Jazz JAzz experience A teacher’s guide for the

A teacher’s guide for the
Jazz experience
P r o g r am
The Heart of the Art
Dear Educator,
As you make plans for your students to attend an upcoming presentation of the
Wells Fargo School Matinee Series at the Robert and Margrit Mondavi Center for
the Performing Arts at UC Davis, we invite you to prepare your students by using this
curriculum guide to assure that from beginning to end, the experience is an educationally
enriching and memorable one.
The material in this guide is for you. We believe that an understanding of some basic
vocabulary and background information on the performance art form will help to
prepare your students to better understand and enjoy what they are about to see. We
also encourage you to discuss important aspects of the artistic experience, including
audience etiquette.
We hope that your students find their imaginations come alive as lights shine, curtains
open, and applause rings through Mondavi Center. As importantly, we hope that this
curriculum guide helps you to bring the arts alive in your classroom.
Thank you for helping us to make a difference in the lives of our children.
Mondavi Center Arts Education Program
Sierra North Arts Project, UC Davis
Jazz is a unique style of American music that has
evolved from traditional African and European
vocal and instrumental music. The musical
characteristics of West Africa were brought to
America because of the forced importation of
slaves. These characteristics were combined with
European-style instruments that had been incorporated into the American marching band to
form the early beginnings of jazz. It began as a
popular form of entertainment and has evolved
into an established art form.
Jazz history has mirrored the social history of
the United States from the meetings of slaves in
Congo Square in New Orleans in the 18th century through the social upheavals and changes
of performing styles of the late 20th century.
Jazz musicians have played a significant role
in the integration of races in America and have
been involved in the ideas of social justice that
have become mainstream in America.
The essence of jazz is improvisation—the art of
creating music through the spontaneous invention of ideas. Unlike any other form of music,
jazz improvisation relies upon the performer
to create music that is not written or practiced,
but produced from the heart and soul for that
moment in time. Through improvisation, jazz
music evokes thought and emotions through
a shared experience between the performer
and listener.
What’s Inside:
The Heart of the Art
Overview of the Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards
What’s Important to Know Before You Go
Words to Know
“Jazz is America’s greatest original art form; a music
During the Performance
• Audience Etiquette
• Jazz Improvisation
• Post-Performance
whose improvisational spirit perfectly reflects the
Instruments of Jazz Ensembles and Combos
Jazz Ensembles and Combos
Standards-based Classroom Learning Experiences
Essential Jazz Listening Guide
nation that gave it birth.” Ken Burns, Film Producer
10 Recommended Jazz Internet Websites
Recommended Jazz Listening Collections
11 Arts Education at UC Davis
12 Credits
Mondavi Center curriculum guides are produced in partnership with:
ArtSmarts is the title for K–12 educational programs at Mondavi Center.
The Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools have five component
strands that cover dance, music, theater, and visual arts. The component strands for music are:
Artistic Perception: Processing, analyzing, and responding to sensory information through the language
and skills unique to music. Students read, notate, listen to, analyze, and describe music and other
aural information, using the terminology of music.
Creative Expression: Creating, performing, and participating in music. Students apply vocal and instrumental music skills in performing a varied repertoire of music. They compose and arrange music and
improvise melodies, variations, and accompaniments, using digital/electronic technology when appropriate.
Historical and Cultural Context: Understanding the historical contributions and cultural dimensions of
music. Students analyze the role of music in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting
cultural diversity as it relates to music, musicians, and composers.
Aesthetic Valuing: Responding to, analyzing, and making judgments about works of music. Students
critically assess and derive meaning from works of music and the performance of musicians according
to the elements of music and aesthetic qualities.
Connections, Relationships, Applications: Connecting and applying what is learned in music to learning
in other art forms and subject areas and to careers. Students apply what they learn in music across
subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and
management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They learn
about careers in and related to music.
Jazz Time Line
Overview of the Visual and Performing Arts
Content Standards for California Public Schools
The Origin of Jazz
During the late 1800s in
America’s south, plantation songs, spirituals, and
field hollers were a part
of everyday life for the
African-American plantation slaves. Their music
was used to celebrate, to
mourn, to entertain, to
commemorate, to worship, and to accompany
the drudgery of work.
Often this type of music
would incorporate a type
of “call and response” in
which one person would
sing a verse or phrase
and others around him
would answer with the
same or different phrase.
Listening Experience:*
“Soon One Mornin’
(Death Come A-Creepin’ In My Room)”
Mississippi Fred McDowell
Learning Experience:
What’s Important to Know BEFORE YOU GO?
As an audience member, you are the reason
the musicians are on stage. They are there
to perform for you and share with you the
sounds and emotions of their music.
When you are part of the audience at a jazz
performance, you become part of that performance. Jazz performers want you to respond
to their music as they rely on your positive
reactions to maintain their intensity level.
Remember that jazz improvisation is the
spontaneous creation of ideas. The performer
wants to share himself or herself through
music and evoke an emotion. For this reason a verbal response such as “yeah” or “all
right” during the performance is perfectly
acceptable. Applauding at the end of a solo
even though the piece has not ended is also
acceptable. However, loud conversations or
disruptive noises are not acceptable and are
distracting to the performers as well as other
audience members. Of course, applause
after a piece has finished is appreciated by
the performers.
Before you attend a jazz concert or performance
you should have an understanding of what
type of jazz you are going to hear. Is it a small
combo playing cool jazz from the 1950s or a
large ensemble playing 1940s big band swing?
Will there be a rhythm section? Will there be
horns, electronic instruments, acoustic instruments, vocals? Will the style of music be easy
to listen to or dance to, or will it require indepth concentration to fully appreciate what
the performers are accomplishing? Use this
guide and the other resources listed to increase
your understanding and appreciation of jazz,
its history, and roots.
When you attend a jazz concert, listen closely
to the music, watch the performer, and let your
mind and emotions wander. See if you can truly
experience and understand what the performer
is trying to say to you through his or her instrument and music performance.
Listen to how Mississippi Fred McDowell
describes a story, through music, about
death creepin’ in his room. This is the
essence of a folk song. In this song,
Mississippi Fred utilizes the call and
response format by himself with his
singing and guitar playing.
Of Significance:
The black spiritual, folk music of the
African-American slaves, became popular after the American Civil War.
*All listening experiences in the
jazz time line can be found in
the CD collection Ken Burns Jazz
—The Story Of American Music.
Jazz Time Line
Late 1800s—Early
1900s Ragtime
Ragtime was the most
Words to know
popular music idiom in
Throughout this curriculum guide you will see certain words in bold print. Below are the definitions of
these words.
the United States from
the 1890s through about
1917, and was one of
the early musical styles
that contributed to the
development of jazz.
The term ragtime means
“ragged time,” referring
to the music’s syncopated
melody with the form and
feel of a march. Playing
in this syncopated style
was called “ragging.”
Listening Experience:
“Maple Leaf Rag” Scott Joplin
Learning Experience:
As you listen to “Maple Leaf Rag”
notice the even, march-like style of
the low notes that are played by the
left hand on the piano, and which
keeps a steady beat or pulse.
The right hand plays the higher notes
and melody line, which incorporates
syncopation, also known as ragging.
Of Significance:
Scott Joplin won a Pulitzer Prize half
a century after his death for his 1911
ragtime opera Treemonisha.
Articulation: The way in which a note or tone
is started and released by use of the tongue. A
smooth articulation would utilize a “da” or “doo”
articulation. An accentuated articulation would
utilize a “ta” or “taht” articulation.
Beat: The regular pulse in music. Music moves
to a steady beat. The division of pulse is called
meter. In a waltz or “3/4 meter,” music is divided
into groups of three. In a rock or jazz of “2/4 or
4/4 meter,” music is divided into groups of two
or four.
Chords: Two or more notes played at the
same time.
Color: The unique quality of sound created by an
instrument or voice. Often referred to as “dark”
or “bright.”
Folk song: Music of anonymous origins that
expresses the customs, traditions, and emotions
of the people of a country or community.
Harmony: A combination of notes sounding
together to create a chord. Harmony is the
vertical structure of music.
Harmonic foundation: The relationship between a
series of chords within a musical composition.
Half step: The smallest interval or distance
between two notes in American and European
Idiom: A characteristic style of jazz music,
such as swing, ragtime, bebop.
Instrumental: Music performed on instruments
rather than sung.
Melody: A succession of notes of varying pitch
and duration in an organized pattern to form a
tune or theme.
Melodic structure: The relationship between
a series of melodies to create a musical
Phrasing: A musical thought with a beginning,
middle, and end. Similar to a sentence, a phrase
is a complete musical idea.
Pulse: See beat.
Register: The different levels of range (high and
low) of instruments and voices.
Riffing: A jazz term meaning a short, repetitive,
passage. Riffs are used as signposts or checkpoints for musicians.
Rhythm: Everything pertaining to the duration of
musical tones in relation to a beat or pulse.
Rhythm foundation: The underlying combination of
beat and accompanying rhythms that lay
the foundation for the rhythm of melody and
Scooping or bending pitches: To scoop a note is a
technique in which a singer or instrumentalist
does not move directly from one note to another,
but instead moves up from a lower note until the
desired pitch is established. A bend is allowing
the tone to waver or fluctuate below and above
the already established desired pitch.
Song form: Form is the way that musical ideas are
organized. One form states an opening section
which is called the “A” section. The “A” section is
repeated and then followed by a contrasting new
section called the “B” section. The “B” section is
followed by a final repeat of the first “A” section.
Together, the entire form is referred to as “A A
B A.”
Syncopation: The placing of an accented note
away from the established beat.
Walking bass line: A steady beat played by a
bass instrument that helps establish chord
Call and Response
Call and response is a feature of jazz that has its roots in West African music. It
is often heard in work songs and religious music where a leader “calls” a part of
the song and the group “responds” to the leader’s call. Many spirituals and blues
songs use call and response as part of their form. In jazz, call and response is often
used to allow musicians to exchange improvisations as one would experience in
a conversation. One musician might play one section of the chorus of a song, then
turn the next section of the song over to another musician to respond. Sometimes
this is done with two measures (trading 2’s), four measures (trading 4’s), or eight
measures (trading 8’s). When musicians are trading ideas back and forth, as in a
conversation, that is call and response.
Listening to music, especially jazz, should be more than a passive activity. Encourage students to
be “active listeners” by identifying the different instruments used in the ensemble. Have the students ask themselves what style of music is being played and what mood does that type of music
create for the listener? Most importantly, encourage students to allow themselves to hear and feel
the emotional message that is communicated by the musicians through the art of jazz.
Audience Etiquette
Jazz Improvisation
• Use the restroom before the
performance begins.
• Leave food, drinks, or gum outside
the performance space.
• Turn off pagers and cell phones.
• Stay seated during the performance.
• Save comments and questions for after
the performance.
• Listen courteously.
• After a musician has completed an
improvised solo it is appropriate to
show your appreciation by applause.
It is also appropriate to applaud upon
completion of a piece of music.
• Leave cameras, video recorders, or
audio recorders at home.
As stated earlier, the essence of jazz is improvisation. When a performer improvises, he is spontaneously inventing new and original musical
ideas. He is not reading music, and is not playing from memory. Although the musician who
is improvising does have an understanding of
music theory, he is essentially playing his instrument based on emotions. Unlike any other form
of music, this display of emotion is shared with
the audience and other performers and becomes
a unique experience for all.
had 4,
lit- 2, tle 3, 4,
lamb –—–,
3, lit- tle
lamb –—–,
lamb –—–
or ahead of beats, changing the feel of the song:
Clap and sing the song with the words in between some beats and on others.
Americans at the beginning of
the 20th century. The blues was
not just a type of music, but
also a state of mind and way of
life for many African-Americans
during this time. The most distinctive melodic characteristic of
—–—lit-tle ––——
lamb,——— blues scale used microtones,
which are intervals smaller than
a half step. Although these pitch
inflections may occur on any
tone, they are used most often
on the third and seventh notes
of a scale - they are referred to
as the “bent” or “blue” notes
——–lit- tle ––——
Listening Experience:
“Back Water Blues” Bessie Smith
Learning Experience:
As you listen to “Back Water Blues” notice how
Bessie Smith adds variation to certain pitches by
bending or wavering on a pitch and by scooping
or bending her voice from one pitch to another.
In a syncopated rhythm, we might move the words to unexpected places, between
stories and emotions of African-
Clap and sing the beginning of the song. Clap each number as a beat.
——– lit- tle tradition that expressed the
that give the blues its poignant
pattern with each word beginning on a beat:
expressive, predominantly vocal
built on whole and half steps. The
Lamb.” If we sing this song the way we know it, it follows a regular rhythmic
- ry had
folk song, the blues was a highly
tially a series of tones or pitches
surprise and catch us off guard. Let’s take a simple song like “Mary Had a Little
Similar to what we now call a
eight-tone major scale is essen-
Syncopation is the term that refers to moving accented or stressed musical tones
away from the established beat or pulse of the music. Syncopation is not exclusive
to jazz, but is commonly found there. Syncopation’s purpose is to create a sense of
African-American song form.
ly used in European music. The
What is Syncopation?
The blues is a distinctive
eight-tone major scale common-
Questions to ask your students:
What was your favorite part of the concert? Why?
What was your least favorite part of the concert? Why?
What instruments were used?
Were you surprised by the choice of a particular instrument used in this jazz performance? Why?
Why not?
Did the music create an emotional response for you? What was it?
What kind of mood did the music create for you?
Describe how the overall listening experience affected you and your appreciation for jazz music.
The Blues
the blues is the alteration of the
Jazz Time Line
During the Performance
Of Significance:
Canadian scientist Reginald Fessenden transmitted the human voice via radio for the first time
in 1907.
Jazz Time Line
Blues and ragtime came
together between 1915
and the early 1920s in
New Orleans, Louisiana,
to create a new type of
music called Dixieland
jazz. Dixieland jazz,
sometimes referred to as
traditional jazz or New
Orleans jazz, is characterized by a steady, often
upbeat tempo similar
to ragtime. The name
Dixieland was most likely
derived from the Original
Dixieland Jazz Band, a
New Orleans group who
made the first publicly
available recording of this
style of music in 1917.
Dixieland is primarily
an instrumental form of
music. A typical Dixieland
band includes a trumpet or
cornet, clarinet, trombone,
banjo, piano, drums, and
string bass or tuba.
Listening Experience:
Instruments of Jazz Ensembles and Combos
Rhythm Section The core of any jazz ensemble or
combo is its rhythm section. Instruments of the
rhythm section can be a mix of any of the following: piano, electric keyboard, bass, drums, guitar,
percussion, and vibraphone. There is no standard
rhythm section instrumentation. The type of
band, style of music played, or preference of the
bandleader will determine the instrumentation of
a rhythm section.
The role of the rhythm section is to provide
the foundation for the rest of the jazz band or
ensemble. In addition to supporting the ensemble, rhythm section players often play their own
improvised solos. Simply stated, the role of each
member of the rhythm section is:
Drums: Provide a steady pulse or time,
reinforce and build upon the rhythmic
foundation of the band or soloist, and
energize the ensemble by playing fills,
set-ups, and figures. Provide contrast by
varying rhythmic feel and dynamics.
Bass: Provides the harmonic and
rhythmic foundation for the rest of
the band. Accompanies solos by
playing walking bass lines that reinforce chords for the ensemble
and soloist.
Guitar: Similar to the role
of the piano, it reinforces
and builds on the
foundation provided by the other rhythm section
players. Provides chords and color that complement and reinforce the melodic structure of the
ensemble and soloists.
Woodwind Section The most commonly used wind
instruments of jazz are the alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones. A clarinet and flute may be
used in a jazz ensemble depending on the type
and style of music. In a band of high school age
players, most students specialize on one instrument. In college and professional bands however,
musicians will “double” on any or all of the wind
instruments. In a big band, the alto and tenor
saxophones are split between parts with the first
part playing “lead” and the second part playing
harmony. The baritone saxophone also plays harmony and the bass line.
Brass Section The brass instruments used in jazz
are the trumpet and trombone. However, a tuba
or French horn may also be used depending on
the type and style of music. The trumpet and
trombone section are split up into first, second,
third, and fourth parts to create lead parts,
harmony, and bass.
Piano: Reinforces and builds on the foundations provided by the bass and drums.
Provides chords and color that compliment and reinforce the melodic structure
of the ensemble and soloists.
“Livery Stable Blues” The Original
Dixieland Jazz Band
Form in Jazz
Learning Experience:
Form is the way that musicians organize musical ideas. Form depends upon the repeti-
In “Livery Stable Blues” listen to how
tion of melodic ideas so as to serve as signposts or check points for the listener’s jour-
the steady beat of ragtime is present
ney through a song. The nursery rhyme “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” is an example of
while new instruments such as the clari-
a typical song form. The first section (Twinkle, twinkle, little star…) is played or sung, and
net, trombone, and trumpet incorporate
is referred to as the “A” section. The next section (starting with the words, “Up above
a melody that is more like the form of
the world so high”) would be called the “B” section. Then the melody of the “A” section
the blues (bent pitches, scooped notes).
returns. This is called “A-B-A” song form. An elaboration on that is “A-A-B-A”, where
the “A” section repeats before moving to the “B” section. The “B” section is sometimes
Of Significance:
called a bridge because it fills the gap between the two “A” sections. This has been a
Jazz was the dominant popular form of
common form for popular songs and is often the basis for jazz improvisation. Another
entertainment for listening and dancing
type of form is “chorus format” in which a jazz musician repeats the sections of a song
in the 1920s. Often it was performed in
form and does different things with each repeat. This “chorus format” allows the musi-
places where alcohol was served illegally
cians to utilize and feature different instruments or combinations of instruments during
during the years of prohibition.
different times while sticking to the melodic and harmonic foundations of the piece they are
playing. It is much like the floors of a skyscraper or layers of a cake.
a group of people can come together and create
art and can negotiate their agendas with each
other; and that negotiation is the art.”
—Wynton Marsalis, jazz musician
Jazz Time Line
“The real power of and innovation of jazz is that
1930s and 1940s
The dominant idiom of the 1930s
and much of the 1940s was
swing music. A large ensemble
called a “big band,” usually
consisting of 10 or more players, performed swing music
almost exclusively for dancing.
Swing is very much a musical
“feel.” Music of the big bands
reflected full ensemble playing
Jazz Ensembles and Combos
A group of musicians who play jazz can be referred to
as a jazz ensemble or combo. The number and type of
instruments used creates the specific sound or tonality the
members want and allows them to perform music with specific characteristics.
Jazz ensembles vary in the number of musicians depending on the type of band or style of music.
A “big band” can be made up of seventeen players, including as many as five saxophones, four
trumpets, four trombones, piano, bass, drums, and guitar. A jazz ensemble may be as large as
twenty-five members and may include woodwind and brass instruments, percussion, mallet instruments (xylophone, marimba, vibraphone), and vocalists.
A jazz combo refers to a smaller group of players compared to that of a big band, and usually consists of two to six players. Jazz combos may feature a variety of instrumentation, including piano,
electric keyboards, mallet instruments, bass, guitar, drums, woodwinds, and brass. A jazz combo
may also incorporate the use of instruments in the string family (violins, violas, and cellos) the
harmonica, or non-traditional instruments such as the oboe or bassoon. It is not unusual to hear a
vocalist in a jazz combo.
and did not incorporate many
opportunities for improvisation.
Radio broadcasts spread interest in big band swing music by
bringing it into peoples’ homes.
Listening Experience:
“In The Mood” Glenn Miller
Learning Experience:
The song “In The Mood” demonstrates how the
call and response form typical of early jazz in
the 1800s is still present in swing music. In this
case, the saxophone section signifies the “call”
while the brass “responds.”
Of Significance:
What is swing?
Swing is the moving force of jazz. It is its rhythmic motor. Swing happens when
there is something rhythmic taking place on every beat. A typical way to understand swing is to analyze the layers of rhythm played by the rhythm section (for
example, the drums, bass, and piano). In swing something happens on every
beat, so the drummer “rides” the cymbal by tapping out a steady swaying
rhythm while filling with other drums. The bass player plays up and down the
instrument following the chord pattern of the song or piece, also playing on nearly every beat. This technique is called “walking the bass.” Because tuba players
have to stop playing to take breaths of air and therefore cannot play on every
During World War II, black and white musicians
(as they were referred to then) enjoyed playing
together, but had to do it “after hours” because
of the segregation during that time. It was
widely believed that black musicians had the
feel for jazz music but often could not read the
notes...and that while white musicians could read
the notes, they did not have a feel for the music.
Together they shared their love and expertise for
playing jazz.
beat, tubas eventually went of style as rhythm instruments for jazz. The final
rhythm layer is the work of the piano filling in with chords and riffs that accompany or “comp” the rhythms that the other instruments play. Swing also implies
that eighth notes (notes half the length of one beat) are not played straight (or
square like is commonly found in rock), but are “swung,” that is they have a
swaying lilt that feels a little relaxed.
Jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald, when asked, “What is swing?” said,
“If you have to ask, you’ll never understand.”
Jazz Time Line
1940s - 1950s
After the performance
Bebop emerged in the
1940s in New York as
a style of jazz that contrasted greatly to the
music of the big bands.
It was a revolution and
rejection by some jazz
musicians to the restrictive
arrangements of big band
style music. Bebop featured smaller ensembles
of four to six musicians,
gave more emphasis to
the rhythm section, and
allowed more solo opportunities for the players.
The music and improvisation of the bebop era was
fast, erratic, challenging to
listen to, and, in contrast
to the music of big bands,
unsuitable for dancing.
Listening Experience:
“Salt Peanuts” Dizzy Gillespie
Learning Experience:
Listen to the speed and technical use
of notes by the musicians who play the
melody and improvise. This was a
characteristic of bebop playing which
was suitable for listening but not dancing. Notice the difference in sound of
a small band (trumpet and saxophone
with rhythm section) compared to that
of a big band of the previous era.
Of Significance:
Widespread use of electrically amplified
instruments, such as the guitar and bass,
became prevalent during the bebop era.
Learning Experiences
Music Critic: Imagine you have been hired by the local newspaper as a music critic and have been asked
to review the performance you just attended. Include the following in your review: What instruments
were used? What type of mood was created through the music? How did you respond to the music?
How did the audience respond to the music? What kind of interaction and communication (verbal
and non-verbal) took place among the musicians on stage? Did you like the performance? Why or why
not? Would you recommend your readers attend a future performance? Why or why not? (1.0 Artistic
Perception and 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing)
Research Project: Research a well known jazz
musician or composer and write about his or
her musical life. What periods of time covered
the person’s life and work? How was the person
influenced by the work of other musicians? How
did social or political events (such as Prohibition
or the Second World War) influence the person’s
work? What primary styles of music did the
person play or compose? What honors or awards
did the person receive? (3.0 Historical and
Cultural Context)
Group Discussion: Break into small groups and
discuss the jazz performance you just attended.
What kind of mood did the performers create?
How did the choice and use of instruments in the
ensemble affect the mood of the music? How did
the performers interact and communicate verbally and non-verbally during the performance?
On a scale of 1-5, with 5 being the highest, rate
the performance and explain your group’s rating.
(4.0 Aesthetic Valuing)
Music Business As A Career: Think of all the people
it takes to make a concert happen: stage crew,
musicians, business managers, lighting and sound
technicians, ticket sellers, ushers, custodians,
etc. Explain which one of these roles would best
suit your interests and why. Is the music business something that would appeal to you? Why
or why not? (5.0 Connections, Relationships,
Jazz Time Line
1940s - 1950s
Cool Jazz
Essential Jazz Listening Guide
The following is a list of specific jazz artists and recordings that had a significant impact and
influence in the idiom of jazz. For the serious jazz listeners or performers who wish to better their understanding and appreciation of jazz music, these recordings are essential to any
ArtistRecording Recording Label
At approximately the same
time as bebop, cool jazz
developed and remained
popular for several decades.
Cool jazz was subtle, moody,
and more restrained than
bebop. Cool jazz was also a
return to the carefully organized principles of swing,
without the emphasis of call
and response and riffing.
Listening Experience:
“Take Five” Dave Brubeck
Learning Experience:
Notice how the musicians prefer to play
in the middle register of the instrument,
Duke Ellington
The Duke - The Essential Collection
Complete Brunswick And Vocalion Recordings 1926-1931
Ellington Uptown
The Great Paris Concert
And His Mother Called Him Bill Ellington at Newport
Count Basie
The Complete Decca Recordings
The Essential Count Basie
Basie, Straight Ahead
Sixteen Men Swinging
Billie Holiday
The Legacy
ogy of the 78 rpm (revolutions per minute)
Coleman Hawkins
Body and Soul
RCA Bluebird
record. This meant recording time was
Dizzy Gillespie
Shaw ‘Nuff
The Complete RCA/Victor Recordings
Greatest Hits
RCA Bluebird
Charlie Parker
The Complete Savoy and Dial Studio Sessions
Bird at St. Nick’s
Now’s The Time
Thelonious Monk
Genius of Modern Music
Blue Note
change was the introduction of the long
Louis Armstrong
The Complete Hot Five and Hot Seven Recordings Satch Plays Fats
The Complete RCA Victor Recordings
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
playing record (33 1/3 rpm) This innovation
Miles Davis
The Complete Birth of the Cool
Kind of Blue
The Complete Bitches Brew Sessions
Capitol CDP
in length.
Dave Brubeck
Time Out
John Coltrane
John Coltrane: Giant Steps
Charles Mingus
Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus
Herbie Hancock
Future Shock
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Duke Ellington Songbook
utilizing a smooth articulation and simple
phrasing, which is different from the bebop
Of Significance:
The evolution of jazz has been accompanied
by the development of recording technology.
Early recordings were limited by the technol-
physically limited to between three and four
minutes in length. That’s one reason why
today’s popular songs tend to be only three
or four minutes long.
After World War II, a major technology
allowed for recordings to extend to as long
as thirty minutes per side. Today’s compact
disc (CD) can extend to 75 minutes
Jazz Time Line
1960s Free Jazz
Free jazz represented a totally new direction in jazz that
mirrored the social ferment of the 1960s. It was experimental, very dissonant, and represented freedom from
melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic restraints. Although
free jazz was praised by some of the prominent musicians of the time, it was challenging for many listeners
and not widely accepted by the public.
Listening Experience:
“Original Faubus Fables” Charles Mingus
Learning Experience:
Free jazz was quite different than anything else before. Listen to how pitch and
tone are manipulated by players on their instruments to produce squeaks, shrieks,
and wails.
Of Significance:
Rock music surpassed jazz as the popular music of the time. Rock appealed to a
younger audience and, with the advancements of the recording industry, was big business for record companies.
Recommended Jazz Internet Websites
The following websites may be used for further understanding and
recordings of jazz music:
1970s Jazz-rock
The 1970s brought renewed interest in jazz, with a revival
of many of the older, more traditional concepts. Jazz-rock,
also called fusion, combines jazz improvisation and chord
progressions with the rhythms of rock. It is generally more
electronic than acoustic, featuring synthesizer, electric
bass, electric guitar, electronically processed woodwind
and brass instruments, and enlarged percussion sections.
Listening Experience:
“What Is Hip” Tower Of Power
Learning Experience:
Notice how “What Is Hip” incorporates the feel of rock with the use of a horn section
(trumpet, trombone, saxophone). The music is upbeat, easy to listen and dance to
(similar to that of big band music of the swing era), and is modernized by electronic
instruments such as keyboards, bass, and synthesizer.
Of Significance:
Although the hard-edged sound of jazz-rock had its place in popular music, an alternative to this was smooth jazz. Smooth jazz was, as the title suggests, mellow, easy to listen
to, and somewhat soothing.
Recommended Jazz Listening Collections
The following is a list of jazz recordings and recording labels that provide a comprehensive resource of various jazz artists from each of the
different jazz eras.
Ken Burns Jazz - The Story of American Music
This Is Jazz
Essential Collections
Jazz: The Definitive Performances
Verve Jazz Master Series
Sony Music Columbia/Epic/Legacy
Arts Education at UC Davis
Robert and Margrit Mondavi
Center for the Performing Arts
The Robert and Margrit Mondavi Center
for the Performing Arts at UC Davis serves
as a resource for the campus and the region,
reinforcing the university’s status as a
comprehensive university of the first order
by raising the profile of its arts and
humanities programs to that of its top-ranked
science programs. Opened in October 2002,
Mondavi Center features the state-of-the-art,
1,800-seat Barbara K. and W. Turrentine
Jackson Hall, and the 250-seat Studio Theatre
for more intimate productions. Mondavi
Center is the largest presenter of the
performing arts in the Sacramento region,
bringing more than 70 of the world’s
greatest artists and lecturers each season.
Department of Theatre
and Dance
The Department of Theatre and Dance at
UC Davis offers undergraduate and graduate
degrees in conjunction with an aggressive
and artistically adventurous production
season. Courses and productions provide
students with consistent opportunities to
creatively engage with professional directors, designers, and choreographers. The
department, in collaboration with the
Granada Television network, is host of
the Granada Artists-in-Residence program,
which brings distinguished theater artists
from the United Kingdom to UC Davis.
A stellar faculty, state-of-the-art facilities,
and talented students make UC Davis a
leader in arts education.
In addition to the artists and speakers
presented as part of its annual Season of
Performing Arts, Mondavi Center also
hosts productions by the UC Davis Music
and Theatre and Dance departments and
other campus academic programs, as well as
those of regional arts organizations such
as the Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra.
Department of Music
The Department of Music at UC Davis
features a distinguished faculty and
accomplished visiting artists, and provides
outstanding instruction to students majoring
in music as well as more than 1,200 nonmajors each academic year. The program
includes opportunities to study and perform
music of all styles and periods, with students
majoring in music focusing on a special
interest area such as composition, analysis,
history, performance, or secondary school
teaching. All students may participate in
a wide array of performance activities,
including the University Symphony, the
University Chorus and Chamber Choir,
University Concert Band, the Early Music
Ensemble, and chamber music ensembles.
Sierra North Arts Project
The Sierra North Arts Project (SNAP)
fosters the professional development of
kindergarten through post-secondary teachers
by employing the model of teachers teaching
teachers. SNAP addresses the priorities of
The California Arts Project (TCAP) involving direct engagement with the artistic process, direct applications to classroom teaching, and the development of teacher leaders in arts education. The Sierra North Arts
Project is one of six California Arts Project
regional sites throughout the state, and it
serves a twelve-county area extending from
the Central Valley to the Lake Tahoe basin.
The goals set forth by SNAP cover four key
objectives: (1) to deepen and strengthen
teachers’ subject matter knowledge; (2) to
provide opportunities for teachers to connect with their personal creativity and to
develop connections within the arts learning community; (3) to enhance and expand
SNAP within the region and create a wide
variety of leadership opportunities for SNAP
members; and (4) to develop strategies and
techniques for translating research experiences into classroom practice.
UC Davis ArtsBridge
In response to educational funding cutbacks
and the erosion of formal arts training in the
public schools, the University of California
and the state of California have joined
forces to expand ArtsBridge, an innovative
arts outreach program that began at the
Irvine campus in 1996. ArtsBridge provides scholarships for undergraduate and
graduate arts students to work with K-12
teachers in developing arts activities that
supplement the core curriculum. The success of the program prompted lawmakers
to include a $1.5 million line item in the
1999 state budget to facilitate the expansion of ArtsBridge to all of the UC campuses. Presently UC Davis students from
the departments of Art, Theatre and Dance,
Music, and Design are active in classrooms
at several area schools, including school
districts in Woodland, Winters, and Dixon.
Mondavi Center Arts Education
Many of the artists appearing during
Mondavi Center’s season also participate
in a range of educational outreach activities
coordinated by the center’s Arts Education
Program. These activities include school
matinees, master classes, lecture demonstrations, open rehearsals, curriculum
development, and teacher training. These
outreach activities, which benefit more than
25,000 area school children, college students, educators, and community residents
every season, constitute a major commitment to arts education in the region and
underscore UC Davis’ commitment to the
artists and audiences of the future.
­ obert and Margrit Mondavi Center ­
for the Performing Arts
University of California, Davis
One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA 95616-8543
Mondavi Center expresses gratitude to
its partners at the California Arts Council
and Sierra North Arts Project, Region III
of the California Arts Project at UC Davis,
for bringing together a team of educators
to design and develop curriculum guides
for Mondavi Center’s Wells Fargo School
Matinee Series. The following individuals
participated in the development of materials for the guides:
UC Davis Coordinators
Sarah Anderberg
Director, Sierra North Arts Project
CRESS Center, School of Education
UC Davis
Linda Buettner
Coordinator, Sierra North Arts Project
CRESS Center, School of Education
UC Davis
Joanne Bookmyer, Ph.D.
Research Analyst
CRESS Center, School of Education
UC Davis
Kevin Glaser
Music Teacher
El Camino High School
San Juan Unified School District
Joe Earl
Music Teacher
C.K. McClatchy High School
Sacramento City Unified School District