477000
0-71 7955500
0-22 6086900
0-22 6074800
0-22 5669000
0-58 3007001
0-32 2008500
0-22 5215400
0-61 8562400
0-22 3540500
XIV. Appendices
ING Bank Ślaski SA
Jyskie Bank A/S S.A. Oddział w Polsce
Kredyt Bank SA
Mazowiecki Bank Regionalny SA
NORD/LB Bank Polska SA
Nordea Bank Polska SA
Nykredit Bank Hipoteczny SA
Nykredit Realkredit A/S S.A. oddział w Polsce
Powszechna Kasa Oszczędności - Bank Polski SA
Rabobank Polska SA
Raiffeisen Bank Polska SA
RCI Bank Polska S.A.
Santander Consumer Bank S.A.
Societe Generale S.A. oddział w Polsce
Svenska Handelsbanken AB SA
Oddział w Polsce
Sygma Banque Societe Anonyme (SA)
Oddział w Polsce
Śląski Bank Hipoteczny SA
Toyota Bank Polska SA
Volkswagen Bank Polska SA
WestLB Bank Polska SA
Wschodni Bank Cukrownictwa SA
40-086 Katowice
ul. Sokolska 34
04-175 Warszawa
ul. Ostrobramska 77
00-103 Warszawa
ul. Królewska 16
01-211 Warszawa
ul. Kasprzaka 2/8
53-605 Wrocław
ul. Orląt Lwowskich 1
01-747 Warszawa
ul. Elbląska 15/17
00-380 Warszawa
ul. Kruczkowskiego 8
81-303 Gdynia
ul. Kielecka 2
00-103 Warszawa
ul. Królewska 16
00-103 Warszawa
ul.Królewska 16
00-975 Warszawa
ul. Puławska 15
00-958 Warszawa
al. Jana Pawła II 27
00-549 Warszawa
ul. Piękna 20
02-674 Warszawa
ul.Marynarska 13
50-062 Wrocław
pl.Solny 16
00-102 Warszawa
ul. Marszałkowska 111
02-135 Warszawa
ul. IłŜecka 26
00-807 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 92
02-587 Warszawa
ul. Wiktorska 63
02-672 Warszawa
ul. Domaniewska 41
00-828 Warszawa
Al. Jana Pawła II 15
02-781 Warszawa
ul. Rtm. Witolda Pileckiego 65
20-022 Lublin
ul. Okopowa 1
0-32 3577000
0-22 5145100
0-22 5386996
0-22 6345400
0-71 3559511
0-22 5600400
0-22 5250700
0-58 6691111
0-22 5386000
0-22 5386000
0-22 5356565
0-22 6535000
0-22 5852000
0-22 5411140
0-71 3748666
0-22 5284000
0-22 8787387
0-22 4564704
0-22 5401700
0-22 4885000
0-22 5387000
0-22 6530500
0-81 5322220
Source: National Bank of Poland, 2005
How to Do Business in Poland
Name of the Bank
American Express Bank Ltd., New York
00-121 Warszawa
ul. Sienna 39
02-511 Warszawa
ul. Bielawska 6 m.57
00-950 Warszawa
ul. Krucza 6/14 apt. 206,207
02-611 Warszawa
ul. Krasickiego 12A m.1
02-703 Warszawa
ul. Bukowińska 24A apt.118
00-175 Warszawa
al. Jana Pawła II 80 lok. 58
00-697 Warszawa
Al. Jerozolimskie 65/79 p.1824
02-135 Warszawa
ul. IłŜecka 26
00-193 Warszawa
ul. Stawki 2
00-498 Warszawa
ul.KsiąŜęca 4
00-113 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 53
00-609 Warszawa
ul. Armii Ludowej 26
00-113 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 53
00-121 Warszawa
ul. Sienna 39
00-193 Warszawa
ul. Stawki 2
00-113 Warszawa
ul. Emilii Plater 53
00-845 Warszawa
ul. Łucka 20 apt. 15
02-672 Warszawa
ul. Domaniewska 41
00-536 Warszawa
Al. Ujazdowskie 51
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro S.p.A., Rome
Bank of America, National Association, Charlotte
Crédit Industriel et Commercial, Paris
DEPFA BANK plc S.A. Przedstwicielstwo w Polsce,
DekaBank Deutsche Girozentrale Przedstawicielstwo
w Polsce, Frankfurt a/Main, Berlin
EUROHYPO Aktiengesellschaft Europaeische
Hypothekenbank der Deutschen Bank
HSH Nordbank AG, Hamburg
Investkredit Bank AG, Wien
Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino - Istituto
Mobiliare Italiano S.p.A., Turin
JPMorgan Chase Bank, New York
Landesbank Baden - Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart
The Export-Import Bank, Taiwan, Taipei
UBS AG, Zurych & Basel
0-22 5815268
0-22 6460595
0-22 6218979
0-22 8443301
0-22 8530127
0-22 4354710
0-22 6306780
0-22 5757200
0-22 8606503
0-22 5377600
0-22 5286723
0-22 5797780
0-22 4561060
0-22 8503300
0-22 8606200
0-22 5205100
0-22 6541689
0-22 8743582
0-22 5258400
Source: National Bank of Poland, 2005
XIV. Appendices
I National Investment Fund
Ballinger Capital Sp. z o.o.
ul. Dworkowa 3; 00-784 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6468546; fax: 6468536
II National Investment Fund SA
NIF Management Sp. z o.o.
ul.Emilii Plater 53, 00-113 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 520 93 50, fax: 520 93 51
e-mail: [email protected]
IV National Investment Fund
NIF Management Sp. z o.o.
ul.Emilii Plater 53, 00-113 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 5209350, fax: 5209351
e-mail: [email protected]
V National Investment Fund
Ballinger Capital Sp. z o.o.
ul. Dworkowa 3; 00-784 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6468546; fax: 6468536
VI National Investment Fund
AIB WBK Fund Management Sp. z o.o.
Al. Jana Pawła II 25; 00-854 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6534700; fax: 6534707
e-mail: [email protected]
VII National Investment Fund
ul. Zwycięzców 28/51; 03-938 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 7406740; fax: 6725115
e-mail: [email protected]
VIII National Investment Fund
ul. Królewska 16, 00-103 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3306333, fax:3306300
IX National Investment Fund
NIF Management Sp. z o.o.
ul. Emilii Plater 53, 00-113 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 5209333, fax: 5209351
e-mail: [email protected]
X National Investment Fund
ul. Zwycięzców 28/18A; 03-938 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 7406770…74; fax: 6728051
e-mail: [email protected]
III and XI National Investment Fund
Trinity Management Sp. z o.o.
ul. Nowogrodzka 47a; 00-695 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5259900; fax: 5259988
e-mail: [email protected]
XII National Investment Fund
ul. Królewska 16, 00-103 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3306333, fax: 3306300
XIII National Investment Fund
Ballinger Capital Sp. z o.o.
ul. Dworkowa 3; 00-784 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6468546; fax: 6468536
[email protected]
XIV National Investment Fund
ul. śurawia 22, 00-515 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 4389220; fax:4389221
e-mail: [email protected]
XV National Investment Fund
NFI Empik Media & Fashion S.A.
ul. śurawia 8, 00-508 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5833771; fax: 6234057
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Association of Cooperation between
Poland and the East
ul. Marszałkowska 115; 00-102 Warszawa
tel.(+48-22) 6200301; fax: 8269601
e-mail: [email protected]
American Chamber of Commerce in Poland
Amerykańska Izba Gospodarcza w Polsce
ul. Emilii Plater 53; 00-113 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5205999; fax: 5205998
Polish-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-AzerbejdŜańska Izba Gospodarcza
ul. W. Kossaka 37; 42-200 Częstochowa
tel.: (+48-34) 3612550; fax: 3613126 ext.18
e-mail: [email protected]
British Chamber of Commerce in Poland
Brytyjska Izba Handlowa w Polsce
ul. Fabryczna 16/22, 00-446 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 3200100; fax: 6211937
French Chamber of Trade & Industry in Poland
Francuska Izba Handlowo-Przemysłowa w Polsce
ul. Mokotowska 19, 00-560 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6967580; fax: 6967590
Italian Foreign Trade Institute
Włoski Instytut Handlu Zagranicznego
ul. Marszałkowska 72, 00-545 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6280243; fax: 6280600
Poland-Israel Chamber of Commerce
Izba Gospodarcza Polska-Izrael
ul. Trębacka 4; 00-074 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6309798; fax: 8274673
Polish-Belarussian Chamber of Trade & Industry
Polsko-Białoruska Izba Handlowo-Przemysłowa
ul. Trębacka 4, 00-074 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 6309844; fax: 6309926
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish-Belgian-Luxembourgian Chamber of
Polsko-Belgijsko-Luksemburska Izba Handlowa
ul. Trębacka 4; 00-074 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6309773; fax: 6309974
Polish-German Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-Niemiecka Izba Przemysłowo-Handlowa
ul. Miodowa 14; 00-952 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 5310500; fax: 5310600
e-mail: [email protected]
Union of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
of Kazakhstan - Representative Office in Poland
Przedstawicielstwo Związku Izb HandlowoPrzemysłowych Republiki Kazachstan w Polsce
ul. Nowowiejska 10; 00-643 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8758567
Polish-Latvian Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-Łotewska Izba Gospodarcza
ul. Trębacka 4; 00-074 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6309823; fax: 8274673
Polish-Lithuanian Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-Litewska Izba Gospodarcza Rynków Wschodnich
ul. Kościuszki 76, 16-400 Suwałki
tel. (+48-87) 5632600 fax: 5632602
Polish-Russian Chamber of Trade & Industry
Polsko-Rosyjska Izba Handlowo-Przemysłowa
ul. Zimna 2 - 2, 00-138 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 6547373, 6547399; fax: 6547388
Polish-Swiss Chamber of Industry & Trade
Polsko-Szwajcarska Izba Przemysłu i Handlu
ul. Szpitalna 6/11; 00-031 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8277621; fax: 8277623
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish-Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce
Polsko-Ukrainska Izba Gospodarcza
ul. Trębacka 4, 00-074 Warszawa
tel: (+48-22) 6309929; fax: 6309793
e-mail: [email protected]
Scandinavian-Polish Chamber of Commerce
Skandynawsko-Polska Izba Gospodarcza
Wiśniowa 40b apt.3, 02-520 Warszawa
tel.: (+48-22) 8497414; fax: 6464930
XIV. Appendices
Embassy of Afghanistan
ul. Goplańska 1, 02-954 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8855410, fax: 8856500
Embassy of the Republic of Belarus
ul. Wiertnicza 58, 02-952 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 7420990, 8425202; fax: 7420980
Embassy of the Republic of Albania
ul. Altowa 1, 02-386 Warsaw
tel.: 8241427; fax: 8241426
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Kingdom of Belgium
ul. Senatorska 34, 00-095 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5512800; fax: 5512888
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic and Commercial Office for the Flemish
ul. Senatorska 34; 00-095 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8280878, 8263897; fax: 8278136
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic and Commercial Office for the Walloon
Region (AWEX):
ul. Skorupki 5, 00-546 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5837011; fax: 5837019
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic and Commercial Office for the Brussels
Capital Region:
pl. Bankowy 2, 00-095 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5311824, 5311825; fax: 5311826
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the People’s Democratic
Republic of Algeria
ul. Dąbrowiecka 21, 03-932 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6175855; fax: 6160081
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Angola
ul. Balonowa 20, 02-635 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6463529
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Argentine Republic
ul. Brukselska 9, 03-973 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6176028; fax: 6177162
Economic Section:
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Armenia
ul. A. Waszkowskiego 11, 02-913 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8408620; fax: 6420643
e-mail: [email protected]
Australian Embassy
ul. Nowogrodzka 11, 3rd floor, 00-513 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5213444; fax: 6273500
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Austria
ul. Gagarina 34, 00-748 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8410081…84; fax: 8410085
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Idzikowskiego 7/9, 02-704 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8437909, 8439932; fax: 8439505
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan
ul. Zwycięzców 12, 03-941 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6162188, fax: 6161949
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Federative Republic of Brazil
ul. Poselska 11, 03-931 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6174800; fax: 6178689
e-mail: [email protected]
British Embassy
Al. RóŜ 1, 00-556 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 3110000; fax: 3110311
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Emilii Plater 28, 2nd floor, 00-688 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 3110000; fax: 3110250
Embassy of the Republic of Bulgaria
Al. Ujazdowskie 33/35, 00-540 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6294071...75; fax: 6282271
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
tel.: (+48-22) 6294111, 6212535; fax: 6255989
e-mail: [email protected]
Canadian Embassy
ul. Matejki 1/5, 00-481 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5843100, fax: 5843182
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of Chile
ul. OkręŜna 62, 02-925 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8582330…33; fax: 8582329
Commercial Section e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Ecuador
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 15, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8487230; fax: 8488196
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the People’s Republic of China
ul. Bonifraterska 1, 00-203 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8313836; fax: 6354211
Commercial Counsellor
ul. Bonifraterska 1, tel.: (+48-22) 8313861
Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt
ul. Alzacka 18, 03-972 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6176973; fax: 617 90 58
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Alzacka 3 C, 03-972 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6161368; fax: 6161370
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Colombia
ul. Zwycięzców 29, 03-936 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6170973; fax: 6176684
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Democratic Republic of Congo
ul. Miączyńska 50, 02-637 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8496999, fax: 8485215
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Costa Rica
ul. Kubickiego 9 m. 5, 02-954 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8589112; fax: 6427832
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Croatia
ul. Ignacego Krasickiego 10, 02-628 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8442393; fax: 8444808
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Estonia
ul. Karwińska 1, 02-639 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8811810; fax: 8811812
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Finland
ul. Chopina 4/8, 00-559 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6294091; fax: 6213442
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section: fax: 6216394
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Cuba
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 8, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8481715; fax: 8482231
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of France
ul. Piekna 1, 00-477 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5293000; fax: 5293001
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Service:
tel.: (+48-22) 5293100; fax: 5293101
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus
ul. Pilicka 4, 02-629 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8444577; fax: 8442558
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Georgia
ul. Wąchocka 1 S, 03-934 Warsaw
tel./fax: (+48-22) 3531650, fax: 4997752
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Czech Republic
ul. Koszykowa 18, 00-555 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6287221...25; fax: 6298045
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic and Commercial Section
tel.: (+48-22) 6281957; fax: 6219880
Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany
ul. Dąbrowiecka 30, 03-932 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5841700; fax: 5841729
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial and Economic Section:
ul. Jazdów 12 B, 00-467 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5841900; fax: 5841919
Royal Danish Embassy
ul. Rakowiecka 19, 02-517 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5652900; fax: 5652970
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial and Economic Section
tel.: (+48-22) 5652917; fax: 5652973
Embassy of Hellenic Republic
ul. Górnośląska 35, 00-432 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6229460; fax: 6229464
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Economic and Commercial Office:
Krakowskie Przedmieście 47/51, 00-071 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8264828; fax: 8264008
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Hungary
ul. Chopina 2, 00-559 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6284451...55; fax: 6218561
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. SzwoleŜerów 10, 00-464 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8413551; fax: 8413863
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of India
ul. Rejtana 15 apt. 2-7, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8495800; fax: 8496705
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia
ul. Estońska 3/5, 03-903 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6175179; fax: 6174455
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Japan
ul. SzwoleŜerów 8, 00-464 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6965000; fax: 6965001
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan
ul. Królowej Marysieńki 14, 02-954 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6425388; fax: 6423427
Embassy of the Democratic People’s Republic
of Korea
ul. Bobrowiecka 1 A, 00-728 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8405813; fax: 8405710
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Korea
ul. SzwoleŜerów 6, 00-464 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5592900; fax: 5592905
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the State of Kuwait
ul. Franciszka Nullo 13, 00-486 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6222860; fax: 6274314
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran
ul. Królowej Aldony 22, 03-928 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6171585; fax: 6178452
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 26, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8484786; fax: 8497122
e-mail: [email protected]
Liaison Office of the Republic of Iraq
ul. Dąbrowiecka 9 A, 03-932 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6175773, 6174911; fax: 6177065
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Latvia
ul. Królowej Aldony 19, 03-928 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6174389; fax: 6174289
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Ireland
ul. Mysia 5, 00-498 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8496633, 8496655; fax: 8498431
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
tel.: (+48-22) 6469797; fax: 6465015
Embassy of Lebanon
ul. Starościńska 1 B m. 10-11, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8445065; fax: 6460030
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Israel
ul. Krzywickiego 24, 02-078 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8250028, 8250923; fax: 8251607
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Italy
pl. Dąbrowskiego 6, 00-055 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8263471; fax: 8278507
e-mail: [email protected]
People’s Bureau of the Great Socialist People’s
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
ul. Kryniczna 2, 03-934 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6174822; fax: 6175091
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Lithuania
al. Jana Chrystiana Szucha 5, 00-580 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6253368, 6290596; fax: 6253440
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
Al. Ujazdowskie 51, 00-536 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5847050; fax: 5847053
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia FYR
ul. Królowej Marysieńki 40, 02-954 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6517291; tel./fax: 6517292
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
ul. Starościńska 1 m. 1-2, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8494808; fax: 8491160
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Malaysia
ul. Gruzińska 3, 03-902 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6173144; fax: 6176256
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Palestine
ul. Starościńska 1 m. 7, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8497772; fax: 8567376
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Mexico
ul. Starościńska 1 B m. 4-5, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6468800; fax: 6464222
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Peru
ul. Starościńska 1 m. 3-4, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6468806; fax: 6468617
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Moldova
ul. Miłobędzka 12, 02-634 Warsaw
tel./fax: (+48-22) 6462099
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Mongolia
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 16, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8499391; fax: 8482063
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco
ul. Starościńska 1 m. 11-12, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8496341; fax: 8481840
e-mail: [email protected]
Royal Netherlands Embassy
ul. Kawalerii 10, 00-468 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5591200; fax: 8402638
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
tel.: (+48-22) 5591239
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
ul. Wiertnicza 94, 02-952 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8486944; fax: 8485379
e-mail: [email protected]
Royal Norwegian Embassy
ul. Chopina 2 A, 00-559 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6964030; fax: 6280938
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Chmielna 85/87, 00-805 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5810581; fax: 5810981
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Portugal
ul. Francuska 37, 03-905 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5111010; fax: 5111013
E-mial: [email protected]
Commercial and Tourism Office:
ul. Francuska 37, 03-905 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6176460; fax: 6174477
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Romania
ul. Chopina 10, 00-559 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6283156; fax: 6285264
e-mail: [email protected]
Economic Section - tel.: (+48-22) 6283300
Embassy of the Russian Federation
ul. Belwederska 49, 00-761 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6213453, 6215575; fax: 6253016
e-mail: [email protected]
Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia
ul. Stępińska 55, 00-739 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8400000; fax: 8405636
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Serbia and Montenegro
Al. Ujazdowskie 23/25, 00-540 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6285161; fax: 6297173
e-maill: [email protected]
Embassy of the Slovak Republic
ul. Litewska 6, 00-581 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5258110; fax: 5258122
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
tel.: (+48-22) 5258110; fax: 6252452
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Embassy of the Republic of Slovenia
ul. Starościńska 1 m. 23-24, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8498282; fax: 8484090
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of South Africa
ul. Koszykowa 54, 6th floor, 00-675 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6256228; fax: 6256270
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Kingdom of Spain
ul. Myśliwiecka 4, 00-459 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6224250; fax: 6225408
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Office:
ul. Genewska 16, 03-963 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6179408, 6176368; fax: 6172911
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Democratic Socialist Republic
of Sri Lanka
Al. Wilanowska 313 A, 02-665 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8538896; fax: 8435348
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Sweden
ul. Bagatela 3, 00-585 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6408900; fax: 6408983
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Krolewska 16, 00-103 Warsaw
tel: +48 22 5386820; fax: +48 22 5386821
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Switzerland
Al. Ujazdowskie 27, 00-540 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6280481...82; fax: 6210548
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Syrian Arab Republic
ul. Narbutta 19 A, 02-536 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8484809, 8491456; fax: 8491847
Royal Thai Embassy
ul. Willowa 7, 00-790 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8492655; fax: 8492630
e-mail: [email protected]
Office of Commercial Affairs:
ul. Migdałowa 4/27, 02-796 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6451210; fax: 6451250
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Tunisia
ul. Myśliwiecka 14, 00-459 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6286330; fax: 6216295
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Turkey
ul. Malczewskiego 32, 02-622 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6464321…22; fax: 6463757
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Counsellor’s Office:
tel.: (+48-22) 6461408; tel./fax: 6463447
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Ukraine
al. Jana Chrystiana Szucha 7, 00-580 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6293446, 6224797; fax: 6298103
e-mail: [email protected]
Trade and Economic Office:
tel./fax: (+48-22) 6224743
Embassy of the United States of America
Al. Ujazdowskie 29/31, 00-540 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 5042000; fax: 5042688
Foreign Commercial Service:
ul. Poznańska 2/4, 00-680 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6254374
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 12, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8495040; fax: 6466887
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Uzbekistan
ul. Wernyhory 21, 02-727 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 847 52 53, fax: 853 22 88
Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
ul. Rejtana 15 m. 10, 02-516 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6461846; fax: 6468761
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
ul. Resorowa 36, 02-956 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6516098; fax: 6516095
e-mail: [email protected]
Commercial Section:
ul. Polna 48 m. 17, 00-644 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 8258163; fax: 8258106
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Yemen
ul. Zwycięzców 18, 03-941 Warsaw
tel.: (+48-22) 6176025...26; fax: 6176022
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Rruga e Durresit 123, Tirana
tel.: (+355-4) 234-190
fax: (+355-4) 233-364
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
2 Kichik Gala street, Icheri Sheher, AZ-1000 Baku
tel.: (99-412) 4920114, fax: 4920214
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
4 bis, rue Rabah Bourbia
16606 El-Biar, Alger BP 148
tel.: (+213-21) 921706, 921828; fax: 921622
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
10 Trelawney Str., Woollahra
NSW 2025, Sydney
tel.: (+61-2) 9363 9821; fax: 9327 8568
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
37 Av. Mustapha Ali Khodja
16030 El-Biar, Alger BP 60
tel.: (+213-21) 923474, 922533; fax: 921435
e-mail: [email protected]
Embaixada da Republica da Polonia
Rua Comandante N´zaji 21/23, Alvalade
Luanda; CP 1340
tel.: (+244) 222 323 088; tel./fax: 222 323 086
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
7 Turrana Str., Yarralumla, ACT 2600 Canberra
tel.: (+61-2) 6272 1000, 6273 1208; fax: 6273 3184
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts-und Handelsbeteilung;
Titlgasse 15; 1130 Wien
tel.: (+43-1) 877 8341; fax: 877 3597
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la Republica de Polonia
Departamento Economico y Comercial
Virrey del Pino 3147
1426 Buenos Aires
tel.: (+54-11) 45515397; fax: 45515097
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republic Polen
Hietzinger Hauptstraβe 42c
A-1130 Wien; PO Box 17
tel.: (+43-1) 87015-0 ...46; fax: 87015-222
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la Republica de Polonia
Calle Alejandro Maria de Aguado 2870
1425 Buenos Aires
tel.: (+54-11) 4802 9681/82; fax: 4802 9683
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
18, Avenue de l`Horizon; 1150 Bruxelles
tel.: (+32-2) 771 6815; fax: 771 1839
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
44A Hanrapetutyan Str., Erewan
tel. (+374-1) 542493
fax.(+374-1) 542498
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Avenue des Gaulois 29, 1040 Bruxelles
tel.: (+32-2) 739 0101; fax: 736 1881
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
ul. Wołodarskiego 6; 220030 Minsk
tel.: (+375-17) 222 4819; fax: 220 4974
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
443 Daly Avenue, Ottawa 2, Ontario K1N 6H3
tel.: (+1-613) 7890-468, 7893-376; fax: 7891-218
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
P. Rumiancewa 6, 220034 Minsk
tel.: (+375-17) 288 2313; fax: 236 4992
e-mail:[email protected]
Economic and Commercial Division of the Embassy
3501 Ave du Musee, Montreal, Quebec H3G 2C8
tel.: (+1-514) 282-1732, 282-1734, fax: 282-1784
e-mail: [email protected]
Embaixada da Republica da Polonia
Escritorio do Conselheiro Comercial
Avenida das Naçoes, Quadra 809, Lote 33
Brasilia D.F. CEP 70423-900
tel.: (+55-61) 242 8698; fax: 242 8738
e-mail: [email protected]
Polish Trade Comission - Toronto Branch
3300 Bloor Street West, Suite 2860 - Centre Tower
Toronto, Ontario M8V 2X3
tel.:(+1-416) 233-6571, fax: 233-9578
e-mail: [email protected]
Departamento Econômico e Comercial
da Embaixada em São Paulo
Rua Zequinha de Abreu, 240, Pacaembu
CEP: 01250-050 São Paulo, SP
tel.: (+55-11) 3673-2776, fax: 3673-0354
e-mail: [email protected]
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
ul. Dola 13, 71000 Sarajevo
tel.: (+387-33) 201142; 215862; fax: 233796
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
ul. Ewłogi Georgiew 125; 1504 Sofia
tel.: (+359-2) 943 4245; fax: 943 4814
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Chan Krum 46, 1000 Sofia
tel.: (+359-2) 987 2610, 987 2660; fax. 987 2939
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
767 Monivong Boulevard,
Phnom Pehn Cambodge, P.O. Box 58
tel. (+855-23) 217782/3; fax: 217781
e-mail: [email protected]
People’s Republic of China
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1, Ri Tan Lu, Beijing, 100600 Beijing
tel.: (+86-10) 6532-1888; fax: 6532-1235
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1375 Huai Hai Zhong Rd., Shanghai, 200031
tel.: (+86-21) 6433-4735; fax: 6433-0161
e-mail: [email protected]cn
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Shamian Dajie 63, Guangzhou, 510130
tel.: (+86-20) 8121-8991; fax: 8121-8992
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Suite 2009, Two Pacific Place
88 Queensway, Central Hong Kong
tel.: (+852) 2840-0814; fax: 2918-9109
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Mar del Plata 2055, Providencia, Santiago de Chile
tel.: (+562) 2041213, 2690212; fax: 2049332
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Apartado Aereo 101363 Unicentro
Calle 104a, No 23-48, Bogota
tel.:(+57-1) 2140400, 2142931; fax: 2140854
e-mail: [email protected]
Czech Republic
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
ul. Hradešinska 1931/58; 10100 Praha 10
tel.: (+420-2) 71732342; fax: 72735442
e-mail: [email protected]
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
63, Avenue de la Justice, Kinshasa Gombe
tel./fax: (+243-81) 7006327, 7006326
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de République de Pologne
Valdštejnská 8, 11801 Praha 1
tel.: (+4202) 57099500; fax: 57530399
e-mail: [email protected]
Costa Rica
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Avenida 9, Calle 33 No 3307, Barrio Escalante
San Jose, 664-2010 Correos Zapote
tel.: (+506) 2347411, 2346024; fax: 2347900
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat Général de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Blahoslavova 4, 70100 Ostrava
tel.: (+420-596) 120460
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
ul. Rokefellerova 49; 10000 Zagreb
tel.: (+385-1) 468-4202; tel/fax: 468-3128
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Krlezin Gvozd 3, 10000 Zagreb
tel.: (+385-1) 4899-444; fax: 4834-577
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Calle G No.452, esq.19, Vedado, La Habana
tel.: (+53-7) 8332439; fax: 8332442
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
11 Acharnon str., 2027 Stravolos, Nicosia
tel.: (+357-2) 242-7007; fax: 251-0611
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
12-14 Kennedy Ave. flat 302, 1087 Nicosia
tel.: (+357-2) 275-3517; fax: 275-1981
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Ryvangs Alle 46,
Copenhagen - 2900 Hellerup
tel.: (+45) 3962-2633; fax: 3962-2554
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Richelieus Allé 12,
Copenhagen - 2900 Hellerup
tel.: (+45) 3946-7700; fax: 3946-7766
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
8, Ahmed Nessim St.304, Giza-Cairo
tel.: (+202) 337-9683; fax: 760-9353
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
5 El Aziz Osman Str., Zamalek, Cairo
tel.: (+202) 736-7456, fax: 735-5427
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Narva mnt. 9A, 10503 Tallinn, BP 240
tel.: (+372) 6604-378; fax: 6604-380
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Pärnu Mnt. 8, 10503 Tallinn, BP 247
tel.: (+372) 6278-206; fax: 6445-221
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
PO Box 27207/1000 Addis Abeba
Bole Sub-city, Kebele 03, House No 2111
tel.: (+251-1) 185401; 637635; fax: 610000
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
ul. Zubałaszwili 19, 0108 Tbilisi
tel. (+995-32) 920398
fax. (+995-32) 920397
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Lassenstr. 19-21, 14193 Berlin
tel.: (+49-30) 223-130; fax: 2231-3155
e-mail: [email protected]
European Communities
Mission de la République de Pologne
Auprès des Communautés Européennes
282-284 Av. de Tervuren; 1150 Bruxelles, Belgique
tel.: (+32-2) 7777-200; fax: 7777-297
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts-und Handelsabteilung
Glinkastrasse 5-7, 10117 Berlin
tel.: (+49-30) 220-2551; fax: 229-2451
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Risto Rytin tie 7; 700-570 Helsinki
tel.: (+358-9) 684-9188; fax: 684-8907
e-mail: [email protected]
Generalkonsulat der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts- und Handelsabteilung
An der Alteburger Mühle 6,
50968 Köln 51, Marienburg
tel.: (+49-221) 34990, 349913; fax: 349910
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Armas Lindgrenin tie 21, F-00570 Helsinki
tel.: (+358-9) 684-8077; fax: 684-7477
e-mail: [email protected]
Generalkonsulat der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts- und Handelsabteilung
Röntgenstraße 5, 81679 München
tel.: (+49-89) 4702-7747, 4186-0842; fax: 4707-223
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
86, rue de la Faisanderie; 75116 Paris
tel.: (+33-1) 4504-1020; fax: 4504-6317
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
1 rue de Talleyrand, 75343 Paris
tel.: (+33-1) 4317-3405; fax: 4317-3507
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat Général de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
79, rue Crillon, 69006 Lyon
tel.: (+33-4) 3751-1233; fax: 3751-1238
e-mail: [email protected]
Generalkonsulat der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts-und Handelsabteilung
Grundgenstr. 20; 22309 Hamburg
tel.: (+49-40) 611870; fax: 6325030
e-mail: [email protected]
Generalkonsulat der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts-und Handelsabteilung
Gorber str.14/411-412, 04105 Leipzig
tel.: (+49-341) 980-0281; fax: 980-2043
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1, Kondoleondos st., 154-52 Paleo Psychico, Athens
tel.: (+30-210) 672 6176; fax: 672 1952
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
22 Chrysanthemon st.
154-52 Paleo Psychico, Athenes
tel.: (+30-210) 679 7700; fax: 679 7711
e-mail: [email protected]
The Holy See
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Via dei Delfini 16 int.3, 00186 Roma
tel.: (+39-06) 6990958; fax: 6990978
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Stefania ut 65, H-1143 Budapest XIV
tel.: (+36-1) 251-4677; fax: 252-9289
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Városligeti fasor 16, 1068 Budapest
tel.: (+36-1) 413-8200; fax: 351-1722
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
50-M, Shantipath, Chanakyapuri; New Delhi 110021
tel.: (+91-11) 5149-6922, fax: 2687-2033
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Manavi Apartments, 36, B.G. Kher Marg,
Malabar Hill, Mumbai 400 006
tel.: (+91-22) 363-3863/4; fax: 363-3376
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
JL.H.R.Rasuna Said, Kav.X Blok IV/3
Jakarta 12950
tel.: (+62-21) 2525-947; fax: 2525-960
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Africa Expressway, Pirouz Str. 1/3
P.O.Box 11365-3489, 19-174 Tehran
tel.: (+9821) 8787-262/4, fax: 8788-774
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Baghdad, Hay Al-Wahda, Mahalla 904,
Zukak 60, House 20/24
tel.: +964 7901 909506; fax: (sat) +873-762 05 3415
e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Embassy of Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
4 The Vicarage St John`s Road; Dublin 4
tel.: (+353-1) 269-1370; fax: 269-7662
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
5, Ailesbury Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4
tel.: (+3531) 283-0855; fax: 269-8309
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
79, Yehuda Hamaccabi St.; 62-300 Tel-Aviv
tel.: (+972-3) 5446-246; fax: 5446-247
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
16, Soutine St., Tel-Aviv 64-484
tel.: (+972-3) 5240-186, fax: 5237-806
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Via Olona 2; 00198 Roma
tel.: (+39-6) 854-1128; fax: 855-3391
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Via P.P. Rubens 20, 00197 Roma
tel.: (+39-6) 362 04 200; fax: 321 7895
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Consulat Général de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Via Capecelatro 53/4, 20148 Milano
tel.: (+39-2) 487 131 64; fax: 405 303
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
70, Sagan-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul
tel.: (+82-2) 723 9681; fax: 723 9680
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
2-13-5 Mita, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0062
tel.: (+81-3) 5794 7050; fax: 5794 7053
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
P.O. Box 5066, Safat, 13501 Kuwait
tel.: (+965) 5311 571/2, fax: 5311 576
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
No 3 Mahmoud Seif Al-Din Al-Irani St.
PO Box 942050, Amman 11194
tel. (+9626) 5512593, 5512594; fax: 5512595
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
ul. Baturina 4, Almaty 480051
tel./fax: (+7-3272) 647911, 534427
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
DŜarkentskaja 9 / Iskanderowa 11/13,
480099 Almaty, P.O.Box 228
tel.: (+7-3272) 581 551, fax: 581 550
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Kabarnet Road, Nairobi, PO Box 30086
tel.: (+254-20) 3872 811, 3872 812; fax: 3872 814
e-mail: [email protected]
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Tedonggang - Munsudong, Pyongyang, D.P.R.K.
tel. (+8502) 3817325, 3817328; fax: 3817634
Republic of Korea
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
4F, Dongkyung B/D, 604 Hannam-dong,
Yongsan-Ku, Seoul 140-210
tel.: (+82-2) 3785 2471 fax: 797 0853
e-mail: [email protected]
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
263 Thadeua Rd., km. 3
P.O. Box 1106 Vientiane
tel.: (+856 21) 312-940; fax: 312-085
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
11 Elizabetes str., 1010 Riga
tel.: (+371) 735-8251; fax: 735-8250
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Miednieku iela 6B, 1010 Riga
tel.: (+371) 703-1500; fax: 705-1549
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Av. President Suleiman Frangieh 52
Raymong Khalife Bldg
Baabda - PO Box 40-215
tel. 05-924-881, 05-468-951; fax: 05-924-882
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
61 Sharia Ben Ashour Str.
Garden City Tripoli, PO Box 519
tel.(+218 21) 3608569, 3615972; fax: 3615199
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Vasario 16-osios g.14/2, 01107 Vilnius-1
tel.: (+370-5) 261-7960; fax: 261-0686
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Smelio g. 20A. 10323 Vilnius
tel.: (+370-5) 270-9001; fax: 270-9007
Macedonia FYR
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
ul. Djuro Djaković 50, 1000 Skopje
tel.: (+389 2) 3119744, 3112647
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Suite 6, level 7, Mesiara Dato’Onn,
P.O.Box 47 & 48, Putra World Trade Centre,
45 Jalan Tun Ismail, 50480 Kuala Lumpur
tel.: (+60-3) 4043 0940; fax: 4043 0216
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
No 495, 4 ½ Miles Jalan Ampang,
68000 Ampang, Selangor 50704 Kuala Lumpur
tel.: (+60-3) 4257-6733; fax: 4257-0123
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Calle Cracovia 40, Colonia San Angel,
01000 México D.F.
Apartado Postal 20383
tel.: (+52 55) 5550-4700, fax: 5616-0822
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
MD-2009 Chisinau, str. Plamadeala 3
tel: (+373-22) 238956; fax: 238957
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
MD-2009 Chisinau, str. Plamadeala 3
tel: (+373-22) 238551; fax: 238553
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Diplomat 95 Ajlyn Oron Suuc VI ORC
PO Box 1049, Ulaanbaatar-13
tel.: (+976-11) 320641, fax: 321926;
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
22, rue Khouribga, BP 384, 10000 Rabat
tel.: (+212-37) 768368; fax: 769068
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
23, Rue Oqbah, Rabat, BP 425
tel.: (212-37) 771173; fax: 775320
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat Général de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
9 rue d’Alger-Villa Beausoleil, 20000 Casablanca
tel.: (+212-22) 279138; fax: 279139
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Van Lennepweg 51; 2597 LG Den Haag
tel.: (+31-70) 306-9944; fax: 354-3966
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Alexanderstraat 25, 2514 JM Den Haag
tel.: (+31-70) 7990-100; fax: 360-2810
e-mail: [email protected]
New Zeland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
17 Upland Road, Kelburn
Wellington 6005, P.O. Box 10211
tel.: (+644) 4759453, fax: 4759458
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1 Amado Tijani Street, Victoria Island, Lagos
tel.: (+234-1) 262-0660; fax: 262-0649
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
16, Ona Crescent, Maitama, Abuja
tel.: (+234-9) 41382-80…83; fax: 41382-81
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Uranienborg terrasse 11; 0351-Oslo
tel.: (+47-22) 602448; fax: 565381
e-mail: [email protected]
Republic of South Africa
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
PO Box 1547, Houghton 2041, Johannesburg, RSA
tel.: (+27-11) 788-6597; fax: 442-5375
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Olav Kyrres plass 1, 0244 Oslo
tel.: (+47-24) 110850; fax: (+47-24) 444839
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
14 Amos Street, Colbyn 0083, Pretoria
PO Box 12277, Queenswood 0121
tel.: (+27-12) 430-2621; fax: 430-2608
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Diplomatic Enclave II, Street 24, G-5/4,
Islamabad P.O. Box 1032
tel. (+92-51) 2279491, 2279493; fax: 2279498
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Bd Aviatorilor 24; 011862 Bucuresti
tel.: (+40-21) 230-7714; fax: 230-7732
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Bella Vista, Calle 47,
Edificio "Vista Marina", piso 2.
Zona 5, Apartado Postal 8782, Panama
tel.: (+507) 2636254, 2635097; fax: 2233717
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Al. Alexandru 23, 011821 Bucuresti
tel.: (+40-21) 308-2200; fax: 230-7832
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Casilla de coreo 180174,
Miraflores, Lima 18
tel.: (+511) 4713-920, fax: 4713-925
e-mail: [email protected]
Embaixada da Republica da Polonia
Departamento Econômico e Comercial
Avenida da Pepublica, 9-7; 1050-185 Lisboa
tel.: (+351-21) 352-6170; fax: 352-6174
e-mail: [email protected]
Embaixada da Republica da Polonia
Avenida das Descobertas 2, 1400-092 Lisboa
tel.: (+ 351-21) 301-2350; fax: 301-0202
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
123557 Moscou, rue Klimashkina 4
tel.: (+7-095) 231-1611; fax: 231-1615
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat Général de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Rue 5-ya Sovietskaya 12; 193130 Sankt Petersburg
tel.: (+7-812) 274-4328; fax: 274-4318
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat Général de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Prospekt Mira 81/2; 236000 Kaliningrad
tel.: (+7-0112) 218-741; fax: 216-287
e-mail: [email protected]
Saudi Arabia
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Abdullah Bin DŜafar Street, House No.20
Al-Woorood District Riyadh (Rijad)
P.O.Box 94016, Riyadh 11693
tel.: (+966-1) 4549274, 4508889; fax: 4549210
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Avenue des Ambassadeurs, Fann Residence
Dakar BP 343
tel.: (+221) 8252403, 8242354; fax: 8249526
e-mail: [email protected]
Serbia and Montenegro
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Il.Vladimira Popovica 6 ap 401, 11070 Beograd
tel.: (+381-11) 311-2340; fax: 311-2307
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Kneza Milośa 38, 11000 Beograd
tel.: (+381-11) 206-5301; fax: 361-6939
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
435 Orchard Road, 10-01/02 Wisma Atria
Singapore 238877
tel.: (+65) 6734-0466; fax: 6734-6129
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Zelena 6; 81101 Bratyslava
tel.: (+421-2) 5443-2744; fax: 5443-2007
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Hummelova 4, 81491 Bratyslava
tel.: (+421-2) 5441-3175, fax: 5441-3184
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Cesta 27 aprila 37, 1000 Lublana
tel./fax: (+386-1) 426-1448, 426-0505
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Bezigrad 10, 1000 Lublana
tel.: (+386-1) 436-4712; fax: 436-2521
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Sección de Economía y Comercio
Avenida del Dr. Arce, 25; 28002 Madrid
tel.: (+34-91) 590-1280; fax: 561-5108
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Calle Guisando 23 bis, 28035 Madrid
tel.: (+34-91) 373-6605; fax: 373-6624
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Friggagatan 4, 11427 Stockholm
tel.: (+46-8) 453-8420; fax: 216-188
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Karlavägen 35, 11432 Stockholm
tel.: (+46-8) 5057-5000; fax: 5057-5086
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Wirtschafts- und Handelsabteilung
Elfenstrasse 9; CH-3000 Bern 6
tel.: (+41-31) 350-8282; fax: 351-3457
e-mail: [email protected]
Botschaft der Republik Polen
Elfenstrasse 20a, CH-3000 Bern 6
tel.: (+41-31) 358-0202, fax: 358-0216
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Rue Georges Haddad, Damascus P.O. 501
tel.: (+963-11) 3333010, fax: 3315318
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
63 Aly Khan Road, Upanga, Dar es Salaam
P. O. Box 2188
tel.: (+255-22) 2115271, tel./fax: 2115812
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
11th Fl., Two Pacific Place
142 Sukhumvit Road, Bangkok 10110
tel.: (+66-2) 653-2014; fax: 653-2013
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
8A, Sriyukhon Bldg, Sukhumvit Soi 5
PO Box 1167, Bangkok 10110
tel.: (+66-2) 251-8891/2; fax: 251-8895
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
5, Rue Ibn Assaker, El Menzah I, 1004 Tunis
tel.: (+21671) 751 907; fax: 238 812
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
5, Impasse No 1, Rue de Cordoue,
2092 El Manar I, Tunis
tel.: (+21 6) 71 873 837; fax: 71 872 987
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
And Sokak No 8/17; 06680 Cankaya - Ankara
tel.: (+90-312) 468-0990; fax: 428-1234
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Atatürk Bulvari 241, Kavaklidere PK 20
06650 Ankara
tel.: (+90-312) 467-5619; fax: 467-8963
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Toprakkale Sok. No 6, Burak Apt. D-3
Etiler - 80630, Istanbul
tel.: (+90-212) 265-8609; fax: 265-0722
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Volodymyrska 45, 01034 Kiev
tel.: (+380-44) 279-4537; fax: 278-1140
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Jaroslawiw Wal 12, 01034 Kiev
tel.: (+ 380-44) 230-0700, fax: 270-6336
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat Général de la République de Pologne
Economic and Commercial Section
Sarachowa 78a III, 79026 Lviv
tel/fax: (+380-322) 976-677, 971-353
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulat Général de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
Artioma 16 - 401, 61002 Charkiv
tel.: (+380-572) 585-424; fax: 585-425
e-mail: [email protected]
United Arab Emirates
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Abu Dhabi, Delma Street,
Corner with Karama Street,
P.O. Box 2334, Abu Dhabi
tel.: (+971-2) 4465-200; fax 4462-967
e-mail: [email protected]
United Kingdom
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
15, Devonshire Street; London W1G 7AP
tel.: (+44) 20 75 8054 81; fax: 20 73 23 01 95
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
47 Portland Place, London W1B 1JH
tel.: (+44) 87 07 74 27 00
fax: (+44) 20 72 91 35 75
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Jorge Canning 2389, C.P. 11600 Montevideo
tel.: (+59 82) 4801151, 4801313; fax: 4873389
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
675, 3rd Ave. (19th floor)
New York, NY 10017
tel.: (+1-212) 370-5300; fax: 818-9623
e-mail: [email protected]
Embajada de la República de Polonia
Av. Nicolas Copernico, Qta. "Ambar"
Valle Arriba, Sector Los Naranjos
Apartado 62293, Chacao, Caracas 1060-A
fel.: (+58-212) 991-6167; fax: 992-2164
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
2640, 16th Street, N.W.,
Washington DC 20009
tel.: (+1-202) 234-3800; fax: 328-6271
e-mail: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
Service Economique et Commercial
5, Ba Huyen Thanh Quan
PO Box 21, Hanoi
tel.: (+84-4) 845-2836; fax: 843-0517
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
1503, 21st Street N.W.
Washington DC 20036
tel.: (+1-202) 467-6690; fax: 833-8343
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
333 East Ontario Street, Suite 3906
Chicago, Illinois 60611
tel.: (+1-312) 642-4102; fax: 642-8829
e-mail: [email protected]
Consulate General of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
12400 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 555
Los Angeles, CA 90025
tel.: (+1-310) 442-8500 ext.113; fax: 442-8526
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Economic and Commercial Section
Mahatma Gandi 1, tupik 4
700000 Tashkent
tel.: (+998-71) 133-9650; fax: 133-9750
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Fridavsiy 66, Yunasabadskiy Rayon
700084 Tashkent
tel.: (+998-71) 120-8650; fax: 120-8651
email: [email protected]
Ambassade de la République de Pologne
3 Chua Mot Cot, Hanoi
tel.: (+84-4) 845-2027, 845-3728; fax: 823-6914
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
Fajj Attan Area, Sana’a, Yemen
P.O. Box 16168
tel.: (+9671) 413523, 413524; fax: 413647
e-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of the Republic of Poland
16 Cork Rd, Belgravia
Harare, PO Box 3932
tel.: (+263-4) 253442; fax: 253710
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Bahrain
Mr. Hashim Hussein, Head
Bahrain Development Bank House
P.O. Box 10523, Bldg. No. 170.Road 1703, Manama 317, Bahrain
Telephone: +973 17 536881; Fax: +973 17 536883
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Belgium
Ministère de la Region Wallonne
Agence Wallonne à l’Exportation
Place Sainctelette, 2; B-1080 Brussels, Belgium
Telephone: +32 2 4218211; Fax: +32 2 4218787
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Brazil
Mr. Valerio Veloso, Head
Rua do Apolo, 181
Bairro do Recife - PE; State of Pernambuco, Brasil – CEP: 50030-220
Telephone: +55-81 3419 8002/8004; Fax: +55-81 3419 8001
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in China
Mr. Tao Dong, Head
UNIDO Shanghai Investment Promotion Center
16F New Town Center, 83, Loushanguan Road, Shanghai, 200336, China
Telephone: +8621 62368800; Fax: +8621 62368024
e-mail: [email protected]
Mr. Yuandong HU, Head
No. 17, Xi WU Jei, San Li tun, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100600, China
Telephone: +8610 65326140, 65326141; Fax: +8610 65326145
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment Promotion Unit in Egypt
Mr. Enrico Sasdelli, Head
Sherif Street 30, Cairo, Egypt
Telephone: +202 392 5277, 393 7447; Fax: +202 3957631
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in France
Mr. Gérard Gaveau, Head
9, rue Notre Dame des Victoires, F-75002 Paris, France
Telephone: +331 44550505; Fax: +331 49269726
e-mail: [email protected]
Mr. Jean Claude Plana, Head
271, corniche Président J.F. Kennedy, F-13007 Marseille, France
Telephone: +33-4-91525619, Fax: +33-4-91571728
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Greece
Mr. Ioannis Karmokolias, Head
7, Stadiou Street, 7th Floor, Syntagma Sqr, 10562 Athenes, Greece
Telephone: +302 10 3248319, 3248367; Fax: + 302 10 3248778
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Italy
Ms. Diana Battaggia, Head
Via della Beverara, 123, I-40131 Bologna, Italy
Telephone: +39051 634 3031; Fax: +39051 634 1186
e-mail: [email protected]
Ms.Diana Battaggia, Head
Via Panisperna 28, 00 184 Rome, Italy
Phone: +39 06 6962 153, 6962 129; Fax: +39 06 6962 122
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Japan
Mr. Seiji Oshima, Head
Shin-Aoyama Building, W-16F, 1-1-1 Minami-Ayoama, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 107, Japan
Telephone: +81 3 340 29341; Fax: +81 3 340 29384
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment Promotion Unit in Jordan
Ms. Monica Carcó, Head
c/o Jordan Investment Board
P.O. Box 893; Amman 11821, Jordan
Telephone: +962 6 5608400; Fax: +962 65517626
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Republic of Korea
Mr. Wan-Gil Kang, Head
c/o Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)
128, Yunkun-dong, Chongro-gru, Seoul 110-460, Republic of Korea
Telephone: +82 2 747 8191, 747 8192; Fax: +82 2 747 8193
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Promotion Unit in Morocco
Mr. Luca Ranieri, Officer-in-Charge
c/o Unité de Promotion des Investissements
Office pour le Développement Industriel
10 Rue Ghandi; BP 211 – Rabat, Morocco
Telephone: +212 37 737 979, 737 889; Fax: +212 37 738 070
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Poland
Mr. Krzysztof Loth, Head
Aleja Niepodległości 186, 00-608, Warsaw, P.O. Box 10, Warsaw 12, Poland
Telephone: +48 22 8259186 Fax: +48 22 8258970
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in Russian Federation
Mr. Mikhail V. Rytchev, Director
UNIDO Center for International Industrial Coop.
Ulitsa Kuusinena 21B, 125252 Moscow, Russian Federation
Telephone: +7 095 9430021, 1989809; Fax: +7 095 9430018
e-mail: [email protected]
XIV. Appendices
UNIDO Investment Promotion Unit in Tunisia
Mr. Claudio Scaratti, Head
63, Rue de Syrie 6th floor, Tunis-Belvedere, Tunisia
Telephone: +216 71 283 923 / 216 98 652 979 [mobile]; Fax: +216 71 283 724
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Center for Regional Cooperation in Turkey
Mr. Celal Armangil
Birlik Mahallesi, 2. Cadde, No:11, 06610, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey
Tel: (+90 312) 4541078, 4541079; Fax: (+90 312) 496 14 75
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office in United Kingdom
Mr. John McFadzean, Head
Renaissance House
P.O. Box 37, Centre Park
Warrington Cheshire WA1 1XB, United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 1925 400224; Fax: +44 1925 400405
e-mail: [email protected]
UNIDO Investment Promotion Unit in Uganda
Mr. Andrea Negri, OIC
c/o Uganda Investment Authority
The Investment Centre
Plot 28, Kampala Road
P.O. Box 7418, Kampala
Telephone: +256 41 251561/-5; 244733; Fax: +256 41 342903
e-mail: [email protected]
InterTec Ltd. Austria
Brahmsplatz 8/3
A-1040 Vienna, Austria
Telephone: +431 5044091; Fax: +431 5044094
General Information: [email protected]
The International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Italy
Dott. Decio Ripandelli, ICGEB – Area di Ricerca, Padriciano 99
34012 Trieste – Italia
Telephone: +39 040 3757345; Fax: +39 040 3757363
e-mail: [email protected]
National Technology Transfer Centre – Kyiv (TTC) in Ukraina
Kyiv 03150, a/я 52, Ukraine
Telephone/fax: +044 – 2276502
e-mail: [email protected]
National Technology Transfer Centre (NCTT) in Republic of Belarus
k.106, Akaдемическая 1,
220072 Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Telephone/fax: +375 17 2841499
e-mail: [email protected]
How to Do Business in Poland
The International Centre for Application of Solar Energy (CASE) in Australia
Mr. Gordon Thompson, Managing Director
220 St. Georges Terrace
Perth, Western Australia 6000
Telephone: +618 93217600; Fax: +618 93217497
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Materials Assessment and Application Centre (IMAAC) in Austria
Mr. Vladimir Kozharnovich, Programme Manager
Quality, Technology and Investment Branch
Investment Promotion & Institutional Capacity-Building Division
Vienna International Centre
P.O.Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
Telephone: +431 26026 3720/3702; Fax: +431 26026 6809
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Centre for Advancement of Manufacturing Technology in India
Mr. Vinod Kumar Yadav, Project Director
Core 5A, Ist Floor, BMTPC Office
India Habitat Centre. Lodi Road
New Delhi – 110003 India
Telephone: +91 80 24647083; Fax: +91 80 24647082
e-mail: [email protected] , [email protected]
The International Centre for Science and High Technology in Italy
Mr. Francesco Pizzio, Managing Director
AREA Science Park, Padriciano 99
34012 Trieste, Italy
Telephone: +39 040 9228101; Fax: +39 040 9228101
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Centre for Small Hydro Power (ICSHP) in China
Prof. Tong Jiandong, Director
P.O.Box 202, 136 Nanshan Road
Hangzhou 310002, People’s Republic of China
Telephone: +86 571 87023380; Fax: +86 571 87023353
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Centre for Materials Technology Promotion (ICM) in China
Prof. Yan Yao (Ms)
President China Building Materials Academy
Guanzhuang, Chaoyang District
Beijing 100024, People’s Republic of China
Telephone: +86 10 65750105, 65761325
Fax: +86 10 65762976
e-mail: [email protected]
The International Centre of Medicine Biotechnology (ICMB) in Russian Federation
Mr. Nikolay Durmanov, International Coordinator
Ulitsa Kuusinena 21B
125252 Moscow, Russian Federation
Telephone: +7 095 2010051; Fax: +7 095 7254636
e-mail: [email protected]