how to save mobility forum Gridlock in large cities

the man group magazine 03/2013
Gridlock in large cities
how to save
solutions for the urban world of tomorrow
discover more of
in a digital dossier on your ipad
section 1
man at work
the man group magazine 03/2013
04 gentlemen, start your engines
Comfortable and safe: how the driver’s station functions
in a NEOPLAN Starliner
urban mobility
strategies for city traffic
Six-lane highways or car-free city centers? Intelligent
high-speed bus networks or underground train systems?
Parking lots or cycle lanes? Urban planners in cities all
around the world are developing a diverse range of ideas
06 where we are now
Gridlock in large cities
how to save
A museum ship in Hamburg, a mobile school truck
in Vietnam and a glamorous boat show in Miami:
the face of MAN
solutions for the urban world of tomorrow
12 news
and approaches to try and keep pace with the rising
numbers of people moving around our cities. In
News from the world of MAN
association with the Technical University in Munich,
MAN recently produced the study “What Cities Want,”
section 2
man think tank
which looked at 15 cities around the world in order to find
the transport solutions of the future. The current issue of
MAN Forum has taken this study as an opportunity to
devote 24 pages to stories on the topic of future urban
away from the Chaos
22 moving the masses How 15 cities are shaping the mobility of the future:
a study from MAN and the Technical University in Munich 27 Bus on the
horizon Correspondent Titus Kroder reports on the bus information system in
London 28 the trailblazers Three mayors on transport strategies 29 Short
cuts through Chaos How Bus Rapid Transit Systems keep urban traffic flowing
30 fifteen cities, three solutions Mobility portraits of Copenhagen, L.A. and
Melbourne 33 Individual expectations What companies can learn from the
“What Cities Want” study 34 cities are forever in flux Gebhard Wulfhorst,
Professor of transport planning, on factors that impact urban mobility 35 the
perfect connection Spectacular bridges 38 Mobile 2.0 Six ideas that could move
us in the future 39 tales told by the city Columnist Manuel Andrack on whimsical experiences in buses and trains
mobility solutions. This dossier is also available as an app
for the iPad and offers a wide range of extras, with dynamic illustrations, multimedia content and interaction with
you, our readers. Available now in your app store.
How to access
your dossier:
Scan the QR Code and
download the app.
section 3
man projects
40 in the heart of fjord and furnace
A smelting plant north of the Arctic Circle runs the largest
steam turbine in Norway
46 over rough country
The new TG construction vehicles with Euro VI engines
demonstrate MAN’s 75-year all-wheel drive competence
MANFORUM 03/2013
publisher Burda Creative Group GmbH,
Arabellastraße 23, 81925 Munich, Germany
Tel.: +49. 89. 30620-1320, Fax: +49. 89. 30620-1501
editors & authors Klaus-Peter Hilger (resp.),
Vanessa Plodeck (dep.), Andrea Ackermann, Manuel
Andrack, Katharina Becker, Miriam Blum, Christoph
Hus, Titus Kroder, Barbara Rott, Marcus Schick
international editors Patricia Preston (resp.),
Asa C. Tomash, Harry Waterstone
MANAgiNg editor Bojana Milankovic
concept Stefan Lemle, A new kind
Art direCtor Michael Weies, A new kind
Creative Director Michelle Otto
graphics Micheline Pollach
graphics editors Elke Latinovic,
Doreen Enders, Ann-Kathrin Müller
cover image Eduardo Martino/panos pictures
productioN Wolfram Götz (resp.),
Simone Bindernagel, Cornelia Sauer
printing Pinsker Druck und Medien GmbH,
84048 Mainburg, Germany
Printed on Galaxi Supermat
reproduction permitted with reference.
Any changes must be coordinated with the
Copyright ©2013 MAN SE
and Burda Creative Group GmbH
50 powering up a continent
Photo: APPLE INC. Pr
MAN Forum – the MAN Group magazine is
published four times a year in German and English.
published by MAN SE
Andreas Lampersbach, Corporate Communications,
Ungererstraße 69, 80805 Munich, Germany
editors in chief Florian Wöst (resp.)
Ute Hofmann, Claudia Weber
Tel.: +49. 89. 36098-384, Fax: +49. 89. 36098-382,
E-Mail: [email protected]
More than half of Africa’s population lives without
electricity. Decentralized power stations can help.
54 size matters
Gigantic two-stroke engines
02 Masthead
03 Content
03/2013 MANFORUM
at work
gentlemen, start
your engines
the Neoplan Starliner offers bus drivers
a truly high-class work station: The cockpit comes
equipped with a sophisticated combination of
intelligent systems, which render the journey
even more safe and comfortable.
01 Multi-function
wheel (mfl)
04 Infotainment
Head unit
Drivers can operate
The MAN Media
telephone and vehi-
Coach Advanced
cle menus via the
radio features a nav-
push buttons on the
igation system with
left without remov-
bus-specific map
ing hands from the
material as well as a
steering wheel.
Bluetooth interface
Driving speed and
with speakerphone
the distance-regu-
function accommo-
lated Tempomat ACC
dating up to five
are controlled on
the right.
separate mobile
phones for alternat-
ing drivers.
02 Assistance
05 air
With these controls,
the driver can acti-
This operating ele-
vate assistance sys-
ment comprises all
tems, such as the
Lane Guard System
and the Comfort
for either the driv-
Drive Suspension
er’s or passengers’
areas—as well as for
air distribution and
03 Digital
This tachograph
rapid defrosting of
the front window.
06 doors
stores the mandato-
These two push but-
ry records of driver
tons serve to open
and operating data
and then close again
on chip cards and on
both swinging doors
the hard drive. From
to the front and rear
there, data can be
of the vehicle. Open-
either printed out or
ing the doors is not
read electronically.
possible unless
vehicle speed falls
Photo: MAN
below three kilome-
MANFORUM 03/2013
ters per hour.
03/2013 MANFORUM
at work
Salvaging a landmark
Kicking off the installation of new
cylinder liners aboard the Cap San
Diego in February of this year required a colossal floating crane and
much teamwork. For two weeks,
MAN trainees worked side by side
with the experienced crew to ensure
the preservation of the general cargo
vessel that dates back to 1962. As the
world’s largest seagoing museum
ship’s engine with its 11,650 hp needed certain units to keep running,
MAN had donated three cylinder liners with a weight of two tons each
and an overall value of €90,000.
“The Cap San Diego offers its visitors
a time-travel experience back into seafaring history,” says Tilman
Greiner, Head of MAN Diesel &
Turbo Services in Hamburg. “We are
pleased to contribute to the preservation of this historic and cultural
landmark.” The successful salvage
operation enabled the ship to meet
Photos: Andreas Vallbracht/ MAN (3); Cap San Diego PR
the date of the annual parade held in
mid-May to celebrate the anniversary of Hamburg’s harbor.
MANFORUM 03/2013
03/2013 MANFORUM
at work
we are
Education on wheels
Paying full attention, 30 schoolchildren are gazing at their computer
screens. A young teacher patiently
explains every step of the process to
the children. The kids are all wearing
school uniforms—only a much closer look reveals that some of them
have come barefoot and that this
classroom is actually not a classroom at all. In reality, this structure
is a converted sea container, set up
by the Swiss Dariu Foundation for
12 weeks at a time as an IT teaching
facility in the rural regions of the
country. Trucks are needed to transport the container from one location
to the next. “MAN decided to donate
a pre-owned truck, as our product
could support a continuously successful educational project,” says
Yvonne Benkert, Head of Corporate
Photos: Dariu Foundation(2),gettyimages
Responsibility at MAN.
MANFORUM 03/2013
03/2013 MANFORUM
at work
United States
Beaming down on Miami Beach, sun
rays are reflected by the waters lapping at the labyrinth of landing stages. At the Yacht and Brokerage Show,
white yachts of all sizes seem to compete in brilliance and brightness.
Covering an area of almost a mile,
this boat show takes place annually
on the Intercoastal Waterway and
once again drew numerous visitors
to Miami Beach in February to view
more than 3,000 boats shown by the
2,000 international exhibitors. Also
among these presenters was MAN
Engines & Components, the engine
division of MAN Truck & Bus. In
the newly designed floating exhibition area, the team members from
Florida and Germany introduced
two impressive powerhouses: the
V8-1200 and the V12-1800 diesel engines. Julia Milbert, responsible for
Marketing & Communications at
MAN Engines & Components, was
very satisfied with the outcome:
“This year’s show was another outstanding success story. Our exhibit
not only delighted our customers,
but also attracted quite a few inter-
Photo: Forest Johnson
ested prospects.”
MANFORUM 03/2013
03/2013 MANFORUM
at work
ON the wAy
FiRed Up FOR the jOb
When Thomas Feckl (45), a fireman at the
Munich airport, is called to attend a
situation, it is an urgent matter:
Within merely 30 seconds, he and
his colleagues must leave the
building in their stand-by vehiwAteRpROOF
individual compressor systems facilitate gas
production even on the ocean floor.
cles and reach the point of action.
Feckl has been with the fire brigade of Munich’s airport for almost
25 years and has also served as an instructor for driving airport fire engines since 1999. “As every vehi-
Underwater technology
Framework agreements with statoil
cle has its idiosyncrasies, they must become a familiarity to ensure
that everyone knows what to do in an emergency,” he explains. No
The Norwegian energy company Statoil and MAN Diesel &
one may drive any of the trucks without prior briefing. Over the
Turbo Schweiz AG have signed framework agreements for
past four years, almost the entire fleet was replaced. Nowadays, a
the delivery of turbomachinery, along with maintenance
total of seven new fire engines are parked in the fire brigade build-
contracts for the next five years. MAN and Statoil have
ing team and all of them—including the one remaining model of
been working on a qualification program for underwater
the old fleet—are based on MAN frames. One of the larger calibers
compression since 2005. In 2011, this cooperation resulted
features a 1,000-hp MAN SX 43.1000 8x8 chassis and can reach
in an order for the construction of the world’s first under-
speeds of 143 kilometers per hour. Quite
the teAM cOAch
this tiMe: bORUssiA MöNcheNglAdbAch
water compressors for gas production on the sea floor.
a performance, considering that the vewide and almost four meters tall and
weighs in at an impressive 43 tons. With
its extinguishing agent mix of 12,500 li-
eFFicieNt & RObUst
man motorizes railcars of
the Vlt mobile 4 class.
ters of water and 1,500 liters of foam, it is
designed to also handle bigger emergencies. Fortunately, there has not been a
major incident since the airport was
opened in 1992. “According to statistics,
such accidents occur every 30 years,”
says Feckl. “I still have 15 years until retirement and sincerely hope that noth-
rail engines
Voith orders railcar engines
ing happens before then.”
The drive system manufacturer has ordered 68 serial sixthOMAs Feckl is a fireman and driving instructor for airfield fire engines at the munich
airport. in an emergency, he will navigate the
man sX 43.1000 8x8 with 1,000 hp and 43 tons
to any hot spot in just 30 seconds.
cylinder engines from MAN, which will be installed in light
compact railcars made by the Brazil-based Bom Sinal train
company. With a length of almost 60 meters, the trains are
used in mass transit servicing the metro areas of Fortaleza
and Recife and can transport more than 770 passengers.
MANFORUM 03/2013
Photos: Alexander Ludwig (3), Øyvind Hagen/Statoil pr, VLT Mobil pr, MAN
hicle is 12 meters long, three meters
borussia aboard
01 Rolf Hülswitt
Equipment manager
13 Mike Hanke
25 Janis Blaswich
02 Lucien Favre
Head coach
14 Dirk Müller
26 Alexander Ring
03 Frank Geideck
15 Adam Szordykowski
27 Granit Xhaka
04 Manfred Stefes
16 Filip Daems
28 Amin Younes
05 Uwe Kamps
Goalkeeping coach
17 Luuk de Jong
29 Branimir Hrgota
06 Christofer Heimeroth
18 Lukas Rupp
30 Tony Jantschke
and weighing in at 24.9 tons,
07 Oscar Wendt
19 Julian Korb
31 Peniel Mlapa
ous interior and the entire
08 Marc-André ter Stegen
20 Juan Arango
32 Tolga Cigerci
MAN buses are state of the art
In March 2013, Germany’s
Borussia Mönchengladbach
soccer team received its new
“Linie 1900” team coach: The
MAN Lion’s Coach L boasts an
impressive 480-hp engine.
With a length of 13.8 meters
the vehicle features a luxurirange of safety systems. “These
and offer our players an opti-
09 Roel Brouwers
21 Álvaro Domínguez
10 Martin Stranzl
22 Andreas Bluhm
11 Havard Nordtveit
23 Christian Weigl
Athletics trainer
12 Thorben Marx
24 Niklas Dams
33 Patrick Herrmann
Marcus Breuer
Bus driver
mum in preparation before the
game and proper regeneration
thereafter,” comments a very
pleased Lucien Favre, head
coach of the Gladbach team.
03/2013 MANFORUM
at work
Coal-to-liquid mega project
Favorable facts
Production of synthetic fuels in China
2012 CR Report
powerful sun catcher
“Shams 1” comprises about 258,000 mirrors mounted
on 768 parabolic collectors, which are tracking the sun.
green electricity
Steam turbine in the largest solar thermal power station
MAN is supplying 11 turbomachinery sets for a Coal-to-Liquid plant in Yinchuan,
The stated objective of
China. Integrated in the machinery trains, the MAX1 axial compressor (image on
acting responsibly as a
the left) allows for the production of synthetic fuels from widely available coal
company on a global
resources. The applied chemical process requires large quantities of oxygen. To
scale is further pur-
this end, the turbomachines will generate about 40,000 tons of oxygen every
sued by MAN on the
day from ambient air.
basis of a strategy specially developed for its
Corporate Responsibility department. Published annually, the CR Report
MAN engines for power
supply in Lebanon
presents these successful results, among others:
In 2012, this encompassed inclusion in the Dow
Aptly named Shams 1, the Arabic word for sun, a 100-megawatt power plant has
Jones Sustainability Indexes (DJSI), the reduction
gone into operation in Abu Dhabi. The heart of the system is a steam turbine sup-
of CO2 emissions by five percent and further devel-
MAN Diesel & Turbo will deliver a total
plied by MAN Diesel & Turbo. Built in Oberhausen, Germany, the customized ma-
opment of efficient technology to curtail fuel
of 14 engines of the 18V48/60 model
chine weighs 220 tons and is the largest MAN steam turbine ever manufactured for
consumption. The current 2012 CR Report is avail-
to Lebanon’s state power company
a solar thermal power station. Shams 1 occupies an area of 2.5 square kilometers,
able online at under the tab
Electricité du Liban for two new power
and will save 175,000 tons of carbon dioxide every year.
named “Responsibility.”
stations. These will be constructed in
Of all the electricity produced worldwide, 85 percent is generated by steam turbines. As many of these units are gigantic
and weigh well over 100 tons, one might expect that turbines
would emit noise volumes comparable to that of a jet plane.
Surprisingly, they are comparatively quiet, however. At
around 85 decibels, they resemble trucks in terms of loudness
and can run without any further noise abatement measures.
Still, those working in the vicinity of a turbine on a regular
basis or for longer periods of time should wear ear protectors.
When a steam turbine also runs at night near a residential
area, it is encased by a walk-in sound protection hood composed of plastic and aluminum elements. This structure
looks like a modern garage and reduces the noise emissions.
MANFORUM 03/2013
the region of Zouk and Jiyeh near the
capital Beirut. Other than the engines,
the order also comprises retrofitting
kits for gas operation: as soon as the
infrastructure for gas has been set up
in the region, the engines will be configured for dual-fuel operation, which
enables them to run either on liquid
fuels or on gas fuels. With a total output of 272 megawatts, the new
Lion’s city hybrid
15 urban buses for Paris
Quiet and CO2-efficient
power plants will contribute to the
Photos: shams power pr, MAN(2)
Question and answer
How noisy is a steam
fit for the future
The Paris transport association RATP
has opted for MAN municipal buses
with a hybrid drive.
provision of reliable power supply
Paris has undertaken to reduce exhaust emissions and traffic noise. In
in the region. “The Zouk and Jiyeh
ordering 15 MAN Lion’s City Hybrid buses, the Paris transport associa-
power plants serve as an important
tion RATP (Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens) has opted for
reference for us in the Middle East,”
what is currently the most CO2-efficient and technologically advanced
says René Umlauft, CEO of MAN Diesel
municipal bus built by MAN. The bus stores the energy generated by
& Turbo. “As Lebanon experiences
braking in so-called ultracaps and thus derives the driving power for
a big demand to expand its energy
its two electrical engines. When stationary at bus stops, the hybrid city
production, the country is a very in-
bus runs emission-free and can start exceptionally quietly in electrical
teresting partner for our Power Plants
mode. The low-floor bus with a serial hybrid drive saves up to 30 per-
division.” The two power stations will
cent of fuel and thereby related CO2 emissions when compared to a
be turned over in 2014.
similar urban bus with diesel drive.
03/2013 MANFORUM
think tank
away from
the Chaos
Innovative traffic
For the Mobility in
urban areas
How large cities shape the mobility of
the future and which challenges they
face: a study conducted by MAN and
the Technical University Munich.
MANFORUM 03/2013
Bus Rapid Transit (or BRT) is more
than just a separate bus lane: A local
short-range transport concept keeps
traffic flowing in large cities.
Traffic planner Gebhard Wulfhorst
has identified 29 variables that have
an impact on the mobility in urban
areas. From safety to car ownership.
Columnist Manuel Andrack
enjoys eavesdropping on the
telephone calls of perfect
strangers in buses and trams.
03/2013 MANFORUM
Dongtai Road, shanghai
when nothing moves
forward …
Photo: gettyimages
Shanghai streets are clogging up: Due to the booming economy of
the metropolis, traffic volumes have exploded in the last two decades.
in order To safeguard mobility, shanghai’s administration seeks
unconventional solutions.
MANFORUM 03/2013
03/2013 MANFORUM
Pudong District, Shanghai
… it takes turning
a corner
Photo: Viktor Lakics
traffic flows freely in the dynamic business district Pudong—and without
any lights. widely accessible, the circular Lujiazui Pedestrian Bridge leads
over the heavily trafficked main intersection and also connects
office buildings, shopping centers, CafÉs, bus stops and subway stations.
MANFORUM 03/2013
03/2013 MANFORUM
More information in
your MANforum app
think tank
an ever increasing number of people is
BEING drawn to The CITIES of the world. this
dynamic growth presents a challenge to
traffic experts and urban planners.
pon arriving
in the port city of beirut by
land, the first thing one notices is the
thick cloud of smog that blankets the
Lebanese capital. This haze hangs in
the narrow streets between high-rise
Part i
the problem
Practically every
booming megacity
has to struggle with
the same mobility
problems, as rapid
population growth
results in a steadily
growing volume of
traffic. Congestion
not only makes life
difficult for the local
population, it also
represents an
obstacle for
Local public transport
Short-range transit is underdeveloped.
Connection interfaces between
different systems
are poor.
Motorized personal transport
Cars and motorcycles dominate in
the inner city. This results in
congestion and pollution.
buildings, blocking the view of the
Levant coastline, and it almost never
clears. Hardly surprising, as the deafthe clock in this city of half a million
residents. Beirut is one of the world’s
oldest settlements, but its traffic infra-
Illustration: Helen Gruber
ening roar of traffic fills the air round
Non-motorized personal transport
Due to a lack of cycle lanes,
conditions are unfavorable for
cyclists and pedestrians.
structure is patchy: local public transport is limited to a few bus lines and is
MANFORUM 03/2013
03/2013 MANFORUM
think tank
Park-and-Ride stations
ensure good connections
with suburban areas.
Illustration: Helen Gruber
Designated bus lanes
accelerate the flow of local
public transport.
MANFORUM 03/2013
the few buses that run are constantly
as the issues concerning almost every
delayed by heavy commuter traffic.
metropolis in the world (see infograph-
Taxi-shares and minibuses pick up
ic, page 22). High population growth
some of the slack, but pedestrians and
and with it a steady increase in traffic
cyclists hardly dare venture onto the
volume. Traffic chaos and congestion,
congested streets. There is no passen-
which make life difficult for local resi-
ger light rail network, and ferry servic-
dents and businesses. High levels of
es are sporadic. Given all this, Rachid
toxic pollution. Shrinking room for
Percent %
Achkar’s vision may seem a trifle ambi-
public areas, open spaces and parks.
tious: “We want to give the city back to
Urban development leading to urban
pedestrians,” says the Head of the
sprawl. Citizen mobility habits that are
Municipal Transport Committee. In
highly resistant to change. Criticism of
truth, Beirut is probably the worst-case
unreliable local public transport ser-
scenario for urban transport planners,
vices and lack of safety for pedestrians
as the city presents a number of unique
and cyclists. Lack of public funding for
And yet, however different these cities
challenges. Right up to the seventies it
new development projects.
might be, the study shows that they
The ratio of urban
population will rise
sharply by 2050.
In North America,
almost 90 percent
of people will be
living in cities.
largest city featured in the survey,
while Beirut is the smallest with half a
million residents. European cities such
as Munich, Lyon and London grow by
half a percent or less per year. The milsuch as São Paulo and Ahmedabad, on
the other hand, increase by two to
three percent annually. Melbourne has
a population density of just 530 residents per square kilometer, while in
Beirut the same area has to accommodate more than 20,000 people.
lions-strong population of megacities
Similar mechanisms
was considered the cultural heart of
So how do cities approach these
the region, a modern and lively “Paris
challenges? What are transport strate-
of the Middle East,” before 16 years of
gists doing to shape urban mobility in
civil war split the city into a Muslim
the future? MAN and researchers at the
west and a Christian east. The war de-
Technical University in Munich joined
stroyed public spaces and infrastruc-
forces to investigate these questions in
ture and some urban districts became
their study “What Cities Want.” “The
isolated, almost autonomous islands.
same issues are being discussed every-
Since then, reconstruction has been
where: How does a city cope with the
sabotaged by repeated outbreaks of
constant increase in personal car use?
conflict, with infrastructure being de-
Which methods could be employed to
molished time and again. Inadequate
reduce traffic jams and thus environ-
funding and insufficient or non-exis-
mental pollution?” explains Kirsten
economic ties between the city and its
tent political structures have further
Broecheler of MAN Public Affairs, who
suburban surrounds, the economic,
hampered development. At the same
coordinated the research project. The
cultural and social development of the
time, the city is growing dramatically,
study concluded that the strategies,
with population figures rising by about
driving factors and obstacles in urban
trative structure as well as the compe-
eight percent every year. The only plac-
transport and mobility planning show
tence of the municipal government. In
es in the world with a higher growth
striking similarities across the board.
order to shape the mobility of the
rate than Beirut are some boom towns
Fifteen cities took part in this study,
future, one must first analyze the ge-
in China.
namely Ahmedabad, Beirut, Bogotá,
neric codes of cities.
Identical problems
are all linked by a common “generic
code” of urban mobility (see Interview,
page 34), namely a combination of
shared mechanisms and mobility
able, such as the structure of urban
and traffic volume. Others are linked
in such close, complex and dynamic
modules. Some factors are manageconstruction, traffic infrastructure
Rail transport
Trams and underground
trains increase
port planners are essentially the same
Cyclists and pedestrians
are both faster thanks
to dedicated cycle
challenges confronting Beirut’s trans-
and unreliable. And it’s no wonder, as
Mobile schedule
Timetables and other
information accessible on
smart phones.
23 million inhabitants, Shanghai is the
generally considered uncomfortable
Part II
The solution
All over the world,
traffic planners are
using similar
approaches to make
inner cities attractive
residential areas
once again. The
most important
factor in this
regeneration is
generally an efficient
and well-connected
local public transport
interrelationships that their impact on
the overall system can scarcely be controlled. These include the social and
population, the political and adminis-
Copenhagen, Johannesburg, Istanbul,
And time is of the essence. Cur-
London, Los Angeles, Lyon, Melbourne,
rently, half the world’s population live
With its out-of-date transport infra-
Munich, St. Petersburg, São Paulo,
structure and history of civil war, the
Shanghai and Singapore. At first
city of Beirut may seem a tragic but
glance, there seems to be little correla-
isolated case. However, the central
tion between these cities: With about
OceaAmerica & North
Caribbean America nia
Source: United Nations,
World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision, 2012
in cities. By the year 2050, this ratio
will climb to more than two-thirds:
6.3 billion people will spend their lives
in an urban environment. Due to this
03/2013 MANFORUM
MORe iMAges in
your manforum app
think tank
trend towards urbanization, metropol-
transport network—is typically the ex-
itan areas are increasingly competing
pansion of a low-emission, efficient
with one another. They must attract
and intelligently controlled network of
ever more people and companies in or-
buses. Numerous cities have already
der to become true “global cities,” that
chosen Bus Rapid Transit (or BRT) sys-
is, international hubs of economic and
tems, which accelerate bus services
cultural life.
through measures including favorable
public transport is key
the first step
in the battle with
congestion is an
efficient bus network. in the next five
years, sales on the
global bus market
will rise from €58
billion to €85 billion.
traffic light sequences and designated
bus lanes. While rail-based transport
Modern mobility solutions are an im-
systems like trams and underground
portant approach for cities to remain
trains greatly improve urban mobility,
competitive in this urban contest. The
they also require costly investment and
targets and strategies set by the trans-
vast construction projects.
reaching far beyond the needs of
server every 30 seconds,” explains TfL expert Simon Reed.
their own city. Big-city emissions play
These massive volumes of data are filtered by the system
a considerable role in overall climate
and made available to passengers as timetable information
change, for example.
within seconds. Departure times are indicated on the TfL
website, and can be accessed via a smartphone app or
moving ahead
viewed on the LED displays at bus stop shelters. Minute-to-
As the importance of international
minute departure times are now available for the next bus
megacities for industry and residents
from any stop, anywhere in the city.
continues to increase, local problems
And so in the daily routine of London life, the home of-
will likely turn into global challenges.
fice or kitchen has increasingly become a waiting room.
Many metropolitan areas are already
From my flat in East London’s Hackney district, I catch the
formulating ambitious goals for sus-
149 bus every morning to get to work in the City. A quick
tainable development, ranging as far
look at tells me that a bus will be leaving
as “green” mobility. The envelope is be-
from my Princess May Road stop in 13 minutes. Based on
port planners are also astonishingly
Establishing a safe and comfort-
similar, as indicated by the study (see
able infrastructure for pedestrians
ing pushed by cities where an effective
experience, it takes me around four minutes to reach the
infographic, page 24). For all cities, de-
and cyclists is only possible once more
administration is working together
bus stop, which leaves me nine minutes before I have to
velopment of a local public transport
people switch over to public transport.
with local industry and citizens to im-
system is the top priority. This applies
Then a complete model can be estab-
plement and further develop its strat-
not only to metro areas with marked
lished, building park-and-ride stations
urban sprawl and a low population
and linking the mix of transport
massive structural legacy from the
density, such as Melbourne, Istanbul
modes using smart solutions such as
past, such as Beirut, are not con-
and Johannesburg, but also to high-
telematically controlled information
density but fragmented Beirut, to Lyon
displays and public transport network
with its endless traffic jams, the island
management systems. Once the most
Want” highlights which adjustments
state of Singapore and the commuter
urgent mobility issues have been re-
municipal and transport planners can
city of Munich. A first step—and the
solved, it will then be possible for plan-
make to ensure that traffic flow con-
Last winter, London’s streets were covered with snow and
foundation for any modern public
ners to devote themselves to problems
tinues to move in the future.
slush for days, which caused mayhem in a bus network that
Source: SCI Verkehr /
ÖPNV aktuell, 2013
bn of
bUs ON The
egies. Yet even cities burdened by a
demned to remain forever in their sta-
profile in short
los angeles united states
Jamal Jabari, 34
A cab driver, Jamal has worked in Los Angeles for more than a decade.
You need to know a
bus in my entire life.
manforum 03/2013
No, I’ve actually never taken a
register the most system hits in poor weather conditions.”
This is understandable, since waiting for the bus in London
is particularly unpleasant in miserable outdoor conditions.
handles 6.4 million trips daily. “The demand for departure
times reached record heights,” says Reed.
a bus. People will tell you that you wait an hour
the new system has been up and running for only a year, but
for one of the famous red double deckers, and
is already known to half the population of London. Around
then three come along at once, bumper to bum-
800,000 passengers use it every day, and in light of this suc-
per. This is an experience shared every day at the nearly
cess story, TfL already has plans for further expansion. The
20,000 bus stops between Westminster, Walthamstow and
next step will be to install display screens in locations such
transport authority that serves this metropolis of tens of
Photos: Prisma/Lluís Real
Do you use public transport yourself?
Photo: Richard L. Duncan Sr
love their cars, after all.
senger numbers,” reports Reed. “Interestingly enough, we
Transmitting data on 5,000 departure times per second,
Over the past year, Transport for London (TfL), the local
Absolutely. It has a lot
can’t arrive by bus—people will think that you’re poor. Americans do
TfL has invested some €23.4 million in the system.
“Since its introduction, we have noticed an increase in pas-
of London aptly reflects the agony of waiting for
or far too few,” as the locals like to complain.
good sense of humor. I’m happy when I can make my passengers laugh.
to do with social status here. If you have an appointment or a date, you
the number 149 opens its doors for me.
Ne jOKe i heAR qUiTe OFTeN on the streets
Walworth. “There are either way too many buses in London
lot of shortcuts, be patient because of all the traffic jams and have a
Is there a lot of demand for taxis in America?
shave. Precisely 13 minutes later, I arrive at the bus stop and
London correspondent titUs Kroder Has
been investigating tHe bUs passenger
information system in britain’s capitaL.
tus quo. MAN’s study “What Cities
What qualities does a good cab driver require?
leave. Plenty of time for a cup of coffee, two e-mails and a
millions, has been trying to make that joke a thing of the
past, and has done so with success: software provided
as hospitals and government offices, offering visitors and
works in London
as a business
journalist. He has
lived in the UK
capital for 13 years.
staff the opportunity to make better use of their time.
And because of the clear positioning data on its vehicle
fleet, what is probably Europe’s largest urban transport network can now give clear answers if there happen to be too
many buses piled up, bumper to bumper, that go missing
by the Berlin-based company IVU.realtime now enables
elsewhere. “I’m in the 424 on Graham Road. Huge backup
Londoners to check bus arrival times around the clock and
of buses. What’s up?” a woman recently twittered to TfL.
anywhere in the city. “We have equipped 8,500 buses with
“Hello, sorry about that! Road works in Balls Pond Road are
mini-transmitters that radio their location to a central
to blame,” TfL tweeted right back.
03/2013 MANFORUM
MoRe iMaGes in
your manforum app
MANFORUM 03/2013
Kadir Topbaş
the mayor of istanbul
(68) has occupied his
position since 2004.
a member of the
Justice and development party, he has
resided in istanbul
since 1945.
ChRistiAN Ude
at age 65, ude has
been senior mayor of
munich for the past
two decades. prior to
his election, he
worked as a newspaper editor and attorney in munich.
a founding member
of the socialist party,
collomb was born in
1947 in chalonsur-saône and has
been serving lyon in
his position as mayor
since 2001.
shoRt cuts
thRouGh chaos
FRom BogoTá To São Paulo: eSPeCIally
In emeRgIng CounTRIeS, CITIeS dePloy exPReSS
BuS SySTemS To FIghT Road CongeSTIon.
WhAt ARe the ChAlleNGes FOR tRAFFiC plANNiNG iN yOUR City?
every day, roughly 1.1 million people traverse istanbul. traffic flows are continuously
growing heavier, there are 700 new registrations daily, and roads are congested. surface
and underground trains, the bus system and
cable railways are not yet sufficiently linked to
allow for speedy progress.
while the share of personal vehicles in city
traffic is still comparatively low, the main roads
still are often overloaded. during commuting
times, capacities are also frequently exceeded
in underground and surface trains. the cycle
path network must be expanded to actually justify the claim of being germany’s biking capital.
despite massive investments in local public
transportation, the residents of lyon still utilize
their cars for every second trip—which in turn
results in large traffic jams. in addition, the
budget for further infrastructure expansion is
already tight. it is becoming increasingly challenging to find the necessary funds.
WhiCh pRiORities ANd GOAls ARe pARt OF the URbAN tRAFFiC-plANNiNG AGeNdA?
the traffic master plan entails a stronger
expansion of rail network and roads until 2023.
among the top priorities are an improved range
in local public transport services as well as
more traffic safety. the city intends to foster
the mobility of all traffic participants and reduce travel times.
modifying busy intersections ought to increase the appeal of cycling, and the planning
process for new surface train lines and tram
routes is under way. Bus schedules will be accelerated. we also plan to convert the inner
city into a barrier-free zone, which is primarily
attractive to pedestrians.
to reduce congestion, the city plans a traffic
system that uses smartphone technology to inform about current traffic conditions in real time.
improved local public transport services should
shorten travel times and enhance the mobility of
residents. the city intends to mobilize even more
participants for its bike-sharing program.
hOW Will the City iMpROve its NetWORkiNG OF pUbliC tRANspORt iN the FUtURe?
as a railroad tunnel extending over a length
of 13 kilometers, the marmaray tunnel is designed to connect the surface train lines in the
asian and european parts of istanbul, which
had previously operated separately. it will be
finished, by late 2013. passengers should find it
easier to combine different modes of transport.
13.3 mn
new bike-and-ride spaces are planned to
facilitate the change from bicycle to trains or
buses. the city of munich intends to expand
the track network for trams and surface trains
as well as establish bus lanes and cycle paths.
large parts of the inner city are already pedestrian zones and well-served by public transport.
1.4 mn
in the future, the “optimod’lyon” project
will be linking and processing information from
the local public transport system, the traffic
control center as well as the bike-sharing program. to render the combination of transport
options even more attractive, passengers can
access the information via smartphone.
1.3 mn
facilitate quick transport of fans and spectators to the stadiums. For passengers, the two major benefits of a BRT system are comfort and speed.
From the perspective of cities, other aspects also play a
role: They pay attention to the make-up and structure of
buses. “City authorities look at factors such as passenger ca-
Illustrations: Bernd Schifferdecker, Photos: gettyimages, MAN, laif/hemis fr/B. Gardel, Paulo Fridman
the significance of traffic planning rises with
the size of cities. three mayors explain how
they guard against infrastructural chaos.
the tRAilblAzeRs
think tank
pacity and environmental footprint when it comes to BRT
system vehicles,” says Heinz Kiess, Sales Engineer at MAN
Truck & Bus. Like municipalities in Israel, for instance,
where MAN buses are already running in BRT networks.
MAN has delivered 172 articulated bus chassis with EEV en-
ack in the eaRly 1990s, chaos reigned su-
gines to Tel Aviv and Haifa. After Euro VI, the Enhanced
Environmentally Friendly Vehicle (EEV) exhaust standard is
preme on the roads of Bogotá. Roughly 850,000
the most stringent pollutant emissions guideline applicable
cars clogged the streets of Colombia’s capital ev-
to buses and trucks. Due to the low-floor design and a struc-
ery day, in addition to around 21,500 buses, oper-
ture with four double doors, passengers can board and exit
ated by private and municipal providers.
the vehicle in a particularly time-saving manner. With a
Although 70 percent of the population relied on public
length of 18.75 meters and room for up to 199 seated or
transport to get around, there was no coordination of short-
standing passengers, the buses also offer much capacity.
range transportation services. While plans for a new subway
In 2011, MAN tested an entirely new bus in Budapest, de-
had existed since the 1970s, the project had been shelved
signed to meet the requirements of passengers as well as mu-
repeatedly for lack of funding. A different solution was dire-
nicipalities. The MAN Lion’s City GL articulated bus also fea-
ly needed to get this traffic mayhem under control.
tures a low floor and five instead of four doors. Thus,
The municipal planners found an answer in the so-
passengers can get on and off quickly and comfortably. The
called Bus Rapid Transit system, or BRT. The Brazilian city of
bus is air-conditioned, LED lighting and large windows pro-
Curitiba had been the first to introduce such a system back
vide a warm and bright ambiance and there is also plenty of
in 1974. The BRT principle is that buses use separate and ded-
space. “Other than regular seating, the bus has additional
icated lanes in the middle of major roads. As the bus stops
folding seats. These can be locked from the driver’s side
are elevated from street level, passengers can board the bus
whenever there are many passengers on board to create more
without steps. The bus stations are roofed over and feature
standing room during peak periods,” explains Heinz Kiess.
glass doors that will not open unless the bus comes to a full
halt. This allows for rapid and safe passenger boarding and
dismounting. Today, Bogotá’s BRT system comprises 11 bus
lines with a total length of 87 kilometers, and represents the
highest-capacity BRT system in the world. The buses are utilized by 43,000 passengers per hour.
GRowinG tRanspoRt needs
Primarily in threshold countries, where the need for transport solutions is growing by leaps and bounds, a growing
number of major cities are introducing BRT systems. In
India’s Ahmedebad, for instance, the BRT network already
covers 85 kilometers, with further expansion in planning.
South Africa’s largest city, Johannesburg, introduced its Rea
Vaya BRT system prior to the soccer World Cup in 2010 to
Rapid and
Cheaper than rail
systems, but just as
effective: In Bus
Rapid Transit systems, such as the
one in São Paulo,
passengers can cover urban distances
in a time-saving and
very comfortable
Information about all 15 cities are
available in the MANforum app
think tank
15 cities,
three solutions
transport modes
in percent
How residents and
visitors get around
the city
(number of trips)
Motorized individual
transport 29 %
Public transport 44 %
Cycling 1 % Walking 22 %
Other 4 %
From Los Angeles on the US West coast all the way to Melbourne down under: the study
“What Cities Want” examined the mobility needs of 15 cities. Each urban area finds
a specific approach to meeting its own challenges. a portrait of Three cities.
plans to reduce its CO2 emissions by
20 percent in comparison with 2005
levels. And Copenhagen aspires to be
altogether CO2-neutral by the year 2025.
The solution: In coming years, the
significance of bicycle traffic will increase even further. The city has set a
target rate of 50 percent for commut-
transport modes
in percent
How residents and
visitors get around
the city
(number of trips)
Motorized individual
transport 27 %
Public transport 15 %
Cycling 30 % Walking 25 %
Other 3 %
ers cycling to work or their education-
al institutions. In order to make cycling even more attractive, 80 percent
of cycle paths will comprise three
lanes for each direction. Concurrent-
The challenge: As an island and city
tion policy. Urban planners are antici-
decade. The sum of €660 million
ly, plans are underway for new bridges
state, Singapore has an exceptionally
pating a 30 percent increase in road
alone has been allocated just for new
and tunnels for cyclists, a green wave
high population density. On average,
traffic by the year 2020. Existing
buses. There are also plans for road
at traffic signals, as well as long-dis-
more than 7,000 people live on each
transport systems are already reach-
expansions, as much as is feasible
square kilometer. Only one in 10 resi-
ing their capacity limits. In light of the
considering the shortage of unoccu-
to a share of 27 percent, pedestrian traf-
muters—the so-called cycling super-
dents owns a car, which renders public
limited geographical circumstances,
pied acreage. At the same time, the
cyclists. The residents of Denmark’s
fic reaches 25 percent and local public
highways. Besides expanding the
transport crucial in this city of mil-
expansion presents a challenge.
city of Singapore is looking for solu-
capital cover 30 percent of all their trips
transport 15 percent. When it comes to
cycling infrastructure, Copenhagen
by bicycle. As for commutes to work or
sustainable mobility, Copenhagen is
also aims to expand the local public
educational institutions, the figure ac-
way ahead of other cities, yet the mu-
transport network, which includes
tually rises to 36 percent—which makes
nicipal planners and transport strate-
plans for a new subway ring line. An-
bicycles the most prominent mode of
gists are not resting on their laurels and
other topic of discussion is a city toll,
transport in the metropolis. While mo-
have set their sights on ambitious tar-
designed to reduce motor traffic in
torized individual transport amounts
gets: By 2015, Denmark’s biggest city
the inner city by 20 percent.
sÃo paulo
Los Angeles
Photos: Mads Nissen/Panos Pictures, Geoffrey Clive/Prisma
tance cycling routes for regional comThe challenge: Copenhagen is a city of
lions: Citizens make 44 percent of
tions to improve traffic flow manage-
their trips via trains or by bus. In this
The solution: The planners aim to
ment, such as through a city toll
context, the most important means of
improve the existing infrastructure
based on actual traffic volume. And
transport is the subway. In coming
of local public transport. Singapore
even more restrictive registration
years, however, motorized individual
has earmarked €33 billion of invest-
policies are designed to further cur-
transport will increase dramatically—
ment funds to double the length of
tail the ownership of personal vehi-
despite the city’s restrictive registra-
the subway network in the coming
cles in the future.
More inforMation and details on the
“What cities Want” study at
think tank
transport Modes
in percent
how residents and
visitors get around
the city
(number of trips)
motorized individual
traffic 75 %
public transport 9 %
cycling 2 %
Walking 13 %
other 1 %
to better manage ever growing traffic volumes, cities are
developing new transport strategies. companies can benefit
from these ideas for future product development.
the challenge: Whereas Melbourne’s
the solution: Melbourne aspires to be-
center is characterized by a high popu-
come much less dependent on car
shanghai china
pan haixiao, 51
lation density, outlying areas of the
transport in the future. Until 2030, the
Professor of Urban Planning,
city are much less inhabited. As a re-
number of trips that its citizens make
Tongji University
sult, car traffic plays a vastly impor-
by car is targeted for a 30 percent reduc-
How does a mobility strategy
tant role in this Australian city of mil-
tion. The city intends to encourage
become a reality?
lions. In the Melbourne metropolitan
commuters to switch to local public
tutions participate in our proj-
region, residents use the car for 75 per-
transport, use bicycles or walk. This ef-
ects. The Shanghai Urban Trans-
cent of the trips they make—which is
fort means that local public transport
port Bureau coordinates the
Want” study have significant implications for MAN’s bus sec-
also due to heavy commuter traffic.
facilities must be made more attractive.
interaction between urban plan-
tor: All queried metro areas taking part in the study place a
Every day, 400,000 working people
The planners will significantly raise the
ning, the transport department,
major emphasis on local public transport when it comes to
drive from the suburbs into the city.
frequency of metropolitan rail services,
traffic police and the construc-
prospective transport strategies. “In the future, attractive
Between now and 2030, the number of
while expanding the tram network and
tion companies.
local public transport services will become a more impor-
jobs is expected to rise by 100,000,
modernizing stops. In addition, there
What are your most important
tant factor for every city,” says Jörg Willert, Head of Bus
which will result in a dramatic in-
are also plans for extending the cycling
goals for Shanghai?
Engineering at MAN Truck & Bus. For with rising appeal of
crease of commuter traffic. Outlooks
path network and the bike sharing sys-
share of public transport usage
predict a growth rate of about 50 per-
tem. Urban planning is also lining up
ought to grow from its current
cent until the year 2030. The city plans
behind these new guidelines: In the fu-
25 percent to 30 or 35 percent.
to cope with the additional traffic to
ture, new residential districts will be
How will you achieve this?
avoid a negative impact on the quality
built in such a way as to have easy ac-
Not only are there are plans for
of life in Melbourne.
cess to local public transport facilities.
a new subway line of more than
city should actually be reduced.
profile in short
of parking facilities in the inner
crucial role in this regard. The findings of the “What Cities
Yet MAN will go even further in adapting to the requirements of customers in the future. “Alternative drives are another area where we are doing a lot of work,” explains Meyer.
Along with natural gas drives, which have been part of
MAN’s product range for decades already, another alternative has been available since 2010: The Lion’s City Hybrid,
which runs on electrical power. The bus stores the energy
released by the brakes to drive the electric motors, reducing
fuel consumption by as much as 30 percent.
Furthermore, the growing number of people also places
higher demands on the capacity of municipal buses. “In the
future, we anticipate even greater demand for buses with
more standing than seating room,” says Frank Krämer, Key
Account Manager for Local Public Transport at MAN Truck &
Bus. All over the world, the vehicles need the capacity to car-
pOsitive eNviRONMeNtAl bAlANce
is an image issue—
which motivates
metro areas like
paris to opt for co 2 efficient buses, such
as the man lion’s
city hybrid. the
hybrid bus converts
braking energy into
drive power, which
is ideal for the stopand-go patterns of
urban traffic.
ry large numbers of people. “Especially in emerging nations,
municipalities focus on much room for many passengers,”
adds Krämer. That picture is a rather different one in industrial countries, as cities there focus primarily on buses with
much comfort to lure commuters into switching to buses.
Notwithstanding all their common transport planning
goals, every city has its own priorities and therefore places
different expectations on public transport means. “The product range of MAN must meet these individual preferences,”
explains Krämer. Thus, he says, the study results offer valuable insights into the expansion of different product lines.
public transport services, more people should be willing to
switch over. “As highly flexible means of transport, buses in
particular are very popular,” emphasizes Willert.
Environmental conservation and the reduction of exhaust emissions are also at the top of the municipal agenda.
“Cities need more environmentally friendly buses,” says
Olaf Meyer, Head of Bus Product Management & Strategy at
MAN Truck & Bus. “They must meet very stringent environPhoto: MAN
creates new challenges for urban areas, and mobility plays a
Photos: gettyimages, imaginechina/Zhou Junxiang
living in cities by the year 2050. Rampant population growth
Many insti-
400 kilometers, but the number
wO-thiRds of the world’s population will be
Already, municipal buses of the Lion’s City class comply
with the strictest EU exhaust standard to date, the Euro VI.
mental standards.” A positive environmental balance is also
a question of image. Cities therefore place value on buses
with low CO2 emissions.
03/2013 MANFORUM
think tank
“Cities ARe
iN FlUx”
For the study “What Cities Want,” ProFessor
Gebhard WulFhorst investiGated diFFerent
FaCtors that aFFeCt mobility in urban areas.
concept for the metropolitan areas
of this world?
There is no such thing, actually, as
every city is totally unique. When architects speak of the “genius loci,” they
are referring to the distinctive spirit of
a city, which consists of many different elements. If we remove just one of
these building blocks, the city would
no longer be the same. Therefore, we
did not set out in search of a unified
mobility blueprint that could be simply applied to just any city. Instead, we
is head of the department of urban
structure and transport Planning at the
technical university
munich. For the
study “What Cities
Want,” he and his
team worked with
15 urban and transport planners from
around the world, as
well as with experts
from different industrial sectors, to
identify variables
that act as a
“generic code” to
affect mobility
in urban areas.
and effective mechanisms, are compa-
and resort to taking the car more of-
rable. Sometimes the significance of
ten. This shows that the safety factor
single variables escapes a first impres-
does also play a major role in Munich,
sion—but they are still present in ev-
even if indirectly. Other crucial influ-
ery city and definitely are influential
ential variables would be the geo-
factors in terms of mobility.
graphical layout of the city, for in-
Can you explain that in the light of
stance, the average length of trips or
an example?
the degree of private car ownership.
How residents feel about safety is
So an optimization strategy for mo-
a very influential factor for urban
bility concepts merely requires the
mobility. This perception is one of
perfect adjustment of all those
29 variables that we have identified. If
external cornerstones?
people don’t feel safe on sidewalks or
It’s not about reaching an opti-
nents whose complex interactions
are afraid for their lives when walking
mized final status in terms of mobility.
have formative implications for urban
to the subway, they will refrain from
Cities are very complex and dynamic
mobility: the generic code of mobility,
using these services—no matter how
systems that are always in flux and
as it were.
modern, rapid and punctual the un-
constantly reinventing themselves.
And how do urban planners benefit
derground is or how nicely paved the
Thus, mobility must continue adapting
from recognizing these individual
sidewalk looks. In a city such as
to repeatedly changing requirements.
Munich, the safety of the local public
Our study not only offers suggestions
were looking for individual compo-
Just small changes in the individu-
transport network hardly seems an is-
as to which aspects the process urban
al mobility elements can trigger dy-
sue. People are more likely to discuss
planners and transport strategists
namic effects that will change the en-
congestion suffered by the heavily
should watch out for, but also shows
tire system. The study proves very
used metropolitan rail network. Yet if
that it depends on much conscious
clearly: Every city has its own and un-
Munich’s residents didn’t feel safe in
decision-making focused on details in
mistakable character, yet the single
public areas, they would no longer use
order to shape a sustainable mobility
building blocks, their relationships
this mode of transport as frequently
system for the future.
MANFORUM 03/2013
harmony of strings
The Samuel Beckett Bridge in Dublin
is dedicated to one of Ireland’s most
famous authors. Spanning the river
Liffey, this steel structure is designed
to echo the form of a harp, and so
combines two beloved symbols of
the Emerald Isle in one impressive
monument. And it has a hidden
highlight: The bridge is anchored on
a revolving concrete base and can be
study reveal the perfect mobility
Photos: Vuk Latinovic, Nieves Mares Pagán/iStockphoto
Professor Wulfhorst, does your
rotated through 90 degrees to allow
ships to pass.
the perfect
They link viTal TransporT arTeries, soar over waTer
and someTimes even appear To defy graviTy: a gallery
of ouTsTanding bridges around The world.
03/2013 MAnforUM
think tank
Giant rings
The Bhumibol Bridge crosses the vast Chao Phraya river
in Bangkok. It forms part of the planned Industrial Ring
Road, which will connect the industrial area in the
province of Samut Prakarn with the Port of Bangkok,
Presidential arches
and greatly simplify freight transport operations. Also
known to locals as The Mega Bridge, the sinuous curves
of the access roads offer an intriguing contrast to the tall
The Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge is named after the Brazilian president who instigated the construction of Brasilia in the 1950s as the
power of its gigantic cable-stayed pylons.
country’s new capital. With its spaced-out, asymmetrical steel arches, the structure links the southern districts of São Sebastião and
A bridge across time
Venice has more than 400 bridges, with four
of them alone crossing the Grand Canal, the
city’s main transport artery. One of these is
the Ponte della Costituzione, named in honor
of the 60th anniversary of the Italian
constitution. This pedestrian bridge links the
Santa Lucia rail station with the Piazzale
Roma. It symbolizes modern Venice and yet
blends in elegantly with the ancient town.
United Arab Emirates
Steel dunes
The Sheikh Zayed Bridge carries traffic in both
directions on a four-lane highway connecting Abu
Dhabi with the mainland. At its highest point, the
steel support structure towers more than 60 meters
above the water below. The flowing curves of the
arches evoke imagery of the undulating dunes in the
Arabian desert. Inaugurated in November 2010 after
eight years of construction, the bridge was designed
by British-Iraqui architect Zaha Hadid.
A work of art
In Valencia, the Monteolivete Bridge runs across the Turia river directly to the
heart of the Ciudad de las Artes y de las Ciencias, the City of Arts and Sciences.
It includes an opera house, planetarium, museum and aquarium. The architect
Santiago Calatrava designed the complex to work as a coordinated ensemble.
MANFORUM 03/2013
Photos: shutterstock, Tips-Masci/Bildagentur-online, Alamy/mauritius images content, Pixtal/mauritius images content, Franziska Richter/iStockfoto;
gettyimages, F1online, Jean-Pierre Lescourret/Corbis, Hykal Free Lance Photographic Collection
Paranoá with the original urban district of Brasilia, Plano Piloto and its central transport axis, the Eixo Monumental.
Slinky link
Like an oversized child’s toy in
brightly gleaming colors, the bridge
Slinky Springs to Fame coils over
the Rhine-Herne Canal in
Oberhausen. Locals call it the
Rehberger Bridge, after the architect
who designed it. Extending over a
length of 460 meters, it connects
the Kaisergarten park in
Oberhausen with Emscher Island,
Head above the clouds
home to the stadium of the
Gleaming DNA
Made of a mix of stainless steel and glass and
featuring LED lighting, the Helix Bridge on the
Marina Bay in Singapore comes into its own at
night, when it lights up like a giant chunk of
glowing DNA. This pedestrian bridge connects
the cultural, leisure and entertainment attractions of this city district.
Oberhausen Red and White soccer
The gigantic columns of the Millau viaduct in the
club. In keeping with the toy-
south of France soar to 343 meters above the Tarn
inspired esthetic, its elastic
valley near Montpellier. Before the €400 million
surfacing and spiral design make
cable-stayed bridge was built, traffic regularly ground
crossing this work of art a rather
to a halt here at the start of vacation season. The
bouncy and uplifting experience.
bridge was designed by architect Sir Norman Foster.
High tension
The Kurilpa Bridge in Brisbane is the largest bridge
in the world to be designed according to the
so-called tensegrity principle. The solid support
structures of this pedestrian and cyclist bridge
across the Brisbane river are linked through
tension cables, and maintain their own stability
as a result of tension and pressure.
03/2013 MANFORUM
MORe iMAges in your
manforum app
think tank
MANUel ANdRAck ReAds
Audio in your MAnforum app
MObile 2.0
tAles tOld by
the city
GrowinG cities call for creative mobility
solutions: six ideas to move us in the future,
ranGinG from innovative to quirky.
hey ARe NiMble,
ronmentally friendly and
can carry loads from 50 to
180 kilograms. Congested
roads are also not an obsta-
cle. Especially the “last mile” in citycenter deliveries is the perfect stage for
exceptionally efficient electrical cargo
PAckhORses ON
saving energy and
money, versatile
and perfectly suited
for city-center
transport due
to their maneuverability: the ibullitt
electric cargo bike
operated by the
urban-e company
in berlin.
future: In three US states, the Internet
by offering their vehicles through car-
giant has received a testing license for
sharing programs. The car sharing plat-
tured by the Urban-e transport com-
computer-controlled cars. Its vision:
form has now developed an
pany in Berlin: 30 cycles can replace up
no more accidents, and seamlessly
app that enables mobile searches for a
to 20 passenger cars – and are especial-
flowing traffic. One practical invention
suitable loan car in the vicinity even
ly cost-effective to purchase and oper-
for future infrastructures comes from
when on the road. Also interesting is
ate. The Chinese automotive company
Dutchman Erik Schlangen. His solu-
the idea developed by Australian in-
Chery also intends to deploy its inno-
tion for road damages caused by heavy
ventor Geoffrey Barnett: His cycle ca-
vative @Ant vehicle to simplify road
use is called “Self Healing Asphalt.”
ble car Shweeb would have passengers
traffic, hence making it more efficient.
When heating the steel wool incorpo-
The cars recognize one another and
A coluMn by MAnuel AndRAck
eyes, dreaming of a championship for
love and devotion, marital strife, eulo-
my Cologne kickers. Some time later, a
gies: All this holds never-ending fasci-
soft jerk wakes me from my brief slum-
nation for me, proving that life itself is
ber. While I’ve been told that taking
fiction. Oh, my, another classy insult
five-minute power naps in the car may
dripping from the lips of that gorgeous
result in unfortunate consequences—
and just very recently single-again fe-
nals the closing of doors. We depart on
provided that you are the driver—a lit-
male. Enough spying. I dig headphones
time—not always the case. And yet, we
tle snoozing is part of the tram pro-
into my ears, listening to the soothing
as public-transport veterans know that
gram. Then a sudden epiphany hits me.
sounds of the German band Tocotronic.
soar above the streets in transparent
delays are the exception rather than
This is the perfect solution for that
Sure, it’s perfectly possible to also enjoy
rated in the road surface, the asphalt
capsules, traveling at speeds of up to
the rule. Apparently, just the more spo-
problematic meeting tomorrow! Wor-
music while driving, yet never as feasi-
dock when traveling on the same route
melts and mends cracks as if by magic.
90 kilometers per hour on their way
radic passengers must forever endure
thy of Nobel Prize consideration, this
ble to observe the landscape to such an
to save time and space for other vehi-
For years, drivers have been able to
from A to B. So far, the cable car oper-
those community transport disasters
idea is immortalized on a little piece of
extensive degree. One stop before
cles. Google also has ideas for the
save money and do something green
ates only in a New Zealand leisure park.
we hear about—the “buttered side
paper. As the most brilliant insights are
Cologne Central, another tram stops
down” theory we know as Murphy’s
born aboard trams, it should not come
alongside, headed in the other direc-
Law. Utterly relaxed, I peruse the sports
as a surprise that passenger numbers
tion. I observe a couple that first ex-
section of my newspaper. It’s a Monday,
have risen steadily over the years in our
changes adoring glances, then embrac-
and the Cologne soccer team has scored
land of poets and thinkers. Rays of sun-
es tenderly and finally embarks on
a victory. Thus, I am obliged to devour
light caress the windowpanes, and I am
some serious smooching. I imagine
every line composed at the occasion of
eavesdropping on a young lady, who
that they had just met 10 minutes be-
this glorious win. It is quite fortunate
very energetically speaks into her cell
fore in that tram, with immediate in-
that I recently moved to the outskirts of
phone. If I overhear correctly, she’s cur-
fatuation sparking between them. Love
town and can therefore enjoy a full half-
rently breaking up with her boyfriend.
at first sight. Is there a more romantic
hour commuting time into the inner
Whoa, that was a bad word she just
place to meet than on a tram? In the
city. Such reading enjoyment would be
used, I hadn’t heard that one before.
company of others, yet still somewhat
out of the question if driving—scan-
Better remember it. I find it rather en-
safely ensconced under a bell jar of
ning the paper while clutching the
tertaining how fellow passengers con-
one’s own. I get off, thoroughly re-
wheel has proven rather impractical in
duct their most intimate communica-
freshed, prepared for the day. And
the past. When I am finished with the
tion on mobile phones while aboard
already pleasant anticipating the
sports section, I smile and close my
buses or trains. Solemn declarations of
ride back home.
bikes. Take the iBullitt cargo bike fea-
eRely AN
elegANt whOOsh behind me sig-
sT. PeTeRsbURg RUssiA
seRgei cheRePANOv, 38
The executive director of Inter Yacht Service operates two of St. Petersburg’s four
water taxi lines.
Why does St. Petersburg need water taxis?
The city is struggling with traf-
fic congestion. Water taxis save time. In the case of some trips, traveling on
land will take twice as long.
How many people can you carry?
We have 16 boats with 12 seats each. This
year, for the first time, we will operate four boats with 36 seats each.
Who uses water taxis?
Businesspeople, workers and also tourists—a cheaper
alternative to the expensive boat tours.
MANFORUM 03/2013
Photos: iBullitt pr, Pauline Tillmann; Hans Georg Merkel
PROFile iN shORT
NOthiNg is qUite
As eNteRtAiNiNg
as a ride on public
transport. And no
one knows this better than Manuel
Andrack, who finally
passed his driver’s
license exam at the
proud age of 45.
Risen to fame as the
sidekick and editorial manager of
German comedian
and satirist Harald
Schmidt and his
late-night show,
the journalist now
pursues his career
as a moderator and
book author.
03/2013 MANFORUM
in the middle of nowhere
The smelting plant of Finnfjord AS is in the
remote Troms Province in Norway.
Photo: Hauke Dressler
MANFORUM 03/2013
in the heart
of fjord and
Set in the far north of Norway, Finnsnes is a center for the production of
ferrosilicon—a substance used as an additive in steel production. The
Finnfjord smelting plant uses the largest steam turbine in the country.
03/2013 MANFORUM
More than 100,000 tons of ferrosilicon
are produced at the Finnfjord plant in Finnsnes
every year. Fifty years ago, annual output
was only about a tenth of that.
ll the way
north, 500 kilometers beyond
the complex is already plunged into
silicon, used in photovoltaic cells or
darkness, while the reflections of its
lights float and shimmer on the sur-
“Ferrosilicon production is an ex-
face of the fjord. Steam rises from the
tremely energy-intensive process,”
factory and hangs like a white flag
explains Geir-Henning Wintervoll,
against the pale blue of the sky. There
Managing Director of Finnfjord. Elec-
is nothing to be seen in any direction
trodes in the smelting furnaces con-
but raw, unspoiled nature.
a rich history
This is hardly the typical setting for
heavy industry, but Finnfjord’s electrical smelting plant has been producing ferrosilicon from Swedish iron-ore
since 1962. Ferrosilicon is an essential
ingredient used in steel and cast iron
production. The mixture of 75 percent
500 kilometers
north of the
Arctic Circle
lies the Finnfjord
smelting plant, in the
Norwegian province
of Troms. Its setting
right on the side of a
fjord made order logistics much simpler: the MAN steam
turbine and generator could be delivered and unloaded
directly off the ship.
duct electricity into the ore, and once
the mixture reaches 2,000 degrees Celcius, smelting and chemical reactions
begin. The ferrosilicon formed in this
process is allowed to cool before being
broken down into manageable pieces
with a blueish, shimmering surface.
These can then be conveniently
shipped from Finnfjord directly to the
production facilities of their customers
in the steel and chemical industries.
the Arctic Circle, you know you’re in a
quartzite (SiO2) and 25 percent iron
different world. In November, twilight
ore (Fe2O3) gives steel its characteris-
“More than 50 years ago, Finnfjord
starts in Finnsnes just after midday,
tic qualities: it is hard, durable and
had a workforce of 132 and produced
while in June the sun still hasn’t set by
heat and corrosion resistant. It can
12,000 tons of ferrosilicon a year. To-
midnight. This small community of
also be used to produce high-grade
day, our 125 employees manage an out-
4,300 souls is nestled on the wild
put of more than 100,000 tons,” re-
coast, protected from the Norwegian
ports Wintervoll. Productivity and the
Sea by the island of Senja crouching off
efficient use of resources have always
the coast like a bulwark. It’s like a scene
been essential components in the com-
in a picture book of a Fjord idyll, and
pany’s history, he says, and Finnfjord
it’s one reason why this small town in
remains especially focused on energy
the Lenvik municipal district is one of
consumption—despite the commonly
the few Hurtigruten (or Coastal Ex-
held belief that Norway enjoys an
press) ports along the 2,700 kilometers
abundance of energy. Norway’s econo-
of the Norwegian West Coast to have
my has grown steadily since the coun-
been served continuously by the post
try began exploiting its oil and gas re-
office shipping line since its founding
serves in the early 1970s. Once one of
back in 1893.
Ralf Hommers has not come for
the picturesque fjords or the illuminating panorama of the Northern
Lights. The MAN Diesel & Turbo project manager is traveling west along
the Storgata road to visit the Finnfjord
company. It is a drive of just under
seven kilometers to reach one of the
most modern industrial facilities in
the country. In the early afternoon,
MANFORUM 03/2013
340 gigawatt
is the annual energy
yield of the MAN
Diesel & Turbo steam
turbine and generator set. The raw
materials for such
processing are delivered by the truck
loads: ore rubble
from neighboring
Sweden and quartzite from Norway.
the poorer West European countries
with an economy based primarily on
shipping, fishing, agriculture and forestry, Norway has transformed itself
into the world’s seventh-largest exporter of crude oil and second-largest
exporter of natural gas. Itis now one of
the countries with the highest per capita income in the world.
In order to remain competitive in a
world of dwindling fossil fuels and
Photo: Hauke Dressler
03/2013 MANFORUM
the steam being
channeled from the
melting furnaces into the
40-megawatt turbine
reaches a temperature of
440 degrees Celsius.
MANFORUM 03/2013
inevitably rising electricity costs, the
system to be used whenever the tur-
Finnfjord management team resolved
bine set needs to be serviced. In the
to invest €100 million in their facility
summer of 2012, the remaining com-
to provide new and sustainable foun-
ponents finally followed, when the
dations for their energy-intensive pro-
steam turbine itself, the main con-
duction process. The company’s deci-
denser and the generator were all de-
sion-makers were no longer willing to
livered. “This was such an inspiring
accept that alongside the huge energy
moment,” recalls Hommers. “We were
consumption of the smelting process
quite aware that this was the largest
itself, vast amounts of energy were be-
steam turbine in all of Norway.” In
ing lost as waste heat. Therefore, they
September, the record-breaking tur-
partnered with MAN Diesel & Turbo to
bine powered up for the first time—
investigate alternatives that would pro-
creating another big moment for the
vide greater resource and energy effi-
project directors Ralf Hommers and Jo
ciency. Their objective was a first in the
Strømholt. Their joint efforts had
ferrosilicon production industry: to
been rewarded. “And all this was accomplished on a very tight schedule,”
convert waste heat from production
into electricity using a generator—
same applied to work permits for the
power that in turn could be fed back
German installation mechanics.”
The new hardware was built by
into the smelting process.
MAN Diesel & Turbo in Oberhausen in
time-critical project
Germany and specifically configured
“In early 2011, MAN Diesel & Turbo re-
for Finnfjord. At the heart of the sys-
ceived an order for the delivery of a
tem is a 40-megawatt steam turbine
steam turbine and generator set that
that uses waste heat from the smelt-
would serve to boost Finnfjord’s en-
ing process. Steam enters the turbine
ergy efficiency by about 40 percent,”
with a temperature of 440 degrees
says Ralf Hommers. Andreas Gorkow,
Celsius and at a pressure of 41 bar, and
who is Power Generation Team Leader
in giant smelting
ore is converted
to ferrosilicium at
2,000 degrees
Celsius. Electrical
conductors are used
to heat up the ore
and break down its
chemical components. This form of
processing makes
production extremely
installing and commissioning the sys-
says Strømholt with pride. “We did not
tem. The plant sits right by the water of
take any of this for granted.” After all,
the fjord, and its geographical location
he recalls, the project team had con-
accommodated the planners and tech-
stantly received fresh and demanding
nicians working with Ralf Hommers.
requests and faced new and intriguing
After all, the steam turbine and genera-
challenges throughout the duration of
tor could be delivered by ship right to
the project.
Finnfjord’s doorstep, where the cargo
was then unloaded by the vessel’s on-
rising energy prices
board crane. Integrating the new sys-
The plant has been fully operational
tem into ongoing operations of the
since November 2012, and Hommers
the generator converts this energy
smelting plant was equally straightfor-
is satisfied with the outcome—not
at MAN Diesel & Turbo, worked with
into electricity. “The new facility can
ward. Finnfjord had constructed a pur-
least because Finnfjord’s Managing
him during the proposal phase to
produce up to 340 gigawatt hours of
pose-built turbine hall, so the MAN in-
Director Geir-Henning Wintervoll
get the project up and r unning.
electricity per year,” says Hommers.
stallation crew, Finnfjord employees
considers it a milestone in both tech-
Thereafter, Hommers and his part-
The resulting power can be fed direct-
and the other plant suppliers did not
nolo g i c a l a nd e nt r epr e neu r i a l
ner at Fi n n f jord , projec t d i rec tor
ly into ongoing production and re-
get in each other’s way during the cru-
achievement. “While the strong re-
Jo Strømholt, focused on the imple-
duce the demand for externally gener-
cial installation process.
duction in consumption of conven-
mentation of time lines. And their
ated power by as much as 40 percent.
schedule was tight indeed—especially
“This approach also benefits the envi-
record turbine revs up
in light of the fact that Norway is not a
ronment,” emphasizes Hommers: “In
In spring of last year, the “advance
ment directly, it simultaneously
member of the European Union. “It
comparison with conventional power
guard” arrived in Finnfjord: the trans-
renders Finnfjord less dependent on
was an important factor because un-
production, a coal-burning facility for
former and a so-called bypass con-
rising energy prices,” summarizes
example, the efficiency gains amount
denser. Measuring some eight meters
Wintervoll. From his point of view,
to savings of roughly 240,000 tons of
in length, this heat exchanger con-
Finnfjord has just entered a new era:
CO2 emissions annually.”
like doing business within the EU
zone, we needed to plan for the more
complicated customs formalities and
import regulations between Germany
and Norway,” says Hommers. “The
Photo: Hauke Dressler
“We have reached our goal of becoming
the world’s most efficient smelting plant.”
tionally produced energy drawn from
the grid stands to benefit the environ-
densed the steam output while the
“We have indeed reached our goal of
Finnfjord entrusted MAN Diesel &
turbine was not yet up and running.
becoming the world’s most efficient
Turbo with complete responsibility for
Today, it serves as a kind of backup
smelting plant.”
03/2013 MANFORUM
The four-axle Type
96S 8x8 TGS is used
for detecting natural resources, for test drilling,
seismic measurements or
the construction of overhead power supply lines.
Construction vehicles
over rough
MAN Truck & Bus presented its new TG series At bauma 2013, the world’s
largest trade fair for construction vehicles. it complies with the Euro
VI exhaust standard, effective in Europe from 2014, and emphasizes the
company’s 75-year tradition of all-wheeler expertise.
Structure The
dumper truck is
just one variant of a
versatile construction
vehicle range. In order
to not curtail the
flexibility of superstructure options, no
vehicle components
may protrude beyond
the upper edge of
the frame.
Steel bumpers
The steel bumper was also
adapted to the new vehicle
design. An integrated footstep assists the driver when
climbing up to change the
windshield wipers. The
bumper comes in a threepart design in all production
series models to minimize
repair costs in the case of
component replacement.
transport capacity over multiple shifts, heavy loads, adaptability to
rough terrain and heavy exposure to
stand up to the most demanding conditions. Customers therefore expect
durable and robust trucks with a long
service life, equipped with powerful
and efficient engines that also deliver
economic operation and outstanding
driving properties in all-wheel mode.
Other important features include a
MANFORUM 03/2013
Exhaust aftertreatment
When compared to the Euro V standard, Euro VI requires a reduction of
nitric oxide emissions from its previous level of 2 g/kWh to 0.4 g/kWh.
The new TGS series achieves this
goal with a combination of cooled
exhaust gas recirculation (CEGR) and
an SCR (select catalytic reduction)
catalytic converter.
Illustration: Hokolo 3D
dust: Construction vehicles must
AdBlue tank
Urea (AdBlue) is used
in the exhaust aftertreatment to reduce
nitric oxides. The
combined exhaust
system ensures low
fuel consumption
and minimized utilization of AdBlue.
Metal protection grille
A metal protection grille shields the
headlights, giving a long service life.
This ensures that this essential
function remains operational even
in the toughest conditions.
steps Elastic foot boards can
cope with the most challenging
terrain and impact from rock
falls. They give way rather than
being bent out of shape
03/2013 MANFORUM
maximum of loading capacity, flexible
the choice between optional switching
hicle steering. The front axle drive can
train, while providing maximum trac-
for conducting test drilling or seismic
employ its public road use permit only
superstructures as well as a wide range
and permanent all-wheel drive. The ad-
be easily activated by turning a rotary
tion and narrow progressive ratio
measurements, or for timber trans-
while traveling to deployment sites,”
of special chassis variants and drive
vantage of the switching variant lies in
switch when the vehicle is stationary.
when operating on rough surfaces.
port on steep, muddy tracks. It offers
explains Schmidt-Robin.
options. All these requirements are
the versatility of the vehicle, which can
The transfer gearbox will then connect
met by MAN Truck & Bus with its new
be driven equally well either on or off
the front and rear axles by means of a
Maximum traction
generation of construction vehicles
the road. Another positive point is the
dog clutch. The cross-country reduc-
that meet the strict Euro VI exhaust
option of using just the rear axle drive
standard. In order to comply with the
on paved surfaces. This reduces wear
drastically reduced limits for nitric ox-
and tear on the tires and facilitates ve-
maximum traction and excellent sta-
Many equally valuable services are
bility—even when covering long dis-
provided by the all-wheel drive in TGS
Generally, the four-axle Type 96S 8x8
tances in conditions of widely varying
models with two or three axles. These
tion setting on the transfer gear box
is employed in rough terrain—for con-
traction conditions.
“smaller brothers” of the 8x8 trucks
makes it possible to raise the total gear
structing overland power supply lines,
“With its maximum legal weight
work under the widest range of condi-
ratio. This takes the load off the drive
for instance, in mineral prospecting,
of 41 tons, this stately truck tends to
tions: Not only are they utilized on
construction sites, for municipal ser-
ides and particulate matter, the engine
technology, exhaust aftertreatment
have all been rethought and integrat-
Euro VI engines
Central components of the
engine design are the Common Rail fuel injection, the
cooled and regulated exhaust gas recirculation, the
two-phase turbocharging
and the exhaust aftertreatment. This combination ensures compliance with pollutant limits while reducing
diesel consumption and
CO 2 emissions.
ed in vehicle platforms with the tried
and tested Common Rail diesel engines. The TGS series of all-wheel vehicles (see illustration) is a showcase example of how these technological
challenges were met.
Difficult terrain
All-wheel drive plays an important
vices, road maintenance and snow
Transfer gearbox
In permanent all-wheel
drive, this is responsible for
constantly transferring the
engine output to all wheels
in just the right ratio.
and overall electronics of the vehicle
Main gear unit
The main gear unit transmits the 440-hp engine
output of the TGS 96S 8x8
to the transfer gear box,
which was specifically developed and manufactured
by MAN.
clearing, but also in civil defense and
disaster relief organizations such as
Germany’s Federal Agency for TechniDifferential
For rear axle 1
cal Relief or fire departments.
Meeting Euro VI standards
In order to provide a wide range of
variant construction vehicles, as well
as comply with the Euro VI exhaust
standard, the finished truck chassis
needs to be able to accommodate su-
role in the construction industry. It
perstructures made by different man-
gives the vehicle the necessary muscle
ufacturers, many of which are quite
to cover the most difficult terrain, as
complex, without loss of function. For
well as providing an ideal distribution
this reason, no vehicle components
of power between all the wheels for
balanced traction. MAN can look back
on 75 years of experience in the design
and construction of trucks with allwheel drive. This includes a wide variety of drive configurations and MAN’s
own production of planetary hub reduction axles and transfer gearboxes
as well as special solutions for axle sys-
can protrude beyond the upper edge
The permanent
all-wheel drive
of the TGS 96S 8x8
offers maximum
traction and a high
degree of handling
stability in varying
conditions of traction. The transfer
cases for power
distribution were
developed by MAN.
of the frame. Another challenge is that
the ultra-efficient exhaust aftertreatment system requires a bigger exhaust silencer housing, compared
with Euro V. The additional components needed for this have been deDifferential gearbox
For rear axle 2
signed in such a way that a minimum
of payload is lost, while the curb
tems based on leaf spring and pneu-
weight of the truck remains as low as
matic suspension systems.
possible. By consistently designing
the vehicle with an emphasis on light-
flected in our 50 percent share of the
ness of structure and uniting several
European all-wheel truck market,” says
Rolf Schmidt-Robin, Senior Manager
for TGS & TGX Product Management,
MAN Truck & Bus AG, Munich. There
are few commercial vehicle manufacturers other than MAN that can offer
MANFORUM 03/2013
Differential gearbox
The differential gearboxes—the gear unit
for front axle 1 is shown here—ensure
complete rpm balancing between the individual wheels without any loss of power,
so balancing out the different wheel paths
when the vehicle takes curves.
Differential gearbox
For front axle 2
Illustration: Hokolo 3D
“Our expertise in this field is re-
functions in a single component,
MAN’s engineers have succeeded in
Drive for transfer gearbox
Drive for front axles
Drive for rear axles
combining full functionality and
driving performance on rough terrain
with a heightened emphasis on environmental considerations.
“A market share of 50 percent proves
MAN’s expertise in the all-wheel sector.”
particularly in rural Africa,
energy infrastructure is often patchy
and in some cases destroyed by civil
wars. Many inhabitants are forced to
rely on improvised generators.
power plants in Africa
powering up
a continent
In Africa, More than half the population lives without
electricity. Inadequate energy production hampers
social development and economic growth on the continent.
this is where Decentralized power stations can help.
atellites run
by Nasa, the US Space Agency, have
MANFORUM 03/2013
or more than half of the population of
the continent, live without reliable access to electricity.
“Because of economic growth and
rapidly increasing populations, energy
demand is rising much faster in all
parts of Africa than supply,” says Inge
Hackenbroch, expert for East Africa at
Germany Trade & Invest, the economic development agency of the Federal
captured some spectacular images of
Republic of Germany. According to
the Earth at night: billions of street
current estimates, the need for power
lights, advertising displays, office
in North Africa alone will quadruple
buildings, residential blocks and air-
by the year 2050. Inadequate electrici-
ports brilliantly light Europe, the
ty supply is holding back social and
Americas and large parts of Asia. Only
economic development.
one massive area remains predomi-
Multiple sources of energy are
nantly dark: Africa. According to the
actually available, however. “Tradi-
International Energy Agency (IEA),
tionally, African countries have relied
Photo: J.B. Russell/Panos Pictures
almost 600 million people in Africa,
03/2013 MANFORUM
MANFORUM 03/2013
power stations were ordered by the
reference for f uture orders in the
operate a Diesel Combined Cycle (DCC)
Angolan energy company ENE, and
region. “It also offers good opportuni-
power plant by MAN—which is a first
were constructed by a consortium
ties for MAN PrimeServ branches that
for Africa. Five engines will produce
comprised of a Portuguese and a Bra-
already offer their services locally,”
around 88 megawatts of electricity.
zilian company. The Holeby team is
says Virkelyst.
“The engines run on heavy crude,
responsible for project management,
production and configuration of the
generators, as well as for installing
them on site. “You can probably imagine the efforts required in planning,
coordination and communication ac-
Expanding the power supply grid in Africa is a very slow process.
Countries lack the financial means and technical know-how to build power stations. In many
of Angola’s villages, meals are therefore still cooked traditionally over an open fire.
type of power production here is a lit-
ing from Europe or anywhere else in
tle different, however. “Around 70 per-
the Western world is the availability of
neers are expected to have all 49 ma-
cent of energy in Kenya comes from
parts and services. Every single detail
chines up and running by mid-2013.
hydropower. A few years ago, a period
has to be planned,” relates Vehkakoski.
The power plants are distributed in a
of drought resulted in an energy short-
In the case of one order fulfillment in
decentralized pattern, and will supply
fall and thereby forced the country to
Gabon, during which MAN provided
not just large cities on the coast such
look for alternative sources.” The inde-
support to an Israeli company, this
as Luanda and Benguela, but also the
pendent energy producer Thika Power
meant that everything—ranging from
hinterland, from the extreme north
Limited placed an order with MAN
the trucks to the elevators, from the
bordering the Democratic Republic of
Diesel & Turbo for a turnkey diesel
pipes down to the tiniest screw—had
the Congo to the southern areas close
power station. The Thika location will
to be imported from Israel.
domestic construction companies are
Bureaucratic red tape
alone could provide power for ha l f of
expensive commodity all over Africa.
able to handle such large projects fi-
The ramifications of many years of
Africa—if only these resources were
“Power outages are a daily irritation,”
nancially,” says Vehkakoski.
civil war are still visible, above all in
tapped,” says Hackenbroch. “Naturally,
reports Hackenbroch, who has lived in
the utilization of solar energy might
Africa for over 20 years. “In Nigeria’s
Expertise from Germany
also be perceived as a given in Africa.
metropolis Lagos, for example, the
And as they also frequently lack the
Yet the technology is still unafford-
power goes down just about every eve-
necessary expertise, it is usually for-
able, especially for the low-income ru-
ning. That’s why practically all house-
eign companies that work as contrac-
ral population that could actually
holds, offices and factories run their
tors or suppliers. This includes MAN
make very good use of it,” she adds.
own diesel generators.”
Diesel & Turbo: the plant in Holeby,
40 megawatts, to seven power sta-
with an output of 1,000 megawatts
also recently announced that it aims to
tions in Angola. “This has been our
could often supply the power require-
spend close to €18 billion on the devel-
largest order of its kind to date,” says
ments of an entire country,” says Petri
opment of its electricity grid. The
René Holmblad, responsible for pro-
Vehkakoski, Executive Manager and re-
Angolan government intends to invest
posal preparation. The project setup
sponsible for African business at MAN
the equivalent of about €13 billion by
also presents its own challenges: The
6.8 megawatts.
Angola in December 2012, MAN engi-
er stations is very expensive and few
sets with an output of between 10 and
bine, which produces an additional
almost a home game for MAN. “We’ve
eight generators were shipped to
ergy anyway, electricity is a scarce and
panding their energy supply. Algeria
east of the Kenyan capital of Nairobi, is
“The biggest difference between
ing power lines could not carry this en-
have stated their commitment to ex-
drive a type MARC2 MAN steam tur-
orders placed in Africa and those com-
gigantic water resources, Ethiopia
“In Africa, even a single power plant
heat of the engines will also be used to
tion project in Thika, located north-
many years,” says Vehkakoski. The
thirds of their electricity. With its
Ailing power lines
diesel,” says Vehkakoski. The exhaust
Compared with Angola, the power sta-
order management. After the last
the year 2016. “Constructing new pow-
Denmark, will deliver 49 generator
which is some 30 percent cheaper than
been doing business in Kenya for
Diesel & Turbo in Augsburg. As the ail-
Almost all nations in Central Africa
angola and kenya
are striving to
expand and develop
their energy supply,
similar to other
African nations.
Home game in Kenya
tivities,” says Bo Tornøe, who heads
on hydropower, which generates two-
to Namibia.
the more remote areas. And this situPhoto: J.B. Russell/Panos Pictures, Guy Mansfield/Panos Pictures
“In Africa, an output of 1,000 megawatts
could often supply an entire country.”
ation does not make the job any easier.
“At one power station site in the
30 percent of
the population in
Angola live without
electricity. Equipped
with MAN generators, a power station
in Benguela serves
to remedy the
Decentralized models
“In the coming 20 to 30 years, development in Africa will offer a plethora
of business opportunities, especially
as MAN’s power plant solutions are
ideally suited for decentralized power
supply,” asserts Vehkakoski. “After
northeast of Angola, the bridges were
years of civil war in many cases, set-
in such deplorable condition that we
backs on the path to democracy can-
had to break the generators down into
not be ruled out altogether – but the
lighter components for transport,”
economically stronger nations such as
says Vehkakoski. “Importing goods is
Angola, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania,
also extremely complicated, often in-
Uganda and Ethiopia, or Ghana with
volving mountains of paperwork,”
its oil reserves, are still fairly stable
adds Holeby project manager Gregers
politically,” adds East Africa expert
N. Virkelyst, alluding to the bureau-
Inge Hackenbroch. These countries
cratic obstacles and red tape. The
are working towards a future when
team takes it in its stride—after all,
Africa at night will no longer appear as
this project is designed to become a
the Dark Continent.
03/2013 MANFORUM
Can any sightseeing
tour continue for two
full years?
We are your MAN.
size MAtteRs
By 2050, two-thirds of humanity will live in
cities. What is the impact on traffic patterns
in metropolitan areas? How do we retain our
mobility? In cooperation with the Technical
University Munich, MAN examined these issues in its “What Cities Want” study. For two
years, we have listened to representatives
from 15 large cities as well as experts from
the business and transport sectors. And we
understand. Our knowledge and experience
will serve to safeguard the quality of life in
urban areas and ensure the continued flow
of traffic. Let’s get the job done.
GiANt vessels
with a two-stroke
Learn more on how MAN can tackle other
issues through careful attention and a lookahead approach:
beat: In huge container ships, multistoried two-stroke
power for full
speed ahead. The
largest two-stroke
units built by MAN
Diesel & Turbo
reach a height of
up to 18.5 meters.
Photos: Hauke Dressler, MAN
engines deliver the
Engineering the Future –
since 1758.
MAN Group
MANFORUM 03/2013