# STATISTICS & RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY What are

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STATISTICS & RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY
What are STATISTICS?
CENTRAL TENDENCY
2. MEAN
3. MEDIAN
4. MODE
VARIABILITY
1. FREQUENCY
3. STANDARD DEVIATION
4. VARIANCE
MEASURES OF VARIABILITY
2. RANGE
ALL OF THESE REPRESENT DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS.
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
1. RANK
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NOTE: TO CALCULATE DEVIATION, YOU
1. FIND _______.
2. CALCULATE THE __________________.
MUST ___________________________ THE ____
FROM THE __________________.
3. SET UP A TABLE AS FOLLOWS:
X
CALCULATE DEVIATION (d)
d2
4. CALCULATE Σd2.
5. FINALLY, APPLY THE FORMULA FOR
STANDARD DEVIATION:
DIRECTIONS: CALCULATE STANDARD DEVIATION USING THE FOLLOWING DATA SET:
4, 9, 10, 3, 20
N = ____________
X
x = ____________
d = x –X
σ=
d2
∑d2 = ______
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INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
A STATISTIC
VS.
A PARAMETER
Two types of
Sampling
RANDOM SAMPLE
STRATIFIED SAMPLE
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REPLICATION
SAMPLING BIAS
EXPERIMENTER BIAS
VALIDITY
RELIABILITY
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UNOBTRUSIVE OBSERVER
ANTHROMORPHIZE
DY
AL
N
O
U
ST
I
LONGITUDINAL STUDY
S
SS
O
CR
T
EC
INTAKE
SELF-REPORT
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SOCIAL DESIRABILITY BIAS
MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY-2 (MMPI-2)
COMPUTERIZED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY (CAT)
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) SCAN
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
FUNCTIONAL MRI (fMRI)
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH (EEG)
WHAT DO THESE METHODS DETECT?
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CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
SCATTERPLOTS
HIGH NEGATIVE CORRELATION
NO CORRELATION
HIGH POSITIVE CORRELATION
THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS IN EXPERIMENT DESIGN ARE
__________________________________________ AND ___________________________________________.
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THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
QUESTION/PROBLEM
HYPOTHESIS
SELECT THE METHOD AND DESIGN THE STUDY
COLLECT THE DATA
DIRECT OBSERVATION
QUESTIONNAIRE
INTERVIEW
PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST
PHYSIOLOGICAL RECORDINGS
EXAMINATION OF ARCHIVAL RECORDS
EXPERIMENT RESULTS
CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
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ANALYZE THE DATA AND DRAW CONCLUSIONS
REPORT THE FINDINGS
CONTROL GROUP
EXPERIMENTAL
GROUP
TREATMENT
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (IV)
CONFOUNDING/EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES
DEPENDENT VARIABLE (DV)
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PLACEBO EFFECT
EXPERIMENTER
CONFEDERATES
PARTICIPANTS
BIAS
BLIND STUDY
BASELINE
DOUBLE BLIND STUDY
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ETHICS
INFORMED CONSENT
1. THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW
2. CONFIDENTIALITY
3. DISCLOSURE
APA’S ETHICAL GUIDELINES
DECEPTION IN RESEARCH
EXPERIMENTATION ON ANIMALS
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