Develop a horticultural proDuction plan – AHCPHT502A A footprint to sustainable production systems

A footprint to sustainable production systems
Develop a horticultural
production plan
– AHCPHT502A
Workforce Innovations Program Project 275
Materials produced by Regional Skills Training Pty Ltd
Funding provided by the DIISRTE Workforce Innovations Program
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
WEB
Activity I Fact I Website
Contents
01
About yourself
3
02
Trouble with website links
3
03
How are these materials used
3
04
What are these learning materials about
4
05
Employability skills
5
06
Unit descriptor and how the unit applies to your workplace
5
07
Carry out preliminary planning activities
6
08
Determine the requirements of horticultural production
37
09
Schedule production activities
51
10
Monitoring of the production plan
61
11
Prepare and document the production plan and specification
68
12
Summary of key innovations/opportunities identified as a result of adopting these skills
70
13
Bibliography and source material
71
14
Being confident about your skill levels
73
15
Assessment
75
Copyright Notice
Bridging the Gap between Chemical and Organic Food and Fibre Production.
These interactive workbooks were produced by Regional Skills Training and funded by Department of Industry,
Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education, Workforce Innovations Program and are intended for free
use to any student, RTO or school. Note that any work is copyright and should not be reproduced or copied for
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2
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
1
About yourself
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Name
Phone
Email
2
Trouble with
website links
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If you are consistently unable to access a site
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activity or assessment question by searching
for and finding an alternative site that you feel is
applicable. PLEASE INCLUDE THE LINK IN YOUR
ANSWERS so we know where to look to check
your information.
3
How are these
materials used
This workbook has a strong focus on the
self‑directed application of knowledge.
Completing this workbook and all formative
assessments will thoroughly prepare you for your
summative assessment. On successful completion
of appropriate summative assessments provided
by your Registered Training Organisation (RTO),
you will achieve competency in this unit.
Please complete the feedback form at the back of
the unit and advise us of any links that do not work.
Please complete the feedback
form at the back of the
unit and advise us of any links
that do not work
3
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
This workbook has a
focus on developing
a production plan
for agricultural
or horticultural
enterprises.
4
What are these learning materials about
This workbook applies to any person working in a horticultural enterprise where they are required to develop a
production plan. The scope of the workbook includes the following activities:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Establish product specifications
Research site factors and land use issues
Select and source plants or plant material for seeding or propagation
Design and incorporate infrastructure into planning
Specify a monitoring program to cover the operation from sowing to sale
Document and cost the production plan.
This workbook has a strong focus on the self-directed application of knowledge with substantial depth in the
areas of:
• Establishment and maintenance of a range of enterprise horticultural products in relation to client needs and
the standards required by the marketplace
• Establishment of procedures, plant selection and cultural practices for a range of enterprise horticultural
products
• The advantages and limitations of sustainable horticulture systems
• The role of business and marketing plans and client consultation processes in planning horticultural
production
• Processes and techniques for preparing, costing and documenting plans for and scheduling
horticultural production.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
5
6
The statements below list the typical employability
skills that would be applied in a situation related
to developing a production plan for a horticultural
enterprise.
This unit of competency covers the process of
developing a production plan for a horticultural
enterprise, and defines the standard required to:
Employability
Skills
This work book provides an opportunity to develop
and apply employability skills that are learnt
throughout work and life to your job.
In completing your daily work tasks and activities
and summative assessments related to this unit of
competence, you must be able to demonstrate that
you are applying the “employability skills” listed
below to this competency.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Communication skills
Identify and accurately report problems
Organisational skills
Teamwork skills
Technological skills
Use mathematical ideas and techniques.
UNIT DESCRIPTOR
AND HOW THE
UNIT APPLIES TO YOUR
WORKPLACE
• Carry out preliminary planning activities
• Determine the requirements of horticultural
production
• Schedule production activities
• Plan monitoring of the production plan
• Prepare and document the production plan
and specification.
Industry sectors involved in production may
include; nursery, turf, floriculture and production
horticulture.
Products may include; fruit, vegetables,
herbs, flowers, foliage, bulbs, tubers, nuts,
mushrooms, seeds, wild harvest plants and oils,
and trees, shrubs, turf, and containerised and
bare‑rooted plants.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
7
Carry out
Preliminary
Planning Activities
Production planning is about acquiring and
allocating limited resources (including personnel) to
production activities, to deliver products that satisfy
customer requirements, over a specified period of
time. The objective for a sustainable horticultural
business is to develop a plan that meets demand
at minimum cost and maximum profit, without
compromising quality or negatively impacting the
environment.
Producers across Australia are facing a number of
production challenges. Some of these include:
•
•
•
•
Rising cost of farm inputs
Decreasing profit margins
Globalisation of the food trade market
Managing environmental issues (climate
change, soil health degradation, water
limitations)
• Meeting changing customer/market
requirements for affordable “clean, green,
chemical free” produce
• Keeping abreast of changing legislative and
regulatory requirements.
Many producers are meeting these challenges
head on and implementing innovative production
processes that not only increase production, but do
so sustainably.
The range of opportunities and innovations that
could be introduced to horticultural production
systems is significant. However, it is important
that any small business does not get lost in the
opportunities, so it is critical to complete adequate
research and planning in the first instance to:
• Define, understand and confirm client
preferences and requirements for your
horticultural product in accordance with your
enterprise marketing and business plans.
• Assess your production site for environment
factors and risks.
• Identify and if necessary, report sustainable
land use issues that may affect your planned
production system.
• Conduct research into the legal requirements
associated with the production site, and local
by-laws and restrictions that may affect your
production plan.
• Conduct research into the characteristics and
growing requirements of plant species.
• Set production targets that are consistent with
your marketing strategy and business plan.
• Determine production requirements in terms of
quantity, quality and availability of your product.
When these activities are completed, a
preliminary plan that reflects client preferences
and requirements and takes into account site
factors and any identified sustainable land use
requirements, can be developed and presented to
key stakeholders (e.g. management, partners, staff,
suppliers, customers) for discussion and approval.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
7.1 Client preferences and requirements for
the horticultural product are understood and
confirmed according to the enterprise marketing
and business plans
When you asked another producer to describe
his or her operation, the response usually gave
information on the number of acres under
production and the type of products grown.
This made sense when the focus was on selling
undifferentiated commodities to anonymous buyers.
More and more, we are moving toward a production
environment where producers sell differentiated
products and are in direct contact with their
customers. In turn, this creates an environment that
is rarely static, with producers being required to
capably change to meet market demands.
The following extracts are provided to help you
think about and determine what client preferences
and market requirements are applicable to your
production system and the types of places where
you can find your initial information. The information
is not an exhaustive list nor is it a recommendation
of any system or standards.
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 Department of Primary
Industries Victoria; What is
Organic Farming?
www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/farmingmanagement/organic-farming/introductionto-organics/organic-farming-standardsand-certification
Organic standards specify the minimum
requirements for production and processing of
food and fibre products that are to be marketed as
‘organic’ or ‘biodynamic’. They outline the practices
and specify material inputs that are either allowed
or prohibited from use on certified organic farms.
Standards are available to the public, allowing
consumers and others to easily determine what is
meant by the terms ‘organic’ and ‘biodynamic’ in
the marketplace.
Since January 1993, exports of organic produce
have been required to meet Australia’s National
Standard for Organic and Biodynamic Produce.
All exporters, and the producers and processors
supplying them, are required to be certified with
accredited organic certification. These certifiers
have developed their own versions of organic
standards that cover all the requirements of the
national Standard and may include additional
requirements and restrictions.
In 2009, after considerable public and industry
consultation, Standards Australia published the
‘Australian Standard: Organic and Biodynamic
Products’. This new standard can be used to
define, and protect the integrity of, organic produce
in Australia’s domestic markets.
Organic standards and the principles they embody
can be applied globally, but the details of how
those principles are put into practice are largely
site specific. It is up to each farmer to translate the
principles and standards into practical on-ground
management approaches that suit their farm
with its particular crop, soil, water, climatic and
environmental characteristics.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
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 Batt P and Thein V;
“Examining Asian Attitudes
to Australian Horticultural
Products in Hong Kong,
Malaysia and Singapore”;
Australia; 2001.
http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au/R/?func=dbinjump-full&object_id=169749&local_
base=GEN01-ERA02
“Australian fresh fruit and vegetable exporters are
not particularly good at developing and maintaining
long-term relationships with customers in South
East Asia. Among the importers, Australia has
developed the reputation as an inconsistent and
unreliable supplier.
With long-term relationships becoming increasingly
important in the market, Australia must not only
improve its image in the market, but seek to better
satisfy customers requirements, for otherwise
importers will pursue alternative sources of supply”.
So what are the characteristics of your product?
How do you keep abreast of changing customer
requirements or emerging market trends? Do you
feel confident that your product will meet these
market requirements?
The following activities will help you to define these
within the context of your business. Remember that
this workbook is designed to help you and your
business. You will achieve the maximum benefit if
you tackle the activities as a job that is important
and useful to your business, rather than just an
assessment activity to be completed as quickly
as possible. Please include reference sources of
information that you have used in your responses
so that we can check these sources as required.
With most exporters pursuing the domestic market,
the quantities, quality and price of Australian
produce is too variable. The small scale nature of
the industry and the lack of any real coordination
makes it difficult for exporters to respond to
importers immediate needs, and, in the absence
of any strong reliable brand, difficult to present a
cohesive, unified image in the market.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 1
Describe the characteristics of your product. Be as specific as possible. The following headings are guides only
and you may wish to specify your product using different criteria.
Criteria
Description
Name of Business
Business Address
Business Goals
and Objectives
Product Name
Product
Characteristics
Customers/Market
Inputs
Intended Use
Packaging
Shelf Life
Prepared/Sold In
Labelling
Instructions
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
In the following table:
1. List all of the key stakeholders involved in the production of your product, including yourself, your customers
and others involved in the supply chain (column A).
2. Identify any requirements that they might currently have of your product and include these in column B.
3. Are there trends that you are aware of that will impact your product? If so, include these in column C “future
requirements”.
4. Complete an honest appraisal of your product. Do you meet current/future requirements? Record the
results in Column D and provide a brief explanation of why requirements are not currently met in Column E
(if applicable).
A
Key Stakeholders
B
Current
Requirements
C
Future
Requirements
D
Requirements
Met?
E
Explanation of Why
Requirements Are
Not Met
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
A
Key Stakeholders
B
Current
Requirements
C
Future
Requirements
D
Requirements
Met?
E
Explanation of Why
Requirements Are
not Met
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
7.2 The production site is assessed for growing environment factors, services, site modifications and
sustainable land use issues that may require further research.
The production site is assessed for growing environment factors, services and site modifications.
Sustainable land use issues that may affect planned production are identified and, if necessary, reported to
relevant personnel for further research.
Once you have an understanding of the products that you wish to produce, you need to assess the production
site for growing environment factors, services, site modifications and any land use issues that may require further
investigation. As a result of this assessment you may identify constraints that are:
• Within your control and can therefore be managed.
• Beyond your control. This may necessitate a re-think of your production enterprise to minimise losses from
risks/weaknesses that you cannot manage.
Land capability/land resource suitability refers to the ability of land to support a type of land use without causing
damage. It considers both the specific requirements of the land use (e.g. rooting depth or soil water availability)
and the risks of degradation associated with the land use (e.g. phosphorus export hazard or wind erosion). There
are a number of methodologies used to describe land class. The following five land capability classes are used
by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food:
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 Department of Agriculture and Food WA; “LAND
EVALUATION STANDARDS FOR LAND RESOURCE
MAPPING”; WA; 2005; p70.
www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/lwe/rpm/landcap/tr298_part3.pdf
Capability Class
General Description
1 – Very high
Very few physical limitations present and easily overcome. Risk of land degradation is
negligible.
2 – High
Minor physical limitations affecting either productive land use and/or risk of degradation.
Limitations overcome by careful planning.
3 – Fair
Moderate physical limitations significantly affecting productive land use and/or risk of
degradation. Careful planning and conservation measures required.
4 – Low
High degree of physical limitation not easily overcome by standard development
techniques and/or resulting in high risk of degradation. Extensive conservation measures
and careful ongoing management required.
5 – Very low
Severe limitations. Use is usually prohibitive in terms of development costs or the
associated risk of degradation.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Further examples of how to class land and
determine capability are available from the
following links:
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 NSW Agriculture;
“Agricultural Land
Classification – Agfact
AC.25”; NSW, 2002.
www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_
file/0004/189697/ag-land-classification.pdf
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 Department of Primary
Industries, Parks,
Water and Environment
– Tasmania; “Land
Capability”; Tasmania;
2012.
www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/ThemeNodes/
LBUN-6EX9PS?open
Once you have assessed your production site you
should have a clear understanding of whether
it is suitable for its intended purpose and the
modifications that you may need to make
(e.g. services, infrastructure, equipment) to
efficiently and effectively produce your product.
By recognising that your production site is part of
a broader landscape you can develop a property
plan that will better enable horticultural practices
to coexist with the surrounding environment. By
assessing the property from a holistic perspective,
you can:
• Better define the limitations/constraints/risks of
soils, landscape and climate and match each
production system to the most suitable parts of
the property.
• Take the following key areas of sustainability
into consideration
–– Vegetation management
–– Water management
–– Nutrient management
–– Pest management.
• Appropriately locate production system
infrastructure such as dams, drainage systems
and areas suitable for irrigation.
 (Source: NSW DPI;
“Sustainable Horticulture
– PRIMEFAC T 144”; NSW;
2006.
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www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_
file/0020/60374/Sustainable_horticulture-_
Primefact_144-final.pdf
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 2
In the following table, identify the production requirements needed to produce and deliver your product as
described in activity 1. Consider all aspects of your production site (e.g. soil, land class, water, infrastructure,
equipment, resources, skills) required for production to post-harvest activities. The intent of this exercise is to
thoroughly examine ‘what you have’ and identify any gaps that need to be filled.
Category
Requirement Description
Requirements Met?
Yes (Y)/No (N)
What Is Your Current
Situation?
What Actions can be
Realistically Taken to
Meet the Requirement?
e.g. Soil
pH>6
N (pH=5.5)
Mineralisation program
required to increase
pH level
e.g. Land class
Special class land
Y
During your production site assessment you may have discovered some sustainable land use issues that may
affect your planned production. These need to be further investigated to determine whether your intended
production system is viable.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 3
Briefly discuss any significant conflicts between your land capability and the intended production
system that may affect the long term viability of your enterprise:
What steps will you take to further investigate these conflicts and whether they can be managed sustainably?
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
An essential part of production planning is to fully
research and understand any relevant legislative and
regulatory requirements.
7.3 Research is conducted into the legal attributes
of the production site, and local by-laws and
restrictions that may affect the production plan
An essential part of production planning is to fully
research and understand any relevant legislative and
regulatory requirements that are applicable to your
product and production site. There may be international,
national, state and regional requirements that you will
need to consider. If you produce more than one product
you may have a range of requirements that need to be
met, some of which may produce a conflict of interest.
This can be complicated to sort through, but once you
are fully informed, you can make the most appropriate
decisions for your business.
When researching applicable regulations, you need to
consider all aspects of your production system such as;
business registration and licensing, land preparation
(e.g. clearing, irrigation), planting, harvesting,
processing, packaging, transportation, marketing,
quality assurance and any impacts that these processes
have on the environment, staff and the community (e.g.
OH&S, chemical use, machinery use, noise, waste etc.)
The risks of not complying with relevant regulations can
be significant and need to be proactively managed
within any business enterprise:
 ABC News; “Farmer Fined
for Clearing Land”; Australia;
5 June 2012.
A farmer was fined $120 000 and ordered to pay the
prosecutors costs, as well as some investigation expenses.
The Land and Environment Court was told river
redgums and some understorey cover were removed
between 2007 and 2009 to open up part of a 65
hectare area to cropping and grazing, but no permit
was granted for the clearing.
The maximum penalty for the offence is a fine
of $1.1m.
Some other links/extracts that identify legislative/
regulatory requirements or industry based standards
are listed below.
 Australian Government;
“Legislation”; Australia; 2010.
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www.weeds.gov.au/government/legislation.html
 Biological Farmers
of Australia; “Australian
Certified Organic Standard
2010: Version 1.0”; Australia;
2010.
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www.bfa.com.au/IndustryResources/
BFAPublications/AustralianOrganicStandard.aspx
http://tools.afr.com/search/_
files%5Cpdf%5Csamplereport.pdf
(page 15)
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 4
An important part of any horticultural production process is to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements
and where applicable, national and international standards. Within the context of your product/business,
conduct your own research and identify legislative and regulatory requirements and where applicable, national
and international standards that are relevant to you. Hint: Consider OH&S, chemical use, waste management,
environmental management, machinery use and maintenance, codes of conduct, industry standards and
local council requirements. Complete the table below. A good place to start is to interview an experienced and
successful producer in your region.
Applicable Legislative, Regulatory Requirements and
National/International Standards
Source
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
7.4 Research is conducted into the characteristics
and growing requirements of plant species and
cultivars that may affect the production plan
Plant growth is reasonably predictable. If the way in
which a plant grows and responds to the environment
(e.g. temperature, rainfall) can be matched to
the capability of the production system (land,
infrastructure, skills and resources), then it is more
likely you can develop a sustainable business, that is,
one that works with nature rather than against it.
Understanding the characteristics and growing
requirements of plant species and cultivars for your
production system requires detailed research.
As you can see from the following extracts, the
selection of ‘the right plants for the right site’
will ensure the long term vigor and viability of a
horticultural enterprise.
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 NSW Agriculture;
“Avocado Growing”; Agfact
H6.1.1; NSW; 2003.
www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_
file/0003/119739/avocado-growing.pdf
The selection of a suitable site is of the utmost
importance. Avocados are extremely susceptible to the
root rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. No avocado
rootstock is completely resistant to this disease.
Surface and subsoil drainage must be excellent.
Sloping ground with a porous top soil structure may
be unsuitable if clay bands or hard pans prevent
the free flow of water through the soil. Checking the
profile with soil pits to a depth of about 2 metres
is a pre-requisite. Natural vegetation can indicate
localised soakages and high water tables.
Steep gradients particularly where trees are planted
in banana plantations, make harvesting and other
management operations difficult.
The preferred aspect is a slope facing north to east.
Plantings on these slopes with rows running northsouth maximises sunlight inception. Maintaining a
constant moisture level assists in the overall strategy
to control Phytophthora root rot. As a guide you
should allow 3 to 5 megalitres of water per hectare
per year for bearing trees, while on the Murray
up to 15 megalitres per hectare per year could
be required.
 Australia Macadamia Society;
“Frequently-Asked QuestionsMacadamias in the OrchardWhat Growing Conditions
Best Suit Macadamias?”;
Australia; 2012.
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http://macadamias.org/pages/faqs
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 The Pros and Cons of
Grapefruit Cultivars are
Researched and ReportedW
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in the Link Below.
www.nt.gov.au/d/Content/File/p/Fruit/IS44_selected_
suitable_grapefruit_cultivars_for_commercial.pdf
 Center for Micro
Eco-Farming Movement;
“Growing Heirloom Tomatoes
for Profit”; USA; 2010.
www.great-group-activities.com/all-abouttomatoes.html
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There are usually a number of pros and cons
associated with different cultivars of a species. When
making a decision about which cultivar to select, tradeoffs may need to be considered. Consider the choice
of tomato cultivars in the above extract. If the cultivar
is matched to the environment and the market, a
sustainable and profitable business can be developed.
While the new (tomato) hybrids were a breakthrough
for commercial growers, enabling them to produce a
more transportable food crop with minimal spoilage,
consistent color, and shelf appeal, little by little, other
qualities began to drop out of production.
Flavor, texture and vine ripening were not part of the
breeding program. It is still the old-time open-pollinated
and heirloom varieties that carry those highly soughtafter traits.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 5
For each species that is applicable to your enterprise research the climatic conditions and characteristics of your
growing environment that affect the growth of these species. Complete one table for each species.
Plant Species
Cultivar
What Growing
Environment
Characteristics
Typically Affect
This Plant
Season/Climate
Conditions
What Growth
Occurs
Does your
Production Site
Meet These
Requirements
(Y/N)? If No, How
Will You Resolve
the Issue?
Plant Species
Cultivar
What Growing
Environment
Characteristics
Typically Affect
This Plant
Season/Climate
Conditions
What Growth
Occurs
Does your
Production Site
Meet These
Requirements
(Y/N)? If No, How
Will You Resolve
the Issue?
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Plant Species
Cultivar
What Growing
Environment
Characteristics
Typically Affect
This Plant
Season/Climate
Conditions
What Growth
Occurs
Does your
Production Site
Meet These
Requirements
(Y/N)? If No, How
Will You Resolve
the Issue?
Plant Species
Cultivar
What Growing
Environment
Characteristics
Typically Affect
This Plant
Season/Climate
Conditions
What Growth
Occurs
Does your
Production Site
Meet These
Requirements
(Y/N)? If No, How
Will You Resolve
the Issue?
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
7.5 Production requirements and targets
are determined and are consistent with the
marketing strategy and business plan.
Production targets are set that are consistent with
the marketing strategy and business plan.
Production requirements in terms of quantity, quality
and availability of the product are determined.
A preliminary plan that reflects client preferences
and requirements, and takes into account site
factors and any identified sustainable land use
requirements is developed and presented to
appropriate personnel for discussion and approval.
Often, producers set production targets as a
measure of whether the enterprises objectives are
being met. It is important to consider any other
enterprise plans (e.g. business plan, strategic plan,
policies, environmental plan, quality assurance
plan and so on) to ensure that your production
targets are aligned with the organisations broader
vision, goals and objectives.
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For example, one of the objectives of the Australian
Lychee Growers’ Association is “to improve Lychee
production practices across all growing regions to
increase orchard productivity and environmental
sustainability”. A specific performance target
has been set to determine whether this objective
is being met: “By 2012, production will increase
steadily to 4,000t, an increase of 33%”.
(Source: http://cms2live.horticulture.com.au/
admin/assets/library/strategic_plans/pdfs/PDF_
File_76.pdf).
This target is ‘SMART’:
•
•
•
•
•
Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic and
Time bound.
Accessing relevant information from industry
groups and local producers can assist in the
development of realistic production targets for
your enterprise. The following is an example of a
publication that macadamia producers might find
useful when establishing targets:
 Agri-Science
Queensland; “Benchmark
Report”; Australia; 2009.
http://macadamias.org/assets/uploads/
uploads/000/000/618/original/Benchmark_
report_0910.pdf
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There were major differences in nut‑in‑shell (NIS)
and kernel yield between the top 25%, middle 50%
and bottom 25% of farms in the survey sample. In
2009 and 2010, the top 25% of farms averaged
1.32 and 1.27 tonnes of sound kernel per bearing
hectare. By comparison, the middle 50% of farms
averaged 0.79 and 0.76 and the bottom 25% of
farms only averaged 0.28 and 0.35 tonnes of sound
kernel per bearing hectare.
The “On‑Farm Economic Analysis in the
Australian Macadamia Industry” found a very
strong correlation between farm productivity
and profitability.
Once production targets have been established,
you can develop a range of indicators that can
assist you to monitor whether you are on track to
achieving the targets from a holistic perspective.
The following webpage contains a list of indicators
identified for use at a property level.
The targets that you set for your enterprise should
keep this ‘SMART’ approach in mind.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Those with active links provide land managers
with information about how to monitor the resource
condition and trend of the particular attribute,
and how their management actions influence it.
Use of the indicators also enables land managers
to reliably communicate what is happening on
their property.
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 Environment and
Resource Management –
Queensland Government;
“Land Manager’s
Monitoring Guide”;
Australia; 2012.
See the difference between quantifiable targets and
vague targets in the following table:
Definitive Target
Vague Target
Achieve annual production
Grow more
target of 100 tonnes of apples. apples.
Decrease water utilisation by
20% per annum
Use less water.
Achieve 10% increase in net
profits per annum, over the
next 5 years.
Make more
money.
Attend > 2 training courses
per annum.
Get some skills.
Improve soil pH to 6.0 across
paddocks 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fix soil acidity.
www.derm.qld.gov.au/monitoring_guide/index.html
To be effective, production targets must be
specific and quantifiable. Using timeframe,
acceptable limits, numeric targets etc., allows
for results to be easily compared from year
to year, across areas within an enterprise, or
against an industry benchmark/baseline so that
trends can be ascertained. They are not vague,
motherhood statements.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 6
Complete the following table and identify:
1. Production targets for each enterprise, product, crop (provide definitive targets that can be measured and
compared)
2. Any assumptions you have made
3. Any risks, issues and constraints that may prevent production targets being achieved.
Enterprise,
Product, Crop,
Production Target
Assumptions
Risks, Issues, Constraints
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 7
Throughout this workbook you have completed a number of planning activities within the context of your
production system. It is now time to pull all of this together and document a preliminary plan that you can present
to appropriate stakeholders for discussion and approval.
Your plan should include the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Title Page
Table of Contents
Executive summary (one page summary of key messages and recommended next steps)
Introduction
Overview of Production System
–– Market specifications
–– Legislative and regulatory requirements
–– Production site assessment
–– Plant species/cultivars and growing conditions
–– Gaps to be addressed (e.g. modifications to production site)
–– Potential Production Targets and Assumptions
–– Risks, Issues, Constraints
6. Recommendations and Next Steps
A template has been provided in the following pages. You may use the relevant sections of this template, or
develop your own template.
24
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
REPORT TEMPLATE
Insert Company Name
Insert Plan Title
Insert Company Logo
and Company Details –
Address, Telephone and Email
25
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Current Version
V
Date Created/Amended Created/Amended By
Acronyms
Definitions
26
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Table of Contents
01
Executive Summary
28
02
Introduction
28
03
Overview of Production System
29
3.1
Market Specifications
29
3.2
Legislative and Regulatory Requirements
29
3.3
Production Site Assessment
30
3.4
Plant Species/Cultivars and Growing Conditions
30
3.5
Gaps to be Addressed
31
3.6
Potential Production Targets and Assumptions
31
3.7
Risks, Issues, Constraints
31
04
Production System Requirements
32
4.1
Plant Species/Cultivars, Quantity, Cost and Availability
32
4.2
Plant Establishment Procedures
32
4.3
Cultural Management Procedures
32
4.4
Production Site Design
33
4.5
Harvest Schedule
33
05
Production Schedule
34
06
Marketing Plan
34
07
Record Keeping and Monitoring Plan
35
08
Recommendations and Next Steps
35
09
Appendices
36
10
References
36
27
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
1
Executive Summary
2
Introduction
28
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
3
Overview of Production System
3.1 Market Specifications
3.2 Legislative and Regulatory Requirements
29
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
3.3 Production Site Assessment
3.4 Plant Species/Cultivars and Growing Conditions
30
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
3.5 Gaps to be Addressed
3.6 Potential Production Targets and Assumptions
3.7 Risks, Issues, Constraints
31
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
4
Production System Requirements
4.1 Plant Species/Cultivars, Quantity, Cost and Availability
4.2 Plant Establishment Procedures
4.3 Cultural Management Procedures
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
4.4 Production Site Design
4.5 Harvest Schedule
33
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
5
6
Production Schedule
Marketing Plan
34
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
7
Record Keeping and Monitoring Plan
8
Recommendations and Next Steps
35
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
9
Appendices
10
References
END OF TEMPLATE
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
8
Determine the
Requirements
of Horticultural
Production
Plant species and cultivars that are appropriate to
the site and consistent with the agreed preliminary
plan are identified, and the required quantity
calculated, costed and availability confirmed with
the supplier.
Let’s quickly summarise what you have looked at
so far.
• Activity 1: A description of your END PRODUCT
characteristics and who are your key
stakeholders.
• Activity 2: What are your CURRENT soil
conditions and land classes?
• Activity 3: What potential conflicts have you
identified between the soil type and land class,
and your proposed production system and
end product?
• Activity 4: What legislation, regulations and
standards will affect your production system?
• Activity 5: What are the optimum climatic
conditions and growing environments for the
selected cultivars?
• Activity 6: What are your expected production
targets and what are the risks of not
meeting them?
• Activity 7: This activity has pulled everything
together so far to complete your first draft
“”broad overview”.
Following discussions and approval of the
preliminary production plan, you can now
commence the detailed planning of your production
enterprise. To put this into perspective, the
preliminary planning phase is like ‘flying at 10,000
feet’. At this level, you can see the big picture and
the direction in which you wish to head.
The first part of your detailed planning is to confirm
exactly which plants/cultivars you are going to
use in your production system and the quantity
required to meet customer requirements and
production targets. This decision needs to take into
consideration:
• The plant species and cultivars that are
appropriate to the site
• The area of land that is suited to
such production
• The quantity of plants the land can
sustainably support
• The availability of the plant species/cultivars
from local suppliers
• Plant establishment procedures that suit the
characteristics and growing requirements of
your chosen plants
• Sustainable land use practices (e.g. allocating
land for wind breaks, crop rotations, diversity of
plant species, integrated pest management)
• The equipment, resources and infrastructure
that are available (up front and on going) to
plant, manage, harvest and process the desired
quantity of plants.
One of the traps that many producers can fall
into is to ‘maximise’ rather than ‘optimise’ plant
numbers. The wording is subtle but the difference
to the bottom line can be significant.
For instance, many macadamia producers in the
northern rivers of NSW are now increasing the
row spacings within their orchards, focusing on
improving soil health, ground cover and reducing
soil compaction. Why?
The combination of these practices provides for
more light infiltration, greater tree root growth to
depth, better nutrient availability and improved
water infiltration.
The wider plant spacings can produce lower
yields but a significantly higher quality product. As
premium nut quality attracts higher prices, reduced
yields can still equate to improved profits.
Detailed planning brings you closer to ‘flying at
ground level’ and you start to focus on what needs
to happen to bring your plan to reality.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 8
In the following table, identify the plant species and cultivars that you want to include in your production plan, the
quantity that you require, the cost to purchase/deliver, the supplier and availability.
Plant Species
Cultivar
Quantity
Cost
Supplier
Availability
8.1 Plant establishment procedures consistent with the agreed preliminary plan are selected according to
the characteristics and growing requirements of available plant materials, site factors, the resources and
equipment available and the sustainable land use factors affecting the success of production
Continuing with our example of macadamia orchard establishment, the following links provide further information
on the factors to consider when planning the layout of the orchard and plant establishment procedures.
These illustrate the inter-relationships between a multitude of environmental conditions and management
decisions that are required to deliver a successful production system.
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You will need to conduct your own research to determine what plant establishment procedures are relevant to
your enterprise and production site.
http://era.deedi.qld.gov.au/1964/2/mac-growing_guide_Part2.pdf
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www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/75740/Macadamia-culture-in-NSW-Primefact-5---final.pdf
http://macadamias.org/pages/the-macadamia-story
www.abc.net.au/rural/content/2012/s3466405.htm
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 9
Conduct your own research and update the table with your responses to the following:
1. Identify the plant establishment options that are relevant to your enterprise
2. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of each option
3. Identify the option that has the best fit for your enterprise.
Option
Strengths
Weaknesses
Recommended
Option
Reference/
Source
8.2 Determine cultural management practices and design the production site, taking into account the
growing requirements of plants and sustainable land use practices
Design of the production site includes irrigation and drainage systems, and takes into account the growing
requirements of plants and sustainable land use practices.
Cultural management of the growing environment from planting to harvest is provided for according to client
requirements, site capabilities and enterprise standards, and encourages optimal growth.
It is a daunting task to select the most sustainable and productive management practices and design a
production site. You need to consider:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Physical growing requirements of the plant species
Land class and soil characteristics
Irrigation, water requirements
Pest and disease management
Efficient and sustainable cultural management practices
Optimal yield
Standards and regulations
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 10
For your selected species complete a detailed summary of the horticultural production practices that you will
implement. In your summary you must give consideration to all of the factors listed above that affect sustainability
as well as profitability.
Sustainable Production
Practices
What are the Implications for Production
Site Design and Associated Costs?
Reference/Source
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Now that you have created your own list in activity
10, check to see that you have adequately
addressed the irrigation of your horticultural crop.
Supply of water for irrigation has rapidly emerged
as the biggest risk to sustainable and profitable
horticulture businesses.
Designing appropriate irrigation and drainage
systems are of paramount importance when
planning your production site and often require
specialist advice and expertise. The following
extracts are statements that have been provided
to get you thinking about the factors to consider
when planning your production sites irrigation and
drainage systems.
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 DPI Victoria; “Irrigation”;
Australia; 2011.
www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/farmingmanagement/soil-water/irrigation/aboutirrigation
Irrigation is the artificial application of water to
land for the purpose of agricultural production.
Effective irrigation will influence the entire growth
process from seedbed preparation, germination,
root growth, nutrient utilisation, plant growth and
regrowth, yield and quality.
The key to maximising irrigation efforts is uniformity.
The producer has a lot of control over how much
water to supply and when to apply it but the
irrigation system determines uniformity. Deciding
which irrigation system would be best for your
operation requires knowledge of equipment,
system design, plant species, growth stage, root
structure, soil composition, and land formation.
Irrigation systems should encourage plant growth
while minimising salt imbalances, leaf burns, soil
erosion, and water loss. Losses of water will occur
due to evaporation, wind drift, run-off and water
(and nutrients) sinking deep below the root zone.
Proper irrigation management takes careful
consideration and vigilant observation.
Irrigation systems to consider include:
Furrow systems: This system comprises a series
of small, shallow channels used to guide water
down a slope across a paddock. Furrows are
generally straight, but may also be curved to follow
the contour of the land, especially on steeply
sloping land. Row crops are typically grown on the
ridge or bed between the furrows, spaced from
1 metre apart.
Flood or border check systems: These systems
divide the paddock into bays separated by
parallel ridges/border checks. Water flows down
the paddock’s slope as a sheet guided by ridges.
On steeply sloping lands, ridges are more closely
spaced and may be curved to follow the contour
of the land. Border systems are suited to orchards
and vineyards, and for pastures and grain crops.
Level basin systems: These systems differ from
traditional border check or flood systems, in that
slope of the land is level and areas ends are
closed. Water is applied at high volumes to achieve
an even, rapid ponding of the desired application
depth within basins.
Center-pivot sprinkler systems: A center-pivot
sprinkler is a self-propelled system in which a
single pipeline supported by a row of mobile towers
is suspended 2 to 4 meters above ground. Water
is pumped into the central pipe and as the towers
rotate slowly around the pivot point, a large circular
area is irrigated. Sprinkler nozzles mounted on or
suspended from the pipeline distribute water under
pressure as the pipeline rotates. The nozzles are
graduated small to large so that the faster moving
outer circle receives the same amount of water as
the slower moving inside.
Hand move sprinkler systems: Hand move
sprinkler systems are a series of lightweight
pipeline sections that are moved manually for
successive irrigations. Lateral pipelines are
connected to a mainline, which may be portable
or buried. Handmove systems are often used for
small, irregular areas. Handmove systems are not
suited to tall-growing field crops due to difficulty
in repositioning laterals. Labor requirements are
higher than for all other sprinklers.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Solid set / fixed sprinkler systems: Solid set/fixed
refer to a stationary sprinkler system. Water-supply
pipelines are generally fixed (usually below the soil
surface) and sprinkler nozzles are elevated above
the surface. Solid-set systems are commonly used
in orchards and vineyards for frost protection and
crop cooling. Solid-set systems are also widely
used on turf and in landscaping.
Travelling gun sprinkler systems: Travelling
gun systems use a large sprinkler mounted on a
wheel or trailer, fed by a flexible rubber hose. The
sprinkler is self-propelled while applying water,
travelling in a lane guided by a cable. The system
requires high operating pressures, with 100 psi
not uncommon.
Side-roll wheel-move systems: Side-roll wheelmove systems have large-diameter wheels
mounted on a pipeline, enabling the line to be
rolled as a unit to successive positions across the
field. Crop type is an important consideration for
this system since the pipeline is roughly 1 meter
above the ground.
Linear or lateral-move systems: Linear or lateralmove systems are similar to center-pivot systems,
except that the lateral line and towers move in
a continuous straight path across a rectangular
field. Water may be supplied by a flexible hose or
pressurised from a concrete-lined ditch along the
field’s edge.
Low-flow irrigation systems (including drip and
trickle): Low-flow irrigation systems (including
drip and trickle) use small-diameter tubes placed
above or below the soils surface. Frequent, slow
applications of water are applied to the soil through
small holes or emitters. The emitters are supplied
by a network of main, submain, and lateral lines.
Water is dispensed directly to the root zone,
avoiding runoff or deep percolation and minimising
evaporation. These systems are generally
used in orchards, vineyards, or high-valued
vegetable crops.
Activity 11
Activity 7 required you to summarise all of your research into a preliminary plan. Activities 8-10 have required that
you get more specific and research the appropriate plant establishment and ongoing cultural practices to ensure
a sustainable production system. You are now required to translate all of the information from your research to site
plan/map, to scale, of your production site that identifies:
• the areas for plant establishment (ensuring that the area, land type, slope etc. all allow for your selected
cultural practices to be achieved)
• infrastructure (e.g. buildings, access roads, fences, hot houses, processing facilities)
• natural assets (trees, creeks)
• irrigation and drainage systems
• land class
Attach your map to the Preliminary plan completed in activity 7.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
One of the most
critical requirements is
to ensure your harvest
period coincides with
when the market wants
your product.
8.3 Harvesting dates to meet market deadlines
are determined according to enterprise policy
We are now assuming that your production system
has matured and you are ready to harvest a crop.
One of the most critical requirements is to ensure
your harvest period coincides with when the market
wants your product.
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Read the following statements and the different
focus that producers might place on their products
when deciding the most appropriate harvest dates.
‘’We all know what last season’s apples taste like –
you can’t compare them to the new season when
they come out, and olive oil is exactly the same.’’
As a small producer, his oil can move from tree
to table in three to four weeks. This year’s harvest
should be in the shops by the end of this month.
Cobram Estate, Australia’s biggest producer,
takes a little longer to process its oil, with
new-season stock due to reach supermarkets
by August-September.
Most commercial farmers don’t place much focus
on maintaining high nutritional values. However,
when produce is grown locally by small farms, taste
and nutritional value are paramount in the list of
important qualities.
Cobram took the plucky step of putting a harvest
date of 2011 on its oil for the first time last year.
The risk for a big producer is that it may not sell
last season’s oil before the new one is out and also,
there can be a difference in taste from harvest
to harvest.
 Sydney Morning Herald;
“Pipped at the Post”;
Australia; June 19 2011.
‘’There shouldn’t be any reason why someone is
consuming an oil that is more than a year old,’’
Cobram technical director Leandro Ravetti says.
http://m.smh.com.au/lifestyle/cuisine/pipped-atthe-post-20120618-20jvs.html
At Mount Zero Olives, Richard Seymour started
putting a harvest date on his oil about five years
ago. Olive oil is not like wine, he says: ‘’If you’ve
ever tasted it straight off the press, there’s nothing
like it – it’s absolutely fabulous. And from that day
onwards it’s a slow decline.
‘’Realistically, it’s hard to have an extra-virgin olive
oil that will last as extra-virgin for more than two
years. That’s as far as you can go from a taste point
of view and from a chemical aspects point of view.’’
Of course, one of the main reasons many Australian
producers are reluctant to use a harvest date
is because most imported oils in supermarkets
don’t have one – some don’t even have a
‘’best before’’ date.
‘’It’s not unusual to find an overseas oil that is
between two and four years old,’’ Ravetti says.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 12
Now consider your produce, your enterprise requirements and those of your market/customers. Identify
the most appropriate harvest times and explain why you have arrived at this decision:
Do you have the right resources available at the right time to meet your harvest schedule?
Explain how you will manage your resources to effectively and efficiently harvest your produce to meet
your harvest dates:
44
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
8.4 Resources, tools, equipment and machinery
required for the establishment of the production
site, propagation of plants, planting, cultural
management of the growing environment,
harvesting and postharvest care are identified,
costed and availability confirmed with suppliers,
contractors and appropriate personnel
Throughout this workbook you have been gradually
refining your production plan and should be at
a point where you understand the ‘inputs’ that
will be required to deliver your ‘outputs’. These
inputs typically consist of land, plant and materials
and labour. It is now time to take stock of your
enterprise needs and develop a definitive list of
requirements that can be costed. Think about:
•
•
•
•
How much land you will need?
What infrastructure you will need?
What type of equipment you will use?
The people (e.g. staff, contractors and
consultants) required to design, implement,
manage, harvest, store, process, distribute and
market your product/s
• Any other physical inputs necessary to produce
your product.
If you are new to the business or industry and
uncertain about resource requirements, try talking
with experienced producers, suppliers and
educators/extension officers to begin brainstorming
a realistic list of land, plant and machinery,
equipment, labor and other input needs. If you
plan to produce a specialty commodity or use
an alternative management system, accurate
production input records may not be readily
available. In this case, your research may take you
to the internet or some of the alternative project
teams located at universities across the country.
Once you have costed all inputs, you can then
determine how best to fund them. For example, you
may choose to lease rather than buy outright, share
equipment with other producers, hire on an ‘as
needs’ basis rather than full time, propagate plants
rather than buy seedlings and so on. The choices
that you make regarding resource use, acquisition
and ownership can have a big impact on the
overall profitability of your business.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 13
Create a spreadsheet or use commercial financial management and production planning software applicable
to your production system. Whatever you select must be capable of allowing you to create an accurate list of
projected expenditure for your enterprise. Remember this is not a “cashflow” but a list of costs incurred before
you achieve a product to sell. In creating the list:
Identify the logical phases of your production system (e.g. planning, establishment, management, harvest,
processing, storage, distribution, sales)
• Identify the categories of expenditure within each phase (e.g. administration, utilities, materials, equipment,
labour, fertiliser)
• The quantity of each item required
• The cost of each item
• Any assumptions made
• The supplier
• The impact that a cost variation (+ 10%, – 10%) will have on your overall budget
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
8.5 Workplace Health and Safety hazards associated with production activities are identified, risks
assessed and controls developed according to enterprise guidelines, costed and documented in the plan
As with all business activities, production based activities must be completed safely and within the parameters of
WH&S legislation.
Activity 14
Complete the following table related to workplace health and safety
What are the risks of injury
associated all aspects of your
production enterprise?
What measures will you
implement to mitigate these
risks?
What will these measures cost
the enterprise?
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
One of the most common WH&S risks in a physical
workplace like a farm relates to ergonomic
problems. A list of common issues is provided
below to help your thinking related to your own
production system.
• Driving mobile machinery and vehicles
• Using workshop tools
• Manual handling e.g. lifting/lowering, pulling/
pushing, carrying, holding/restraining.
• Identification of ergonomic problems is
assisted by:
–– Direct observation
–– Consultation with other farm workers.
Farm workers with a practical day to
day knowledge of jobs will often be able
to accurately identify risks to health
and safety.
–– Analysis of workplace injury records
In assessing the degree of risk associated
with any ergonomic problem, ask yourself the
following questions:
• How common are ergonomic and manual
handling injuries ?
• How severe are these injuries likely to be ?
• How often and for how long is an individual
exposed to ergonomic hazards?
Have a look at the following extracts and links
whilst considering these questions:
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 University of Sydney
– Australian Centre for
Agricultural Health and
Safety; “Factsheet 6 –
Ergonomics and Manual
Handling on Farms”;
Australia; 2012.
www.aghealth.org.au/index.php?id=5030
 Lyn Fragar and James
Houlahan; AUSTRALIAN
APPROACHES TO
THE PREVENTION OF
FARMINJURY; NSW Public
Health Bulletin; Vol 13; No
5; pp 103-104.
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id=NB02044.pdf
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 University of Sydney
– Australian Centre for
Agricultural Health and
Safety; “Resources –
Hazard Checklists with
Action Plans”; Australia;
2012.
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You have reached the site where farmers can
download practical guidelines and resources to get
started with a safety program for the farm. (THESE
RESOURCES ARE FREE TO DOWNLOAD AND
USE.)The resources that are available are:
• WHS Introduction – that introduces you to the
key principals of farm safety programs. You will
need to read this first.
• Hazard Checklists with Action plans – that
provides help to find the common safety
hazards on all farms, with plans for making the
farm safer.
• Safety Induction Templates – these provide
guidelines for safety induction for workers
and contractors.
• Training Register – help to keep your records of
training for your workers.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
• Injury Register – this will help you learn
from injuries that occur and put in place the
necessary improvements.
• Safety Guides – there are a number of safety
guides to help you find the right solution to just
about all the common safety risks on farms.
Have a look at all the headings, these are really
useful and are industry endorsed.
Now that you have looked at these sites GO BACK
to activity 14 and revise. Add to your list, any
that you may have omitted which are applicable,
so that it is an accurate reflection of the risks in
your workplace.
8.6 Policy concerning out-of-standard products
is identified according to enterprise customer
service, quality assurance policies and
marketing strategy
During the detailed planning of any business
activity it is easy to fall into the trap of being
too optimistic, focusing on the positives and
ignoring the negatives. One aspect that you need
to consider is what to do in the event that your
produce (or a percentage of produce) does not
meet the standards you have set (e.g. market
requirements, quality assurance requirements,
certification requirements).
In some instances the produce will need to be
discarded and remedial actions may need to be
implemented to prevent/minimise further losses.
In other instances, it may also be possible to
convert such produce into a ‘value-add’ proposition
for your business, providing it can be done within
the parameters of your capabilities and regulatory
requirements. For example:
• Produce an alternative product (e.g.
strawberries = strawberry jam)
• Diversify the business and bring in livestock
that can feed on out-of-standard produce
• Convert produce to compost
• Reduce the price and sell as a second grade
product
• Identify an alternative market where the
produce is to standard. For example, apple
growers in Stanthorpe have discovered that the
apples rejected by large retailers due to size or
colour irregularities sell for higher prices at local
farmers markets, where customers value taste
and nutritional value above presentation criteria.
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 15
Develop a concise policy statement that will be used by you and your key stakeholders to identify:
a. The specification/definition of an ‘out-of-standard’ product within your enterprise. You may have more
than one grade of ‘out-of-standard’ product to consider
b. What will happen to these out-of-standard products?
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AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
9
Schedule
Production
Activities
Staged implementation and development of product
are outlined, where appropriate, with access for future
works provided for according to client, enterprise and
site requirements.
Timelines for preparations, the establishment of the
production site, propagation of plants, planting, cultural
management of the growing environment, harvesting
and postharvest care are determined taking into
account the needs of the plant species and cultivars,
the softscape and hardscape components, site
conditions and any other planning requirements.
Timing within the plan ensures that available enterprise
production facilities and space are effectively and
efficiently utilised.
Marketing is planned and scheduled according to the
production schedule and marketing strategy.
Throughout this workbook you have completed a lot of
planning and research to determine the requirements
of your horticultural production system. It is now
time to consider all of the activities that need to be
completed, and the sequence in which they are to
be implemented, to make this plan a reality. As with
all change management projects, you need to tackle
the implementation of your production system within
the context of your business needs, values and
available resources.
When planning your implementation, will you implement
everything in one ‘big bang’ or will you break it down
into a series of manageable and incremental stages?
For instance, you may want to conduct a small trial of
a new practice before committing to a broad scale,
commercial implementation across the entire enterprise.
This incremental approach to implementation allows
lessons to be learnt and practices to be refined before
significant investments are made. Planning a staged
approach to implementation, allows you to break the plan
down into ‘bite size chunks’ or manageable stages which
take any resource constraints into account. For each stage:
• Itemise the resources required (people, equipment,
tools, training, machinery, biological controls,
modifications to equipment etc.)
• Cost each item
• Confirm resource availability or when the resource
will be available (lead time)
• Determine the tasks to be completed, who will
complete the task, duration of each task and any
dependencies between tasks
• Prepare an implementation plan based on the
above to determine the overall duration of the stage.
Have a look at the following extract and see how this
producer staged the introduction of Integrated Pest
Management practices into his production system:
 South Australian
Research and Development
Corporation; “Case 4;
National IPM Newsletter
Issue 01; P12.
W
www.sardi.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_
file/0004/93631/IPM_Case_histories_-1.pdf
EB
Stage 1 – In response to participation in Western
Flower Thrips industry workshops in 2001-02 the
grower made the following changes:
• Improved his greenhouse structure by increasing
height and adding roof ventilation.
• Improved farm hygiene program by clearing
weeds early and removing Tomato Spotted Wilt
Virus infected plants from the crop. Kept his plants
generally healthy.
• Began using yellow sticky traps before planting, and
routine crop scouting as a basis to spray decisions.
Stage 2 – Further changes in technology and practices
were initiated by the grower in 2003-04 and assisted by
SARDI staff and a horticultural consultant.
• Shade-cloth was replaced with ‘anti-virus’ mesh.
• Pest control trials using beneficial insects were
conducted in a tomato crop.
Overall the grower was very happy with the results of
changes to his greenhouse design and crop scouting
for summer control of thrips, TSWV and whitefly in
tomatoes, but not in cucumbers. He wants to continue
with IPM in these crops by working out how to
overcome ventilation problems when using fine mesh,
and would be willing to try beneficial insects again.
As you can see there are costs and benefits and
they don’t always stack up. The staged approach to
implementation has enabled this producer to make
objective decisions about the success of the IPM and
whether to invest further or make modifications to
the program.
51
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 16
Consider the size and scale of your production plan and how best to break this down into manageable stages for
implementation. Identify your implementation stages in the sequence that they will be introduced and justify why
you are implementing an action at a particular time.
Stage
No.
Description
Justify why you are implementing this action now
1
2
3
4
5
6
Now that you have identified the stages for
implementation, it is time to identify the major tasks
to be completed within each stage. For example:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Planning
Site Preparation
Equipment and Infrastructure Installation
Planting
Manage Crop
Harvest
Process
Store
Distribute
Marketing and Sales.
The following document outlines a practical guide
for the implementation of a permanent bed system
for vegetable production. It has been provided as
an example of the major activities that need to be
considered when implementing such a system.
As you can see, major activities are logical steps
towards achieving the end result.
W
EB
www.ahr.com.au/_files/pdfs/Best%20
Practice%20Manual%20-%20%20Project%20
VX01033.pdf
52
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 17
It is now time for you to break your stages down into major activities which should be listed in order of
implementation. Complete one table for each stage.
Stage
No.
Description
Major Activities
Description
Major Activities
1
Stage
No.
2
53
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Stage
No.
Description
Major Activities
Description
Major Activities
3
Stage
No.
4
54
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Stage
No.
Description
Major Activities
Description
Major Activities
5
Stage
No.
6
55
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
As you can see, you are gradually refining your
approach to implementation and breaking down
your ‘big picture project’ into manageable ‘chunks’.
The next step is to further refine your major
activities and:
• Identify the tasks to be completed (e.g.
plant seedlings)
• Who will do it (e.g. nursery labourer)?
• Resources (e.g. seedlings, pots, potting mix)
• Duration – how long will the task will take
(e.g. 3 months)?
• Start and end dates (e.g. 1.1.2012 – 1.4.2012)
• Any dependencies between tasks (e.g. cannot
start until greenhouse is installed).
When planning your implementation tasks
and timelines, it is important to take into
consideration the:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Needs of the plant species/cultivars
Softscape and hardscape components
Site conditions
Resource availability
Skill levels
Lead times for the delivery of equipment
and materials
• Holidays
• Constraints identified throughout your planning
activities (e.g. cannot excavate site until council
has approved plans)
• Broader requirements of the organisation (e.g.
marketing strategy, HRM strategy, QA strategy).
Once you have a plan, you are in control and can
approach the implementation of your production
system in a logical and systematic way.
56
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 18
It is now time to prepare your implementation schedule. Use the data that you identified in activities 16 and 17.
Further refine your plan by completing the following table. YOU MUST COMPLETE A TABLE FOR EACH STAGE
IN YOUR IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. The example has been provided to illustrate how to complete this table (one
table per stage). At the end of this exercise you will have developed a baseline project plan and schedule for the
implementation (stage by stage) of your production system. This means it is easy to track progress and make
sure you are meeting implementation deadlines.
Example Schedule
Stage (A)
Major
Activities (B)
Tasks
Person
Responsible
Resources
Duration
Start Date
End Date
Paddock
1
Planning
Develop
application
A Jones
Meet with local
DA councillor to
discuss plan
4 weeks
1 Jan 2012
1 Feb 2012
Order
equipment
A Jones
-
4 weeks
1 Jan 2012
1 Feb 2012
Hire
B Smith
contractors
-
4 weeks
1 Jan 2012
1 Feb 2012
Install
fencing
Contractor
Fencing equipment 4 weeks
and post hole
digger
1 Feb 2012
1 Mar 2012
Install
irrigation
Contractor
Ag pipe, water
tanks, irrigation
fittings
4 weeks
1 Feb 2012
1 Mar 2012
Soil
B Smith
preparation
Plough, spreader
bar, spray tank,
minerals
4 weeks
1 Mar 2012
1 Apr 2012
Infrastructure
installed
Sow cover
crop
Seeds, fertilizer,
plough, seed
spreader
1 week
1 Apr 2012
8 Apr 2012
Soil prepared
Infrastructure
Planting
B Smith
Dependencies
Planning
complete
No later than 30
April
57
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Stage 1
Major
Activities (B)
Tasks
Person
Responsible
Resources
Duration
Start Date
End Date
Dependencies
Stage 2
Major
Activities (B)
Tasks
Person
Responsible
Resources
Duration
Start Date
End Date
Dependencies
58
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Stage 3
Major
Activities (B)
Tasks
Person
Responsible
Resources
Duration
Start Date
End Date
Dependencies
Stage 4
Major
Activities (B)
Tasks
Person
Responsible
Resources
Duration
Start Date
End Date
Dependencies
59
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Stage 5
Major
Activities (B)
Tasks
Person
Responsible
Resources
Duration
Start Date
End Date
Dependencies
Stage 6
Major
Activities (B)
Tasks
Person
Responsible
Resources
Duration
Start Date
End Date
Dependencies
60
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
10
Some QA programs that are relevant to horticultural
producers are:
Monitoring
of the
Production Plan
•
•
•
•
Production activities to be monitored, the format
for recording factors, frequency of monitoring and
the thresholds for remedial action are determined
according to enterprise and industry quality
assurance policies.
•
•
•
•
•
•
It is now time to consider how you will monitor
your production activities, record keeping
formats, frequency of monitoring and determine
the thresholds for remedial action according to
enterprise and industry quality assurance and
environmental management policies.
Monitoring is the regular gathering and analysis
of information needed for your day-to-day
management, to ensure that the production
processes being implemented and expected
outcomes/objectives are being achieved. Without
good record keeping and monitoring, it is difficult
for a business to accurately determine if system
requirements are being met. This is especially
important when there are multiple participants/staff.
Monitoring needs to be based on a realistic but
effective system suited to your business needs.
Firstly you must be clear about:
• What it is you are monitoring
• The decisions you want to be able to make
using the monitoring results
• The information you need to collect to make
these decisions.
Then you need a system that enables you to:
• Collect the information easily that you need
• Use it to make decisions.
If you are a member of a quality assurance
program then you may be required under this
certification scheme to have a number of specific
performance indicators, record keeping, monitoring
and verification processes in place to demonstrate
your compliance with the QA program.
Approved Supplier Programs
Freshcare
HAL Horticulture for Tomorrow
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
(HACCP)
SQF 2000CM and SQF 1000CM
Woolworths Quality Assurance Standard (WQA)
ISO 9000 and ISO 9000
EurepGA.
Enviroveg
Managing Farm Safety.
HACCP based programs require producers to
assess potential hazards that need to be controlled
and develop policies and procedures to monitor
and verify these controls:
• Control measures are an action or activity that
can be taken to prevent or eliminate the hazard,
or reduce it to an acceptable level.
• Critical control points (CCPs) are the points
during the production process at which the
identified hazard can be controlled.
• Monitoring may include such things as:
a. Observation of staff undertaking
procedures
b. Checking and recording storage
temperatures
c. Recording calibration checks
d. Checking and recording that cleaning
activities have been carried out
• Verification procedures may include such
things as:
a. Product testing
b. Water and ice testing
c. Swabbing of equipment and testing
d. Review of records (cleaning records, pest
control records etc.)
e. Internal Audit.
A TRAP: Operators in small horticultural enterprises
are often monitoring their own actions. Unless
specific monitoring procedures are put in
place requiring checklists or diary entries to be
completed, this task is often overlooked or let slide
in place of other activities you may consider more
important. If this happens you are putting your
business at risk in a number of areas e.g. food
safety breaches , not meeting QA standards or not
meeting budget requirements.
61
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 19
Complete the following table and identify the monitoring activities that you will implement within the context of
your production enterprise:
Significant Impact/
Risk/Hazard
Monitoring Activity
or Indicator
Method of Checking/
Guideline Used
Who
Checks?
When
do they
Check?
Where is it
Recorded?
62
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
10.1 Required remedial action is documented for
implementation by staff according to enterprise
and industry quality assurance policies
One of the advantages of frequent monitoring
and good record keeping is that you can respond
quickly to issues that arise and prevent/minimise
further losses. If things do get out of control (e.g.
control limits are breached) then you and your staff
need to know exactly what to do to regain control.
This is called a corrective or remedial action. These
actions should get the situation back in control,
and also deal with any contaminated product if
necessary. Corrective action is focused on:
• Identifying the nonconforming produce to
prevent it being inadvertently used.
• Deciding what is to happen to the
nonconforming product.
• Adjusting the process to maintain control.
• Recording the corrective action taken.
A good example is in the case of inappropriate
farm chemical usage (e.g. harvesting produce
inside the withholding period or applying the
chemical at a rate that exceeds label instructions).
The corrective action might include:
• Identifying which produce has been affected by
excess chemical or has been harvested inside
the withholding period.
• Appropriate destruction of the product.
• Reviewing the farm chemical spray program
and ensuring that when sprays are utilised, the
withholding period and label instructions have
been followed.
• Record the corrective action.Corrective actions
can be recorded on a Corrective Action Record
(CAR).
63
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 20
CORRECTIVE ACTION REPORT (CAR)
Date:
Corrective Action Report No:
Area/Activity:
Details of the Incident or Non-Compliance:
(what happened?)
Incident or Non-Compliance Review:
(what was the cause?)
Short term corrective action:
(what will be done to rectify the situation in the
short term?)
Name: Date: Long term corrective action:
(what will be done to rectify the situation in the
long term?)
Signed:
Verification of corrective action and comments: (has the action above been taken?)
Name: Close out date: Signed:
Preventive action: (what action will be taken to prevent the same thing happening again?)
Verified by: Name Date: Signed:
64
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
10.2 Effectiveness of the monitoring
system is reviewed on a regular basis
according to enterprise and industry quality
assurance policies.
As with all monitoring systems, it is important that
the effectiveness of the system is reviewed on a
regular basis. This process is known as verification
under HACCP principles. There are three main
elements to verification:
• Continuous internal review of the monitoring
and corrective action records to ensure that the
overall process is in control.
• Internal and external auditing to ensure that the
principles of HACCP are being followed and
that the process and inputs have not changed.
• Internal or external justification or validation that
all relevant hazards have been identified, that
the analysis of significance is valid and justified,
the critical limits are appropriate and the
monitoring and corrective action procedures
are effective.
W
EB
 The Freshcare Code of
Practice – Food Safety and
Quality: 3rd Edition July
2009 identifies that:
10.3 The production program is compared with
feedback and projections from clients according
to sound business practice
Once you have implemented your production
system and monitored/evaluated its performance,
you will be in a position to analyse this information
and use it to improve your products, services and
processes. This is termed ‘continuous or continual
improvement’ and it requires the commitment of
management to implement on an ongoing basis.
Some key questions to ask yourself on a regular
basis are:
• Is the production system meeting the expected
goals/objectives of the organisation?
• How does it compare to other production
systems (i.e. benchmarking)?
• Is the production system improving over time
and are these improvements making a real
difference to the triple bottom line?
• What do our customers really think of our
product, what do they want in the future?
• What innovations could we implement to
improve production performance?
www.freshcare.com.au/downloads
The Freshcare Code of Practice – Food Safety and
Quality: 3rd Edition July 2009 requires that:
An internal audit of all activities and records
relevant to the Freshcare Code of Practice Food
Safety and Quality is conducted at least annually, at
times when practices are occurring, and a record
is kept.
Workers responsible for completing sections of the
internal audit are identified and, where possible,
independent of the practices being assessed.
65
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Continuous improvement requires an open minded
approach and a willingness to really looking under
the covers of the production system, take the good
news with the bad news and use this information
constructively to identify future improvements.
Whilst many producers may feel uncomfortable with
‘negative’ feedback, the fact is that ‘doing nothing’
is the worst possible outcome.
Deficiencies and gaps should be seen in a positive
light as actions can be taken to resolve the issues
or prevent further damage occurring. In this way,
producers can be proud of identifying a problem
and taking proactive steps to remedy the situation.
Even though the following extract relates to the
livestock industry it is a good example. It provides
an example of how ‘negative’ results can be turned
into ‘positive’ outcomes through recognising the
problem, taking corrective action and monitoring
the results for improvements. Can you see how this
process is one of continual improvement and how a
negative can be turned into a positive?
Improving water use and quality in processing
Water consumption at the Swift Dinmore meat
processing facility was up to 5.5 megalitres per
day and the capacity of the wastewater treatment
plant was stretched, compromising performance
and compliance with Environmental Protection
Authority (EPA) regulatory requirements. Swift staff
based their ‘Every Drop Counts’ campaign on
the eco-efficiency processing manual, produced
by MLA2 in collaboration with the Queensland
Department of State Development and the Food
and Meat Industries Taskforce, to reduce water
consumption to 4.5 megalitres a day (an annual
reduction of 184 megalitres – the equivalent of
more than 70 Olympic swimming pools). This
was achieved through eco-efficient measures
supported by employee training and awareness,
which significantly reduced water demand.
 Meat and Livestock
Australia; “Promoting
Responsible Use of
Resources for a Healthy
Environment – The
Industry Impact”;
Evaluation Series – 3.4
Ensuring Sustainability;
Australia; 2009; pp2,3,5.
Please copy and paste the highlighted section of
the above link into a Google search then click on
the first result to access this PDF document.
66
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 21
Identify ways in which you can achieve continuous improvement of your products, services and processes within
your enterprise.
What is the process?
What is wrong with the process
now?
What can you implement
to achieve continuous
improvement?
67
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
11
Prepare
and
Document the
Production Plan and
Specification
Detailed plan, specifications and quotation are
prepared based on horticultural conventions and
the requirements of production, and presented to
appropriate personnel for acceptance.
Data should be presented in a simple, clear, and
easily understandable format. Only the most
important data should be presented. Comparisons
of performance data over time are critical and
comparing actual outcomes to targets is central to
reporting results.
Acronyms and jargon should be avoided. A
minimum of background information should
be provided to establish the context. Major
points should be stated up front. Findings and
recommendations should be organised around key
outcomes and their indicators.
Now that you have completed your detailed
production planning, it is time organise the data
into a suitable report to aid decision making and
ensure a useful ongoing “tool” for the business.
Throughout this process it is important to keep in
mind what the data will be used for, who will use
it and what their needs are. In this way, you will
deliver a report that is practical, meaningful and
‘fit for purpose’.
68
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Activity 22
This is the final activity for this unit and will assess your ability to “pull together a useful summary and
recommendations related to your horticulture production plan. The report is to be concise, clear and presented
as though you are summarising the performance of 1 enterprise in your horticulture production business. Take
into account information you have collated in all activities throughout this unit
You can use the Production Plan Template provided in pages 27–36 or develop your own but ensure you include
a concise list of topics such as:
Title Page
Table of Contents
Executive summary (one page summary of key messages and recommended next steps)
Introduction
Overview of Production System
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
Market specifications
Legislative and regulatory requirements
Production site assessment
Plant species/cultivars and growing conditions
Gaps to be addressed (e.g. modifications to production site)
Potential Production Targets and Assumptions
Risks, Issues, Constraints
Production System Requirements:
––
––
––
––
––
Plant species/cultivars, quantity, cost and availability
Plant establishment procedures
Cultural management procedures
Production site design
Harvest schedule
Production resources and costs
Production schedule
Marketing plan
Record keeping and monitoring plan
Recommendations and Next Steps
Appendices
References
Attach your report to the end of this workbook including the previously completed site map/plan and submit it to
your lecturer for assessment.
69
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
12
Summary
of Key
Innovations/Opportunities
identified as a Result of
Adopting these Skills
The adoption of new opportunities and key innovations
should always be considered from the perspective of
the triple bottom line. However each producer will need
to determine:
• What are the most important aspects of each
opportunity and innovation?
• How can a new innovation or opportunity
be sustainably applied to your business or
production system?
The summary below is provided as a list of
suggestions. It is by no means complete. It is also
unrealistic to assume any single business can
adopt every opportunity.
• Improved understanding of developing a
production plan (preliminary and detailed).
• Improved ability to influence/convince key
stakeholders to proceed from planning to
implementation.
• Establish SMART production targets and
introduce monitoring programs to continually
improve business performance.
• Improved understanding of the production site
and its capabilities to support plant species/
cultivars.
• Establish clear business direction based on
sustainable, quantifiable and measurable goals
and clear targets.
• Improve ability to secure business funds as a
result of documenting a sound production plan.
• Understand the landscape and its capabilities
and how to respond to environmental
challenges and opportunities.
• Potential increase to production levels and
resource use efficiency by matching inputs to
areas of the site that give the greatest returns.
• Increase ability to financially plan for future
developments and prioritise production
activities and environmental management.
• Understand and comply with relevant
legislation, regulations and code of practice to
reduce liability and improve product quality and
reputation.
• Optimise resource efficiency and reduce input
costs.
• Enhance business performance and maintain
corporate social responsibility.
70
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
13
Bibliography and Source Material
Organisation
Standard
Legislation
AQIS – Australian
Quarantine
and Inspection
Service
Australian
Government
Contact Details
Web Site
Reason for Inclusion
www.daff.gov.au/aqis/
about/structure
www.daff.gov.au/aqis
Import and export inspection and
certification.
National Standard for Organic and
Biodynamic Produce.
Legislation
Australia
Macadamia
Society
www.environment.gov.
au/biodiversity/invasive/
weeds/contacts/index.
html
www.weeds.gov.au/government/
legislation.html
Example of legislation that applies to
enterprises regarding weed management.
http://macadamias.org/
pages/contacts
http://macadamias.org/pages/
faqs
Frequently-asked questions
Macadamias in the orchard
What growing conditions best suit
macadamias?
Biological
Farmers of
Australia
Australian
Certified
Organic
Standard 2010
Business Victoria
Department
of Agriculture,
Fisheries
and Forestry
– Australian
Government
Department
of Primary
Industries NSW
Soil Health
Knowledge
Bank
www.bfa.com.au/
ContactUs.aspx
www.bfa.com.au/
IndustryResources/
BFAPublications/
AustralianOrganicStandard.aspx
Organic Standard 2012, version 1.0
www.business.vic.
gov.au/BUSVIC/
FEEDBACK/
FEEDBACK.
html,contextPC=
www.business.vic.gov.au
Business Victoria is a comprehensive
online resource designed to help you start,
run and grow your business.
www.
soilhealthknowledge.
com.au/index.
php?option=com_cont
ent&view=article&id=2
&Itemid=4
www.soilhealthknowledge.com.
au/
Soil health knowledge bank provides
a range of resources to assist farmers
develop sustainable soil management
policies, procedures and monitoring
systems.
www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/
aboutus/about/contact
www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/
assets/pdf_file/0004/189697/agland-classification.pdf
www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/
pdf_file/0019/1623214/beef.pdf
Land classification system.
Publication: How to write a business plan
and review farm performance.
www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/
resources/bookshop/agguidehow-write-business-plan
Department
of Primary
Industries,
Parks, Water
and Environment
Tasmania
www.dpipwe.tas.gov.
au/inter.nsf/WebPages/
MROD-4VMUA5?open#
ContactingUs
www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au/inter.
nsf/ThemeNodes/LBUN6EX9PS?open
Land capability matrix
Department
of Primary
Industries
Queensland
http://agbiz.business.
qld.gov.au/support/
feedback-form.htm
http://agbiz.business.qld.gov.au/
Agbiz – Agribusiness decision support
toolkit.
Department
of Primary
Industries Victoria
www.dpi.vic.gov.au/
about-us/contact-us
www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/
farming-management/businessmanagement
There are many facets to a farm business
that producers need to manage, including
financial, environmental, animal welfare,
risk management, occupational health and
safety and marketing.
FarmPoint – Business planning tools,
templates, methods, tutorials, links and
other useful resources.
DPI provides information and research
about different ways to increase
productivity and how to access markets.
You can also find tools and ideas to help
you run your farm more effectively.
71
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Organisation
Standard
Legislation
Contact Details
Web Site
Reason for Inclusion
Environment
and Resource
Management
– Queensland
Government
Land
Managers
Monitoring
Guide
www.derm.qld.gov.au/
contactus/index.html
www.derm.qld.gov.au/
monitoring_guide/index.html
The Land Manager’s Monitoring Guide
(LMMG) provides land managers with
a suite of natural resource monitoring
information to assist them with monitoring
and demonstrating the results of more
sustainable management.
Freshcare
The Freshcare
Code of
Practice –
Food Safety
and Quality
www.freshcare.com.au/
downloads
Freshcare Code of Practice
Kondinin Group
Factsheets
www.kondiningroup.
com.au/static.
ASP?t=1&I=0
www.kondiningroup.com.au/
static.ASP?t=2&I=19
The Small Landholder Information Service
(SLIS) has teamed up with Kondinin Group
to deliver a series of technical notes on
running a small farm, or property. This
series of noteworthy fact sheets provide
practical information from the Department
of Agriculture and Food WA to help small
landholders make better choices.
www.nasaa.com.au/
contact.html
www.nasaa.com.au/resource2.
html#
Resource Centre – Forms and templates
are available for organic producers.
NASAA Certified
Organics
NSW Government
– Land and
Property
Information
SIX Spatial
Information
Exchange
www.lpi.nsw.gov.au/
about_lpi/contact_us
https://six.nsw.gov.au/wps/
portal/!ut/p/b1/04_SjzQ0tTAz
MDOwNDbXj9CPykssy0xP
LMnMz0vMAfGjzOKDnZxCT
R0NzQwNzJ1dDDwNzfxMnE
MNvfzNDPSDU_P0c6McFQG
yE71G/
Farm mapping technology.
Primary
Industries
and Regions
South Australia
(PIRSA) – South
Australian
Government
SA
Environmental
Legislation
www.pir.sa.gov.au/
pirsa/contact_us
www.pir.sa.gov.au/pirsa/nrm
PIRSA’s role in Natural Resource
Management (NRM).
PIRSA is committed to a number of priority
areas in sustainable primary industries.
PIRSA’s Agriculture, Food and Wine
Division develops and implements
policies, legislation, regulatory
frameworks and programs to promote
an optimal business and a natural and
social environment within which primary
industries can grow.
This website contains useful resources/
links relative to sustainable agriculture
polices, legislation, decision support tools
etc.
University
of Southern
Queensland –
National Centre
for Engineering in
Agriculture
www.ncea.
org.au/index.
php?option=com_cont
ent&task=view&id=69&
Itemid=87
www.ncea.org.au/index.
php?option=com_content&task=
view&id=68&Itemid=85
Reducing Farm Energy Costs – Research
activities and completed projects.
University
of Sydney –
Australian Centre
for Agricultural
Health and Safety
www.aghealth.org.au/
index.php?id=7
www.aghealth.org.au/index.
php?id=5030
This website is a useful resource for
Australian farmers to understand,
implement and monitor risk management
strategies for occupation health and safety
related events.
University of
Western Sydney
--
www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/
pdf_file/0020/12917/Hazard_
Identification_Risk_Assessment_
and_control_Procedure_2008.
pdf
Risk management framework
72
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
14
Being confident about your skill levels
Before commencing on your summative assessment take a few minutes to review this
workbook and ensure you feel that you are confident about your skill levels related to this topic.
Use the table below to help check your skills. Before commencing your final assessments it is important to review
any sections in which you feel unsure.
*Remember* It is always OK to ask your assessor /lecturer questions.
The following table provides a list of skills and knowledge you should have after completing this workbook.
Review this table and:
1. Put a tick in the column if you can do this now and a brief comment as to why you believe you have this skill
2. Put a tick in the next column if you feel you need more practice and a brief comment as to why
3. If you require further training, complete the third column listing what training is needed. Show this list to your
supervisor or assessor and ask for more time or training before completing the summative assessments.
Ref Skills/knowledge you should
have
1
Communicate and negotiate
orally and in writing with the
client, staff, managers, suppliers,
contractors and consultants
2
Research and evaluate
information
3
Record all relevant information
4
Comply with legislative
requirements
5
Document plans, specifications
and production work
procedures and write reports
for the understanding of
staff, managers, clients and
contractors
6
Calculate the cost and spatial
and logistical requirements of
components of the horticultural
production plan
7
Establishment and maintenance
of a range of enterprise
horticultural products in
relation to client needs and
the standards required by the
marketplace
I can do
this now
I need more practice and
must review the work before
completing final assessments
What additional training
do I need
73
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
Ref Skills/knowledge you should
have
8
Establishment procedures, plant
selection and cultural practices
for a range of enterprise
horticultural products
9
The advantages and limitations
of sustainable horticulture
systems
10
The role of business and
marketing plans and client
consultation processes in
planning horticultural production
11
Processes and techniques
for preparing, costing and
documenting plans for and
scheduling horticultural
production.
I can do
this now
I need more practice and
must review the work before
completing final assessments
What additional training
do I need
74
AHCPHT502A – Develop a horticultural production plan
15
Assessment
You have now reached the end of this workbook. All of the information and activities you have covered have
developed your skills to competently develop a horticultural production plan for your workplace.
Your competency may be assessed through your successful completion of all formative activities throughout
this workbook. Alternatively, your RTO may require completion of a final summative assessment. You will need to
discuss this with your RTO.
FEEDBACK
This workbook has been developed to guide users to access current information related to gaining skills appropriate
to their workplace. Please complete the following table notifying us of any errors or suggested improvements.
Subject Name
Book Number
Page
What is the error
Suggested improvement
10
You tube video is not accurate
Better websites / You Tube example
Is there a link to your suggested improvement
Additional comments
Click here to email your feedback form to RST
75