THE REGIONAL UNIVERSITIES FORUM FOR CAPACITY BUILDING IN AGRICULTURE

THE REGIONAL
UNIVERSITIES FORUM FOR
CAPACITY BUILDING IN
AGRICULTURE
GENDER IN HIGHER
INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING IN
EASTERN CENTRAL AND
SOUTHERN AFRICA
ISSUES PAPER
JANUARY 2010
Godfrey Kayobyo1
Agnes Nayiga Kayondo1
Catherine Anena2
Peter Fuuna2
1
Nkoola Institutional Development Associates Ltd
(www.nida.or.ug)
2Departnment
of Women and Gender Studies, Makerere
University
Contents
Glossary of Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... iv
Executive Summary................................................................................................................................. v
1
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 1
2
GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Gender and global development .................................................................................................. 3
2.2 Gender and development in Africa ............................................................................................... 4
2.2.1
Gender Mainstreaming in Agriculture ............................................................................ 4
2.2.2
Gender and Education in Africa ...................................................................................... 5
3.0
KEY GENDER CONCERNS IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS ............................................... 8
3.1
Gender Disparity in Enrolment of Women in HEIs ................................................................. 8
3.2 Concerns about gender equality in merit based institutions ..................................................... 11
3.3
Limited pool of Female and Disadvantaged Students who successfully Complete Secondary
School Education............................................................................................................................... 12
3.4
Misconceptions about science and agriculture as a career for women ............................... 14
3.5
Distribution of Staff in Teaching and Management Positions .............................................. 16
3.5.1 Lower Numbers of Female Staff in Faculties of Agriculture ................................................ 16
3.5.2 Slower Career Progression for Women ............................................................................... 18
3.5.3
Few women in management ........................................................................................ 20
3.6
Varied Institutionalization of Gender Mainstreaming .......................................................... 22
3.9
Conducive environment ........................................................................................................ 24
3.9.1
Lack of suitable accommodation for married graduate students ................................. 25
3.9.2
Gender violence and Sexual Harassment ...................................................................... 25
3.9.3
Absence of Support Structures for Female Students and Staff ..................................... 25
3.9.4 Child care facilities ............................................................................................................... 26
3.9.5
Concern for the male Students ...................................................................................... 26
ii
3.10
Mainstreaming Gender in the Curriculum ............................................................................ 26
4.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................... 28
4.1
Conclusions ........................................................................................................................... 28
4.2
Recommendations ................................................................................................................ 28
Annex 1 ................................................................................................................................................. 34
iii
Glossary of Abbreviations
AAU:
AU:
AWARD:
BCA:
BMGF:
BU:
BUNDA:
CAADP:
CEDAW:
COMESA:
CPD:
DFID:
ECSA:
EFA:
FORUM:
HEIs:
IFS:
JAB:
KCSE:
KEPAWAE:
MDGs:
MSc:
MAK:
NARs:
NEPAD:
NGO:
NIDA:
PhD:
RUFORUM:
SD:
SUA
UDHS:
UNDP:
UNESCO:
UNISWA:
UON:
Association of African Universities
African Union
African Women in Agricultural Research and Development
Botswana College of Agriculture
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
National University of Burundi
Bunda College of Agriculture
Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against
Women
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Continuous Professional Development
British Department for International Development
Eastern Central and Southern Africa
Education for All
Forum on Agricultural Resource Husbandry
Higher Education Institutions
International Foundation for Science
Joint Admissions Board
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
Kenya Professional Association of Women in Agriculture and
Environment
Millennium Development Goals
Master of Science
Makerere University
National Agricultural Research Centers
New Partnerships for Africa’s Development
Non Governmental Organizations
Nkoola Institutional Development Associates Ltd
Doctorate of Philosophy
Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture
Solemn Declaration
Sokoine University of Agriculture and Technology
Uganda Demographic and Health Survey
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
University of Swaziland
University of Nairobi
iv
Executive Summary
Introduction
The Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM)
recognizes the under-representation of women in the National Agricultural Research
Systems (NARS) and other sectors. RUFORUM has set a deliberate policy to promote
women-education, and consequently embarked on the process of preparing a gender
mainstreaming strategy and policy. This issues paper presents the key gender concerns
in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the Eastern Central and Southern Africa
(ECSA) region and provides some recommendations for focus and action to guide the
development of the RUFORUM gender policy.
Key Gender Concerns in Higher Education Institutions:- The issues presented below
have been synthesized from literature on gender in HEIs, data collected from RUFORUM
member universities1 during the Monitoring and Evaluation baseline study conducted
in August 2009 and the consultative processes with key RUFORUM stakeholders.
Gender Disparity in Enrolment of Women in HEIs:- Despite existence of targets and
some interventions notably use of affirmative action and Pre- Entry Programmes for
increasing enrollment of women into HEIs in the region, gender parity is yet to be
achieved. In the sampled universities, one in every four undergraduate students is a
female. At postgraduate level only 16% of the graduate students are women.
Concerns about gender equality in merit based institutions:- Some staff including
women in senior positions expressed deep concern about how to apply affirmative
action in admissions without compromising merit. It is vital to address this resistance in
process of tackling the persisting disparity in the enrollment of female students
especially at the postgraduate level.
Limited pool of Female and Disadvantaged Students who successfully Complete
Secondary School Education: Low numbers of female and other disadvantaged
students in HEIs is attributed to the fewer numbers of these categories in secondary
school education who qualify to gain admittance to tertiary institutions. Literature
reveals that there are nine females to every ten males in secondary education while
there are only six females to every ten males in tertiary institutions in the ECSA region.
This issue was acknowledged across the universities that were consulted. Measures
used for redress include:-accreditation of two extra points for girls and one extra point
for boys from disadvantaged areas (Kenyan public HEIs); affirmative action in
admission of students (boys and girls) from rural regions (Mozambique); scholarships
and mentorship for gifted but needy girls (Kenya Professional Association of Women in
1
Makerere University (MAK), Egerton University (EU), Jomo Kenyatta University (JKUAT), Mekele University (MU),
National University of Rwanda (NUR), Bunda College of Agriculture (BUNDA), University of Zambia (UNZA), Africa
University (AU) and University of Zimbabwe (UOZ).
v
Agriculture and Environment); Female Scholarship Initiative (FSI) for females from
disadvantaged backgrounds (Makerere University, Gender Mainstreaming Division).
Misconceptions about science and agriculture as a career for women:-It was noted
that students tend to avoid agricultural sciences associating it with rural life, poverty
and “soiling” their hands. Most students (boys or girls) only opt for agricultural sciences
at undergraduate level after failing to be admitted to their first choice course. Poor
salesmanship; poor visibility of successful role models; non recognition of agricultural
sciences as a potentially attractive career; and little encouragement by
parents/guardians for their daughters to study science were cited as key factors fueling
the misconception.
Lower Numbers of Female Staff in Faculties of Agriculture: Women account for only
23% of the academic staff in faculties of Agriculture in eight RUFORUM universities.
Further more only 23% of PhD holders are women while 77% are men. Three in every
four academic staff with a master’s degree are men.
Slower Career Progression for Women:-Findings from faculties of Agriculture in five
RUFORM member universities show relatively higher proportions of female academic
staff in the early and middle careers (Lecture and assistant lecture) compared to the
proportions of male staff. However, the situation is reversed for the senior lecturer,
associate and full professor levels. Several factors including-impact of multiple
responsibilities; balancing teaching; research and care giving commitments; trade off
between career advancement and establishing family; limited networking
opportunities; absence of support structures for women in leadership; lack of
representation in research committees; absence of visible role models; and lack of
mentors were noted to be limiting career progression of women.
Few women in management:-In most universities, there are few women in leadership
positions. Female heads of departments are still few due to lack of women with relevant
qualifications especially in fields historically dominated by men (SUA, EU, and UEM).
Due to the challenges of balancing career and domestic responsibilities; some academic
women reported preferring not to take on administrative responsibility. Women in
leadership positions sometimes feel isolated and challenged rather than supported by
colleagues. Absence of women in senior positions, means that they are largely absent
from discussions where issues pertaining to higher education are deliberated.
Varied Institutionalization of Gender Mainstreaming:- While some universities have
developed gender policies, others have adhoc gender mainstreaming strategies. Even
where policies have been developed, they have not been fully implemented. Limited
human resources (number and relevant technical skills); inadequate logistical support
for the gender mainstreaming; inadequate funds to implement agreed work plans; and
absence of clear and measurable action plans were cited as key factors impeding full
implementation of the gender policies and strategies.
Conducive environment: Some organizational cultures and physical situations make
universities unfriendly to women and students from disadvantaged regions. There is
vi
pervasive shortage of childcare facilities; and lack of favorable accommodation for
married graduate students. Cases of female students harassing male lectures for marks
have been reported while the reverse is also true. National laws against sexual
harassment have not been translated into guidelines on sexual harassment within some
universities. Mentoring programmes to support students exist at undergraduate level,
but they are largely lacking at postgraduate level. There is a general lack of support
systems for female staff and students that get pregnant in most universities. Women
support groups were noted to exist in Egerton, SUA and BU. There were also concerns
that there is very limited focus on boys yet boys are becoming entangled in anti-social
activities and delinquency is very common – drug abuse, alcohol abuse, high level of
frustration and anger.
Mainstreaming Gender in the Curriculum
University graduates should have the capacity to analyze the needs of both men and
women and be able to address them with appropriate interventions. Findings from the
key informant discussions revealed that in the focus faculties some course units have
elements of gender analysis. However such course units may be elective and as such not
all students take them.
Recommendations
Gender Disparity in Enrolment of Women in HEIs: There is need for HEIs to sustain
their effort to increase enrollment of women at both the undergraduate and
postgraduate levels through integrated use of approaches that have resulted in success
such as affirmative action quotas and pre entry or bridging programs. RUFORUM should
consider instituting gender based quotas for admissions into its regional training
programs. Candidates should then be selected through open competition within the
quotas. RUFORUM should also more widely advertise its research and training
programmes with clear messages encouraging women to apply. The Competitive Grants
Scheme incentive system should reward Principal Investors who offer training
scholarships to female students and support them to complete.
Concerns about gender equality in merit based institutions:- It is important to
recognize concerns that affirmative action compromises merit and quality in admission
of students. Universities should not only support female and disadvantaged groups to
gain entry, they should also institute measures to support these students to complete
their courses. RUFORUM should support studies to provided empirical evidence on
proportion of students admitted to universities on affirmative action completing their
courses. RUFORUM should facilitate discussions, information sharing and learning
platforms on affirmative action and alternative methods such as Pre Entry Programmes.
Limited pool of Female and Disadvantaged Students who successfully Complete
Secondary School Education:-Universities through their Gender Mainstreaming units/
divisions can contribute to raising the enrollment of students from disadvantaged
areas/ backgrounds by developing and implementing projects that focus on creating
awareness and finding solutions to this situation. University leadership should
therefore encourage the gender divisions or units to make this part of their activities
vii
but also support them by providing the necessary resources (time and skilled
personnel). RUFORUM can further contribute by providing platforms and processes
through which the Gender Mainstreaming units/ divisions can jointly create solutions to
the challenge, share lessons, successes and good practices.
Misconceptions about science and agriculture as a career for women:- It is
important that universities and RUFORUM make deliberate effort to market the
agricultural disciplines to male and female students. This might be done i) by raising
awareness on the contribution of the science to development, the numerous career
opportunities therein and existing potential for men and women, ii) showcasing role
models in the field.
Low numbers of female staff in teaching and management positions in
universities:-RUFORUM and HEIs can support career progression of women, their
increased involvement in networking and leadership by i) creating opportunities for
further training/professional upgrading that are targeted at women; ii) creating
opportunities for training in leadership, proposal writing and other professional skills
development for women; instituting quotas for women’s participation in RUFORUM
supported/initiated professional skills development events; iii) widely
advertising/disseminating information on opportunities for professional upgrading that
emerge; iv) encouraging more sandwich programs that allow part of the study at home
and gender budgeting to ensure that scholarships address the gender needs of married
students; v)providing strong mentoring programmes for female students and staff on
career professional upgrading.
Varied Institutionalization of Gender Mainstreaming:-RUFORUM can encourage and
persuade Vice Chancellors to support the development of gender policies where there
none and the implementation of existing policies, through development of technical
expertise and provision of necessary resources. RUFORUM should support capacity
strengthening of the Gender Mainstreaming units in HEIs, and foster information
sharing on methods, tools, experiences and best practices in mainstreaming gender.
Creating a conducive environment for students:- The environment at universities
can be made more conducive for students’ study by:- providing living quarters for
married graduate students; establishing child care facilities; harnessing ICT to reduce
the need for physical presence on the campuses; encouraging establishment of support
groups for female students and staff; provision of good mentoring and counseling
services, setting and enforcing clear rules on sexual harassment. RUFORUM should
adopt gender budgeting for its scholarships such that they address the gender needs of
both female and male married students.
Mainstreaming Gender in the Curriculum:- Universities should ensure that their
graduates have the capacity to analyze and address the needs of men and women. This
could be achieved through use of gender sensitive educational materials for all courses;
and providing training on basic gender analysis to all students. RUFORUM can support
this process by encouraging incorporation of modules on gender in the regional training
viii
programmes, requiring those submitting research proposals to address gender issues
where appropriate and the use of gender dis-aggregated data in reporting.
ix
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1
Background
The Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) is a
consortium of 25 universities in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA) established in
2004. It has a mandate to oversee graduate training and networks of specialization in the
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). RUFORUM recognizes the
important and largely unfulfilled role that universities play in contributing to the wellbeing of small-scale farmers and in the economic development of countries throughout the
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region (RUFORUM, 2009). It is therefore designed to strengthen
and promote the contribution of universities in development processes and practices and
to anchor universities within the broader national and regional agricultural innovation
systems. This effort is also aimed at enhancing engagement and contribution of universities
to other regional and continental development initiatives notably, the New Partnership for
Africa’s Development (NEPAD)’s Comprehensive African Agricultural Development
Programme (CAADP). RUFORUM focuses on strengthening capacities of universities to
foster innovations responsive to demands of small-holder farmers through the training of
high quality researchers, the output of impact-oriented research, and the maintenance of
collaborative working relations among researchers, farmers, national agricultural research
institutions, and governments (RUFORUM, 2005).
1.2 Gender Mainstreaming in RUFORUM
RUFORUM recognizes the under-representation of women in the National Agricultural
Research Systems (NARS) and other sectors. To support universities to turn this situation
around, RUFORUM has set a deliberate policy to promote women-education, through
increasing opportunities for graduate training, and working with them to advance their
academic careers. Consequently the number of female students supported by RUFORUM is
steadily growing. At the initiation of the Forum on Agricultural Resource Husbandry
(FORUM)2 programme in 1992 only 4% of the students were female4. The reason was the
limited number of female candidates for postgraduate study and limited efforts to attract
them. Between 1992 and 2004 (FORUM), 20% of the students trained at MSc were female,
while those trained at PhD level were 12%. From 2004-2009 (RUFORUM) the percentage
of female students trained at MSc and PhD levels rose to 24% and 30%, respectively
2
The foundation for RUFORUM was a Rockefeller Foundation funded food security programme called the Forum on
Agricultural Resource Husbandry (FORUM) whose purpose was to stabilize universities in East and Southern Africa
(ESA).
1
Through funding from Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and joint activity with
other partners, RUFORUM has embarked on actions aimed at mainstreaming gender issues
within its programmes. In 2006 RUFORUM co-hosted3 a regional conference on Women in
Science for Food and Nutritional Security in Africa held in Entebbe Uganda from 3-7 July,
2006. RUFORUM was also a co-organizer4 of the Women in Science and Young
Professionals competitions held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 20 ‐21 April 2009. In
September 2009, RUFORUM co-hosted5 an international conference “Developing Africa
through Science and Technology Innovations in Agriculture: “Women as the key drivers” in
Entebbe, Uganda.
The 2008 Science Competitions sought to identify, recognize and reward the hard work
and excellence of young professionals and women scientists who are engaged in innovative
and pioneering research and communicating the outputs to improve agricultural
productivity and the livelihoods of rural people6. Other future planned activities include i)
creating and maintaining a database of active women researchers; ii) targeting specific
disciplines- likely to advance women’s academic careers and entrepreneurial capacity; iii)
targeting specific research approaches; iv) developing proactive modalities under
departmental nurturing grants; and v) developing partnership with women role models
and engaging them to encourage undergraduate female students to join graduate schools.
To consolidate all these efforts RUFORUM has embarked on the process of preparing a
gender strategy and policy that is expected to enhance recognition and mainstreaming of
gender equity within its network. This paper presents the key gender concerns in Higher
Education Institutions (HEIs) in the ECSA region and provides some
suggestions/recommendations to inform development of the gender policy and
mainstreaming strategy for the RUFORUM Network. It also offers suggestions and broader
implications for universities and other actors.
The conference was co‐hosted by the Center for Technical Cooperation in Agriculture (CTA), Forum for Agricultural
Research in Africa (FARA), and RUFORUM.
3
The competitions were co‐organized by the Center for Technical Cooperation in Agriculture (CTA), the African Policy
and Technology Studies Network (ATPS), Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), Forum for Agricultural
Research in Africa (FARA), New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and RUFORUM.
4
The conference will be co‐hosted by the Center for Technical Cooperation in Agriculture (CTA), International Foundation
For Science (IFS), and RUFORUM
6 RUFORUM MONTHLY Volume 3 Issue 5- May 2009
5
2
2 GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
2.1 Gender and global development
Like race, ethnicity, and class, gender is a social category that often establishes one's life
chances, influencing one's participation in society and in the economy. Gender ideologies,
norms and rules have material consequences and determine women and men's relative
access to, utilization, and control/ claims over different processes, structures, resources,
opportunities for education, decision making, politics, leadership and management; all of
which influence agricultural productivity, household economic and social wellbeing;
sustainable livelihood and economic development7(World Bank, 2001).
Over the past four decades international commitments to equality, equity and women’s
empowerment have been reaffirmed in conferences, summits and contained in strategic
documents. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women (CEDAW)8 adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979 emphasizes the need to
ensure women’s equal access to, and equal opportunities in, political and public life,
education, health and employment. The Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi
(1985) recognized that gender equality was not an isolated issue, but encompassed all
areas of human activity. It highlighted the need for women to participate in all spheres, not
only in those relating to gender. The Beijing Platform for Action calls on “governments and
active players to promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender
perspective in all policies and programmes”9. The UN Security Council passed a Resolution
making the Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action obligatory for all UN members. 10. In
1999 the UN General Assembly adopted an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women11 which entered into force on 22
December 2000. By ratifying the Optional Protocol, a State recognizes the competence of
the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women—the body that
monitors compliance with the Convention—to receive and consider complaints from
individuals or groups within its jurisdiction. The Beijing +5” 12 call for the adoption of
measures for the improvement and advancement of the position of women. This position is
7
The World Bank, FAO and IFAD, 2009, Gender and Agriculture: A Source Book, Washington DC
8 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/cedaw.htm
9
United Nations (1995). Declaration and Platform for Action of the Fourth World
Conference on Women. New York: UN Division for Public Information UN.
10 http://www.peacewomen.org/un/sc/1325.html
11 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/protocol/text.htm
12 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/followup/beijing+5.htm
3
further reaffirmed by the Beijing +10 declaration which stresses the need for efforts to
meet the demands stated in the 1995 Platform of Action (UN, 2005). The Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) call on national governments and development institutions to
mainstream gender into their work and contain a commitment to achieving gender equality
and women’s empowerment, including indicators and concrete targets related to girls’
education among others; on an equal basis with men (UNDP, 2009).
2.2 Gender and development in Africa
The last decade has witnessed many changes on the African continent with respect to
gender including development of regional declarations and mechanisms on gender and
development. The creation of the African Union (AU), with its constitutive act enshrined
with the principle of gender equality and equity provides further opportunities for
institutionalizing gender mainstreaming and increased participation of African women in
regional decision making and development. This position is further reaffirmed by the AU’s
protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in
Africa. The Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa (SD) adopted by the Heads of
State and Government of Member States of the African Union in July 2004 reaffirms the
commitment of the Heads of States to the principle of gender equality’ and highlights
normative standards on women’s human rights in Africa to be adhered to by governments.
With regard to education the SD commits member States to take specific measures to
ensure the education of girls and literacy of women, especially in the rural areas, to achieve
the goal of “Education for All” (EFA). One of the actions in relation to this is to improve the
quality of education and ensure that there are policies motivating more girls to take
Science and Mathematics and that there are mechanisms in place to encourage them in this
regard.
In 2003, the AU adopted the New Partnerships for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) as the
continent’s holistic development framework to speed-up Africa’s slow economic, social and
environmental development. Accelerating the empowerment of women and ensuring that
their wellbeing is improved significantly is one of the primary objectives of NEPAD. NEPAD
is expected to enhance women’s human rights through the application of social
development indicators included in its African Peer Review Mechanisms to monitor
performance of States in this regard.
2.2.1
Gender Mainstreaming in Agriculture
Agriculture in low-income developing countries is a sector with exceptionally high impact
in terms of its potential to reduce poverty. Women produce 60 -80 per cent of the food in
4
developing countries, are the mainstay of small-scale agriculture, the farm labor force and
day to day family subsistence13. They also have more difficulties than men in gaining
access to resources such as land, credit and productivity enhancing inputs and services.
According to the 2008 World Development Report Agriculture for Development, failure to
release the full potential of women in agriculture is a contributing factor to low growth and
food insecurity. The African Union through NEPAD established CAADP, which aims at
achieving a 6% annual growth in the agricultural sector. Yet for agricultural growth to
fulfill this potential, gender disparities must be addressed and effectively reduced (World
Bank, 2009). Agricultural growth and development is also dependant on the critical mass of
a well qualified human resource base, both male and female and including marginalized
groups, particularly at postgraduate level.
2.2.2
Gender and Education in Africa
In the Millennium Declaration of September 2000, member states of the UN made a
commitment to eliminate gender disparity in all levels of education no later than 2015.
Global efforts towards achieving gender equality through mainstreaming gender into all
policies, systems, programmes and project processes, have led to some significant
achievements over the years. Progress has been made in training and education of women
and girls at all levels, especially in countries that have marshaled the requisite political
commitment and allocation of resources. Between 1999 and 2006, the average net
enrollment of girls in primary schools increased in SSA from 54 percent to 70 percent 14.
Measures have been taken to remove gender biases from education and training by
initiating alternative education and training systems to reach women and girls in
disadvantaged and marginalized groups.
However, significant inequalities still remain. Girls are still missing out on primary and
secondary education in far greater numbers than boys, thus depriving entire families,
communities and economies of the proven and positive multiplier effects generated by
girls’ education and instead aggravating poverty, the spread of HIV/AIDS, and maternal and
infant mortality. Recent literature reveals that 70% of the world’s 130 million out of school
youth are girls. Global estimates indicate that more than 100 million girls are involved in
child labor such as domestic work or farm work15. A year out of college, college educated
women earned 80% of average earnings of their male counterparts in 2001, and 10 years
13
14
15
http://www.fao.org/sd/fsdirect/fbdirect/fsp001.htm
http://www.ifuw.org/fuwa/docs/Education_of_Girls_Africa.pdf
World Economic Forum , Global Gender Gap Report 2009.
5
out of college, women earned only 69% of men’s earnings in 2003 (AAUW Educational
Foundation, 2007). There is pervasive shortage of childcare facilities; and persistence of
gender stereotypes in educational materials; the remote location of some communities and
inadequate salaries in the teaching profession; slow progress in eradicating illiteracy in
many developing countries, thus aggravating inequality at economic, social and political
levels (Gender net 2000). Lack of education robs an individual of a full life. It also robs
society of a foundation for sustainable development as education is critical to improving
health, nutrition and productivity.
In Africa, in spite of efforts in mobilization, advocacy and increased representation in
governance at regional and national levels, the normative gains have not yet been reflected
in substantial changes in the educational and professional advancement for women and
consequently their contribution to development. The proportion of women in the
professoriate and other senior managerial positions is generally low. The 2004 UNESCO
Institute for Statistics showed that women make up less than 30% of researchers in 34 out
of 89 countries surveyed. A host of factors including impact of family responsibilities, lack
of networking opportunities, balancing teaching and research commitments, lack of
representation in research committees and lack of mentors have been cited to limit women
career progression and advancement in science16.
Encouraging more females to engage in agricultural sciences, research, innovations and
technological development would lead to increased numbers of female agricultural
extension staff or gender sensitive male extension workers who are able to better
understand the needs of female and male farmers. While the MDG 3 target recognizes that
education for girls is one of the most effective ways of reducing poverty, it is also evident
that education alone is not enough. Achieving MDG 3 also requires progress in other key
areas including political participation, access to productive assets and employment
opportunities, access to health and other services, protection from violence, better work
conditions, better legal protection for vulnerable, removal of barriers to women’s career
growth and development, to mention but a few. This implies therefore that gender equality
underpins progress on all the MDGs. Development makes little sense if half the population
is prevented from fully benefiting from, and contributing to it (DFID, 2009). The United
Nations Development Program (UNDP) notes that “When development is not ‘en-
16
University of Technology Sydney 2009, adapted from Prof. Marietta Perez-Dlamini 2009, increasing the critical
mass of women in high academic ranks and leadership positions: strategies and activities by university of
Swaziland Research Centre
6
gendered,’ it is ‘en-dangered’. No society can progress if any of its members is impeded for
reasons of gender race or creed.
7
3.0
KEY GENDER CONCERNS IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
The issues presented in the following sub-sections have been synthesized from literature
on gender in HEIs, data collected from nine RUFORUM member universities17 during the
Monitoring and Evaluation baseline study that was conducted in 2009 and the consultative
processes with key RUFORUM stakeholders. The consultative process involved:
a) key informant discussions with gender focal persons, deans, some heads of
departments and lecturers, and students from faculties of Agriculture in four 18
RUFORUM member universities;
b) presentations, discussions and consultations with participants19 to the Regional
Workshop on Developing Africa through Science and Technology Innovation in
Agriculture: “Women as key drivers”, that was held in Entebbe, Uganda from 28th
September to 2nd October 2009; and
c) discussions with RUFORUM partner organizations such as AWARD
Each subsection presents the gender issue of concern, the prevailing situation in HEI,
examples of good practice in the area under discussion and concludes by making some
recommendations RUFORUM might consider in its gender mainstreaming effort. It is
important to note that data and information presented is specific to the faculties of
Agriculture of the mentioned Universities and Colleges.
3.1
Gender Disparity in Enrolment of Women in HEIs
Low enrolment of women remains a challenge in universities. The general outlook in focus
faculties is that the number of male students hugely surpasses that of female students at
undergraduate and graduate levels. (Figure 3.1). Enrollment of female students increased
between 2006/07 and 2008/09 before
This general outlook is not consistent to all departments within the faculties of Agriculture
that were consulted. There are courses at both undergraduate and graduate levels that
consistently have more men than women and vice versa, while other courses have almost
equal numbers. For instance in the Faculty of Agriculture of University of Nairobi (UON),
the Department of Food Science and Technology was reported to consistently enroll more
female than male students, similarly the MSC course in rural development in Eduardo
Mondlane University (UEM). On the other hand the Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA)
17
Makerere University (MAK), Egerton University (EU), Jomo Kenyatta University (JKUAT), Mekele University (MU),
National University of Rwanda (NUR), Bunda College of Agriculture (BUNDA), University of Zambia (UNZA), Africa
University (AU) and University of Zimbabwe (UOZ).
18
Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA), Eduardo Mondlane University Mozambique (UEM), National University of Burundi
(UB) and University of Nairobi (UON).
19
Participants from the University of Swaziland, Egerton University, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) and AWARD
8
reported increasing numbers of female students in the departments of Crop Science and
Agricultural Economics, Education and Extension Education.
Fig 3.2: Trends in student enrollment by gender over the last four
academic years
72
80
Percent of students
% of students
Fig 3.1: Distribution of students in RUFORUM member
universities by gender
72
60
40
28
28
20
0
under graduate
Female
Graduate
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2006/07
Male
2007/08
2008/09
2009/10
Under graduate Men
Under graduate Women
graduate Men
graduate Women
Table 3.1: Distribution of Male and Female Students enrolments in sample universities.
University
Under graduate level
Makerere University (Faculty of Agriculture)
Mekele University (College of Dry Land Agriculture)
University of Swaziland
Hamaralaya University College of Agriculture and
Environmental Sciences
Botswana College of Agriculture
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
National University of Burundi
20
Eduardo Modlane
Bunda Colleage of Agriculture
Overall undergraduate level
Graduate Level
Makerere University (Faculty of Agriculture)
Mekele University (College of Dry Land Agriculture)
University of Swaziland
Hamaralaya University College of Agriculture
and Environmental Sciences
University of Zimbabwe
Botswana College of Agriculture
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
21
Eduardo Modlane
Overall Graduate Level
Percent of students enrolled in the academic year
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
67
33
70
30
69
31
78
22
69
31
68
32
89
11
47
53
57
43
59
41
62
38
63
37
80
20
84
16
81
19
80
20
67
33
66
73
34
27
64
70
36
30
63
74
37
26
84
82
16
18
72
28
71
70
29
30
73
27
68
32
78
70
72
22
30
28
74
61
79
26
39
21
46
78
81
54
22
19
64
93
75
36
7
25
90
10
88
12
89
11
80
20
52
68
48
32
53
58
71
47
42
29
70
30
61
39
71
72
29
28
69
31
73
27
75
25
20
Figures for students in the Departments of Silviculture, Agronomy and Forestry only
Figures provided for three courses: MSc Plant Protection (1 female, 6 male); MSc Natural Resources
Management (4 female, 3 male); and MSc Rural Development (16 female, 5male)
21
9
Despite existence of targets and some interventions for increasing enrollment of women
into HEIs in the region, gender parity is yet to be achieved. The limited numbers of girls
who meet requirements for admission coupled with fewer numbers of girls undertaking
science subjects were cited as a key factors curtailing attainment of gender parity. High
entry requirements set by some universities were also noted to lock out students notably
girls and those from poor families or disadvantaged regions. For instance the admission to
tertiary institutions in Kenya requires a minimum of C+ however Egerton requires B+ and
this locks out many.
A woman having to break career to get married or attend to her children was cited as a key
limiting factor for their undertaking of postgraduate degrees which may require travelling
far from home. Women have to make a choice between pursing higher degrees and
establishing a stable family. Of the women who reach HEIs in Africa, it is commonly
expected that they marry immediately on completion of their first degrees. Male students
are not expected to marry at that age thus male students are able to apply for graduate
training without encumbrance of family responsibility and children (AAU 2006). For
instance among Ugandans with at least secondary education women marry four years
younger (median age 20.6 years for women aged 25-49 years) compared to men aged 2554 years whose median age at first marriage stands at 24.4 years (UDHS 2006)22.
Several African governments and their public HEIs are trying to address the gender
disparity in the enrollment of female students. Examples include:
22

Makerere University, which from 1990 to 2008 implemented affirmative action in
favor of female applicants through accreditation of 1.5 points. This effort increased
enrollment of female students in science programs from 17% in 1989/1990 to 33%
in 2008/2009 (Makerere Gender Equality Policy, 2009).

The Kenya, Joint Admissions Board (JAB) which has a current affirmative action on
admission of students into regular undergraduate programmes by accrediting two
points to female students and one point to students from disadvantaged areas (UoN,
2008). In 2008, this effort had resulted in 34% enrollment of female students to
undergraduate programmes (UoN, 2008). Gender mainstreaming efforts at Egerton
University have seen enrollment of female students increase from 26% in 1996 to
42% in 2009. However it was noted that there are fewer girls in sciences- less than
37%.
Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) 2006.
10

Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) has a Pre-Entry Programme (PEP). While
initially designed to provide access to girls that had not attained the required
academic points to science courses, it also included male students in 2008. The
programme is conducted as a six weeks remedial course. Those that pass gain entry
to the University.
Key informant discussions revealed that there are limitations and weaknesses inherent in
the piecemeal strategies that focus only on the point of admission to university. It should
also be noted that current efforts in the universities are mainly restricted to undergraduate
level, with little if any internal interventions directly targeted at improving women
enrollment at postgraduate level. This implies the need for continued effort to increase
enrollment of women at both the undergraduate postgraduate and levels. It is vital to adopt
a multifaceted approach with strategies which reinforce one another such as affirmative
action quotas for women and students from disadvantaged areas and pre entry or bridging
programs.
RUFORUM should consider instituting gender based quotas for admissions into its regional
training programs. Candidates should then be selected through open competition within
the quotas. Establish specific scholarships for women in addition to the general calls.
RUFORUM should also more widely advertise its research and training programmes with
clear messages encouraging women to apply. In addition RUFORUM should invest in
training women and other disadvantaged groups on how to apply for training and or
research grant opportunities. The Competitive Grants Scheme incentive system should
reward Principal Investors who offer training scholarships to female students and support
them to complete.
3.2 Concerns about gender equality in merit based institutions
Universities are generally perceived as gender neutral, based on meritocratic principles
where both men and women can succeed on merit. Key informant discussions confirmed
this perspective. Staff who were consulted in universities that have applied affirmative
action in the admission of students (UEM) and those that have not (National University of
Burundi-U and BCA) expressed deep concern about how gender equality in admissions and
merit can both be achieved without compromising one at the expense of the other.
Affirmative action approaches are viewed as methods that ingrain ideas in girls that they
can have privileges without working hard for them. Some female staff who have progressed
in their academic careers and in some cases obtained management positions viewed such
interventions as watering down achievements that have been attained on merit (UEM &
NB- faculties of Agriculture).
11
It is important to recognize these concerns more so because of the persisting disparity in
the enrollment of female students especially at the postgraduate level (mentioned in the
previous section) which needs addressing. An organization such as RUFORUM can
contribute by commissioning studies that seek to understand what works or does not work
(best practices) in affirmative action approaches. Such studies can help to generate a set of
principles derived from best practices that can be applied by universities and monitored.
RUFORUM can also facilitate discussions and learning platforms on the subject.
Box 1: African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD) FellowshipsBalancing merit and addressing disproportion
AWARD offers two-year fellowships to fast track careers of African Women delivering pro-poor
research and development. The fellowships are open to women post - B.Sc., post - M.Sc. and post Ph.D. The fellowships are built on three cornerstones: establishing mentoring partnerships,
strengthening scientific skills and providing leadership training. AWARD is available to scientists
from Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and
Zambia. Upon realization that some countries consistently return fewer successful applicants,
AWARD may on occasion choose to allocate a particular quota of fellows to such countries or
region. Even when this is done, the applicants from that region are screened on a purely
competitive basis.
Source: Dr. Margret Kroma.
3.3
Limited pool of Female and Disadvantaged Students who successfully
Complete Secondary School Education
During key informant interviews, the low numbers of female and disadvantaged students in
HEIs was frequently attributed to the fewer numbers of the same students in secondary
school education who qualify to gain admittance to tertiary institutions. Literature on
gender gap in education for selected countries in the ECSA region, reveals that overall there
are nine females to every ten males in secondary education while there are only six female
to every ten males in tertiary institutions. With the exception of Lesotho and Botswana,
there are fewer females in secondary and tertiary education in all other countries of
RUFORUM member universities (Table 3.2).
The small pool of girls completing secondary education is noted to lead to a much smaller
number attaining higher marks consequently limiting the number joining tertiary
institutions more so for science related courses23. In Kenya out of the 16,629 qualifiers to
undergraduate programmes from the 2007 Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
23
Association of African Universities 2006: A Tool Kit for Mainstreaming Gender in Higher Education in Africa
12
(KCSE) examinations only 31.4% (5,228) were women while girls accounted for 46% out of
the 305,000 candidates for the 2008 KCSE examinations(the Daily Nation, March 6th 2009).
Table 3.2: Education Enrollment, Ratio of female to males for selected countries in the ECSA region
Country
Ratio of female to males by level of education
Primary24
Secondary25
Tertiary26
Lesotho
1.04
1.55
1.19
Botswana
1.03
1.14
1.00
Zimbabwe
1.01
0.96
0.63
Zambia
1.01
0.87
0.46
Malawi
1.07
0.91
0.51
Mozambique
0.93
0.83
0.49
Uganda
1.03
0.90
0.62
Kenya
1.00
0.91
0.57
Tanzania
0.99
0.87
0.48
Ethiopia
0.92
0.64
0.34
Mean
1.00
0.96
0.63
Source: World Economic Forum: Global Gender Gap Report 2009
The following were highlighted in literature and during key informant discussions as some of the
barriers to girls’ education and hence the small pool of girls who join tertiary institutions.

Lack of role models to inspire young girls

Burden of housework- where girls are expected to accomplish the bulk of housework in the
home while their male counterparts may commit the time to study

Girls opt for shorter courses – Science courses take too long (in Burundi it takes fives years
to complete a degree in Agriculture

Early marriage affects retention in primary and secondary schools and massively impedes
the educational progress of girls, whether it occurs to lighten a family’s economic burden or
to secure a daughter’s future. Eighty two million girls in developing countries who are now
between the ages of 10 and 17 will be married before their 18th birthday (Global Gender
Gap report 2009). In Uganda more than half (55%) of women aged 25-49 years were
married by age 18. By age 20, almost three quarters (74%) of women have married
compared to one quarter (26%) of men 25-54 years (UDHS 2006).

High level of teenage pregnancy in many countries. One-quarter to one-half of girls in
developing countries become mothers before 18. This may lead to high dropout rates.

About 75% of all HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are among people of ages 15 to 24 are
young women. In the absence of a vaccine protecting children and young people against
24
Female net enrollment over male value
Female net enrollment over male value
26
Female gross tertiary enrollment over male value
25
13


HIV/AIDS, education is the best defense against the disease. The more educated and skilled,
the more likely they are to protect themselves from infection.
The boy child is often given preference to go to school in case of limited resources
Girls’ access to education may also be limited by other factors, such as the safety of the
journey to school.
The issue of fewer numbers of girls in secondary notably in science is recognized across the
sample universities. However there are varied views on what universities can do to
positively influence this, with some key informants arguing that it is outside the university
mandate. Some countries and universities have taken action:
 In Kenya affirmative action is applied in admission into public HEIs, two extra points
are accredited for girls and 1 extra point for boys from disadvantaged areas.
 In Mozambique affirmative action is applied in admission of students (boys and
girls) from rural regions of the country.
 The Kenya Professional Association of Women in Agriculture and Environment
(KEPAWAE), has invested heavily in providing gifted but needy girls with
scholarships and mentorship necessary to help them progress with their careers27.
 The Makerere University (MAK) Gender Mainstreaming Division is implementing a
Female Scholarship Initiative (FSI) project since 2001 that offers females from
disadvantaged backgrounds access to undergraduate studies at MAK. The project
funded by Carnegie Corporation has since supported 691 beneficiaries28.
It is clear that Universities through their Gender Mainstreaming units/ divisions can
contribute to raising the enrollment of students from disadvantaged areas and
backgrounds through developing and implementing projects that target the problem.
RUFORUM can further contribute by providing platforms and processes through which the
Gender Mainstreaming units/ divisions and university policy makers share experiences,
lessons, successes and good practices as well jointly creating solutions to the challenge.
3.4
Misconceptions about science and agriculture as a career for women
Students of agricultural faculties are all-too-often not there by choice but by default after
failing to enrol for medicine, veterinary science, business studies, and engineering among
other popular programmes (Muir-Leresche and Scull-Carvalho, 2006). Key informant
discussions revealed that students avoid agriculture associating it with rural life, poverty
To-date, the association has supported 1100 girls through secondary education. Funding has come from
different sources, including the Ford Foundation, the Kenya Community Development Foundation, the United
States Government and the Klein Hofywick Foundation.
28
http://gender.mak.ac.ug/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=113&Itemid=129
27
14
and “soiling” their hands. It was commonly reported that most of the students who end up
taking agricultural sciences (boys or girls) at undergraduate level do so because they have
not been admitted to the course of their first choice. Some of the reasons cited for this
avoidance of the agricultural course include:
i. Poor or inadequate salesmanship of the courses. “The pictures used in brochures
and reports to promote the science faculties often portray tractors, people taking
samples from animals and heavy equipment which works to reinforce the myth that
this is a male domain.
ii. Poor visibility of successful role models in various fields of agriculture and science
(researchers, academicians, entrepreneurs, farmers). From a young age students do
not recognize agriculture and science as a prestigious field with potentially
attractive career, entrepreneurial or income generating opportunities.
iii. Parents/guardians do not always encourage the girl child to take up science
(agriculture, forestry, and veterinary) due to the misconception that it is hard,
difficult to pass, offers limited opportunities for employment and not competitive in
monetary rewards compared to other courses in humanities.
iv.
Low priority given to agriculture in primary schools, where related activities are
often used as punishment.
Sokoine University of Agriculture has taken steps to address the misconception. Through
the initiative of the Gender Policy Implementation Committee (GPIC), SUA has made visits
to secondary schools since 2005 to sensitize students notably girls on the available options
and potential careers in the science field and to encourage them to join the University’s
degree programmes.
It is important that universities and RUFORUM make deliberate effort to market the
agricultural disciplines to male and female students. This might be done by raising
awareness on the contribution of science to development, the facets/ scope of the field, the
numerous career opportunities therein and existing potential for men and women. It is
important to showcase role models in the field (scientists, government officials,
entrepreneurs and farmers) and the rewards/successes obtained in their agricultural
related careers. The alumni of universities and RUFORUM can be mobilized to participate
in this effort which should not be targeted at only secondary school students but also to
teachers and parents/guardians.
15
3.5
Distribution of Staff in Teaching and Management Positions
3.5.1 Lower Numbers of Female Staff in Faculties of Agriculture
Literature reveals that women make up just 29% of Africa’s academic staff, compared to
the global figure of 41%. Findings from the study reveal that overall, four in every five
academic staff in RUFORUM focus faculties are men while only one in every five is a woman
(Figure 3.3 and table 3.3). A study by Sasakawa Africa Fund Extension Education (SAFE)
also found that the proportion of women hired as academic staff in their partner
universities ranged from as low as 6.1% of academic staff for University of Addis Ababa in
Ethiopia to 12% for University of Cheikh Anta Diop in Senegal29. Nigeria’s national data
indicate only 12.4% of academic staff are women, athough the University of Ibadan has
24.8% women academic staff, similar to that of the University of Ghana’s 24% women
academics (Bunyi G.,2003).
Within the faculties, higher numbers of female staff tend to be found in departments
teaching courses that have traditionally
Fig 3.3: Distribution of academic staff in RUFORUM
been dominated by women, such as food
universities
science and technology. A comparison
Female
20%
of numbers of female staff in the
faculties of Agriculture, Education,
Male
Male
Health Sciences, Institute of Distance
Female
80%
Learning (IDE) and Social Sciences in the
University of Swaziland (UNISWA),
show that Science (14%) and
Agriculture (27%) faculties have the least representation of women compared to the
Health Sciences (76%), and IDE (75%) faculties (Dhlamini, 2009).
29
Achieving Gender Balance in Tertiary Institutions and Colleges in Africa
(With reference to SAFE partner institutions) SAFE 2010.
16
Table 3.3: Distribution of staff by gender in Focus Faculties in Eleven RUFORUM Member Universities
University
Number and percentage of staff by gender
Female
Male
Total number
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Botswana college of Agriculture
37
24
115
76
152
Bunda College of Agriculture30
18
28
46
72
64
Eduardo Modalane
16
25
49
75
65
Mekele University
14
11
112
89
126
National University of Burundi
4
20
16
80
20
University of Nairobi-31
18
23
61
77
79
University of Zimbabwe
13
27
36
73
49
University of Swaziland
15
28
39
72
54
Makerere University Faculty of
30
29
72
71
102
Agriculture
Haramaya University College of
22
13
153
87
175
Agriculture and Environmental Sciences
Sokoine University of Agriculture
84
18
372
82
456
Ahmadu Bello Zaria32
2
13
13
87
15
IPR/IFRA33
4
22
14
78
18
Bayero34
2
11
17
89
19
Total
279
20
1115
80
1394
Findings also show that on average 17% of PhD holders are women while 83% are men
and that three in every four academic staff with a master’s degree are men (Figure 3.4).
Fig: 3.4 Distribution of academic staff by qualification and gender
100
83
78
77
% of staff
80
60
40
23
17
22
PhD
MSc
20
0
Women
BSc
Men
30
Staff situation in the Academic year 2008/2009, including staff on study leave, secondment to government and on leave of
absence.
31
Staff figures for the departments of Agricultural Economics, Land Resource Management and Technology, Food Science and
Technology and Plant Science in 2008
32
Figures in Department of Agricultural Extension, Source SAFE 2010.
33
Figures in Department of Agricultural Extension, Source SAFE 2010.
34
Figures in Department of Agricultural Extension, Source SAFE 2010.
17
% of staff in a rank
3.5.2 Slower Career Progression for Women
Within faculties and departments women tend to hold more junior positions. Findings
show relatively higher proportions of female academic staff in the early and middle careers
(Lecture and assistant lecture) compared to the proportions of male staff. However, the
situation is reversed for the senior
Figure 3.5: Distribution of Academic staff by rank and gender
lecturer, associate and full professor
levels (Figure 3.5). With the
100
exception of the SUA and Faculty of
66
49
Agriculture- UON where there are
27
25
50
four female professors, there is not
5 11
4 13
more than one female full professor
0
in the other faculties captured in this
Prof
Associate Senior Lectures Lectures & below
study. There is no female professor
at Haramaya, UNISWA, and Mekele
Women Men
College of Dry Land Agriculture.
Figure 3.6 Distribution of of Principal Investigators in 2009/10 by
gender
Mobility through the ranks is dependent on
Women
academic or professional credentials. The
23%
common criteria for promotion are
academic qualifications (on a tenure track
promotion is automatic upon obtaining a
higher degree), academic merit (assessed
Men
by the number of publications), research,
77%
and supervision of graduate students,
contribution at seminars / conferences, workshops and quality teaching (Zeleza and
Olukoshi, 2004). Though there is no formal discrimination of women in career progression,
institutional factors as well as external factors (marriage, domestic responsibilities and
culture) limit their progression in a more-less veiled form. The external factors limit
academic women’s participation in research, culminating into fewer publications and
consequently loss of opportunities to participate in Continuous Professional Skills
Development (CPD) events where participation is at times secured and approved upon
evidence of a paper to be presented. Findings in four RUFORUM member universities
reveal that fewer female staff engages in research as principal investigators (Figure 3.6 and
Table 3.4)
18
Table 3.4: Distribution of staff by involvement in research
University
Role
Number of staff participating by academic year
2009/10
Mekele university
(College of Dry land
agriculture
Principal Investigators
Team members
Principal Investigators
University of Swaziland
Haramaya University
college of Agriculture &
environmental sciences
Makerere University
Faculty of Agriculture
Team members
Total
Principal Investigators
Principal Investigators
Team members
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
18
3
17
2
15
1
21
1
35
5
33
3
14
10
25
2
2
2
6
1
11
1
15
1
3
4
13
1
17
1
21
3
45
11
36
9
24
4
27
2
78
15
64
10
49
5
56
5
29
12
94
28
59
12
50
6
63
4
116
24
110
14
80
16
102
10
Principal Investigators
Team members
Source Faculty Records RUFORUM member universities
Views from key informant discussions on factors limiting women’s career progression
-
Impact of multiple responsibilities (teaching, research and family obligations) and the difficulty
in balancing all these responsibilities.
-
Women who chose to devote their earlier years to family often feel later on that the opportunity
to advance in career through further training is past.
-
University/College policies that senior lecturer positions shall only apply to those with PhDs,
yet most women lecturers do not have this qualification.
-
Limited opportunities for female staff to network.
-
Absence of support structures for women in leadership.
-
Absence of visible role models and mentors. The relative lack of role models and the relative
invisibility of highly successful career women who are balancing successfully their home and
careers seem to make it difficult to convince more young women that it is possible to be a
professional and a wife/mother as well.
-
Institutional challenges – the challenges women face in balancing their roles is not appreciated.
-
The five to seven year duration of some PhD programs is a serious deterrent to women
considering their family commitments.
-
“Glass ceiling”, some women get contented with their first degree or masters and may need a
push for them to apply higher degrees
19
3.5.3 Few women in management
In most universities, there are few women in leadership positions (Figure 3.7). Female
heads of departments are still few due to lack of women with relevant qualifications
especially in fields that have historically been dominated by men (Mekele, Haramaya, EU,
and UEM). Due to the challenges of balancing
Fig 3.7: Distribution of academic staff in managment positions by
career and care giving responsibilities; some
gender
academic women reported preferring not to
Women
take on administrative responsibility. It was
17%
also noted that women in leadership
positions sometimes feel isolated and
Men
colleagues (male and female) tend to
83%
challenge rather than support them (UEM, UB
and BCA). The views are in line with findings of Carvalho et al, 2009 who noted that as
women go higher in the career path, male colleagues turn more unwilling to support and
discomforted which serves as obstacles for women’s ascending to top positions35.
Table 3.5: Distribution of Staff in Leadership Positions in Colleges and Faculties of Agriculture in Four Universities
University
Sex
Botswana College of Agriculture
Mekele University College of Dry Land Agriculture
National University of Burundi
UON College of Agriculture
36
and Veterinary Science
Faculty of Agriculture
Haramayara University: College of agriculture &
environmental sciences
University of Swaziland (UNISWA)
Makerere University (Faculty of agriculture)
Positions and number of Staff
Principals
Deans
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
M
F
M
F
Total
Heads of
Department
1
5
0
4
1
3
2
No
%
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
Associate
Deans
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
7
0
7
2
4
3
12.5
87.5
0.0
100.0
33.3
66.7
37.5
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
3
0
5
2
5
0
7
2
62.5
0
100
25.0
M
0
1
0
5
6
75.0
F
0
0
1
0
1
10.0
M
0
1
1
7
9
90.0
The absence of women in senior positions means that they are largely absent from
discussions where issues pertaining to higher education are deliberated. As (Nawe, 2004)
observes seminars, workshops and the like, involving senior officials remain a domain for
35
Teresa Carvalho, Özlem Özkanl and Maria de Lourdes Machado 2009, Gender Inequalities in senior
management: A comparative study from Portugal and Turkey
36
Figures for 2008/2009
20
men who make use of the opportunities for developing capacities through exchange of
experiences and networking. Box two illustrated Makerere University’s efforts to support
career progression of women.
Box 2: The Makerere University Women in Leadership Initiative
A project to address the gender gap in leadership was initiated in 2005 by the MAK Gender
Mainstreaming Division. The specific objectives for the project are to increase the number of
female staff accessing and completing post graduate education; to increase knowledge and skills in
leadership by female staff and increased numbers of women leaders in academia and
administration; and to increase gender focused research and publications per year to inform
decision making and policy formulation at Makerere and in the nation. This project offers an
opportunity to enhance academic and professional competences of female staff so that they can be
eligible for promotion. The project offers PhD scholarships to five female members of staff (three
Academic staff and two in Administration). The project also offers scholarships for Masters
Degrees to nineteen female members of staff (7 Academic staff and 12 in Administration). In
addition to the scholarships, the GMD has built the beneficiaries’ capacity through training on
leadership37.
RUFORUM and HEIs can support career progression of women, their increased
involvement in networking and leadership by:
i. creating opportunities for further training/ professional upgrading that are targeted at
women
ii. Creating opportunities for training in leadership, proposal writing and other
professional skills development for women or instituting quotas for women’s
participation in such events.
iii. widely advertising any professional upgrading opportunities that emerge for women
iv.
Encouraging more sandwich programs that allow part of the study at home and
budgeting in such a way as to ensure that scholarships allow women with infants to
visit home more or to travel with them.
v.
Providing strong mentoring programmes for female students and staff on career
professional upgrading. AWARD provides an example of a well planned and resourced
mentorship programme (Box 3).
37
http://gender.mak.ac.ug/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=117&Itemid=127
21
Box 3: The AWARD Solution to Good Mentorship
Identifying suitable mentors is key to successful mentoring. High qualifications or being in a senior
position are desirable but do not necessarily make a good mentor. Mentors are not supervisors.
Qualities of good mentors include having: the relevant technical knowledge; a natural talent for
teaching; commitment to mentoring process; willingness to commit time and resources; and
integrity (to avoid sexual harassment and patronage).
AWARD invests time and resources to find good mentors through: extensive networking, writing to
people to interest them in becoming mentors and asking fellows and other people to recommend
mentors. AWARD also conducts a screening process using criteria such as reputation checks, peers
and phone references, undertakes an iterative process to match mentors and mentees, and
conducts a-two day training for mentors and mentees.
To motivate or incentivize mentors AWARD provides a small allowance to facilitate expenses such
as communication and meeting costs; membership to professional association of mentor’s choice;
2000USD to attend science conference of choice, opportunities to attend short training in science
writing, presentation and writing research proposals.
Mentoring process requires intensive follow up to ensure that it is working. AWARD requires
mentors to sign contracts, follows the process closely by calling up mentors and mentees to
determine if the mentoring process is working out, encourages mentees to report any problems,
checks and triangulates to check validity of mentor and mentee complaints, may terminate
contracts of mentors that are not delivering, is incorporating M&E of mentoring in its overall M&E
process and employs a full time person to coordinate and monitor the mentoring programme.
Source: Dorothy Mukhebi, AWARD
3.6
Varied Institutionalization of Gender Mainstreaming
A policy provides an institutional framework within which action on gender can be taken at
all levels. Presence of a gender policy signals commitment to taking steps in gender
planning for the institution’s sustenance, promotion of gender justice, the management and
prevention of gender violence, discrimination and injustice (AAU, 2006). Among the
universities where consultations occurred, the University of Botswana, SUA, EU and the
UON have developed gender policies. Others such as UEM, have adhoc gender
mainstreaming strategies with a view to mainstreaming gender in the entire work and
structures of their institutions. The National University of Burundi did not report having a
gender policy.
It must be noted that the presence of a policy is not enough to ensure its implementation at
all levels of the institution. Effective institutionalization and implementation of the gender
policies requires a robust combination of political will, technical expertise, resources,
22
realistic timeframe within which to achieve measurable benchmarks, specific persons and
organs for implementation and regular monitoring (AAU, 2006). Among the universities
visited that had gender policies, the extent of their implementation varied (box 4). The key
challenges to the implementation of the gender policies and strategies were reported to
include:





A lack of human resources (both in terms of number and with relevant technical skills)
to spear head implementation of the gender strategies. In most cases those charged
with gender mainstreaming efforts undertake the task in addition to their academic,
research and sometimes management responsibilities
Lack of specific office space for the gender mainstreaming unit which makes
coordination and administration difficult
Inadequate funds to implement agreed work plans
Absence of clear and measurable action plans
Resistance from some senior staff (women inclusive).
Box 4: Universities’ Efforts to Institutionalize Gender Mainstreaming
University of Nairobi
The UoN gender policy, completed in June 2008 outlines clear structures and organs for
implementing Gender Mainstreaming. They include a University wide structure, college based
gender committees and campus-based gender units or focal points that will facilitate and
coordinate the implementation of the policy. However some of staff consulted were not aware of
the existence of the policy or were fuzzy about its specifics, implying that the extent of
implementation of the policy- especially at the college levels is still very limited.
Botswana College of Agriculture
The University of Botswana has a gender policy. However BCA was yet to develop clear guidelines
and action plan to align its intervention with the policy. The College has a gender focal person and
has set up a committee for gender. However the committee is still largely inactive as they have not
had any meeting to set clear objectives or plans of action.
Eduardo Mondlane University
In July 2009, Eduardo Mondlane University set up a Centre for Gender (Centro de Coordenacao dos
Assuntos do Genero) and appointed a centre director and deputy. Gender focal persons have been
designated at the faculty level. At the faculty level the gender focal persons have set up three person
committees that comprise of gender focal persons for administrative staff, academic staff; and
students, whose functions is to present emerging gender issues to the faculty gender focal persons
who in turn present to the Centre.
Sokoine University of Agriculture
23
The University published a gender policy in 2002 and updated it in 2007. The University has a
Gender Policy Implementation Committee (GPIC) which reports to the Senate and is responsible for
monitoring all activities that relate to gender within the University, working with other relevant
institutions in SUA to ensure gender dis-aggregated data are collected and used in reporting, lead
and coordinate gender related programmes, support development gender sensitive infrastructure
in the University through proposal development and to review the policy regularly. Some of SUA’s
gender programs include:
-Gender capacity development for SUA staff
-Implementation of a pre-entry science program for female students
-Sensitizing girls to join SUA degree programmes
-Sensitizing secondary school girls to opt for natural science subjects
-Sensitization workshop on gender issues to secondary school teachers
-Mainstreaming gender in training, research and outreach activities
-Gender sensitization workshops/seminars for SUA community
-Introduction of undergraduate and postgraduate full courses on gender
RUFORUM has the unique position of being owned by member universities and having
representatives of Vice Chancellors on its board of directors. This position can be used to
encourage and persuade Vice Chancellors to support the development of gender policies
where they do not exist and the implementation of existing policies, through development
of technical expertise and provision of necessary resources. RUFORUM should support
research in the area of gender and invest in building technical capacity of the gender
mainstreaming units in universities. Through its varied platforms RUFORUM can support
information sharing on methods, tools, experiences and best practices in mainstreaming
gender in universities. Communication between Gender Mainstreaming units in different
HEIs should be strengthened to foster learning from each other’s experiences and to give
opportunity to less advanced units to learn from the activities of the more advanced ones.
As illustrated in sections 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 Gender Mainstreaming units and divisions can be
instrumental in developing projects and raising funds to support education, professional
upgrading and career progression of women and disadvantaged students. Recognizing and
rewarding good practice on addressing gender issues among RUFORUM member
universities is also recommended.
3.9 Conducive environment
There are cultures and physical situations which make universities unfriendly to women
and students from disadvantaged regions.
24
3.9.1
Lack of suitable accommodation for married graduate students
Most of the institutions visited lack adequate quarters for postgraduate students and
especially those with families. At the Agriculture and Veterinary College of UON, it was
reported that accommodation is not provided for Kenyan Postgraduate Students. As a
result many students have to commute from their homes or rent cheap housing in the area
surrounding the College, which is not very safe or conducive for learning. Postgraduate
students from countries outside Kenya are provided with housing but no special provisions
are made for students (male or female) with families. Lack of accommodation at campus for
graduate students was cited to be limiting enrollment of students from rural areas who can
not find accommodation near the university or in Maputo (UEM).
3.9.2
Gender violence and Sexual Harassment
Cases of female students harassing male lectures for marks have been reported while the
reverse is also true. Though there are national laws against sexual harassment, these have
not been translated into guidelines on sexual harassment within the universities, such that
when it occurs, there are no clear guidelines on how to treat the perpetuators and the
victims. To address the issue of sexual harassment, at the inception of activities to
mainstream gender, Egerton University took serious steps to contain the problem by
immediately “weeding out” irresponsible staff that had been proven to sexually harass
female students. Students and female staff are encouraged to report any cases of sexual
harassment to the authorities. To improve on security of both students and staff, Egerton
University has employed security guards and installed security lights. Makerere University
also produced a policy and regulations on sexual harassment prevention in 2006.
3.9.3 Absence of Support Structures for Female Students and Staff
There is a general lack of support systems for female staff and students at the universities.
While there are mentoring programmes to support students at undergraduate level, they
are largely lacking at the postgraduate level (UON). Students that fall pregnant or who are
victimized sexually are usually blamed for the occurrence. Young mothers pursing their
degrees, whether undergraduate of post graduate face challenges such as missing critical
lectures or examinations due to illness or sickness of their children. The presence of
support groups or Women Associations was reported by key informants from Egerton, SUA
and BU. The National University of Burundi has a Women’s Association that includes both
students and staff. The Association was reported to have organized annual social events
and income generating activities for its members. However such an association can be
supported to broaden its focus to include mentoring, counseling, staff & student support
and childcare arrangements.
25
3.9.4 Child care facilities
Persistent shortage of childcare facilities was cited as one of the factors aggravating
inequality (Gender Net 2000). In most of the universities visited, there were no child care
facilities. Consequently the mothers lose time as they drop and pick children from distant
childcare facilities or primary schools. Nevertheless some universities have moved to
address this issue. At Egerton, the Montessori nursery school was built on campus. Good
primary and secondary schools are also available within the vicinity of Egerton University.
3.9.5
Concern for the male Students
There were also concerns that there is very limited focus on boys yet they are becoming
entangled in anti-social activities and delinquency is very common – drug abuse, alcohol
abuse, high level of frustration and anger. It was noted that no one seems to be designing
strategies to deal with the situation.
The environment at universities can be made more conducive for students’ study by:
 Providing living quarters for students that are disadvantaged, from distant places or
who have to move with infants.
 Reducing the need for physical presence on the campuses beyond what is necessary
through use of approaches such as e-learning, distance learning and sandwich
programmes.
 Encouraging the set up of support groups for female students and staff, provision of
good mentoring and counseling services.
 Setting clear rules on sexual harassment and enforcing them.
RUFORUM with its specific focus on postgraduate training has put in place some
interventions to improve the environment. These include providing female students with
one extra air ticket over and above what the male counterparts receive; a health scheme for
female students who deliver children while on study out of their country; and better
accommodation for students with infants. These strategies should be sustained. This
notwithstanding, RUFORUM should adopt gender budgeting in order to provide
scholarships which address the gender needs of married students (male and female).
3.10 Mainstreaming Gender in the Curriculum
The universities are expected to produce graduates capable of supporting sustainable
agricultural growth. This implies that the graduates should have the capacity to analyze the
needs of both men and women and be able to address them with appropriate interventions.
Recent literature points to persistence of gender stereotypes in educational materials used
in HEIs. Findings from the key informant discussions revealed that in the focus faculties
some course units have elements of gender analysis. However, such course units may be
26
elective and as such not all students take them. Some universities have taken steps to
address this issue (box 5).
Box 5: Engendering Curricular
Makerere University
A Technical Working Group comprised of members drawn from 16 teaching units to
spearhead the process of mainstreaming gender in the University curricula was set up in
2008. A consultant was contracted to facilitate the process of engendering the University
curricular. The process included establishing the current status of gender mainstreaming at
Makerere University, discussing with the 16 units on how to improve the engendering of
their respective disciplines. The information generated by the Consultant was used to
improve gender mainstreaming of the curriculum in the 16 respective teaching units.
Guidelines for engendering the curricular for other units have been developed38.
The universities should ensure that their graduates have the capacity to analyze the needs
of men and women and to address them with appropriate interventions by developing
capacity of both staff and students. This could be achieved through introduction of
appropriate courses on gender and sensitization workshops. RUFORUM can support this
process by encouraging incorporation of modules on gender in the regional training
programmes, requiring those submitting research proposals to address gender issues
where appropriate and the use of gender dis-aggregated data in reporting.
3.11
Age distribution of Academic staff
Findings on age distribution of staff reveal that one in every two academic staff is not more than 40
years of age. More than a quarter of the staff are above 50 years while 14% is over 60 years (Figure 3.8).
Fig 3.8: Age distribution of academic staff in five RUFORUM
member universities
Above 60
14%
51-60
13%
40 and below
51%
41-50
22%
38
http://gender.mak.ac.ug/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=119&Itemid=125
27
4.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1
Conclusions
In the Millennium Declaration of September 2000, member states of the UN made a
commitment to eliminate gender disparity in all levels of education no later than 2015. Despite
efforts to eliminate inequality, gender parity is yet to be achieved. There are several gender
concerns in the HEIs in the ECSA region. These include:- low enrolment of female and
disadvantaged students in agriculture and related science courses; limited pool of female and
disadvantaged students completing secondary school education; misconceptions about science
and agriculture as a career for women, and how to achieve gender equality in merit based
institutions. There is also low numbers of female staff, slower career progression for female
staff, few women in management; and lack conducive of conducive environment. The situation
is further compounded by limited institutionalization of gender mainstreaming; varied
appreciation of gender among universities and their staff; as well as gender blind curricular.
Various universities, regional networks and other key stakeholders have put in place
interventions to address gender inequalities in education and research. These experiences have
informed the recommendations given below.
4.2
Recommendations

Gender Disparity in Enrolment of Women in HEIs
There is need for HEIs to sustain their effort to increase enrollment of women at both the
undergraduate and postgraduate levels by adopting multiple strategies that reinforce each
other. Integrated use of approaches that have resulted in success such as the affirmative
action and pre entry or bridging programs will be crucial. RUFORUM should consider
instituting specific scholarships for women on top of the general calls. It could establish
gender based quotas for admissions into its regional training programs. Candidates should
then be selected through open competition within the quotas. RUFORUM should also more
widely advertise its research and training programmes with clear messages encouraging
women to apply. In addition it should invest in building capacity of women on how to apply
for the various training and research grant opportunities. The Competitive Grants Scheme
incentive system should reward Principal Investors who offer training scholarships to
female students and support them to complete.

Concerns about gender equality in merit based institutions
It is important to recognize the concerns that affirmative action compromises merit and
quality in admission of students. Studies should be conducted that examine what works or
28
does not work in affirmative action approaches. Such studies will help to generate a set of
principles derived from best practices that can be applied by universities and monitored.
RUFORUM can also facilitate discussions, information sharing and learning platforms on
the subject and on alternative methods to affirmative action such as the Pre Entry
Programmes, which facilitate admission of female students and address quality issues at
the same time.

Limited pool of Female and Disadvantaged Students who successfully
Complete Secondary School Education
Universities through their Gender Mainstreaming units/ divisions can contribute to raising
the enrollment of students from disadvantaged areas/ backgrounds by developing and
implementing projects that target such students. University leadership should therefore
encourage the gender divisions or units to make this part of their activities but also support
them by providing the necessary resources (time and skilled personnel). RUFORUM can
further contribute by providing platforms and processes through which the Gender
Mainstreaming units/ divisions can jointly create solutions to the challenge, share lessons,
successes and good practices.

Misconceptions about science and agriculture as a career for women
It is important that universities and RUFORUM make deliberate effort to market the
agricultural disciplines to male and female students. This might be done by raising
awareness on the contribution of the science to development, the facets/ scope of the field,
the numerous career opportunities therein and existing potential for men and women. It is
important to showcase role models in the field (scientists, government officials,
entrepreneurs and farmers) and the rewards/successes obtained in their agricultural
related careers. The alumni of universities and RUFORUM can be mobilized to participate
in this effort.

Low numbers of female staff in teaching and management positions in
universities
RUFORUM and HEIs can support career progression of women, their increased
involvement in networking and leadership by i) creating opportunities for further training/
professional upgrading that are targeted at women; ii) creating opportunities for training
in leadership, proposal writing and other professional skills development for women or
instituting quotas for women’s participation in such events; iii) widely advertising any
professional upgrading opportunities that emerge for women; iv) encouraging more
sandwich programs that allow part of the study at home and budgeting in such a way as to
29
ensure that scholarships allow women with infants to visit home more or to travel with
them; and v) providing strong mentoring programmes for female students and staff on
career professional upgrading.

Varied Institutionalization of Gender Mainstreaming
RUFORUM has the unique position of being owned by member universities and having
representatives of Vice Chancellors on its Board of Directors. This position can be used to
encourage and persuade Vice Chancellors to support the development of gender policies
where there none and the implementation of existing policies, through development of
technical expertise and provision of necessary resources. Through its varied platforms
RUFORUM can support information sharing on methods, tools, experiences and best
practices in mainstreaming gender in universities. Communication between Gender
Mainstreaming units in different HEIs should be strengthened to help foster learning from
each other’s experiences and to give opportunity to less advanced units to learn from the
activities of the more advanced ones. Recognizing and rewarding good practice on
addressing gender issues among RUFORUM member universities is also recommended.

Creating a conducive environment for students
The environment at universities can be made more conducive for students’ study by:
 Providing living quarters for students that are disadvantaged, from distant places or
who have to move with infants.
 Reducing the need for physical presence on the campuses beyond what is necessary
through use of approaches such as e-learning, distance learning and sandwich
programmes.
 Encouraging the set up of support groups for female students and staff, provision of
good mentoring and counseling services.
 Setting clear rules on sexual harassment and enforcing them.
RUFORUM with its specific focus on postgraduate training has put in place some
interventions to improve the environment. These include providing female students
with one extra air ticket over and above what the male counterparts receive; a
health scheme for female students who deliver children while on study out of their
country; and better accommodation for students with infants. These strategies
should be sustained. This notwithstanding, RUFORUM should adopt gender
budgeting in order to provide scholarships which address the gender needs of
married students (male and female).
 Mainstreaming Gender in the Curriculum
30
The universities should ensure that their graduates have the capacity to analyze the needs
of men and women and to address them with appropriate interventions by developing
capacity of both staff and students through introduction of appropriate courses on gender
and sensitization workshops. RUFORUM can support this process by encouraging
incorporation of modules on gender in the regional training programmes that it supports,
requiring those submitting research proposals to address gender issues where appropriate
and the use of gender dis-aggregated data in reporting.
31
References
Association of African Universities (2006), A Tool Kit for Mainstreaming Gender in Higher
Education in Africa
Gender net, no, 2, 2000: Beijing + 5: What does it mean for Africa? Progress assessed during
the Sixth Regional Conference on Women and Beijing +5
Institute for Women’s Policy Research. (2007). The gender wage ratio: Women’s and men’s
earnings (IWPR Fact Sheet #C350). Retrieved July 10, 2007, from
http://www.iwpr.org/pdf/C350.pdf.
Julita Nawe (2004), Strategies for Enhancing Female Participation at the University Of Dar
es Salaam, Tanzania: African universities in the 21st Century, Vol. II pg 493
Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere, Kristin Davis, and Dejene Aredo, (2008), Advancing Agriculture in
Developing Countries through Knowledge and Innovation Synopsis of an International
Conference International Food Policy Research Institute Washington, D.C.
Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Adebayo Olukoshi (2004), African Universities in the Twenty-first
Century: Knowledge and Society
Marietta Perez-Dlamini (2009), Increasing the Critical Mass Of Women In High Academic
Ranks And Leadership Positions: Strategies And Activities By University Of Swaziland
Research Centre
Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development (2007), Uganda Gender Policy
RUFORUM Monthly – Vol 3 Issue 5- May 2009).
The Daily Nation (March 6th 2009)
The World Bank (2009), Gender and Agriculture:
Washington Dc
Source Book, the World Bank,
The United Nations (1995), Declaration and Platform for Action of the Fourth World
Conference on Women. New York: UN Division for Public Information
Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) 2006.
32
University of Nairobi (2008), Gender Policy
Williams S, Seed J and Mwau A (1994) ‘The Oxfam Gender Training Manual’, Oxfam (UK and
Ireland)
World Economic Forum (2009), Global Gender Gap Report.
1
1 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/cedaw.htm
1 http://www.peacewomen.org/un/sc/1325.html
1 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/protocol/text.htm
1 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/followup/beijing+5.htm
http://www.unfpa.org/gender/empowerment.htm
33
Annex 1
Table 1 Distribution of Male and Female Students enrolments in RUFORUM Focus Faculties
University/ College
Level of Training
Number of Students
Total
Female
Male
Botswana College of Agriculture
Undergraduate
216
72
33% 144
Graduate
25
8
32% 17
39
Eduardo Mondlane
Under graduate
553
100 18% 493
40
Graduate
35
10
29% 25
National University of Burundi
Undergraduate
198
31
16% 167
University of Zimbabwe
Graduate
34
16
47% 18
Bunda College of Agriculture (Faculty of Agriculture) Undergraduate
297
86
29% 211
41
Mekele University
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
42
Himalaya University College of Agriculture and
Environmental Sciences
Swaziland
Makerere University (Faculty of Agriculture)
67%
68%
82%
71%
84%
53%
71%
Under graduate
Graduate
Undergraduate
Graduate
Undergraduate
Graduate
562
70
2025
694
1979
247
176
12
803
200
399
25
31%
30%
27%
29%
20%
10%
386
28
2122
494
1580
222
69%
70%
73%
71%
80%
90%
Undergraduate
Graduate
Undergraduate
Graduate
966
29
418
8
43%
28%
33
22
548
21
57%
72%
67
78
Table 2: Staff Qualifications by Gender
University/ College
Qualification
Botswana College of Agriculture
Bunda College of Agriculture- Faculty of
Eduardo Mondlane
Mekele – Faculty of Agriculture
Agriculture43
PhD
MSc
BSc
HDip/ Dip
Number of Staff
Total
Female
57
11
42
15
27
7
18
4
Male
46
27
20
14
Cert
PhD
MSc
BSc
PhD
MSc
BSc
PhD
8
27
26
11
20
33
12
15
8
22
15
9
14
28
7
14
0
5
11
2
6
544
5
1
39
Figures for students in the Departments of Silviculture, Agronomy and Forestry only
Figures provided for three courses: MSc Plant Protection (1 female, 6 male); MSc Natural Resources
Management (4 female, 3 male); and MSc Rural Development (16 female, 5male)
41
Situation in academic year of 2008/2009
42
Situation in academic year of 2008/2009
43
Staff situation in the Academic year 2008/2009, including staff on study leave, secondment to government and
on leave of absence.
44
Out of the five two are under training for PhD
40
34
National University of Burundi- Faculty of Agricultural
Sciences
University of Nairobi- Faculty of Agriculture45
University of Zimbabwe
Makerere University Faculty of Agriculture
Sokoine University of Agriculture
Haramaya University College of Agriculture and
Environmental Sciences
University of Swaziland
MSc
BSc
83
28
8
5
75
23
PhD
MSc
PhD
MSc
PhD
MSc
PhD
MSc
PhD
MSc
BSc
PhD
MSc
BSc
PhD
MSc
BSc
6
14
61
18
22
27
76
26
195
169
92
39
81
55
35
18
1
2
2
15
3
4
9
26
4
22
40
22
0
14
8
9
6
0
4
12
46
15
18
18
50
22
173
129
70
39
67
47
26
12
1
Table 3: Number of Staff by Ranks
University/ College
Qualification
Africa University- Faculty of Agriculture
Professors
Associate Professors
Senior Lecturers
Professors
Associate Professors
Senior Lecturers
Lecturers
Asst Lecturers
Tutors
Technicians
Professors
Associate Professors
Senior Lecturers
Lecturers
Assistant Lecturers
Professors
Senior Lecturers
Lecturers
Professors
Botswana College of Agriculture
Mekele – Faculty of Agriculture
University of Nairobi46- Faculty of
Agriculture
University of Swaziland47
Number and percentage of Staff
Total
Female
Male
4
1
25% 3
75%
1
0
0%
1
100%
24
5
21% 19
79%
3
1
33% 2
67%
12
1
8%
11
92%
27
7
26% 20
74%
51
14
27% 37
73%
1
0
0%
1
100%
5
2
40% 3
60%
53
13
25% 40
75%
1
0
0%
1
100%
14
1
7%
13
93%
71
6
18% 65
82%
12
2
17% 10
83%
28
5
8%
23
92%
24
4
17% 20
83%
37
11
30% 26
70%
18
3
17% 15
83%
5
0
0%
5
100%
45
Staff figures for the departments of Agricultural Economics, Land Resource Management and Technology, Food
Science and Technology and Plant Science in 2008
46
Staff figures for the departments of Agricultural Economics, Land Resource Management and Technology, Food
Science and Technology and Plant Science in 2008
35
University of Zimbabwe
Haramaya University College of
Agriculture & Environmental Sciences
Sokoine University of Agriculture
Associate Professors
Senior Lecturers
Lecturers
Teaching Assistants
Professors
Associate Professors
Senior Lecturers
Lecturers
Professors
Associate Professors
Senior Lecturers
Lecturers
Assistant Lectures
Professors
Associate Professors
Senior Lecturers
Lecturers
Assistant Lectures
Teaching Assistants
6
11
31
1
4
1
24
20
9
31
44
36
55
64
59
61
78
102
92
1
2
12
0
1
0
5
7
0
0
4
10
8
4
6
10
16
25
21
17%
18%
39%
0%
33%
0%
21%
35%
0%
0%
9%
28%
13%
6%
10%
16%
21%
25%
23%
5
9
19
1
3
1
19
13
9
31
40
26
47
60
53
51
62
77
71
83%
82%
61%
100%
67%
100%
79%
65%
100%
100
91%
72%
87%
94%
90%
84%
79%
75%
77%
47
Combined staff figures for all faculties (Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Health Science, Humanities, Social
Sciences, IDE)
36
`