- Sacramento

SYSTEMATICALLY ADAPTING SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL CURRICULUM AND
PROGRAM CONTENT: A CLOSER LOOK AT THE SECOND STEP EARLY LEARNING
PROGRAM
Sarah Gwen Thomas
B.A., California State University, Sacramento, 2007
M.A., California State University, Sacramento, 2010
Erin Rose Gravert
B.A., St. Mary’s College of California, Moraga 2006
M.A., California State University Sacramento, 2010
PROJECT
Submitted in partial satisfaction of
the requirements for the degree of
SPECIALIST in EDUCATION
in
SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY
at
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, SACRAMENTO
SPRING
2011
© 2011
Sarah G. Thomas and Erin Rose Gravert
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
ii
SYSTEMATICALLY ADAPTING SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL CURRICULUM AND
PROGRAM CONTENT: A CLOSER LOOK AT THE SECOND STEP EARLY LEARNING
PROGRAM
A Project
by
Sarah G. Thomas
Erin R. Gravert
Approved by:
__________________________________, Committee Chair
Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D.
____________________________
Date
iii
Erin R. Gravert
Students: Sarah G. Thomas
I certify that this student has met the requirements for format contained in the University format
manual, and that this project is suitable for shelving in the Library and credit is to be awarded for
the project.
__________________________, Graduate Coordinator ___________________
Bruce A. Ostertag, Ph.D.
Date
Department of Special Education, Rehabilitation, School Psychology and Deaf Studies
iv
Abstract
of
SYSTEMATICALLY ADAPTING SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL CURRICULUM AND
PROGRAM CONTENT: A CLOSER LOOK AT THE SECOND STEP EARLY LEARNING
PROGRAM
by
Sarah G. Thomas
Erin R. Gravert
The authors collaborated and shared equal responsibility in all aspects of the development
of this project, which looked at the effectiveness of using social and emotional learning programs
with science-based proven effectiveness. Research shows that choosing the appropriate program
is only the first step though, with educators being responsible for closing the gap between the
research lab and diverse classroom needs. Especially in California, important factors like culture,
demand program content be adapted so all children can access the information. With a focus on
academic results, social and emotional learning can sometimes be overlooked. However, like
most interventions, the earlier children are exposed to social and emotional skills, the greater their
chances of successfully mastering these areas of strength for future success. The Second Step
Early Learning Program is an example of a science-based prevention program, focused on
providing preschoolers with the social and emotional tools necessary to enter kindergarten
prepared. Using state guidelines, Preschool Learning Foundations, assessment measures, and
program implementation goals specific to the pre-school population, the Second Step program can
be expanded to address cultural differences, curriculum for RTI tier one and two populations, and
students in special education.
The prepared project is a three-hour training workshop with a facilitator’s guide, slides, and
presenter’s notes. Any school psychologist or educational professional can train a target audience
of school psychologists and educators working in schools. Workshop participants will obtain
knowledge about science-based prevention programs, with a specific focus on programs that
promote the development of social and emotional skills in preschoolers.
, Committee Chair
Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D.
______________________
Date
v
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to take this opportunity to thank our professor and supervisor, Stephen E. Brock,
for his unwavering support and guidance over the past three years of our program. His
knowledge and expertise have been instrumental in our growth as school psychologists. In
addition, we would like to thank Brigid Normand, Senior Program Developer for the Committee
for Children, who provided us with insight, recommendations, and adaptation ideas regarding the
Second Step Violence Prevention Program.
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………………….vi
Chapter
1. INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………..... 1
2. LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................... 6
The Role of Social and Emotional Learning in Early Development ........................... 7
What is the Role of Science-Based Prevent Programs in California ........................... 9
The Second Step Early Learning Program….………………………………………...13
Adapting Science-Based Prevention Programs and Curriculum……………………..17
Adapting the Second Step Early Learning Program……………..……………………21
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….26
3. METHODS………………………………………………………………………………...28
4. RESULTS………………………………………………………………………………….31
Appendix A. Presenter’s Manual……………………………………………………………. 34
Appendix B. Workshop Handouts……………………………………………………………38
Appendix C. Workshop Slides………………………………………………………………..42
References …………………………………………………………………………………......88
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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
A substantial body of research suggests that helping children to develop social
and emotional skills early in life has a significant impact on their long-term health and
well-being (Fredricks et al., 2010). Children who learn specific skills for managing their
emotions constructively are more likely to avoid depression, violence, and other serious
mental health problems as they grow older (Fredricks et al., 2010). Further, when
schools implement high quality social and emotional learning (SEL) programs and
approaches, academic achievement increases, problem behaviors decrease, classroom
climates improve and each child’s relationships are strengthened (Elias, 2006). While the
benefits of teaching social and emotional skills are well established, not all students are
able to reap these benefits.
The passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act in 2002 marked the
beginning of the standards movement in the American public education system, with an
emphasis on mandatory outcome-based accountability (McGuinn, 2006). With this shift,
a severe narrowing of the curriculum occurred in which many schools simply stopped
teaching the subjects not tested, such as SEL learning. In addition, many SEL programs
and curriculums can be difficult for teachers to implement when they have classrooms
full of students with diverse needs and abilities. Many lack specific guidelines and
1
procedures that help teachers make appropriate modifications or adaptations that are
designed to meet the needs of these students (Borberly, 2005).
Designed by the Committee for Children (2010b), the Second Step program is a
violence prevention social and emotional curriculum for grades pre-school through high
school. The program is a research based program and nationally recognized as an
effective teaching tool for promoting social development skills. The U.S. Department of
Education recently recognized the Second Step program with its prestigious “Exemplary”
Award by the 2011 Expert Panel on Sage, Disciplined and Drug-Free schools
(Committee for Children, 2011b). Despite being recognized as one of the highest ranked
programs on the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP),
Second Step has been criticized for only addressing the social and emotional needs of the
general education population, or a Tier 1 Response to Intervention (RTI) setting of
instruction (Alvarez & Anderson-Kethmark, 2009). Even in “best case” scenarios,
research-based curriculums need to accommodate for cultural and cognitive differences
in classrooms. Adaptation considerations include addressing the cultural and language
needs of students, identifying developmental differences, and recognizing children’s
strengths (Borberly, 2005).
Developing program adaptations means finding the optimal balance between
maintaining the program fidelity (or guidelines), while making the necessary changes.
Adaptations refer to the deliberate modification of the original program model, while
2
modifications may take the form of eliminating, abbreviating, reorganizing, or
supplementing program structure or content (Borberly, 2005).
With these and other adaptation guidelines in mind, the Second Step Early
Learning Program was chosen as the curriculum for basing the proposed adaptation
strategies. This program is an example of a science-based prevention program, focused
on providing preschoolers with the social and emotional tools necessary for entering
kindergarten prepared (Committee for Children, 2010a). Using state guidelines, early
learning foundations, assessment measures, and program fidelity guidelines specific to
the preschool population, the Second Step Early Learning Program was adapted to
address cultural differences and cognitive abilities across all Tiers in the RTI model and
special education populations.
While Chapter 2 explores the research behind social and emotional learning, the
Second Step Program, and the reasoning and research behind suggested adaptations,
Chapter 3 discusses the process in developing the workshop, incorporating the proposed
strategies for SEL program adaptations. The workshop describes specific strategies for
educators to use with diverse student populations. Based upon available resources, these
adaptations are designed to remediate lessons and allow for implementation flexibility.
Following program fidelity guidelines directs adaptations and helps align them with
California’s identified framework for developing social-emotional curriculums.
3
The California Preschool Learning Foundations were chosen as the basis for
specific lesson selection within the Second Step curriculum. Based upon the lesson’s
alignment with this learning foundation, the basic concept of this adaptation strategy is
designed to incorporate existing materials, along with similar substitutions, such as
puppets and multi-media material (California Department of Education, 2008). An
additional foundation component includes the awareness to recognize “teachable
moments” throughout the school day. These moments refer to opportunities when
teachers can model a predictable sequence of behavior and social skills, based on varying
situations of peer interactions (Sandall et al. 2003).
The Second Step Early Learning Program Implementation Guidelines were also
used to guide adaptations and modifications. Guidelines help children to learn, practice,
and apply skills for self-regulation and social-emotional competence and involve the
implementation of core program elements (Committee for Children, 2011a). State
guidelines hold school districts accountable for upholding academic and standards using
assessment tools to track yearly progress (Boberly, 2005). The Desired Results
Developmental Profile access assessment tool was recommended for helping monitor
student behavior and track social and emotional progress (California Department of
Education, 2007a).
Chapter 4 describes the outcome of researching the literature on the importance of
social and emotional learning curriculum, and the need to use science-based curriculum.
4
Identification of specific areas SEL curriculum could be enhanced with adaptations led to
the development of a workshop designed to inform educators regarding adaptation
resources, in conjunction with current California guidelines and curriculum framework.
More specifically, how to modify the Second Step Early Learning Program to better suit
the needs of diverse classrooms. These strategies for adaptations also encourage the use
of creativity and allows for environmental flexibility and available resources. The
ultimate goal of the workshop is to make the process of identifying and creating
appropriate adaptations systematic, in an effort to provide the significantly important task
of teaching young children social and emotional skills, as effective and simple as
possible.
5
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The earlier children are exposed to social and emotional learning skill instruction,
the greater the likelihood these services will be effective and promote long-term success
(Fredricks et al., 2010). Research suggests that preschool is an ideal time to address the
development of social-emotional skills needed to enter school (Alverez et al., 2009). The
development of these skills plays a key role in the “education of the whole child,” which
is a concept rooted in the writings and teachings of ancient cultures (Elias, 2006, p. 5). A
strong body of research also indicates that scientifically researched-based social and
emotional learning (SEL) programs and approaches result in increased academic
achievement, decreased problem behaviors, and improved classroom climates. However,
SEL skills develop differently in all students, and research on differentiated instruction
reveals that educational experiences, marked by instruction that use different modalities,
are more likely to reach all children (Elias, 2006). Therefore, for educators to effectively
teach SEL skills to their diverse student populations, SEL practices and programs need to
be science-based and incorporate a variety of teaching modalities.
The Second Step Program is an example of a science-based curriculum developed
for preschoolers to students in high school, focusing on emotional development and
violence prevention. Although the Second Step program is one of the highest ranked
programs on the National Registry of Evidenced-based Programs and Practices (NREPP),
6
this program has been criticized for only being a Tier I intervention that has not been
adapted to meet the needs of students requiring more intensive intervention services.
Therefore, a need has been established for the development of systematic adaptations to
the Second Step program that help educators meet the needs of diverse populations that
do not interfere with program integrity (Alverez & Anderson-Kethmark, 2009). The goal
for the literature review is to identify methods for adapting and modifying social and
emotional programs, looking specifically at the Second Step Early Learning Program
developed for preschoolers, and the reasoning and research behind recommended
adaptations.
The role of Social and Emotional Learning in Early Development
Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills are an important part of a child’s
development. The earlier children learn positive social and emotional skills, the better
prepared they are to succeed academically and behave appropriately with peers.
Research suggests that developing these skills early in life makes a difference in their
overall long-term health (Elias, 2006). According to studies, children’s social and
emotional functioning, and subsequent behaviors, begin to stabilize around the age of
eight, and can even predict their mental health later in life (Joseph & Strain, 2003). For
example, children who acquire these skills early are more likely to avoid depression,
violence, and other serious mental health problems as they grow older (Fredericks et al.,
2010). These findings illuminate the importance of establishing good social and
7
emotional skills during the preschool years, not only to prepare children for kindergarten,
but the rest of their lives, as well. Even at the preschool level, there are a multitude of
resources available to guide the adaptation process for social and emotional curriculum
(California Department of Education, 2010).
Harlacher (2009) conducted research at the University of Oregon with social and
emotional learning as a universal level of support. The study used the Strong Kids SEL
curriculum with a sample of 106 third and fourth grade students assigned to either the
treatment or wait-list condition group, and had them complete questionnaires on SEL
knowledge and perceived use of SEL skills. The classroom teachers also completed
social functioning questionnaires on each student. Teachers implemented 12 weekly
lessons across a 3-month period and an additional session approximately 1 month after
the last lesson. They promoted SEL knowledge by providing praise and early correction
on the skills they were learning. Findings revealed the treatment group had greater
positive gains across all of the dependent measures, and these gains maintained at the 2month follow-up period.
Additional research from the University of Oregon conducted by Whitcomb
(2009) addressed the impact of direct teaching of SEL curriculum and incorporation of
skills on emotional knowledge, using the Strong Start Program with first graders. Data
collection from four classrooms in a suburban, northwestern school district was obtained
with the implementation of the interventions and posttest period. Results indicated that
8
Strong Start demonstrated significant increases in students’ knowledge about emotion
situations and significant decreases in their internalizing behaviors associated with
exposure to the program.
Research also shows that when educators incorporate eight elements necessary for
an academic-social-emotional balance, students are more likely to succeed in school and
life. These elements include: (a) linking social-emotional instruction to other school
services; (b) use goal setting to focus instruction; (c) use differentiated instructional
procedures; (d) promote community service to build empathy; (e) involve parents; (f)
build social-emotional skills gradually and systematically; (g) prepare and support staff
well; and (h) evaluate what you do (Elias, 2006). These elements are also considered to
be key components or standards in high quality SEL and prevention programs that focus
on specific behavioral and social-emotional outcomes (California Department of
Education, 2010). These standards are also driven by state and federal policies that
dictate program funding and evaluation for research-based programs. (Borberly, 2005).
What is the Role of Science-Based Prevention Programs in California?
Over the past 40 years, the prevention field has been host to a wide range of
approaches, strategies, and program models. The California Safe and Drug-Free Schools
and Communities (SDFSC) grant calls on prevention providers to adopt science-based
program models. The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) defines “sciencebased” models as theory-driven, reasonably well evaluated, and includes program
9
activities related to theory. A benefit of science-based prevention programs is they are
empirically proven to garner positive impact and translate into program effectiveness
(Borberly, 2005).
According to the California Healthy Kids Resource Center, science-based
prevention programs must demonstrate a level of credible evidence of effectiveness in
order to be classified as such. Evidence must take the form of behavioral outcomes in
research, which empirically demonstrate reductions in health-risk behaviors and/or
increases in health-promoting behaviors at least six months after the completion of the
program. Evidence of effectiveness must also be published in scholarly peer-reviewed
journals. In addition, validated program materials must be complete, available, and ready
to be implemented at school sites in California (California Healthy Kids Resource Center,
2010). Programs or strategies that do not meet minimum NREPP standards are
considered level 1 or level 2 quality programs. Although few programs are able to meet
these stringent standards, there are some that manage to do so and make the transition
from controlled research studies to “real world” implementation (Borberly, 2005).
Despite the stringent standards that are put into place for the purpose of ensuring
quality benefits and maximum program impact, even in “best case” conditions, the reality
of implementing research-based curriculum calls for adjustments to accommodate for
cultural and cognitive variability in classroom environments. Special considerations
include adapting program content to meet the cultural and language needs of students,
10
identifying and modifying program content to account for developmental differences, and
emphasizing student’s strengths (Borberly, 2005).
Research suggests that without intervention, emotional and behavior problems in
young children are more likely to result in academic and social issues. However, with the
passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), and the current culture of high stakes testing, a
severe narrowing of the curriculum in American public schools has occurred. Many
schools, feeling the pressure to make their adequate yearly progress, have simply stopped
teaching the subjects that are not tested, such as social-emotional learning (Borbely,
2005). Social-emotional and life skills must be taught explicitly at all grade levels. Like
reading or math, if social-emotional skills are not taught systematically, they will not be
internalized and become part of a child’s lifelong skill set (Elias, 2006). Current research
also indicates that children’s social and emotional abilities are strongly associated with
their academic skills and their ability to learn and be successful in school (Joseph &
Strain, 2003). Social Emotional Learning (SEL) is sometimes called the “missing piece”
because it represents a part of education that links academic knowledge with a specific
set of skills important for success at home, school, and life in general (Elias, 2006).
The 2002 passage of the NCLB act marked a major shift in the role of the federal
government in public education (Godinez, 2010). In his book, No Child Left Behind and
the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965-2005, McGuinn (2006) traced the
history and events leading up to the passage of NCLB. McGuinn asserts that although
11
the foundation was laid in earlier legislation, “the addition of tough federal timetables and
mandatory outcome-based accountability in NCLB are so different and significant as to
constitute a revolution in federal education policy” (p. 7). In addition, this perception
that “America’s schools were failing was at the center of political rhetoric,” and also
served as the basis for legislation in federal education policy that led up to the passage of
NCLB (p. 43).
During his presidency, George W. Bush attempted to change the role of the
federal government from one of simply spending more money on education to a national
system of standards and testing. Although his attempt to legislate such a change with
America 2000 failed, his efforts began the standards movement that soon took over the
American public education system (McGuinn, 2006).
Although the standards movement has somewhat shifted the focus from teaching
SEL skills to teaching academic content assessed on standardized state tests, it has also
directed California and other states in developing social-emotional content standards.
The Preschool Learning Foundations are a tremendous body of research that connects
social-emotional learning with academic and school success. According to California
Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, California has placed priority on aligning
expectations for preschool learning with the state’s kindergarten academic content
standards while complementing the content areas with attention to social and emotional
development (California Department of Education, 2008). California has recognized that
12
many children learn simply by participating in high-quality preschool programs that
incorporate curriculum and other teaching methods that emphasize SEL development.
Learning and developing SEL skills are necessary for children to successfully adapt to
preschool and school in general. California’s Department of Education has also
emphasized that preschool programs must work to serve all children by providing
appropriate conditions for learning that include individually assisting each child to move
towards healthy learning and development (California Department of Education, 2008).
The Second Step Early Learning Program
Designed by the Committee for Children (2010a), the Second Step Program for
Early Learning is a curriculum for preschool students designed to support the emotional
and social development skills that are a necessary for academic achievement and a
smooth transition to Kindergarten. The goal of the program is to “increase school
readiness by promoting self-regulation and social and emotional competence” (p. 1). The
program also identifies “building blocks” which are used to help meet this goal and
includes foundational skills required for cognitive, emotional and behavioral selfregulation. These executive functioning skills are related to attention, working memory
and inhibitory control. The targeted areas of attention in lessons include listening,
noticing, focusing attention, and awareness of sound, environment, own body, and
emotional states. Working memory skills focus on remembering directions, remembering
rules to games, and remembering rules for listening/behavior in groups. Inhibitory
13
control combines the skills of attention and working memory so preschoolers can develop
more complex skills such as game rule following, following rules for listening and group
behavior, and waiting/delay of gratification (Committee for Children, 2010a).
The Second Step Program for Early Learning is structured so each of the daily
lessons make-up twenty-five weekly themes, which are divided into four units. The units
include skills for learning, empathy, emotion management, and friendship and problem
solving (Committee for Children, 2010c). Daily lessons are written on weekly theme
cards that include a story and discussion questions, a five-day plan for the week, puppet
scripts, daily skill practice activities and recommended songs, and brain building games
and books. The lessons reinforce weekly themes that incorporate a variety of teaching
activities and resources. These resources consist of puppet scripts, stories, discussions,
books, games, songs and photos (Committee for Children, 2010b).
The program curriculum includes two “child” puppets that represent a girl and a
boy. The teacher is prompted to create a biography for each puppet that reflects the lives
and cultures of their students. Puppets are used to model skills for academic and social
emotional learning, in addition to introducing the concepts presented in the stories. A
brief story, illustrated with photos of real children, represents typical classroom situations
that preschoolers experience. After each story is read, a few key questions are presented
to explore the situation further and address feelings and skills presented in the story. This
activity is designed to model specific language for children to use in daily situations; for
14
example, “do you want to play?”. The program also incorporates activities designed for
small and large group participation. Also recommended are songs, games, and books
referenced on the weekly theme cards that can be used during the week to reinforce
lessons with various peer interactions throughout the day (Committee for Children,
2010b, p.4).
Although the new fourth edition of the Second Step program designed for
preschoolers is not yet released, reviews of the previous Second Step
Preschool/Kindergarten curriculum have identified areas of strength along with other
potential areas of improvement. A meta-analysis of research, conducted by Frey and
Sylvester (1997), evaluated three studies to determine program strengths and weaknesses.
The first study looked at aggression and positive social behavior in students from twelve
schools in Washington, in first through third grade. Observations and questionnaires
were used to gather data and the results concluded the curriculum led to moderate
decreases in aggression and increases in pro-social behavior. However, parent and
teacher ratings did not indicate differences between the experimental and control groups.
The second study assessed attitudes and teaching practices, and class climate over three
years of program participation. The results suggest teachers and class environment
undergo positive changes. The third study was conducted in twelve public and two
private schools in Washington, with students in preschool through grade eight. The
results indicate the program may promote social skills knowledge with students across all
15
age levels. A limitation in their study was the lack of random assignment to the control
group and a lack of variability in the teaching population assignments. The more positive
improvements in social skills may have been a result of general positive teaching
strategies, rather than participation in the Second Step program. However, the results
could not be completely dismissed, especially given the decrease in aggression and
increase in positive social behaviors demonstrated by participants (Frey & Sylvester,
1997).
The Committee for Children (2002) conducted their own review of the research
on the effectiveness of the Second Step program. More specifically, they discovered preschool and kindergarten children from low-income urban families showed decreased
levels of aggression and disruptiveness, and increased knowledge of social skills, after
completing the program. Other studies, ranging from elementary to middle school
grades, and across rural and urban communities, found participation in the Second Step
program improved students’ actual behaviors, as well as their knowledge, attitude and
motivation (Committee for Children, 2002).
According to Alvarez and Anderson-Kethmark (2009), the Second Step preschool
curriculum has many strong points, including targeting pro-social skills, the ease of
curriculum implementation, and level of engagement of students with the curriculum.
The curriculum encourages students to assess situations, use problem solving and reflect
on what they would do in similar situations.
16
The Second Step Program has been found in numerous research studies to be an
effective program, but limitations and areas for improvement have also been documented.
Alvarez and Anderson-Kethmark (2009) reviewed research on the Second Step program.
The research revealed that teachers reported the program to be “overly structured and
repetitive” which, led to problems with maintaining program fidelity (p. 249). It was also
noted that the program lacked research in pre-kindergarten population studies, and was
not as accessible for students who required more that a Tier I Response to Intervention
(RTI) service (Alvarez & Anderson-Kethmark, 2009).
Adapting Science-Based Prevention Programs and Curricula
Taking program models rigorously tested in controlled research studies and
implementing them in the “real world” calls for finding the optimal balance between
maintaining program fidelity and making necessary adaptations. Adaptation, also
referred to as “reinvention”, is the unintentional or deliberate modification of original
program models. Modifications may take the form of eliminating, abbreviating,
reorganizing, or supplementing program structure or content. Eliminations might include
removing lessons or other components that do not address specific classroom needs or
available resources. Abbreviating might take the form of shortening lesson length and
prioritizing lesson content according to what teachers would like to focus on.
Reorganization could involve changing the order of information presented and being
creative with available classroom resources. Supplementing program structure or content
17
may also include adding activities and games that reinforce learning and cultivate further
understanding and exploration. Selecting high quality programs or strategies from the
available science-based prevention programs answers the call for increased
accountability, excellence, and efficacy. Another important aspect in the adaptation
process is program fidelity. Fidelity, also referred to as “adherence,” “integrity,” and
“purity,” is the extent to which a curriculum or program model is delivered in accordance
with the intended (and tested) design. Strict adherence to the original program model,
including its timeline, sequence, content, and context is associated with high program
fidelity (Borberly, 2005).
Backer (2001) has also published a review of adaptation strategies and proposed a
model for program adaptation which includes six steps. The focus is on the theory
behind the program, the identification of the core components, and examining fidelity and
adaptation concerns. Backer (2001) states that identifying and understanding the theory
base behind the program includes researching the ideas or precursors for the creation of
the program. The target populations and problems the program is trying to prevent are
also considered to be precursors in program creation. Also, in Backer’s adaptation
model, the identification of core components is critical because they guide the intended
approach and style behind the program, as well as its intended goals. The next step
incorporates assessing fidelity/adaptation concerns relative to particular implementation
18
sites, which also includes determining the elements that can be changed without
interfering with program fidelity.
The last three steps in Backer’s (2011) adaptation model include: consulting as
needed with program developers to verify if any changes or adaptations will compromise
the theory or core components of the program; consulting with the community in which
implementation will take place; and developing an implementation plan based on these
inputs, with a team approach.
Cultural adaptations within diverse classrooms are important because cultural
knowledge provides young children with a sense of identity and a frame of reference that
helps them navigate the world around them (Denham & Weissberg, 2004). Educators are
also called to realize that “every interaction between young children and others is a
cultural experience” (p. 14). When children are exposed to classroom programs and
environments that differ from the language and culture of their home, it is the
responsibility of educators to work with children and their families in a way that
addresses these cultural differences. Also, educators are urged to consider that they may
have unique cultural viewpoints that could affect their interactions with others and
progress towards classroom and program goals. Therefore, culturally focused
considerations and adaptations are necessary to support the social and emotional needs of
all children. Getting to know children’s families is also an important step in better
understanding how each child can be influenced by specific family routines, mother’s
19
games and lullabies, family stories, and the family’s way of interacting and questioning
(Denham & Weissberg, 2004).
Resnicow, Soler, Braithwaite, Ahulwalia, and Butler (2000) describe two
categories of cultural modifications to interventions: surface structural or deep
modifications. Surface structural modifications involve matching materials and messages
to superficial characteristics of population (e.g., language, music, clothing). Deep
structural modifications are more extensive and involve the cultural, social, historical,
environmental and psychological forces that influence the target health behavior. Turner
(2000) also identified specific needs that should be considered when making cultural
adaptations to interventions: (a) sensitivity to influence of specific cultural risk and
protective factors; (b) level of acculturation and acculturation differences; (c) family
migration patterns; (d) socioeconomic factors; (e) language preferences and dialects; (f)
geographic and regional differences; and (g) intragroup heterogeneity. Due to the variety
of needs and special considerations necessary to support each child’s learning, educators
have to make adjustments and accommodations to reach the diverse learners that need
more intensive interventions. Thus, a general problem-solving framework, Response to
Intervention (RTI), has evolved. Although RTI has not been a new concept nationally, it
is rooted within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004
(Sugai, 2001).
20
Although most RTI implementation efforts have focused on academic curriculum
and instructional practices (e.g., early literacy and numeracy), applications of the RTI
framework can also be used as an approach for establishing and redesigning teaching and
learning environments so that they are effective, efficient, relevant, and durable for all
students, families, and educators (Sugai, 2001). A particularly important feature of RTI
is an emphasis on prevention that occurs at three levels. The Primary tier of prevention
includes all students who are exposed to a social behavior curriculum to prevent the
development of problem behaviors and to identify students who are at-risk for developing
those behaviors. Secondary tier prevention provides supplemental social behavior
support to reduce the duration and intensity of problem behaviors. The Third tier of
prevention is individualized and an intensive behavior support plan is developed to
reduce all aspects of the problem behavior. This three-tiered prevention concept also has
direct application to modifying both academic and social behavior curriculum and
supports (Sugai, 2001).
Adapting the Second Step Early Learning Program
Considering the current systematic methods and models used to guide and
develop a variety of adaptation strategies, it is clear that when adapting programs, it is
important to uphold core components, maintain program fidelity and follow
implementation guidelines. However, given the variety of needs and special
considerations of diverse learners, adaptations must be made so educators can incorporate
21
cultural aspects and other available resources that help reinforce lessons. In addition,
federal and state guidelines direct and hold school districts accountable for upholding
academic standards and using standardized assessment tools to track yearly progress
(Borberly, 2005). For these reasons, both California State guidelines and current
adaptation methods and models were explored in the process.
Due to the critical nature of social-emotional development and learning in early
years, The California Preschool Learning Foundations, is a guiding resource in the
adaptation process. This resource ensures the adapted curriculum content meets the
social-emotional goals, specific to early learning foundations. For example, the
“Focusing Attention” lesson from Second Step is aligned with the Learning Foundations
“self” concept, in which children learn to regulate their attention, thoughts, feelings and
impulses more consistently (California Department of Education, 2008). The “Asking
for What you Need or Want” lesson aligns with the foundation in which children learn to
take greater initiative in seeking the support of their primary teachers and caregivers
(California Department of Education, 2008). Not only are children exposed to important
social and emotional skills early in school, they are also recognized as fundamental skills
necessary for success in kindergarten. In addition, the California Preschool Learning
Foundations publication, also lists concrete examples of behaviors that indicate student
progress towards a particular foundation or standard. Therefore, these examples can also
22
help educators gauge when students exhibit the basic foundational skills taught in each
lesson’s concept and objective (California Department of Education, 2008).
Although songs, games, and books are noted as supplemental resources, the
Second Step program identifies core elements that are essential in maintaining program
outcome and fidelity. The Fidelity Guidelines and Checklist for the Second Step
Program, written by the California Healthy Kids Resource Center, specifies seven key
dimensions that are essential to program effectiveness. These dimensions take into
account delivery, dosage, setting, materials, target population, provider characteristics
and provider training (California Department of Education, 2007b).
The curriculum is delivered through instructional strategies such as skills
modeling, coaching and cuing, storytelling, group discussion and role-play. The dosage
refers to the number, length and frequency of lessons necessary for effective outcomes.
Setting refers to the grade of the classroom and materials consist of the Second Step
curriculum. Male and female students in preschool to high school from diverse cultural
and socioeconomic backgrounds make up the target population. Provider qualifications
require credentialed teachers that attended provider training administered by the
Committee for Children (California Department of Education, 2007b). Essentially,
regardless of the adaptations you make to the program, the four core elements are
teaching all the Second Step Weekly Theme card activities, playing the games every day,
reinforcing skills and concepts throughout the day, and send home links to families
23
(Committee for Children, 2011a). These guidelines and core components also allow for
teaching flexibility which helps educators support social and academic strengths in
diverse classrooms (California Department of Education, 2007b).
A systematic way of measuring the progress of children towards achieving the
goals outlined by Learning Foundations is the Desired Results Developmental Profile
access Manual, developed by the California Department of Education (2007a). This is a
tool for teachers to track the progress of young children in the following four main areas:
(a) children are personally and socially competent; (b) children are effective learners; (c)
children show physical and motor competence; and (d) children are safe and healthy.
Included is a checklist, which is administered at the beginning and end of each school
year. The data gathered from the checklist is used specifically to monitor preschoolers in
special education in the areas of strengths and where more development is needed.
However, the checklist is available online for all teachers to download and track student’s
social and emotional development, in conjunction with using the Second Step Program
((http://www.draccess.org/assessors/drdpinstruments/AccessInfoRatingRecord.html#ratin
grecord).
As mentioned previously, the Second Step Program has limitations, which include
the interventions are only designed for Tier 1 RTI settings, and an absence of social skills
curriculum for students who qualify for special education (Alvarez & AndersonKethmark, 2009). The Second Step lessons are designed for whole-class instruction, but
24
they can also be used with small groups or individually for more concentrated skill
practice and repetition. For special education populations, adaptations can include
shortening the lesson to focus on one or two key concepts, editing the vocabulary for
comprehension levels, and/or simplifying the content for appropriate target population.
California’s Division for Early Childhood (DEC) has created a comprehensive
framework outlining recommended practices for interventions with early childhood
special education students. This framework addresses pre-school age children and
follows a “best-practice”, research-based approach, which align with state and federal
education laws. One of the DEC’s goals is to bridge the gap between research and
practice (Sandall et al., 2005). These guidelines can be incorporated into the Second Step
Program, or as a reference to ensure students are receiving interventions that have been
proved effective for special education.
Borberly (2005) mentioned the importance of adapting program content to meet
the cultural and language needs of students. Teachers can integrate their own material,
such as puppets, songs and pictures to reinforce skills and add meaningful content to the
Second Step lessons. An example of adaptations include inserting cultural considerations
whenever appropriate, such as the background stories teachers create for the boy and girl
puppets used in the lessons. Another important consideration when implementing lesson
concepts refers to “teachable moments”, or opportunities throughout the day when
teachers can model desired behaviors and social skills (Sandall et al., 2005). Examples
25
include reminding students to ask for help in a respectful voice, ways our bodies help us
to be good listeners, and cultural sensitivity issues that arise throughout the day.
The workshop development component of the project will include the guidelines,
considerations, and adaptations listed above, but will also be supplemented with more
specific ideas for making RTI, special education, and cultural changes. Second Step
lessons will be used as examples for making necessary adaptations, along with group
collaboration to determine additional input and ideas. Tools for maximizing SEL skills
throughout the school day and across the classroom and home setting will also be
discussed.
Conclusion
In a time where standards and accountability in education are at an alltime high, using programs with science-based proven effectiveness are crucial to
curriculum implementation. Choosing the appropriate program is only the first step
though, with educators being responsible for closing the gap between the research lab and
diverse classroom needs. Especially in California, important factors like culture, demand
program content be adapted so all children can access the information. With a focus on
academic results, social and emotional learning can sometimes be overlooked. However,
like most interventions, the earlier children are exposed to social and emotional skills, the
greater their chances of successfully mastering these areas of strength for future success.
The Second Step Early Learning Program is an example of a science-based prevention
26
program, focused on providing preschoolers with the social and emotional tools
necessary to enter kindergarten prepared. Using state guidelines, Preschool Learning
Foundations, assessment measures, and program implementation goals specific to the
pre-school population, the Second Step program can be expanded to address cultural
differences, curriculum for RTI tier one and two populations, and students in special
education.
27
Chapter 3
METHODS
This research project was exploratory in nature and examined practical ways for
educators to make adaptations and modifications to program content without interfering
with the integrity or core components of a program. Based on available research and
data, a method for making systematic adaptations and modifications to the new 2011
edition of the Second Step Early Learning Program was developed. The Second Step
Program is rated by the National Registry of Evidence Based Programs and Practices
(NREPP) as a Model Program and is one of the most widely used prevention programs in
school districts across America. The shared collaborative experiences of the authors with
the Second Step developers from the Committee for Children, and their work with
preschool teachers who implemented social-emotional programs from both the San Juan
Unified School District and Elk Grove Unified School District, both located in
Sacramento, California, served as the basis for this project.
Special attention was given to social-emotional learning (SEL) to support the
development of SEL skills for students. These experiences inspired the authors to begin
exploring ways to help teachers make program content more accessible to cognitively and
culturally diverse populations of students through systematic adaptations, that did not
interfere with the integrity of a program.
28
The research design was based on resources obtained from the California
Department of Education, database search engines, periodicals and internet sources. The
resources selected for inclusion in the literature review were primarily from peerreviewed journals. Research on SEL programs and outcomes were also a main focus
because of the relevance to the development and structure of the Second Step Early
Learning Program.
After reviewing relevant material, the authors developed a method for adapting
lesson content from the Second Step Early Learning Program. This included the Center
for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) recommendations for making effective
adaptations to program content, in addition to California’s Preschool Learning
Foundations and Desired Results Developmental Profile access (DRDP) checklist. To
illustrate the specific steps, a PowerPoint presentation and workshop was developed.
The PowerPoint presentation goal was to provide educators with current
information pertaining to research-based program development and viable methods for
adapting curriculum content. In preparation for the development of the PowerPoint
presentation, best practice guidelines for presentations were reviewed. The presentation
also included an overview of the adaptation method that was designed to fit the needs of
diverse learners and allow educators the flexibility to use existing resources. Specific
steps and examples of the adaptation method were also incorporated into the structure of
the workshop.
29
The presentation also included activities and small group discussions that were
intended to provide participants with opportunities to observe, discuss, and practice
making viable adaptations to a lesson from the Second Step Early Learning Program.
Recommendations for the presenter were included within the notes section of the slides,
and the final presentation is provided in Appendix A.
30
Chapter 4
RESULTS
Information obtained from the literature review was used to create a training
workshop for educators. The workshop is designed to last three hours and the manual,
slides with presentation notes, and activities are included in the project addendum. This
project and related workshop reviews the key components of science-based prevention
programs, with a specific focus on the critical nature of social-emotional learning (SEL)
for preschool populations. In addition, a systematic method is provided for adapting
program content from the Second Step Early Learning Program.
The goal of the workshop was threefold: (a) to share information regarding
science-based social-emotional learning programs, (b) to provide educators with a
feasible and systematic method to adapt lessons from the Second Sept Early Learning
Program, and (c) to help educators apply this method to other programs and curricula to
make content more accessible to diverse learners.
A specific focus of this project is on the critical nature of social-emotional skill
development for preschoolers through exposure to high quality science-based prevention
programs. Therefore, it is important educators understand how science-based prevention
programs can be adapted or modified to fit the needs of more diverse learners without
compromising the integrity of the program.
31
Educators share a duty to help one another maximize SEL opportunities for all
students. This includes implementing high-quality SEL programs and approaches
effectively so diverse learners can access prevention program content. By learning how
science-based prevention programs are developed and structured, educators can gain a
better understanding of the techniques and strategies that are most effective in creating
desired outcomes. Furthermore, knowledge of program development and evaluation
provides a clearer picture of what drives educational practices at both the state and
national levels.
This workshop also includes implementation guidelines for Second Step that
provide a flexible structure for adaptations that can fit into an RTI model, such as
simplifying vocabulary and repeating lesson activates in smaller or individualized group
settings. The flexible structure of the guidelines also allows educators to introduce
existing classroom resources, such as puppets and songs, in combination with the lessons.
For special education populations, adaptations can include shortening the lesson to focus
on one or two key concepts, editing the vocabulary for comprehension levels, and/or
simplifying the content for appropriate target population. Other resources that were
incorporated into the adaptation method include the recommendations for effective
adaptations developed by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), and
materials gathered from the California Department of Education, which are specific to
early childhood social-emotional development.
32
It is hoped workshop participants will obtain knowledge about science-based
prevention programs, with a specific focus on programs that promote the development of
SEL skills in preschoolers. Attendees will also practice making adaptations to lessons
from the Second Step Early Learning Program using the method developed by the
authors. The intended result is that educators will gain a solid understanding of how to
make adaptations to programs and curricula that do not interfere with program integrity.
33
APPENDIX A
Presenter’s Manual
34
PRESENTER’S MANUAL
Introduction
School Psychologists and other educational professionals have a responsibility to
develop a variety of skills and knowledge relevant to current educational practices and
law. After the No Child Left Behind Act was passed, the focus on program
accountability prompted the evolution of significant changes in the fields of intervention
and prevention. In response to these changes, a proliferation of approaches, strategies
and program models have been developed and rigorously tested in controlled research
studies (Borbely, 2005). As a result, research-based prevention programs with
demonstrated effectiveness, have been implemented in classrooms across America.
However, the transition between controlled research studies and “real world”
implementation is not always seamless. Therefore, the need for a methodology that
demonstrates how to make adaptations and modifications without compromising program
integrity has been created. In response to this need, a training seminar was developed to
guide school psychologists and educators with implementing this methodology.
This manual and accompanying PowerPoint presentation are designed to educate
school psychologists and other educational professionals on science-based program
models and methods for adapting them for diverse learners. The methods are designed to
maintain program integrity and incorporate resources published by the California
Department of Education. Specific focus is given to the new Second Step Early Learning
Program, which targets social emotional competence in preschool populations. In
addition, the training seminar is also designed to provide participants with the
opportunity to share their experiences and skills with colleagues and practice adapting a
sample lesson plan using the outlined method and resources.
Nature of Training Seminar
This project seminar is designed to be delivered over the course of two days, one
and a half hours per day, for a combined total of three and a half hours. One ten minute
break per day is also incorporated into the seminar. Audience participation is an integral
part of this presentation and there are several opportunities to consult with colleagues and
share experiences. To ensure maximum learning and audience participation, presenter(s)
must use quality presentation techniques such as pausing for questions, demonstrating
active listening, and validating participant input. In addition, it is recommended that
presenter(s) and participants wear name badges and have time at the beginning of the
presentation to introduce themselves. Before beginning the seminar, the presenter(s) will
need to make copies of the handouts for each participant. The handouts are available at
the end of this manual.
35
In preparation for giving this workshop, the presenter(s) should read through the
Sample Presentation Language (SPL) on each slide and the accompanying notes. It is
also strongly recommended that the presenter(s) become familiar with the information
cited and referenced at the end of the presentation. This will help to ensure that the
information being presented is clear and concise. The presenter(s) will also be more
likely to provide participants with accurate information and guidance regarding questions
that are not directly answered within the scope of the presentation.
Guidance for Presenters
The training seminar is presented as a series of Microsoft PowerPoint slides. The
slides are prepared with all necessary information for presenting the workshop. On the
notes section of each slide is general information about the slide and its purpose. The
presenter may use his or her own language when presenting, however SPL has also been
provided in bold print. Many slides include discussion points after certain bullets. The
notes will direct the presenter to first READ the slide or a portion of the slide, then SAY
wording provided in bold.
The seminar is designed to include audience participation. Questions and
activities are embedded throughout the slide notes. To highlight these important notes
questions the presenter should ask of the participants are included directly into the SPL.
Directions for activities and time limits for group discussions are provided.
The presentation can be performed with one or multiple presenters. If there are
two presenters, a natural place to change is after the first break when the topic changes
from science-based prevention to program adaptations and modifications. Additional
presenters may be in charge of activities. There are no firm rules regarding presenter
changes or segments. However, it is recommended that presenters introduce themselves
at the beginning of the presentation and again before they begin a later segment (other
than the first presenter).
A recommended timeline for the workshop follows:
Slides
Topic
Day 1: #1-4
Introduction and Outline
#5-12
Break
Science Based Prevention and
Social Emotional Learning (SEL)
Programs
10 minutes
36
Duration
10 minutes
45 minutes
#13-20
Program Adaptations and Modifications
End of Day 1
25 minutes
Outline and Review
10 minutes
#23-33
Break
The Second Step Early Learning Program
10 minutes
35 minutes
#34-39
Lesson Adaptation Activity
End of Day 2-FINISH!
35 minutes
Day 2: #21-22
About the Authors
Sarah Gwen Thomas and Erin Rose Gravert completed their Masters and
Education Specialist degrees at California State University, Sacramento. Both will be
Nationally Certified School Psychologist as of May 21, 2011. This training seminar was
completed to satisfy part of the requirements of their Education Specialist degrees.
37
APPENDIX B
Workshop Handouts
38
39
40
41
APPENDIX C
Workshop Slides
42
Slide 1
Systematically Adapting Social
Emotional Program Content: A
Closer Look at the Second Step
Early Learning Program
1
A PRESENTATION BY:
SARAH G. THOMAS
& ERIN GRAVERT
Wait until every one is in their seats and appears ready to begin before saying the opening presenter
script.
SAMPLE PRESENTATION LANGAGE (SPL) :Hello and Good morning! I would like to welcome you to our
two-day workshop on how to modify the Second Step Early Learning Program. First, I’d like to begin by
briefly introducing myself and then finding out more about everyone in attendance.
It is important to keep these introductions brief. If the group is small (e.g., 15 or fewer) go around the
room and give each participant a chance to identify him or herself, specify their current job duties and
how adapting or modifying programs fits into these duties. Before I go over what we are going to cover
over the course of the next two days, I have some questions to ask all of you, just raise your hand if the
answer is YES. First,
how many of you have had to adapt or modify programs or curriculums before?
How many of you knew that the changes made did not interfere with the core components or the key
elements of the program?
(As a follow-up question you may ask a few of those that raised their hands to specify this prior training)
How many of you have used any form of the Second Step program?
(As a follow-up question you may ask a few of those that raised their hands to specify this prior training)
How many of you have made adaptations or modifications to the Second Step program?
It is important that the workshop facilitator validate the responses and point out similarities and
differences in participant answers, as their knowledge will be later called upon in the presentation.
I am thankful for those of you who shared as each of your experiences with this material is valuable and
will be called upon later during group discussions. Before we begin I would like to go over some logistics
43
with you. First, we will meet in the same room (or specify another location) at_____ (Insert time
frames). We will also have one ten minute break both days we meet”.
“Any questions? (answer any questions the participants may have as briefly as possible) Let’s begin!”
Slide 2
TRAINING SEMINAR OVERVIEW
Day 1



Definition of Project
Seminar
Science-Based
Prevention and SocialEmotional Learning
(SEL) Programs
Program Adaptations
and Modifications
Day 2



Introduction to the
Second Step Early
Learning Program
Proposed Methodology
Implementing
strategies with
lessons from Second
Step
2
Slides: 2-4
Approximate Time: 10 minutes
SPL: Our overview of the next two days is as follows: We will go over the definition of
our seminar, cover what science-based prevention programs are and how they relate
to social-emotional learning programs. Our final topic of the day will be on current
adaptation and modification strategies. For our second day, we will explain the Second
Step Early Learning Program, present the proposed method for making adaptations,
show you how to use this strategy with lessons form Second Step Early, and give you
the opportunity to create your own adaptation strategies, using the same tools.
*There will be slide prompts for break times
44
SPL: We will now pass out the workshop materials package. The first section includes
power point slides. The other includes handouts, most of which can be adapted for
individual use. However, it is important to acknowledge that we do not own the
copyright to some materials, and these have a “Sample” watermark printed across the
page.
45
Slide 3
PROJECT DEFINITION AND
PREFACE



Presentation
Audience: Educators and School Psychologists
Critical Outcomes
-Attendees will:
* Comprehend the critical nature of science-based
prevention programs, with special attention to socialemotional learning and preschool populations.
* Learn about existing adaptations methods and
the proposed method applied to the New Second Step
Early Learning Program
* Practice implementing the method with specific
lessons from the Second Step Early Learning
Program
3
The seminar facilitator should read the following out loud to the attendees and ask if
anyone needs clarification on any of the critical outcomes. It should be noted that most
questions will be answered in the following slides. Read the entire slide, pausing at each
bullet point.
SPL: Before we continue, there are some prefacing comments I would like to make.
First, the positive impacts science based prevention programs have on students is well
documented. Social-Emotional learning (SEL) programs are also apart of the umbrella
of prevention programs. Specifically, teaching SEL skills to preschoolers, via strong
research and science based prevention programs, can provide them with the skills
necessary to achieve and succeed throughout their lives. In addition, it is widely
accepted that if children do not learn these critical skills early on, they are less likely to
do well in school, and lead happy productive lives. In other words, we as educators
owe it to ourselves and our students to prepare the future leaders of society with the
critical social knowledge and emotional intelligence necessary for success.
46
Slide 4
DAY 1 WORKSHOP OUTLINE

Science-based Prevention and SEL Programs



What is a science-based prevention program?
How do SEL programs fit into the picture?
Program Adaptations and Modifications



What are program adaptations and modifications?
What are important factors to consider when
adapting and modifying program content?
What are some viable program adaptations?
4
SPL: This overview of workshop #1 has six parts. Part one is a brief introduction to
science-based prevention programs, and part two includes information on socialemotional learning (SEL) and the goals of SEL programs and curriculums. Part three
discusses the legal aspects of these programs and how program monitoring has
influenced the development of high quality programs. At that point, we will take a ten
minute break and reconvene for the last portion of the workshop for today. After
break, we will discuss part four, which is on the Response To Intervention (RTI) model
and how it can be used to help teachers make program and curriculum adaptations.
For parts five and six, we will discuss two other proposed methods for adaptations and
how they work to balance program fidelity.
47
Slide 5
HOW IS SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH
DEFINED?


Research that involves the application of
rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to
obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to
education activities and programs (Borbely,
2005)
SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION: 5 MINUTES
5
Slides: 5-14
Approximate Time: 45 minutes
A 10 minute break should follow the presentation of this section.
After reading the first bullet point, the presenter may wish to comment on how much
information is present in this sentence (ex: wow, what a mouth full!, etc.)
SPL: Now that I have read Borbely’s definition of scientifically based research, I would
like all of you to break up into small groups to discuss what this means, and then put it
in your own words. I will ask some of you to share your responses after we reconvene
as a whole group. Please take about 5 minutes.
After approximately 5 minutes, ask for participants to share their answers. Make sure to
validate each answer and thank them for sharing. After 2-3 participants have shared and
you have acknowledged their answers, continue to the next slide.
48
Slide 6
DEFINITION OF SCIENCE-BASED
PREVENTION PROGRAMS: PART I

Science-Based prevention programs are programs
that are determined to be effective by one of the
following agencies:



California Healthy Kids Resource Center
(CHKRC)
Center for the Study of Violence Blueprint
Model
National Registry of Evidenced-Based
Programs and Practices (NREPP)
(California Department of Education, 2010)
6
Read the entire slide out loud and briefly pause after each bullet point. Then read the
SPL for this slide.
SPL: For the purposes of this presentation, we will be focusing on the California
Healthy Kids Resource Center (CHKRC) and the National Registry of Evidenced-Based
(NREPP) programs and Practices in relation to program standards and evaluation.
49
Slide 7
DEFINITION OF SCIENCE-BASED
PROGRAMS: PART II

According to the California Healthy Kids
Resource Center (CHKRC), research-based
programs must demonstrate a level of
credible evidence of effectiveness to earn
the classification of research-validated.
Evidence includes the following:
Behavioral Outcomes
Published Research
 Materials Ready for Implementation


(California Healthy Kids Resource Center, 2011)
7
SPL: The California Healthy Kids Resource Center maintains a current list of all sciencebased prevention programs that provide the following: Behavioral Outcomes means
programs must have empirically demonstrated reductions in health-risk behaviors
and/or increases in health-promoting behaviors at least six months after the
completion of the program. Published Research must also provide evidence of the
effectiveness that is published in scholarly peer-reviewed journals. Lastly, Materials
Ready for Implementation means all program materials are complete, available, and
ready to be implemented at school sites in California (California Healthy Kids Resource
Center, 2011).
50
Slide 8
REFLECTION QUESTIONS
What do you know about the No Child Left
Behind (NCLB) policy ?
 What role does NCLB play in science-based
programming?

8
SPL: Please take approximately five minutes to reflect on these questions and your
knowledge of NCLB. You may write down your responses on the slide notes if you
wish.
51
Slide 9
HOW ARE STANDARDS FOR SCIENCE-BASED
PREVENTION PROGRAMS DEVELOPED?

No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

U.S Department of Education


Principles of Effectiveness (POE)
Guidelines
California Safe and Drug-Free Schools and
Communities (SDFSC) Grant
(Borbley, 2005)
9
SPL: Now that we have discussed how science-based programs are defined, and you
have had time to reflect on NCLB, let us now focus on the process of program
development. First, I would like to briefly address the No Child Left Behind policy and
how it has guided the evolution of prevention practices. At the heart of NCLB are
standards that promote the integration of effective scientifically tested methods in
prevention practices. These standards also specify the use of science-based
programming for children and families. Next, NCLB policy has also prompted the U.S.
Department of Education to develop the Principles of Effectiveness Guidelines that
inform the planning, implementation and monitoring of SDFSC programs. The POE that
guide California’s SDFSC projects indicate “programs or activities must model or be
based on scientifically based research demonstrating that the program to be used will
reduce violence and illegal drug use” (Borbley, 2005). So, the bottom line is that any
program funded through SDFSC grant money must be rigorously tested and
demonstrate a very specific outcome.
52
Slide 10
HOW IS THE QUALITY OF SCIENCEBASED PREVENTION PROGRAMS
DEFINED?

Among the most common systems for defining quality
is the one established by the National Registry of
Evidence-Based Programs and Practices
(NREPP) as part of:
* The U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services’ Substance Abuse and
Mental Health Services Administration
(SAMHSA)
*Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
(CSAP)
10
(Borbely, 2005).
SPL: Now that we have discussed the process by which standards for science-based programs are developed, we
will now explore how the quality of these programs are evaluated. So, let us begin by looking at one of the most
common systems for defining program quality. The National Registry of Evidenced-Based Programs and Practices
(NREPP) works in conjunction with SAMSHA and CSAP to evaluate the quality of any prevention program submitted
to them. The programs are evaluated based on specific criteria and then given a one to three possible rating. The
ratings are as follows:
The first possible rating: Promising Program- A promising program must have been implemented and evaluated
sufficiently and considered to be scientifically defensible. They have demonstrated positive outcomes in
preventing substance abuse and related behaviors. However, they have not yet been shown to have sufficient rigor
and/or consistently positive outcomes required for Effective Program status.
The second possible rating: Effective Program- An effective program is a well-implemented, well-evaluated
program that produces a consistent positive pattern of results (across domains and/or replications). Effective
Programs meet all the criteria of the Model Program level with one exception. The exception is their developers
have yet to agree to work with SAMHSA/CSAP to support broad-based dissemination of their programs, but may
disseminate their programs themselves.
The third and best possible rating: Model Program- A Model Program is a well-implemented, well-evaluated
program, meaning it has been reviewed by the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices
(NREPP) according to rigorous standards of research. Developers, whose programs have the capacity to become
Model Programs, have coordinated and agreed with SAMHSA to provide quality materials, training, and technical
assistance for nationwide implementation.
Are there any questions? Answer approximately 2-3 of the participants’ questions and then move to the next slide.
Make sure to encourage participants to ask questions if they want clarification. If the answers are not apparent or
53
found in the presentation material, make a point ask the participant to wait until break time when you can check your
resources section of the presentation for additional information. Ok, lets move on!
54
Slide 11
THE ROLE OF SCIENCE-BASED PREVENTION IN
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING (SEL) PROGRAMS

Evidence strongly suggests that without
intervention, emotional and behavioral problems
in young children may be less amenable to
intervention after age 8, resulting in an
escalation of academic problems and antisocial
behavior and eventual school drop out in later
years (Joseph & Strain, 2003).
11
SPL: Now that we have discussed the major concepts relative to science-based
prevention programs, we will now delve into how social-emotional learning (SEL)
programs fit into the picture. After this section, we will take a ten minute break. Any
other questions before we start? Quickly answer any questions participants may have
regarding the next section or break time.
First, let’s begin by defining what an (SEL) program is. Read the first bullet point on this
slide first. In addition, social-emotional curricular programs focus on friendship skills,
emotional recognition, problem-solving skills training, violence and substance abuse
prevention, and social and anger coping skills training (Joseph & Strain, 2003). Now
that we have an understanding of the concepts SEL programs typically focus on, we
can now understand how they serve as critical interventions that have far reaching
implications. Read the second bullet point. The statement I just read underscores a
very important point. If children have not received social-emotional interventions
before the age of 8, they are less likely to respond to interventions, thus creating the
potential for devastating outcomes.
55
Slide 12
SEL PROGRAMS AND PRESCHOOL
“All strategies of programming or intervention
can be derived from normative theories of child
development”.
 A strong body of research indicates that children
who enter Kindergarten with positive SEL
profiles also develop positive attitudes about
school, successfully adjust to new experiences
there, and demonstrate good grades and
achievement (Denham & Weissberg, 2004).

12
SPL: Read the slide. Considering the information on this slide and the information that
was just presented, it is clear that the optimal time to implement high quality SEL
programs is at a young age, specifically preschool age. It is also important to note that
for preschoolers, successful interactions with peers is also a crucial predictor of later
mental health and well-being (CADenham & Weissberg, 2004). In sum, the
development of SEL skills is directly correlated to healthy adjustment, academic
success and future well-being. Therefore, teachers, especially preschool teachers, have
a serious obligation to their students to teach SEL skills in the most effective manner
possible. Specifically, they must teach these skills through high quality programs that
incorporate sustained and systematic methodology that is both research based and
peer-reviewed (Elias, 2006). Any questions before we take a break? Briefly answer any
questions the participants have and then state a specific time to return that is ten
minutes from this stop time.
56
Slide 13
PROGRAM ADAPTATIONS AND
MODIFICATIONS

Program Adaptations and Modifications

What are program adaptations and modifications?

Why are they needed?

What are important factors to consider when adapting
and modifying program content?

What are some viable program adaptations?
13
Slides: 13-20
Approximate Time: 25 minutes
After this section is over, review the Workshop Day 2 slide with participants and then
release them for the day.
Wait until participants are back from break and sitting in their seats. Begin the SPL for
this section when it appears as though participants are ready to begin.
SPL: For this next section, we will be discussing what program adaptations and
modifications are specific to science-based prevention programs and curriculum. First,
we will cover general definitions, next we will talk about why they are needed and
what they do, and important factors and considerations when making adaptation and
modifications to programs. The last topic for today focuses on viable adaptations for
programs. Any questions before we begin? Briefly answer any questions the
participants may have and then continue to the next slide.
57
Slide 14
PROGRAM ADAPTATION AND
MODIFICATIONS: DEFINITIONS


Program adaptation may be deliberate or
accidental, and may include program deletions or
additions, modifications of program components,
changes in the manner or intensity of
administration, and cultural modifications.
Small Group Discussion: 10 Minutes
14
(Azziz-Baumgartner, 2010)
SPL: This slide contains the definitions/explanations of the terms “adaptation” and
“modifications” as they relate to our discussion and for the purposes of this
workshop. Read both bullet points on this slide. To sum up this information,
“adaptation” refers to the changes made in a program and “modifications” refer to
the types or specific kinds of changes made. Does any one have questions about this?
Briefly answer any questions participants may have about these definitions. I would like
everyone to form your small groups again and share specific adaptation of
modification strategies you have used, or seen another educator use with a particular
program or curriculum. This activity should also provide one another with some
creative ideas and insight into how you are able to make program material accessible
to more diverse students. You will have approximately ten minutes, start now. If any of
the participants have questions about this activity, briefly answer them and help their
group get started if necessary. It is important to pay close attention to the start and stop
times. Give participants a two minute warning and prompt them to wrap up their
discussions. After the participants appear ready to continue, move to the next slide.
58
Slide 15
PROGRAM ADAPTATIONS AND
MODIFICATIONS: WHY ARE THEY NEEDED?
There is increasing recognition of the importance
of adapting interventions to ensure that they fit
unique needs of diverse populations (AzzizBaumgartner, 2010).
 Using existing, structured program models or
strategies within the unique and variable context
of schools and communities often requires
establishing a compromise between the original
service design and novel circumstance (Borbely,
2005).

15
SPL: Thank you everyone for participating in the group discussions. I hope all of you
were able to learn something new from your colleagues, as well as some creative
strategies for adapting and modifying the programs and curriculums they use. Next, I
would like to call your attention to the first bullet point on this slide. Read the first
bullet point. It is important to acknowledge what is meant by “diverse student
populations”. This refers to students with varying cognitive and developmental skills,
as well as students from different cultural backgrounds and histories. Read the second
bullet point. So, what is being said here? (rhetorical question) Can I please have some
volunteers who would like to explain what it means to “establish a compromise
between the original service design and novel circumstance”? Call on 3-4 participants
to share their answers and make sure to validate what is said. If participants appear to
struggle with this question, ask: “why is it important for educators to make changes to
programs and curriculums when the material is too advanced or the concepts being
taught are too abstract for students to grasp?”
SPL: From our discussion, we understand that making adaptations and modifications
to programs and curriculums helps to make the materials and concepts being taught
accessible to more students. Research has also demonstrated that taking program
models rigorously tested in controlled studies and implementing them in the “real
59
world” or classroom, is not always a seamless transition (Borbley, 2005). Thus, as
educators, we are called to close the “gap’ that exists between science-based program
models and “real world’ implementation. However, before we delve further into this
topic, let us first look at how specific adaptations and modifications effect key
elements in a program or curriculum.
Slide 16
ADAPTATIONS AND MODIFICATIONS:
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS
FIDELITY, also referred to as “adherence”,
“integrity”, and “purity”, is the extent to which a
curriculum or program model is delivered in
accordance with the intended (and tested) design
(Borbley, 2005).
 In practice, fidelity consists of implementing
essential components of a program (Saint-Jean,
2010).
 Researchers who study the balance between
program fidelity and adaptation suggest that
program curriculum is comprised of CORE
COMPONENTS (Borbley, 2005)

16
SPL: Before we continue, it is important to understand that adaptations and
modifications should only be done for the purpose of making program content more
accessible to diverse student populations. Program developers conduct extensive tests
and evaluations to ensure the performance and quality of their product, thus changing
any aspect has the potential to effect the intended outcome. More specifically, the
overall goal of program fidelity is to maintain scientific confidence that changes in the
dependent variable are attributable to the independent variable (Saint-Jean, 2010).
Before we continue, may I please have a volunteer who can explain to all of us what
dependent and independent variables are? Call on 1-2 participants to explain the
definitions of dependent and independent variables and make sure to validate and/or
politely correct their responses.
60
SPL: So, it is the responsibility of educators to ensure that any changes made to the
intended delivery of the program or curriculum adhere to program fidelity
components (Borbley, 2005). Read the firs and second bullet point. All science-based
programs and curriculums have fidelity guidelines or implementation guidelines that
specify how to maintain the core components. These core components are critical to
achieving program impact. These are the “active ingredients” of the formula for
program success (Borbley, 2005).
Slide 17
ADAPTATIONS AND MODIFICATIONS: IMPORTANT
CONSIDERATIONS CONTINUED
Core components may be elements of program
structure (e.g. the sequence of sessions or context
of delivery), program content (e.g. specific
concepts or skill sets), or method of delivery (e.g.
“homework” assignments, classroom infusion,
etc.) (Saint-Jean, 2010).
 Modification to core components jeopardizes the
likelihood that a program will be effective
(Borbley, 2005).

17
SPL: The identification of the core components is the first step before making any
adaptations or modifications to program or curriculum content. Read the first bullet
61
point. Next, it is important to examine other program fidelity considerations such as
program dosage which pertains to length of lessons or activities, intensity which refers
to how many activities or lessons focus on a particular concept, and duration, which
refers to time spent delivering services (Saint-Jean, 2010). Read the second bullet
point. Before we move on to the next slide, does any one have any questions about
the information presented on this slide? Briefly answer participant questions and move
on to the next slide.
62
Slide 18
ADAPTATIONS AND MODIFICATIONS:
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS CONTINUED
The characteristics of the provider include
culture of the provider compared to the
population and type of provider (Saint-Jean,
2010).
 The characteristics of the priority population
include the match of the program with language,
ethnicity and geographical (rural-urban) area
(Saint-Jean, 2010).
 Small group discussion: 10 Minutes

18
(Saint-Jean, 2010)
After participants have shared, read the first two bullet points.
SPL: Other factors that effect program fidelity include the characteristics of the
provider and characteristics of the target population. Now, I would like everyone to
break up into their small groups and discuss how the characteristics of the provider
and target population can affect fidelity? After ten minutes of discussion, I will ask for
some volunteers to share with everyone what their group came up with. Allow ten
minutes for discussion and then provide everyone with a two minute warning before it is
time to wrap up their discussion. After ten minutes, continue with SPL.
SPL: Ok everyone, thank you for engaging in our last group discussion for today. Now, I
would like to request that some volunteers share what their groups came up with. Call
on approximately 3-4 participants to share their answers and make sure to validate their
answers. Then, read the last bullet point on this slide and proceed to the next slide.
63
Slide 19
WHAT ARE SOME VIABLE ADAPTATIONS?
Adapt program content to the culture and language
of participants.
-Example: Adjust language, or activities to account for relevant
participant characteristics

Identify and modify program content to account for
developmental influences
-Example: Opt not to use designated puppets if inappropriate
for participants’ maturity level

Capitalize on participant strengths; acknowledge but
do not focus exclusively on weaknesses.
-.Example: Spend more time on group activities for cohesive
participant groups to maximize engagement; “work on” but
do not dwell on public speaking activities with youth
uncomfortable with conversational English.

19
SPL: For our last topic of the day, we will examine some viable adaptations and
modifications to programs that do not interfere with fidelity. Researchers from the
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) have outlined some examples of
recommended effective adaptations. Read bullet point 2-4 on the slide including the
examples. Then continue with SPL.
SPL: Can I please have some volunteers to share what their experiences have been
making any of these adaptations? Please feel free to talk about some strategies or
materials you incorporated that worked or perhaps didn’t work as well? Call on 3-4
volunteers to share their experiences and validate their comments and experiences.
Thank you everyone for sharing, your experiences and perspectives are valuable to us
all. Before we wrap up, I will go over what we will discuss tomorrow and then release
you for the day. Proceed to the next slide.
64
Slide 20
DAY 2 WORKSHOP OUTLINE

Introduction to the Second Step Early Learning
Program
-Goals, lessons, and program structure

Proposed Methodology
- Critical features and resources

Implementing strategies with lessons form
Second Step
-Examples and creating own strategies
20
SPL: Tomorrow we will provide an introduction to the Second Step Early Learning
Program, present the proposed method for making adaptations, show you how to use
this strategy with lessons from Second Step, and give you the opportunity to create
personal adaptation strategies, using the same tools. This concludes today’s
workshop. Thank you to everyone for participating and providing personal insight on
this topic. We will meet in the same room (or specify another location) at_____ (Insert
time frames).
65
Slide 21
DAY 2: WELCOME BACK!

What did we learn yesterday?

Review of basic concepts and ideas.
21
Slides: 21-22
Approximate Time: 10 minutes
Wait until every one is in their seats and appears ready to begin before saying the
opening presenter script.
SPL: Hello and good morning! I would like to welcome you back to our second day of
training on making adaptations to social and emotional programs. First, I’d like to
begin by briefly summarizing what we learned yesterday. Call on 3-4 volunteers to
share important concepts or general ideas. Some mention should be made to the
importance of scientifically-based research programs, the role social and emotional
learning programs play in early intervention, and why systematic program adaptations
and modifications are important.
Now that we have reviewed yesterday’s basic concepts, are there any questions
before we move on to today’s topics? (answer any questions the participants may have
as briefly as possible) Let’s begin!
66
67
Slide 22
DAY 2 WORKSHOP OUTLINE

Introduction to the Second Step Early Learning Program
 How is the program structured?
 What are the targeted areas of attention in lessons?
 What are the goals of the program?

Proposed Methodology for making systematic adaptations
 The California Pre-School Learning Foundations
 The Second Step Early Learning Implementation Guidelines
 The Desired Results Developmental Profile assessment tool
 Incorporate existing resources
 Include cultural considerations and recognize “teachable
moments”

Implementing strategies with lessons from Second Step
 Provide a lesson example with adaptation ideas
 Give opportunity to create and share own adaptation
strategies
22
SPL: This overview of workshop #2 has three parts. Part one is an introduction to the
Second Step Early Learning Program with explanations of the program’s objectives,
lesson content, and overall organization. Part two examines the sources used to guide
systematic adaptations and incorporating additional ideas and resources. At that
point, we will take a ten minute break and reconvene for the last portion of the
workshop. After break, we will provide specific adaptation ideas using a sample
lessons from Second Step and then in small groups, make your own adaption strategies
and share with the whole group.
68
Slide 23
THE SECOND STEP EARLY
LEARNING PROGRAM
Designed by the Committee for Children (2010a),
the Second Step Early Learning Program is a
curriculum for preschool students designed to
support the emotional and social development
skills that are necessary for academic
achievement and a smooth transition to
kindergarten.
 The U.S. Department of Education recognized
the Second Step Program with its prestigious
“Exemplary” award by the 2011 Expert Panel on
Safe, Disciplined, and Drug-Free Schools
(Committee for Children, 2010d).

23
Slides: 23-33
Approximate Time: 35 minutes
SPL: With a show of hands, how many people have used the Second Step curriculum
at any grade level? Pause and allow time for people to respond, and make a comment
on the number of people. Now, how many of those people have used the pre-school
program, or Early Learning Program? Again, provide time for participants to respond
and comment.
Read the first bullet, pause, and make the following statement:
The Second Step Early Learning Program is an example of a science-based prevention
program, focused on providing preschoolers with the social and emotional tools
necessary to enter kindergarten prepared. Second Step has been proven to work
across a variety of age groups and school settings (Committee for Children, 2010a).
Read the second bullet and pausing before going to the next slide.
69
Slide 24
THE SECOND STEP CURRICULUM






Puppets
-create biography for each and use to model skills
Stories
-concepts presented
Photos
-represent classroom environment
Activities
-encourage participation
Discussions
-address feelings and skills
Games, Songs, Books
-reinforce skills throughout week
24
SPL: The program curriculum includes two “child” puppets that represent a girl and a
boy. The teacher is prompted to create a biography for each puppet to reflect the lives
and cultures of their classroom. Puppets are also used to model skills for academic
and SEL skills, and to introduce the concepts presented in the stories. Brief stories are
illustrated with photos of real children, and represent typical classroom situations that
preschoolers experience. After each story, a few key questions are presented to
explore social situations further and address feelings and skills presented in the story.
The discussion activities are designed to model specific language for children to use in
daily situations, for example, “do you want to play?”. The program also incorporates
activities designed for small and large group participation. Songs, games, and books
can be used throughout the week to reinforce skills (Committee for Children, 2010a).
Before we move on to the next slide, does any one have any questions about the
information presented on this slide? Briefly answer participant questions and move on
to the next slide.
70
Slide 25
SECOND STEP PROGRAM
STRUCTURE


25 weekly themes with daily lessons
Weekly themes divided into 4 units:
-Skills for learning
-Empathy
-Emotion management
-Friendship and problem solving (Committee for
Children, 2010c)
25
Read both bullet points, pausing after each one.
SPL: Daily lessons are written on weekly theme cards which include the story and
discussion questions, a five-day plan for the week, puppet scripts, daily practice
activities and recommended songs, and brain building games and books. The lessons
reinforce weekly themes that incorporate a variety of teaching activities and
resources.
71
Slide 26
SECOND STEP TARGETED AREAS OF
ATTENTION IN LESSONS
Listening
 Noticing
 Focusing attention
 Awareness of sound
 Environment
 Own body
 Emotional states (Committee for Children,
2010b)

26
Read the bullet points, pausing after each one.
SPL: Other areas of focus include working memory skills , specifically remembering
directions, remembering rules to games, and remembering rules for listening/behavior
in groups. Inhibitory control combines the skills of attention and working memory so
preschoolers can develop more complex skills, such as waiting and delay of
gratification (Committee for Children, 2010b).
72
Slide 27
THE GOAL OF SECOND STEP


“To increase school readiness by promoting selfregulation and social and emotional competence.”
Along with targeted areas, foundational skills
including cognitive, emotional and behavioral
self-regulation skills are addressed (Committee
for Children, 2010a).
27
Read the slide, pausing after each bullet point is read.
SPL: The foundational skills are identified as “building blocks” and are used to help
meet the program goal. These executive functioning skills are also related to
attention, working memory and inhibitory control (Committee for Children, 2010a).
73
Slide 28
AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT FOR
SECOND STEP


Alvarez and Anderson-Kethmark (2009),
identified areas of program weakness.
-overly structured and repetitive
-curriculum only designed for Tier 1 Response to
Intervention (RTI) settings
Although Second Step has been found in research
to be an effective program, there is room for
improvement through systematic adaptations
and modifications.
28
Before beginning this slide, ask those participants who have used the Second Step
Program to briefly share their experiences with the curriculum and what they thought
worked well, and areas that needed improvement. Call on 3-4 participants before
reading the first bullet.
SPL: This study found the Second Step preschool curriculum had many strong points,
including targeting pro-social skills, the ease of curriculum implementation, and the
level of engagement of students within the curriculum. The curriculum was found to
encourage students to assess social situations, use problem solving, and reflect on
what they would do in similar situations. Areas of weakness included teacher
comments that indicated the curriculum was “overly structured and repetitive”, the
interventions were only designed for Tier 1 settings, and there was an absence of
social skills curriculum designed to target students who qualify for special education
(Alvarez and Anderson-Kethmark, 2009). Read second bullet point.
74
Slide 29
PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR
MAKING SYSTEMATIC ADAPTATIONS
Follow federal and state guidelines within the
adaptation process
-The California Preschool Learning Foundations
-The Second Step Early Learning Implementation
Guidelines
-The Desired Results Developmental Profile
assessment tool
 Meet the diverse cultural and cognitive needs of
students
 Incorporate existing resources (Borberly, 2005)

29
SPL: Considering the current systematic method proposed in research for adaptations,
it is important to be both flexible with available resources and follow standardized
guidelines within the adaptation process. In addition, federal and state guidelines
direct and hold school districts accountable for upholding academic standards and
using standardized assessment tools to track yearly progress. For these reasons, state
guidelines play a primary role in the adaptation process (Borberly, 2005).
75
Slide 30
THE CALIFORNIA PRESCHOOL
LEARNING FOUNDATIONS


Resource used to align expectations for preschool
learning with the state’s kindergarten academic
content standards, and complimenting these
content areas with attention to social and
emotional development and English language
development.
Ensures the adapted curriculum content meets
the social-emotional goals, specific to early
learning foundations (California Department of
Education, 2008).
30
SPL: Due to the critical nature of social-emotional development and learning in the
early years, the Learning Foundations can be a guiding resource in the adaptation
process.
Read the slide and then show participants the Learning Foundations book, taking a
foundation from the book as an example, and read the standard being addressed, the
outcome, and what the behavior demonstrating skill mastery will look like. Pass the
book around for participants to look through.
Before we move on , does any one have any questions about the information
presented on this slide? Briefly answer participant questions and move on to the next
slide.
76
Slide 31
THE DESIRED RESULTS
DEVELOPMENTAL PROFILE
(DRDP)ASSESSMENT TOOL
Developed by the California Department of
Education, the DRDP is a tool for teachers to
track the progress of young children’s social and
emotional development in relation to the
following skills:
-Self-concept
-Social and Interpersonal
-Self-regulation
-Language
-Learning
(California Department of Education, 2007)

31
SPL: The DRDP is a tool for systematically measuring the progress of children towards
achieving the goals outlined in the Learning Foundations. Read the slide, pausing after
each point. Special-education preschool teachers are currently required to fill out the
DRDP at the beginning and end of each school year. The data gathered from the
checklist is used to monitor areas of strengths and areas where more development is
needed. The California Department of Education uses this checklist for the purpose of
monitoring yearly academic and assessment progress. The assessment tool can be used
by all preschool teachers though for their own tracking purposes in the following areas: a)
children are personally and socially competent; b) children are effective learners; c)
children show physical and motor competence; and d) children are safe and healthy
(California Department of Education, 2007). Here is a copy of what the DRDP looks like
for you to get a better idea of how it works. Pass out a copy of the DRDP for participants
to look at and provide the website for them to access the DRDP online in the future.
Before we move on , does any one have any questions about the information presented on
this slide? Briefly answer participant questions and move on to the next slide.
77
Slide 32
THE SECOND STEP EARLY LEARNING
IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

According to the Committee for Children (2011),
the program contains essential components to
program effectiveness and involves the four core
program elements:
-Teach all the Second Step Weekly Theme Card
activities
-Play “Brain Builder” games everyday
-Reinforce themes and concepts daily
-Send home resources for families
32
SPL: Implementation Guidelines help children to learn, practice, and apply skills for
self-regulation and social-emotional competence. This involves the implementation of
the core program elements. The program needs to be implemented fully. Read the
slide, pausing after each point.
78
Slide 33
ADDITIONAL AREAS OF
ADAPTATION STRATEGIES
 Incorporate
existing resources, such as
puppets and multi-media materials to
reinforce weekly themes.
 Include cultural considerations when
appropriate while teaching curriculum
(Borberly, 2005).
 Create awareness of teachers to recognize
“teachable moments” throughout the
school day (Hemmeter, et al., 2003).
33
SPL: Borberly (2005) mentioned the importance of adapting program content to meet
the cultural and language needs of students. Teachers can integrate their own
material, such as puppets, songs and pictures to reinforce skills and add meaningful
content to the Second Step lessons. An example of adaptations include inserting
cultural considerations whenever appropriate, such as the background stories teachers
create for the boy and girl puppets used in the lessons. Another important
consideration when implementing lesson concepts refers to “teachable moments”, or
opportunities throughout the day when teachers can model desired behaviors and
social skills (Hemmeter, et al., 2003). Examples include reminding students to ask for
help in a respectful voice, ways our bodies help us to be good listeners, and cultural
sensitivity issues that arise. Before we take a break, does any one have any questions
about the information presented up to this point? Briefly answer any questions the
participants have and then state a specific time to return that is ten minutes from this
stop time.
79
Slide 34
EXAMPLE SECOND STEP LESSON
WITH ADAPTATION STRATEGIES
34
Slides: 34Approximate time: 35 minutes
Wait until participants are back from break and sitting in their seats. Begin the SPL for
this section when it appears as though participants are ready to begin.
SPL: The following adaptation considerations were implemented, using lessons from
the Second Step Unit 1: Skills For Learning section to highlight specific examples. I’m
going to pass out an example of a lesson from the new Second Step Early Learning
Program for you to reference while we discuss adaptation strategies. Give each person
a copy of the lesson.
80
Slide 35
KEY ELEMENTS USED TO
STRUCTURE ADAPTATIONS
The California Preschool Learning Foundations
-The Week 6: “Asking for What You Need or
Want” lesson is aligned with the “relationships”
foundation (see lesson “Objective” )
 The Desired Results Developmental Profile
assessment tool
-Track student’s progress in their ability to ask
for what they need in a strong, respectful way
(see “Why This Theme Matters”)

35
SPL: Please follow along with your lesson sample that was just handed out. The
following are the key elements we discussed before the break, which are specifically
used to structure adaptations. The Week 6 lesson was chosen as an example and
aligns with the “relationships” foundation and the lesson “Objective” that children
will be able to demonstrate asking for what they need or want during skill practice.
Show participants where the “Objective” section is located on the lesson to further
clarify. The DRDP can be used to monitor children’s progress towards demonstrating
the skill of asking for what they need or want. It is important to collect data regarding
a student’s progress in this area, because as we can see in the “Why This Theme
Matters” section, speaking up in this way and being assertive when asking for what
they need also helps children get along with others. Does any one have any questions
about the information presented on this slide? Briefly answer participant questions and
move on to the next slide.
81
Slide 36
KEY ELEMENTS USED TO STRUCTURE
ADAPTATIONS CONTINUED…

The Second Step Early Learning Program
Implementation Guidelines
-Teach all of the activities for Week 6; play the
Brain Builder games daily; reinforce asking for
what you want or need, facing the person you are
talking to, and using a respectful voice (see
“Concept”); and let parents know the skill being
worked on for the week to continue reinforcement
and consistency at home (Committee for
Children, 2011).
36
In order to ensure students master the lesson “Concept” to ask for what they need or
want, face the person they are talking to, and use a respectful voice, the core
guidelines need to be followed (Committee for Children, 2011).
82
Slide 37
KEY ELEMENTS IN THE
ADAPTATION PROCESS


Incorporate existing resources and meaningful
content
-Puppets, songs, books, and pictures reinforcing the
concept of asking for what you need or want can be
used as supplemental resources
-Include cultural considerations, such as the
background stories for the puppets, and being aware
of cultural ideas about looking someone in the eye
when speaking (see “Teaching Notes)
“Teachable Moments”
-Reminding students to ask for help in a respectful
voice, or ways our bodies can help us be good listeners
(see “Using Skills Every Day”)
37
SPL: Read the first bullet point. Second Step provides teachers with puppets, games,
and photos, but there is also the flexibility to use existing supplemental resources to
reinforce skills. Second Step has made an effort to be more culturally sensitive, and
provide suggestions under the “Teaching Notes” section for cultural considerations.
Again, incorporating existing cultural resources is encouraged as supplemental
information. Read the second bullet point. Teachable moments refers to
opportunities throughout the day when teachers can model desired behaviors and
social skills. The “Using Skills Every Day” section provides specific examples of how to
integrate skills daily, such as thinking ahead, reinforcing, and thinking back to
situations where children need to ask for help.
83
Slide 38
KEY ELEMENTS IN THE ADAPTATION
PROCESS CONTINUED…

Adaptations for Diverse Learners
-Response to Intervention (RTI)-small groups and
individual skill practice
-Special Education-modify length, vocabulary,
and/or simplify the content for appropriate target
population
38
Read the bullet point. To address the needs of diverse learners, lessons can be used at
Tier 2 and 3 with small groups or individually for more concentrated skill practice and
repetition. For special education populations, the length and vocabulary may need to
be modified for appropriate population. Does anyone have any questions on this
process? It is important this information is clear, because next we are going to break
up into small groups and practice making adaptations. Answer participant questions
and move on to the next slide.
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Slide 39
CREATE OWN ADAPTATIONS
Break into 4 small groups with even participants
 Time limit: 15 minutes
 Directions: Each group will be assigned a Day 1Day 4 lesson from the Week 6 sample lesson.

With your group’s lesson, make appropriate
adaptations using the key elements discussed on
the previous slide.
At the end of the 15 minutes, each group will
briefly present their adaptations.
39
SPL: Read the entire slide first. Then assign each group a different Daily lesson from
which they will make adaptations. You now have 15 minutes from now until we will
meet back as a whole group and briefly present. Please let me know if you get stuck
or need more clarification. While the groups work, monitor their progress and provide
assistance or answer questions as they arise. Give a 2 minute warning before the 15
minutes are up. When 15 minutes have passed say, each group pick one person to be
their spokesperson and take about 2 minutes to describe what adaptations your group
made. Allow each group to present, commenting on their adherence to the adaptation
strategies and creativity. After each group presents, inform the participants this is the
end of the workshop. I hope this format provided you with new insight into socialemotional learning curriculums and the adaptations available, specifically when
working with the Second Step Early Learning Program. In addition to learning the
proposed strategies, I hope hearing the adaptations your fellow participants created
provided you with additional ideas for future use. Thank you again for your
participation!
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Slide 40
REFERENCES
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
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


Alvarez, M., & Anderson-Kethmark, C. (2009). Review of an Evidence-Based School Social
Work Intervention: Second Step. National Association of Social Workers: Children and
School, 31, 247-250.
Azziz-Baumgartner, C. (2010). Applying a Model of Program Adaptation to the Familias
Fuertes Parent/Adolescent Educational Intervention for Latino Immigrant Families in
the Rural South. Southern Online Journal of Nursing and Research, 9, 1-14.
Borberly, C. (2005). Finding the Right Fit: Program Fidelity and Adaptation for
Prevention Programs. Prevention Brief, 1, 1-18.
California Department of Education . (2007). Desired Results Developmental Profile
access Manual. Sacramento, Ca: Desired Results access Project.
California Department of Education. (2008). Social-Emotional Development: Volume 1.
Sacramento, CA: California Preschool Learning Foundations.
California Department of Education. (2010). Science-based Program List. Retrieved
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California Healthy Kids Resource Center (2011). Research Validated Programs.
Sacramento, CA.
Committee for Children. (2010a). Building Blocks for Success. Seattle, WA: Second Step
Early Learning Program.
Committee for Children. (2010b). Getting Started Information. Seattle, WA: Second Step
Early Learning Program.
86
40
Slide 41
REFERENCES CONTINUED….
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Committee for Children. (2010c). Program Scope and Sequence. Seattle, WA: Second
Step Early Learning Program.
Committee for Children. (2010d). Retrieved from:
www.cfchildren.org/programs/ssp/awards
Committee for Children. (2011). Second Step Early Learning Program Implementation.
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Denham, S., & Weissberg, R. (2004). Social-Emotional Learning in Early Childhood:
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Elias, M. (2006). The Connection Between Academic and Social –Emotional Learning.
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41
87
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