Document 162219

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Manufacturing delicious imitation whipping creams
Palsgaard Technical Paper, October 2013
Over the past years imitation whipping creams have
become increasingly popular due to a number of
benefits, such as reduced fat content, better costin-use calculations and better foam stability which
makes them easy to use and hence attractive
bakers and caterers. However, producing successful
imitation whipping creams requires not only the
right fats but the right combination of emulsifiers
and stabilizers. This article explains the science
behind imitation whipped creams and the effect of
the emulsifiers and stabilizers.
By Hanne K.
Product & Application Manager, Ice
Cream and Dairy,
Palsgaard A/S.
Whipped creams
Whipped creams are widely used
for cooking in households and in
the catering sector, especially for
desserts and cake decorations.
The whipped creams may be in
the form of dairy whipping cream
or imitation whipping cream. Dairy
whipping cream with above 35%
fat is the original product; however, nowadays creams
based on vegetable fat
are commonly seen. These vegetable fat based products are called
e.g. imitation creams, non dairy
creams, topping creams or confectionary creams.
The whippability of dairy whipping
cream depends on the fat content
as well as on the fat globule structure. The fat content should be
above 35%, as dairy creams with
lower fat contents do not whip into
a stable foam. Further, the original fat globule structure should
be maintained, meaning that
the cream, in contradiction to
most other dairy products, are
not homogenised. If high shear
is applied during processing the
whippability is diminished, which
can, however, be re-established
by application of emulsifiers.
There are several advantages of
using imitation whipping cream
compared to dairy whipping
• Products with a fat content
down to 20% can be whipped
into a firm foam meaning that
healthier products may be developed
Imitation whipping creams are
less sensible to overwhipping
and consequently more flexible in use
Palsgaard Technical Paper - October 2013
Manufacturing delicious imitation whipping cream
Higher overrun can be obtained with imitation whipping cream compared to dairy
whipping cream resulting in
improved cost in use calculation
Vegetable fat is lower priced
than butterfat also resulting in
better cost in use calculation
Even though dairy proteins are
commonly used in production
of imitation whipping cream it
is possible to produce 100%
vegetable products avoiding
allergens and supporting veganism.
Production of
imitation whipping cream
Imitation whipping cream is a liquid oil in water emulsion, which is
whipped into a stable foam. The
foam is air bubbles dispersed in
the serum phase stabilized by
destabilized fat.
Imitation whipping cream normally contains vegetable fat, milk
proteins, sweeteners, water and
emulsifiers and stabilizers. The
milk protein is often sodium caseinate as whey proteins tend to
induce agglomeration in the liquid cream during storage. As the
fatty acid composition of the vegetable fat influence the viscosity
of the liquid cream as well as the
foam structure, firmness end eating properties, the manufacturer
must ensure that the fat chosen is
suitable for the application. Likewise the choice of emulsifier and
stabilizer has great importance for
the quality of the cream. Emulsifiers and stabilizers are important
in the formation of a stable liquid
emulsion and in the whipping process for formation of a stable foam
with a high overrun. This will be
described in more details below.
Imitation whipping cream is commonly produced by means of the
UHT-process as this ensures a
long shelf life of the product. With
the right choice of emulsifiers
and stabilizers the cream may be
stored at room temperature. The
design of the UHT-plant should be
downstream with 2 stage homogenisation ensuring the formation
of a stable emulsion.
The effect of emulsifiers on
imitation whipping cream
Emulsifiers are surface active ingredients due to their hydrophiliclipophilic properties. In competition with the proteins it locates
in the interface between the oil
droplets and the serum phase,
or in the case of foam, in the air
serum interface. Hereby it lowers
the interfacial tension between two
phases. Proteins and emulsifiers
also interact altering the fat globule membrane and its emulsion
stability and resistance towards
mechanical interactions. The effect
depends on the hydrophilic and lipophilic groups as well as the ionic
The main functionality of emulsifiers in imitation cream is to destabilize the fat globule membrane covering the fat globules formed during
homogenisation of the cream. During storage of the liquid cream the
proteins covering the fat globule
are displaced by emulsifiers. Hereby agglomeration and partially
coalescence of the fat globules is
facilitated. This is important for the
structure formation and air cell distribution formed during whipping.
Further emulsifiers are important for the stability of the formed
air cells i.e. the strength of the air
cell walls.
For imitation whipping cream there
is a conflict between formation of
a stable liquid emulsion with good
storage stability and an easy whippable emulsion with good foam
stability. During whipping the fat
globules needs to be broken and
release fat which then agglomerates and coats the air cells and
thereby builds a stable foam skeleton.
In production of imitation whipping
cream several types of emulsifiers
are used in combination: Lactic
acid esters of mono- and diglycerides (Lactem) improves the whippability and overrun of the product
due to it’s α-tending properties.
α-tending emulsifiers strengthen the foam skeleton due to increased fat agglomeration. Lactem
is often used in combination with
mono- and diglycerides. Monoand diglycerides are added for its
destabilizing effect on the emulsion improving the foam stiffness
and stability, an effect increasing
with increased iodine value of the
emulsifier. The combination of the
Palsgaard Technical Paper - October 2013
Manufacturing delicious imitation whipping cream
high fat content in the cream and
the fat destabilizing effect of the
added mono- and diglycerides,
leads to increased viscosity in the
cream, sometimes to an extent so
that the liquid cream is becoming
a paste which isn’t attractive for
the consumer.
This viscosity increase may be inhibited by adding the more polar
emulsifier lecithin, or an anionic
emulsifier like diacetyl tartaric acid
esters of mono- and diglycerides
(Datem) or sodium stearolyl lactylate (SSL) acting as strong oil
in water emulsifiers. They interact with proteins in the interphase
by hydrophobic and electrostatic
interactions forming an emulsifier/
protein film. Hereby the negative
net charge of the fat globules is
increased and the emulsion stability increased. The increased
emulsion stability counteracts the
whipping properties, which is why
a balance in the use of different
emulsifiers is important.
The effect of stabilizers on
imitation whipping cream
Emulsifiers are used in combination with stabilizers. Stabilizers are
hydrocolloids which bind and immobilise water. In imitation cream
stabilizers are working in water
phase improving the emulsion stability in the liquid cream, improving
25% vegetable fat
0.8% sodium caseinate
10% sugar,
1% sorbitol
0.6% stabilizer – Palsgaard®
CreamWhip 415
1% emulsifier – respectively
Palsgaard® CreamWhip 440
or Palsgaard® CreamWhip
Both of the mentioned emulsifier blends include Lactem as the
whipping agent. The cream was
produced by means of UHT. After
whipping in a Hobart whisper the
hardness was analysed in a TaXT2
texture analyzer.
From Figure 1 it can be seen that
simply by changing the composition of emulsifier it is possible
to influence the hardness of the
foam giving the hardness/softness
needed by the application or desired by the customers. This even
at the same overrun in the cream
as demonstrated in Figure 2.
Hardness of whipped imitation cream
Trial 1: Palsgaard® CreamWhip 451
Trial 2: Palsgaard® CreamWhip 440
Force [g]
At Palsgaard’s application lab in
Denmark creams were produced
according to the following composition:
Figure 1
Texture of 25% fat whipped imitation cream with 2 different emulsifiers: Palsgaard®
CreamWhip 451 and Palsgaard® CreamWhip 440.
Time [sec.]
Figure 2
Overrun of 25% fat whipped imitation cream with two different emulsifiers: Palsgaard®
CreamWhip 451 and Palsgaard® CreamWhip 440.
Trial 1: Palsgaard® CreamWhip 451
Trial 2: Palsgaard® CreamWhip 440
Overrun [%]
the foam stiffness and preventing
drainage in the whipped cream.
By combining the emulsifiers and
stabilizers in different levels imitation whipping creams with good
piping definition but different body
and mouth feel but can be produced.
Time @ Speed 3[ sec.]
From Figure 2 it is also evident that imitation creams with
Palsgaard® CreamWhip 440 and
Palsgaard®CreamWhip 451 have
a good stability against overwhipping. After the maximum overrun
is reached continuous whipping for
30 to 60 seconds won’t influence
the overrun. This is an important
parameter for employees in catering and bakeries as they are handling more tasks at the same time.
Here flexibility is a must.
Palsgaard Technical Paper - October 2013
Manufacturing delicious imitation whipping cream
In Figure 4 results of the hardness
analysed by means of the TaXT2
texture analyzer are shown and it
is evident that the measured hardness is at the same level for the
standard and high overrun solution. This opens an opportunity for
cost saving in e.g. bakeries.
Figure 3.
Comparison of overrun in 25% fat whipped imitation cream with
two different emulsifier solutions.
Trial 1: Palsgaard® CreamWhip 451
Protein free UHT imitation
whipping creams
In confectionary applications fruit
or fruit flavoured ingredients are
often mixed into the cream. If proteins are present the risk of denaturation of the proteins is present
resulting in a separated product
with texture and sensory properties which will not be accepted by
the consumers.
As the protein, when available, is
an important functional ingredient in the emulsion formation and
structure building, the types of
emulsifiers and stabilizers have to
be modified and other ingredients
added in production of protein-free
alternatives to obtain the same
overrun and stability in the liquid
cream as well as in the whipped
Time @ Speed 3[ sec.]
Figure 4.
Comparison of hardness of standard and high overrun
solution in a 25% fat whipped imitation cream.
Hardness of whipped imitation cream
Trial 1: Palsgaard® CreamWhip 451
Trial 3: Palsgaard® CreamWhip 451,PS,MDG
Force [g]
Palsgaard® CreamWhip 440 and
Palsgaard® CreamWhip 451 are
applicable in imitation creams with
protein in the water phase. However, sometimes a protein free product is requested either for nutritional or for technological reasons. As
a technological advantage talking
for protein free imitation cream it
can be mentioned that the cream
is pH stable.
Trial 3: Palsgaard® CreamWhip 451, PS, MDG
Overrun [%]
It’s important also to notice that by
changing the emulsifier composition e.g. by addition of polysorbate
(PS) or mono- and diglycerides
(MDG) it is possible to obtain the
higher overrun and still have a
good foam structure and stability –
see Figures 3 and 4.
Time [sec.]
Palsgaard is now offering a solution for protein free whipping cream
called Palsgaard® CreamWhip
453. This combined emulsifier and
stabilizer solution makes it easy
for the manufacturer to produce a
high quality protein free UHT imitation whipping cream. The emulsifier uses polyglycerol esters of fatty
acid (PGE) as the main emulsifier.
PGE is a hydrophilic emulsifier improving whippability and foam stability of emulsions.
Palsgaard Technical Paper - October 2013
Manufacturing delicious imitation whipping cream
As shown above emulsifiers and
stabilizers play a big role in creating an imitation whipping cream
with the qualities demanded by
bakers, caterers and the end consumer. Should you like to know
more about how Palsgaard can
assist you in finding the emulsifier/stabilizer combination suited
especially for your needs please
contact Product & Application
Manager Hanne K. Ludvigsen at
[email protected] or Tel: +45 7682