How to Document Sources in AMA Style

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How to Document Sources in AMA Style
This reference guide is designed to provide a quick reference for using the American Medical Association
(AMA) writing style for frequently cited information sources, based on the AMA Manual of Style 10th edition.
This manual is located at the Reference Desk and in the catalog under Reference R119.A533 2007. Within this
manual are the basics for creating an effective document that will aid readers of the document to understand its
purpose. The AMA Manual of Style 10th edition contains examples and explanations for creating citations and
reference lists for your assignments. Note: Your instructor is the final authority on how to format your intext citations and reference lists. Numbers in brackets shown in this document refer to page numbers and/or
sections in the 10th edition Manual. For questions beyond the scope of this reference guide, please refer to the
appropriate section of the AMA Manual of Style 10th edition.
In-text Citations [3.6]
Use arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons.
When more than two references are cited at a given place in the manuscript, use hyphens to join the first
and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without space to separate other parts of a multiple
Tip: How to create a superscript -- Highlight citation number, then hit “control,” “shift” and “+.”
As reported previously,1,3-8,19
The derived data were as follows3,4:
Avoid placing a superscript reference citation immediately after a number or an abbreviated unit of measure to
avoid any confusion between the superscript reference citation and an exponent. Examples:
Avoid: The 2 largest studies to date included 262 and 183 patients.
Better: The 2 largest studies to date included 26 patients2 and 18 patients.3
Avoid: The largest lesion found in the first study was 10 cm. 2
Better: The largest lesion found in the first study2 was 10 cm.
More Examples:
The report1 found that...
As has been noted previously,2
This argument was refuted in another study. 3
Other reports4,5confirm these findings. (Two sources are cited.)
" has been the conclusion of this author."6 (Use after direct quotation.)
In recent reports1,3-5,9surgical outcomes have been... (Multiple sources cited; not all are consecutive.)
Note: You may cite the same source more than once by using the same endnote number. However, when you
repeat a number, you should include a page number, in parentheses, next to the note number. Example:
The data1(p44) disproves the previous assertion
Also: If a citation has more than 23 characters, including spaces and punctuation, use an asterisk in the text and
put the citation in a footnote at the bottom of the page.
As reported previously, *
*References 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 21, 24-29, 31.
A note about citing tables: In tables, if a cell in the table involves citation of a reference number and a footnote
symbol, give the reference number first, followed by a comma and the footnote symbol (eg, 3,a) (see [4.1.3],
Visual Presentation of Data, Tables, Table Components).
Preparing the Reference List (list of works cited in your paper): [3.2]
References are listed at the end of the research paper, and should be numbered consecutively with Arabic
numerals in the order in which they are cited in the text. Your list of entries should be double-spaced
throughout. Note: References to material not yet accepted for publication or to personal communications (oral,
written, and electronic) are not acceptable as listed references and instead should be included parenthetically in
the text (see 3.3, References Given in Text; 3.15, Electronic References; and 3.13.8, Special Print Materials,
Unpublished Material).
The preferred citation style for articles in an electronic journal uses a DOI (digital object identifier). The DOI
provides a persistent link to the electronic item and is considered to be more stable than a URL. If the DOI is
not given on the full text article or in the citation, use a DOI lookup tool to locate - or use the format for an article without a DOI. [63]
How a Reference List Appears (using references for this document)
1. EBSCOhost Helps. (2010). AMA Style.
(Accessed 6-19-12)
2. Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors.
10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.
3. University of Evansville Libraries. AMA Style Guide. 2012. (Accessed 6-13-2012)
Minimum Acceptable Data For Reference List Entries
Database Author(s). Title. Journal name [using National Library of Medicine abbreviations][14.10],
[3.15.1] Year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages. DOI or URL [provide the URL in this field;no need to
use “URL:” preceeding it]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].
Database Journal Example:
Crainer S, Dearlove D. Windfall economics. Business Strategy Review. 2003;14(4):68-72.
Business Source Premier [serial online]. Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 5, 2010.
Print [3.11] Author (s). Article Title. Journal Name. Year;vol (issue No.):inclusive pages
Print Journal Example:
Sansone RA, Kelley AR, Forbis JS. Perceptions of parental caretaking in childhood and
religiosity/spirituality status in adulthood. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012;200(6):542-4.
Journal Journal Abstract Example:
Abstract Benedict NJ. Sitaxsentan in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension [abstract].
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64(4):363-368.
pubmed_docsum. Accessed April 12, 2007. PMID:17299175.
One Author last name Author’s first initials. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher; year.
One Author Example:
Davis NM. Medical Abbreviations: 26,000 Conveniences at the Expense of Communications
and Safety.
12th ed. Huntingdon Valley, PA: Neil M.Davis Associates; 2005:173.
More than Author(s) separated by commas. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher; year.
One Note: If more than three authors, list first three followed by “et al”
More than one author example:
Aronoff GR, Berns JS, Brier ME, et al. Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure. 4th ed.
Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians; 1999:39.
Edited Author(s), eds. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher; year.
Edited Book Example:
Boissonnault WG, ed. Primary Care for the Physical Therapist: Examination and Triage. St.
Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders; 2005.
Chapter/ Author(s) of article. Title of article. In: Editor's name, ed. Title of Book. Place of publication:
Article Publisher; Year: Chapter or page number.
from Book
Chapter or Article from book Example:
Wallace RJ Jr, Griffith DE. Antimycobacterial agents. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL,
Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005:946.
eBook [3.4] Author(s). Book Title. Edition number (if it is the second edition or above). City, State (or
Country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year. URL. Accessed [date].
eBook Example:
Fields HL, Martin JB. Pain: pathophysiology and management. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo
DL, Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th
2005. Accessed April 16, 2007:71-73.
FirstAuthorLastName FN, SecondAuthorLastName FN. Title of the article. Magazine
Title [serial online]. Full Publication Date;Volume Or Issue Number:StartPage-EndPage.
Available from: Database Name, Ipswich, MA. Accessed Month Day, Year.
Magazine Example:
Haskins AR, Himburg SP, George V, et al. Daring to be different: A less traditional style.
Clin mgmt in educ. 2000;26(10):9-19.
Print Author(s)’ name(s) (Last name and first and middle initials). Article Title (Do not use
quotation marks and capitalize the first word only in the title). Newspaper name (in italics
and do not abbreviate; if the city name is not already part of the newspaper name it may be
added at the front to identify where the newspaper comes from to distinguish it from other
papers of like name). Date of newspaper including month, date and year: section (if there is
one) and page number(s).
Online Same as print, and add URL and date accessed
Online Example:
Wilson, D. Trial shows blockbuster potential for blood clot pill. New York Times. August
29, 2011: B3. Accessed August 29, 2011.
Print Example:
Wilson, D. Trial shows blockbuster potential for blood clot pill. New York Times. August
29, 2011: B3.
E-mails and personal communications are not listed in the reference list, but rather in the text
of the document and should include the name, highest academic degree of sender, the date
conducted or sent. Gain sender's permission before quoting her/him.
Author (or, if no author is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site).
Title (or, if no title is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name
of the Web site. URL. Accessed [date].
Website Example:
World Health Organization. Saving the future generation in Darfur. World Health
Organization. child_health/en/index.html. Published July
7, 2007. Accessed October 11, 2009.
More Citation Examples
Print Sources
Books [3.12]
Books compiled or created by a group, agency or committee (no author or editor)
Drug Topics Red Book. Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare; 2007:552.
Physicians’ Desk Reference. 61st ed. Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR; 2007:678.
United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP 30-NF 25). Vol 2. Rockville, MD: United
States Pharmacopeia Convention; 2007:1553-1554.
Print Journals [3.11]
Entry for journal with more than 6 authors: If more than 6 authors, list first 3, then et al
Fässberg MM, Van Orden KA, Duberstein P, et al. A systematic review of social factors and suicidal behavior
in older adulthood. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9(3):722-45.
Fries J, Segre AM, Thomas G, Herman T, Ellingson K, Polgreen PM. Monitoring Hand Hygiene via Human
Observers: How Should We Be Sampling? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33(7):689-95.
Issue with supplement
Dworkin RH, Johnson RW, Breuer J, et al. Recommendations for the management of herpes zoster. Clinic
Infect Dis. 2007;44(1)(suppl 1):S5-S10.
Note: if there is no suppl number, leave it blank, e.g., (1)(suppl):S5-S10.
Editorials or letters - place the article type in brackets [ ]
Whitcomb ME. The April issue: required reading [editorial]. Acad Med. 2007;82(4):319-320.
Committee, group or organization
Council on Scientific Affairs. Scientific issues in drug testing. JAMA. 1987;257(22):3110-3114
Electronic Sources
Software (CD)_[3.15.6]___________________________________________________________________
To cite software, use the following form:
Epi Info [computer program]. Version 3.2. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004.
Intercooled STATA (for Windows) [computer program]. Version 7.0. College Station, TX: StataCorp; 2000.
Note: Software need not be cited in the reference list if it is mentioned only in passing or is available
without charge via the Internet (eg, shareware or freeware).