Unit 3 Book 1 Unit 1 Book One Section A A Good Heart to Lean On Teaching Objectives After learning this unit, Ss are supposed to be able to 1. grasp the main idea and structure of the texts in Section A and B. 2. master the key language points and grammatical structures in the texts; 3. think about the kind act of caring 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. ☆ listening task—Spot dictation ☆ reading skill— Read for the main ideas in sentences. ☆ writing skill—Write paragraphs of a general statement supported by examples ☆ speaking task— Talk about a person you love or admire. Time Allotment 1st and 2nd period 3rd and 4th period 5th and 6th period 7th and 8th period → → → → Pre-reading Activities While-reading Activities Post-reading Activities and Section B listening and Speaking Teaching Contents I. Important Points A. Key words and phrases: Section A: lean (on), balance, adjust (to), amaze, complaint (about/of), envy, subject to, in some way, see to it that Section B: enable, extend, inform, exit, set out, turn out B. Key Sentence Patterns 1) More than I realized, Dad has helped me keep my balance. 2) Once there, he would cling to the hand-rail until he reached the lower steps that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice. 3) Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. 4) Now that I am older, I believe that is a proper standard by which to judge people, even though I still don’t know precisely what a “good heart” is. II. Difficult Language Points 1. He was severely crippled and very short, and when we walked together, his hand on my Unit 3 Book 1 arm for balance, people would stare. 独立主格结构作状语，该结构常见的构成： 常见的构成：名词（或代词）+ 分词/不定式/介词短语/形容词/副词 该结构作状语时： 1）独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同，它独立存在。 2）名词或代词与后面的分词，形容词，副词，不定式，介词等是主谓关系。 3）独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 2. Once there, he would cling to the hand-rail until he reached the lower steps that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice. once, as soon as, while, when, after, until, though 等引导状语从句时，如从句的主语和主句 的主语一致时，从句中的主语和 be 动词可以省略。句型： Once+副词/介词短语/过去分词/形容词短语/，+主句 3. Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. 形容词（短语）作状语表示让步，原因、时间、伴随情况或结果，大多与全句用逗号隔 开，可置于句首、句中或句末。形容词作状语可以用在正式的英语中。 Teaching Procedures I. Pre-reading Activities A. Warm-up activities Work in groups to discuss: 1) What’s your understanding of deep caring? 2) Who is the person you love or admire most? Then ask some Ss to report their discussion. B. Background information 1) Manhattan In 1626, the Netherlanders bought Manhattan from Indians with 24 dollars. It is an island about 12 miles long and 2 miles wide lying between the Hudson, East and Harlem rivers, and forming a borough of New York City. The cultural and business center of the city is in Manhattan, with museums, art galleries and theatres along Broadway. Famous parts of Manhattan are Greenwich Village, Harlem, Wall Street and Fifth Avenue. Manhattan also contains Central park, the Empire State Building, the Rockefeller Center, Times Square and the United Nations Headquarters. 2) Brooklyn Brooklyn, the largest of New York City’s five boroughs, is home to 2.45 million residents. Its diverse population consists of over ninety ethnic groups from every corner of the globe. Brooklyn is a land of opportunities for the current or prospective entrepreneur. Its central business district is located near the historic Brooklyn Bridges, five-minute subway trip to Lower Manhattan and Wall Street. Its big consumer market, and great human resources add to its desirability as a place to do business. Unit 3 Book 1 3) Ebbets Feild Ebbets Field is the stadium built by and named after Charlie Ebbets, the owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team. The first game played in this former home of the Brooklyn Dodgers took place in 1938. The Dodgers, a baseball team, no longer play for Brooklyn. C. Key Words and Their Collocations 1. lean: vi. rest on sth, in a listing position for support; be in a sloping position; bend 倚，靠； 倾斜，偏向；弯曲，屈身 Collocation: lean against/on sth lean on/upon sb. or sth. (for sth.) 依赖，依靠 lean out of the window/back in the chair/over to one’s side 探身窗外/仰靠 椅背/俯向一侧 ★ 这位部长依靠他的顾问支持。 The Minister leaned on his advisers for support. ★ 他们有困难时总寻求我们的支持。 They always lean on us when they are in trouble. 2. balance: n. equal; conditions that exists when two opposites are equal 平衡；均势 v. (cause to) be even and keep in balance Collocation : keep/lose one’s balance 保持/失去平 be in balance/out of balance 保持/失去平衡 psychological/physical balance 心理/身体上的平衡 balance the pros and cons 权衡利弊 ★ 骑自行车要有良好的平衡感。 You need a good sense of balance to ride a bicycle. ★ 只工作不玩耍，聪明的孩子也变傻。这句话提醒人们劳逸结合的重要性。 All work and no play make Jack a dull boy. This saying reminds us of the importance of achieving a better balance between work and play. 3. adjust: v. become suited to (new conditions); change 使适应(新环境)；适应 Collocation : adjust to 适应 adjust sth./oneself (to sth.) 调整以适应 ★ 适应这儿的气候也许要花点时间。 It may take a little time to adjust to the climate here. ★ 他尽力调整自己原来的计划以适应新的安排，这说明他是个很灵活的人。 He tried to adjust his original schedule to the new appointment，which shows he is a very flexible person Unit 3 Book 1 4. amaze: vt. to make someone very surprised 使大为惊奇; 使惊愕 Collocation : be amazed at sth. 对……感到惊奇 be amazed by sth. 因……而惊叹 be amazed to do /that-clause be amazed (at/by) how-clause in amazement 惊异地 ★ 她的镇静自若另我吃惊。 I was amazed at/by her calmness ★ 听说她轻而易举地通过了考试，我们都很惊奇。 We were amazed to hear that she passed the test without much difficulty. ★ 你要离开，我很吃惊。 I was amazed that you were leaving. ★ 你要是知道那件任务有多难，你会大吃一惊 You would be amazed (at/by) how difficult the job was. 5. complain: vi. say that one is not satisfied 抱怨，诉苦； complaint: n. a report of lack of satisfaction 抱怨，投诉 Collocation : complain (to sb.) about/of/at sth. 对某人抱怨 complain that-clause complain to 向……投诉 make/lodge/voice/bring a complaint 提出投诉；发出怨言 ★ 她因为感到自己在工作上不受赏识而常常抱怨。 She often complains about not feeling appreciated at work. ★ 人们抱怨得不到足够信息。 People complain that they don’t get enough information. 6. envy: n. the feeling of wanting sth. that someone else has 嫉妒；羡慕 v. feel envy of (sb.) or at (sth.) Collocation: show/express envy of / at / towards be the envy of sth./sb. 令……嫉妒 green with envy 妒忌得面色发青, 非常妒忌 envy sb. for sth 羡慕……be envious of sth. 羡慕；嫉妒 ★ 我暗暗羡慕她的青春和姣好的容貌。 I secretly envy her for her youth and good looks. ★ 所有邻居都羡慕他们美丽的花园。 Their beautiful garden is the envy of all the neighbors. Unit 3 Book 1 II. While-reading Activities 1. Text Study A. Fast reading and try to grasp the main idea of text First Reading Title and Subtitle Audio and Visial aids Main Idea: Question: Topic / Focus Illustrate the subject How a crippled father helps his son keep balance through his act of deep caring. What do you think a “good heart” is? B. Structure Analysis The whole passage falls into 4 parts: Part I (para.1-5): Father’s physical condition and the hardship he experienced to get to work. Part II (para.6-7): The way my father treated others. Part III (para.8-11): My father’s active participation in activities. Part IV (para.12-13): The son’s regret to his father and what he has learned from his father. C. Difficult Sentences Analysis: 1. More than I realized, Dad has helped me keep my balance. Paraphrase: Beyond my realization, Dad has helped me keep the even state of my mind or feelings or body. 2. He was severely crippled and very short, and when we walked together, his hand on my arm for balance, people would stare. Paraphrase: He badly crippled and very short and when we walked together, his hand was on my arm for physical balance. 独立主格结构实质就是带有自己主语的非限定分句和无动词分句，在句子中作状语。 常见的构成：名词（或代词）+ 分词/不定式/介词短语/形容词/副词，作状语 独立主格结构作状语时： 1）独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同，它独立存在。 Unit 3 Book 1 2）名词或代词与后面的分词，形容词，副词，不定 式，介词等是主谓关系。 3）独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 Exercise: 1. Not far from the school there was a garden, ____A_____ owner seated in it playing chess with his little grandson every afternoon. A. its B. whose C. which D. that 2. There I met several people, two of ____B_____ being foreigners. A. which B. them C. whom D. that 3. Miss Smith entered the classroom, ____C_____. A. a book in the hand B. the book in his hand C. book in hand D. his book was in his hand 3. Once there, he would cling to the hand-rail until he reached the lower steps that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice. Paraphrase: Once (= As soon as) he got there, he would hold on to the hand-rail for support. once, as soon as, while, when, after, until, though 等引导状语从句时，如从句的主语和主句 的主语一致时，从句中的主语和 be 动词可以省略。句型： Once+副词/介词短语/过去分词/形容词短语/，+主句 1) 一上床，这些孩子通常很快就睡着了。 Once (they are) in bed, the children usually go to sleep very quickly. 2) 一旦出版，这本英语字典将会在大学生中非常畅销。 Once printed, this English dictionary will be very popular among college students. More Exercises on P.58 Ex.VI 4. When I think of it now, I am amazed at how much courage it must have taken for a grown man to subject himself to such shame and stress. Paraphrase: When I think of it now, I feel greatly surprised at how much courage it must have taken for my father to experience such shame and stress. subject (one/oneself) to: cause to experience or suffer 使……遭受 —- He was subjected to torture. 他受到了严刑拷打。 —- 当局给予了他最严厉的惩罚。The officials subjected him to the worst possible punishment. 5. He never talked about himself as an object of pity, nor did he show any envy of the more fortunate or able. Paraphrase: He never talked about himself as an object of being pitied and he did not show any envy of the more fortunate or able-bodied people either. 6. Now that I am older, I believe that is a proper standard by which to judge people… Unit 3 Book 1 Paraphrase: Because I am older, I believe that is a proper standard by which I can judge people… 7. Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. Paraphrase: Although he was unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in a certain manner. 1) 他是那样谦虚,平易近人,很快使大家放松下来。 Modest and easy to approach, he soon put everyone completely at ease. 2) These travelers returned to the hotel, tired and sleepy. 那些游客们回到宾馆,又累又困。 8. And when I came home on leave, he saw to it that I visited his office. Paraphrase: And when I came home from the Navy for a holiday, he made sure that I visited his office. see to: take care, make sure 务必做到，注意 see to it that-clause or see that-clause —- Father saw to it that much of my spare time was not wasted. 父亲极力注意不让我的许多业 余时间白白浪费。 —-务请注意不要再迟到。 See that you are not late again. D. Key Sentence Patterns 1) When sb. thinks of sth. / sb. else now (someday in the future), he / she (will) feels amazed at … 现在（将来有朝一日）回想起某事／某人来， 某人会对……感到惊叹 e.g. —-When they think of what they have undergone in the past 50 years, the old couple feel delighted at how lucky they were to be united in marriage and how faithful they have remained to each other. —-现在回想起过去 50 年的风风雨雨，这对老年夫妇为他们有幸结合而且彼此忠诚感到十分 欣慰。 2) Sb. doesn’t do / does sth. until … 直到……某人才……。 e.g. —-I had puzzled over this difficult problem until yesterday I found a solution to it. 我—-一直被 这一难题所困扰,直到昨天才找到了解决的办法。 —-We tend to realize the value of what we have had until there is no more of it in our life. 我们 总是等到我们所拥有的东西从我们的生活中消失的时候才开始意识到它的价值。 3) Sth./Sb. does/is…even if (even though) … (从句) 即使／尽管……, 某事 ／ 某人还 是…… e.g. —-Their perseverance in the pursuit of truth was well worth our praise even if they didn’t make it to their goal. —-尽管他们没有成功，他们追求真理的执著精神值得我们赞扬. Unit 3 Book 1 —-You mustn’t be conceited even though you’ve achieved great success. —-即使你取得了成绩也不应当骄傲. 2. Writing skill----- Writing a paragraph of a general point supported by examples The author uses the device of exemplification (‘Main idea’ supported by ‘examples’) to develop some of the paragraphs in the text. General point Ⅰ: Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. (Para.8) Examples: 1) When a local baseball team found itself without a manager, he kept it going. (Para. 8) 2) He liked to go to dance and parties where he could have a good time just sitting and watching. General point Ⅱ: I now know he participated in some things through me, his only son. (Para.11) Examples: 1）When I played ball (poorly), he “played” too. 2）When I joined the Navy, he “joined” too. 3）And when I came home on leave, he saw to it that I visited his office. Introducing me, he was really saying, “this is my son, but it is also me, and I could have done this, too, if things had been different.” Those words were never said aloud. 3. Reading Skill----- Reading for the Key Ideas in Sentences Separate minor details from the main idea. main idea: 1) who or what the sentence is about 2) who is doing what or what is happening minor details: when, what kind, where, why, how... 1. When snow or ice was on the ground, it was impossible for him to walk, even with help. Main Idea: It was impossible for him to walk. 2. In Manhattan the subway station was the basement of his office building, and he would not have to go outside again until we met him in Brooklyn on his way home. Main Idea: The subway was the basement, and he would not have to go outside. 3. If he did, I am sorry I never told him how sorry I was, how unworthy I was, how I regretted it. Main Idea: I am sorry. Unit 3 Book 1 Practice: Do Ex (on p.62-62) , and Section C (on p.71) III. Post-reading Activities A. Summary of the text My father has been dead for several years, but I think of him quite often. My father was severely crippled, but he never complained about it, and he never subjected to fate. He went to work in spite of bad weather and never missed a day. He never talked about himself as an object of pity nor did he show any envy of the more fortunate or able. Unable to engage in many activities, my father tried to participate in some way. Also in some things he participated through me, his only son. However, when I was young, I couldn't understand it and I was embarrassed to be seen with my father. After I have grown up, I think of often. He taught me the standard to judge people with "a good heart". In modern society, people are always involved in dealing with different kinds of relations, such as friendship, conjugal relation, and so on. These kinds of relations weave your life. Changes of one part will probably lead to total rearrangement of your whole life. In other words, you are closely related to your family that nurses you, your school that you learn knowledge, your community that you live in and even the country that gives your nationality. Nobody can say he can isolate from the society and live by himself. It’s outrageous! So everyone should communicate with others if you want to live socially. But ho can we our life happy and harmonious? One form of communication that has a positive influence on us is the act of deep caring. When words failed and nothing else seems to work, a simple, kind act of caring can change our lives, lift our spirits and gives us a model to follow—to live up for the rest of our lives. B. Revision work to make it to the office 准点到办公室 to cling to the hand-rail 紧抓着扶手 to subject himself to such shame and stress 经受住这样的耻辱和压力 to engage in many activities 参加很多活动 participate in some way 以某种方式参加 to have a good time just sitting and watching 坐着观看，也能享受一番乐趣 to see (to it) that…: see to: take care, make sure 注意，务必做到，确保 to complain about trifles 因琐事而抱怨 C. Exercises Do Exercise III、IV、V、VI、IX D. Topics for further classroom discussion 1) What do you think a good heart is? For Reference: A “good heart” refers to the good nature of a person, which involves the aspects as follows: To begin with, he is kind with the people around him, thinking as much of others as of himself. Besides, he is honest in dealing with any affairs. He has a strong sense of Unit 3 Book 1 what is right and wrong. And best of all, he is ready to help when someone is in trouble or in need of his help. In our peacetime, having a good heart also involves much devotion to others. With a good heart, you don’t remain indifferent at the sight of others’ sufferings. You may offer all kinds of help to those in trouble or in danger. With a good heart, you can not tolerate the spread of bad social practices. You have the courage to do whatever is right. With a good heart, you give more thought to others than to yourself and find excellence in others. And still with a good heart, you give more to others than take from others. In sum, having a good heart not only adds joy to others’ life but also brings virtue to society. 2) What are the factors contributing to the cultivation of a good heart? Tips: Among the factors contributing to the cultivation of a good heart, three carry most weight. the family environment the company you keep your own refinement E. Assignments 1. Write a paragraph that starts with a general statement and goes on to list several examples to support it. Choose one of the topics: 1) Online learning is best for me. 2) College students born in the 1980s have their defining tastes. 2. Discuss with your partner on ways to improve your English. Section B: A Right Son at the Right Time Unit 3 Book 1 I. Reading Comprehension 1. What happened to the elderly man at the beginning of the story? 2. What did the emergency-room nurse find out from his pocket? 3. Why didn’t the Marine tell the nurse that he wasn’t the old man’s son when he was taken to him? 4. What does “the wrong Marine had become the right son at the right time” in the last paragraph mean? 5. Use one sentence to summarize your feeling after reading the text. II. Key Words Study 1. enable: vt. 1) make (sb.) able to do sth. by giving him the necessary power or means（通过授予必要的权利和手段）使能够；使可以 2) make (sth.) possible 使成为可能 Word Building: en- 在 p，b，m，前作 em1). en 在名词前，表示“放进”，“走上”，“使上” encage 关入笼中 embus 上公共汽车 encase 装入箱 enplane 上飞机 encave 藏于洞中 enthrone 使登上王位 enroll 记入名册中 enshrine 藏于神龛中 2). 加在名词或形容词前，表示“使成…” enlarge 使扩大 endanger 使遭危险 ensphere 使成球形 encrimson 使成深红色 enrage 激怒 embolden 使更大胆 encircle 做成一圈 endear 使受喜爱 enslave 使成奴隶 enfeeble 使衰弱 3). 加在动词前，表示“在里面”，“包住” enfold 包入 enwrap 包入，卷入 encapsulate 把…包于胶囊中 enclothe 给…穿衣服 entrust 信托，委托 entangle 缠住，套住 4). en-与 in-常可通用（美国常用 in-, 英国多用 en-） inquire, enquire; insure, ensure v. 1) lay or move out (the body or a limb) at full length 伸开；展开（身体或四肢） 2) make sth. longer or larger (in space or time) 使（在空间或时间上）伸展；扩 大，加大 1) 他伸手同新雇员握手。 He extended his hand to the new worker. 2) 体操运动员平伸双臂。 2. extend: Unit 3 Book 1 The athlete extended her arms out sideways. 3) 森林向四面延伸，一望无际。 The forest extended in all directions as far as the eye could see. 4) 偿还期将从 20 年延长至 25 年。 The repayment period will be extended from 20 years to 25 years. Word Building: -ion ex - -ible a t- -tend--ten con- s- -tentin- -ous -e dis- -ive pro- attention 注意力 contention 斗争 intensify 加强, 加剧 protend 伸展 -i-fy contend 竞争;主张 intense 剧烈的 distend 使扩展 protensive 伸长的，延长时间的 3. exit vi. to go out; (esp. of an actor) leave (the stage) 退出； （尤指演员）退场 n.出口 1). We exited from the party as soon as we could. 2). At the end of the third scene the actress exits. Word Building: ex-前缀 a. 出，外， 由…中弄出 export 出口 exclude 排外 expose 揭露 excavate 挖出 extract 抽出 expel 赶出 b. 前任的，以前的 ex-president ex-soldier ex-wife c. 表示“使…”, “做…” 或作加强意义 exalt 使升高 exaggerate 夸大 4. inform: vt. tell; give information or knowledge to Collocation: inform sb. of/about sth. 告知，通知 Unit 3 Book 1 inform sb. that-clause 1) 安排一有变化，我们就马上通知你。 We will immediately inform you of any changes to the programme. 2) 我告知他我无法出席会议。 I informed him that I would not be able to attend the meeting. 5. set out: 1) start a journey = set off/forth 动身，出发 set out to do sth: to start doing sth. 开始做某事，着手进行 1) 他们出发去寻找失踪的小孩。 They set out/off in search of the lost child. 2) 她蓄谋毒杀她的丈夫。 She deliberately set out to poison her husband. 6. turn out: happen to be; be found in the end 结果是，证明是 1) 他说的那番话后来证明是一派谎言。 His statement turned out to be false. 2) 结果是，她没有得到那份工作。 It turned out that she didn’t get the job in the end. III. Text Analysis A. Text Structure Analysis The whole passage can be divided into four parts: The First Part (Paras. 1-2): Introduction Main Idea: An elderly man had collapsed on a downtown Brooklyn street corner and he repeatedly called for his son in the hospital. The Second Part (Paras. 3-8): Development Main Idea: A young Marine was sent to the hospital to accompany the elderly man until his death. The Third Part (Paras. 9-14): Highlight Main Idea: It turned out that the young Marine was not the elderly man’s real son. The Fourth Part (Para. 5): Conclusion Main Idea: It was a very human way that the wrong Marine had become the right son at the right time. B. Sentence Analysis 1. An elderly man had collapsed while crossing the street, ... (Para. 1) Paraphrase: An old man had fallen to the ground and lost consciousness while he was crossing the street. Please pay attention to the “while"-clause. The subject and the verb "be" can be omitted. Here in Unit 3 Book 1 the text "... while he was crossing the street" is shortened to ".... while crossing the street". Some other conjunctions indicating time or condition can also be used in this way. More Examples: 1) While discussing the matter, they started to argue in a very loud voice. 讨论这个问题时, 他们竟然高声争吵起来。 2) When young, he lived in a very poor mountain village in northwestern China. 年轻时, 他住在中国西北部一个十分贫穷的山村里。 3) 一旦完成, 这件工作对他们来说似乎太容易了。 As soon as finished, the job seemed too easy for them. 2. And he proved, ... that there are people who care what happens to their fellow men. (Para. 15) Paraphrase: And he showed, ... that there are people who are concerned with what happens to their fellow men. Notice that in the sentence "prove" is used as a link verb, which is usually followed by an adjective or a noun. In this use, "prove" means "show in the course of time, turn out to be". More Examples: 1) Perhaps this book will prove useful later. 也许这本书今后会有用。 2) On the long journey, he proved a most amusing companion. 在长途旅行中, 他显示出他是一位很有趣的旅伴。 This use of "prove" is different from the transitive use of this verb. Compare the following examples with the above sentences: 3) He has evidence that can prove his innocence. 他有证据能证明自己的清白。 4) They proved him to be guilty. 他们证明他有罪。 3. With that, the Marine turned and exited the hospital. Paraphrase: After saying that, the Marine turned round and went out of the hospital. with that: when that had been done 接着，于是，随即 More Examples: 1) With that, he left the room. 接着，他离开了房间。 2) 他略挥了一下手，然后就走了 He gave a little wave, and with that, he was gone. IV. Assignments Read Section C, and finish the exercise on p72.
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