Document 160403

Hair shampoos
FJ. Mottram and CE. Lees
Washing the hair and scalp has become a near-universal practice. The method of
doing so varies depending on both geographic and economic factors.
Shampoos assumed importance as a product category with the advent of
synthetic detergents. These were developed in the 1930s, became widely used in
laundry markets by the mid-1940s and appeared in a shampoo format during the
1950s. Shampoos are probably the most widely used hair products today; based
on synthetic detergents they are relatively insensitive to water hardness, thus
allowing for efficient rinsing since there are no scum residues. In the early days
a shampoo could be defined as an effective cleansing agent for hair and scalp,
but today the shampoo must do much more. It must leave the hair easy to comb,
lustrous and controllable whilst being convenient and easy to use.
Requirements of a shampoo
1. To remove sebum (the secretion of the sebaceous glands) and atmospheric
pollutants from the hair and scalp.
2. To remove the residues of previously applied hair treatments, e.g. polymeric
constituents from styling lotions and hair sprays.
3. To deliver an optimum level of foam to satisfy the expectation of the user.
4. To leave the hair in a satisfactory condition after rinsing so that it can be
combed easily both in the wet and dry state.
5. To perform as a vehicle for the deposition of beneficial materials onto the
hair and scalp.
6. To be non-toxic and non-irritating to the hair and the scalp.
7. To be non-damaging to the tissues of the eye if inadvertently splashed.
Butler, H. (ed), Poucher's Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps, 10th Edn., 289-306
© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in Great Britain
Classification of shampoos
Shampoos are usually classified according to function, e.g. anti-dandruff,
medicated, 2-in-l shampoo, mild baby shampoo, basic beauty shampoo, premium
conditioning shampoo.
The original prime purpose of the shampoo is to cleanse the hair. The underlying science has been reported by Lawrence [1,2] and by Breuer [3], who recognized three basic components of hair soil:
1. Sebum, the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands.
2. Proteinaceous matter arising from the cell debris of the stratum corneum
layers of the scalp, and the protein content of sweat.
3. Atmospheric pollutants and residues from other hair-care products.
There is an extensive literature on the subject of sebum, much of it summarized
in a review by Gershbein and Barburoa [4]. They examine both the physicochemical and biological aspects of sebum. An example of the latter may be
found in a paper by Kligman and Shelley [5] which deals with the physiology of
the secretion. In order to gain an insight into the in-situ properties of sebum a
number of studies were made, most noteworthy those of Curry and Golding [6].
In the course of their investigations they reached the conclusion that the free
fatty acids of sebum may well be linked to the protein surface of hair through
calcium atoms. The same concept also emerges from the work of Koch et al. [7]
and from a consideration of the nature of detergency by Davies and Rideal [8].
Breuer [3] has studied the kinetics of the regreasing of freshly cleaned hair.
He regards a representative composition of sebum to be as in Table 9.1.
Squalene is a triterpene containing four unsaturated -C = C- bonds; its relative
molecular mass is 410 and it is the biosynthetic precursor of lanesterol. Basically
the above composition is not radically different from the artificial sebum used
by Spangler [9] for his studies of the laundering of textiles.
Among the methods used by Breuer to monitor the spreading of sebum was a
sophisticated optical technique which measured changes in hair-fibre spacing as
Table 9.1 Composition of sebum
Fatty acids (free)
Wax and wool-wax esters
Sundry hydrocarbons
% by weight
the sebum spread in a parallel assembly of hair fibres. He also established in
other experiments that the rate of sebum spreading, when the hair had been
dried in a current of hot air from an electric hair drier, was considerably greater
than when the hair had been allowed to dry at room temperature.
The process of soil removal
There are three types of soil to be dealt with. These are oily soil or sebum,
soluble soils, and insoluble particulate soils. All three types of soil require to be
wetted, thus the surface tension of the water is reduced by the shampoo surfactant allowing full contact with the soil's surface. Any soluble soil is then
removed in the aqueous medium.
Oily soil or sebum is removed by a process known as 'roll-up', i.e. the
displacement of the soil by the detergent solution.
Insoluble particulate soils tend to be removed by electrostatic repulsion
between the soil and the hair fibre assisted by repulsion between the surfactant
molecules adsorbed onto the hair fibre and those dissolved onto the soil.
Breuer also considers the rheological properties of sebum to exert a strong influence upon soil removal, and it is conceivable that the phenomenon of myelenesis
contributes to soil displacement, although less than in the case of textile laundering.
Myelenesis can be observed (through a microscope), when a layer of lipid
material, even material of low polarity such as fatty alcohols, is immersed in
water. The lipid layer develops peninsular-like processes which penetrate into
the aqueous medium. These appear to function like pipes, transporting the lipid
progressively into the bulk water phase. In that region the former surface lipid
coexists within the micelles of the detergent solution as co-micelles of detergent
and lipid. The effect is best seen when the lipid is highly polar, e.g. in the phospholipids, lecithin and cephalin. The rate at which the lipid migrates into the
aqueous phase is very temperature-dependent. Chan [10] proposes a third
mechansim which is illustrated by Fig. 9.1.
According to Chan the detergent micelles make contact with the lipid surface
for a finite time during which they take up an increment of lipid. This is assimilated to form lipid-detergent co-micelles which detach and 'float away' into the
bulk aqueous solution. It is felt that Chan may be expressing the process of
myelenesis in different terms. In Fig. 9.1 the rectangular 'core' of diagrammatic
micelles can be considered to represent the hydrocarbon domain created by
the non-polar regions of the detergent molecules; the small circles represent the
polar heads of these molecules.
Summary of cleansing
Although detergency plays an important role in the cleaning of hair with shampoo, other factors must be considered. For example, gaps exist in our knowledge
Free detergent micelle •
Lipid soil
Micelle contacts
soil surface
Co-micelle (detergent
and soil) floats away
Fig. 9.1 The Chan 'float-away' cleaning mechanism.
of the physicochemical nature of the ageing of sebum and how this is related to
its rheological properties. We would also wish to know the extent to which captured particles of soil from the atmosphere modify the fluidity of sebum. One
of the few attempts to describe the physical properties of sebum extant is that
of Bore et al. [11], who employed thermal analytical techniques (differential
thermal analysis, DTA).
It is also important to be able to apportion the individual contributions of
surface energy and surface rugosity to the rate at which hair is regreased.
Another element of fundamental information which is not currently available to
us attaches to the relative importance of tactile and visual factors in determining
the perception of cleanliness of hair.
The 'signal' to which the user responds when applying a shampoo is how
quickly it builds up lather and how copious that lather is. This tends to colour
the user's later impressions of the other performance characteristics of the
shampoo. Three well-defined stages appear to be involved: the rapidity with
which the foam is formed; the peak volume of the foam; and the consistency of
the lather. A high-consistency foam is judged as being 'creamy'. It is not surprising, therefore, that the shampoo formulator needs to be able to measure the
important foaming properties, even though the fundamental properties of a
foam, e.g. interfacial tension and film modulus, do not form a reliable guide to
the performance of the shampoo in practice. One version of a technique by Ross
and Miles [12] to measure foaming properties is outlined below.
A standard volume of shampoo solution is transferred to a tap-funnel. The
solution in the funnel is run in a standard time into a large measuring cylinder
which already contains a set volume of the solution, or merely the dilution
water. The result of the stream of solution from the funnel impacting on the liquid in the cylinder is to generate a foam, the volume of which can be read
directly. The procedure can be modified; for example, the cylinder may contain
a suitable quantity of sebum-treated hair, or the gravity feed from the tap-funnel
can be replaced by a pump.
The Ross-Miles method, like some other methods for quantifying foam,
usually ranks the foaming of shampoos in the same order as human judges do
(users, panellists and hairdressers), but not invariably. Other methods of quantifying shampoo foaming capacity utilize propeller stirring or air injection to
generate foam but are, in general, less reliable.
The quantification of the consistency of foam (creaminess) by in-vitro laboratory techniques is less well provided for than the measurement of foam volume.
However, an innovation by Hart and Degeorge [13] offers some promise. The
principle of the method is that a high-consistency foam will take considerably
longer to flow out via the stem (broad) of a powder funnel than a foam which is
thin and dubbed as non-creamy.
An ideal laboratory method for predicting the foaming power of shampoos
would closely simulate the practical shampooing process. It would ensure that
the foam was generated in a way similar to its formation on the head of the user.
Similarly, the composition of the system in which the experimental foam is produced would be as similar as possible to that of the hairdressing situation in
terms of materials present (hair, sebum, detergent, water). The temperature and
humidity profile would also be modelled upon that met with in hairdressing
practice. Perhaps the most important simulation would be that of the mechanics
and dynamics of foam generation. Lather production in practical shampooing is
not by cascading water, mechanical stirring or gas injection. It is in fact
achieved by a process of compressing and shearing hair when it is saturated with
shampoo solution. The foam produced by compression and shear is then modified by the practice of separating by finger action a particular mass of hair fibres
and shampoo solution into smaller 'swatches' before recombining them. The
engineering problems of designing a machine to meet the requirements
described above are formidable, but not insurmountable.
A shampoo is basically a solution of a detergent modified by additives to render
it easier to apply and to safeguard against deterioration of the hair condition
after the shampoo has been rinsed away. The following list classifies the materials of shampoo formulation; the subdivisions are not, however, mutually exclusive, e.g. viscosity modifiers can sometimes be used to stabilize or boost the
foam and some opacifying agents can also improve foam quality. Likewise,
amphoteric wetting agents can be used as the main detergent for specialist
shampoos. They are also valued as hair-conditioning agents.
Main detergents
Foam boosters and stabilizers
Viscosity modifiers, including hydrocolloids and electrolytes
Special additives for hair condition
Special additives for scalp health, including antidandruff additives
Sequestering agents.
Main detergents
These are classified according to the way in which they ionize.
Class 1: Anionics
(a) Alkyl sulfates. Alkyl sulfates are produced by reacting a fatty alcohol with
either chlorosulfonic acid or sulfur trioxide:
Fatty +
Acid ester+Hydrochloric
Acid ester+Sodium hydroxide
Sodium alkyl sulfate
R = Alkyl radical between C6 and C18
The acid ester formed requires neutralization to prevent it splitting to the original fatty alcohol and sulfuric acid. Sodium hydroxide, triethanolamine, monoethanolamine, ammonia and magnesium carbonate are commonly used bases.
The carbon chain length of the original fatty alcohol affects solubility, foaming, detergency, and irritation potential of the resulting alkyl sulfate.
(b) Alkyl ether sulfates. The manufacturing process for alkyl ether sulfates is
similar to that for alkyl sulfates, but an ethoxylated fatty alcohol is used. The
choice of base for neutralization is the same. The number of molecules of ethylene
oxide in the resulting alkyl ether sulfate will affect foam, viscosity and mildness:
Ethoxylated fatty+ Chlorosulfonic
Acid ester+Hydrochloric acid
Acid ester+ Sodium hydroxide
Sodium alkyl ether sulfate
n = 1 to 6 molecules of ethylene oxide
(c) Sulfosuccinic acid mono and di-esters (sulfosuccinates). The mono-esters
are very mild, with good foaming and detergent properties. The di-esters are
superior for their wetting properties. Since they are sensitive to hydrolysis and
are difficult to structure they tend to be used in conjunction with alkyl ether sulfates to produce mild shampoos.
(d) Isothionates, taurides and sarcosinates. These are materials that have other
interesting properties for the shampoo formulator, other than foam potential and
detergency. Isothionates are exceptionally mild to skin and eyes, and are particularly tolerant to hard water.
Donaldson and Messenger [14] have reported on the shampoo performance of
both alkyl sulfates and alkyl ether sulfates.
Class 2: Nonionics
Materials in this class are not usually the major ingredient of a shampoo. They
are important, however, as co-surfactants, rheology modifiers and solubilizers
for insoluble components such as fragrance oils.
(a) Fatty acid alkanolamides. These are formed by reacting a fatty acid with
an alkanolamine, usually monoethanolamine or diethanolamine, to produce the
corresponding alkanolamide:
The major use is to modify rheology and to control foam consistency and quantity. They have largely been superceded by amphoterics in modern formulations.
(b) Fatty amine oxides. These are obtained by reacting a tertiary amine with
hydrogen peroxide. They have similar uses to the fatty acid alkanolamides.
(c) Alkylpolyglucosides. These are formed by condensing fatty alcohols with
starch. The ratio of starch to fatty alcohol can be varied such that foam properties
and detergency can be controlled. It should be noted that when these materials
are based on natural fatty acid the whole molecule is derived from natural, renewable sources. They have low toxicity, low irritation and are readily biodegradable.
Class 3: Amphoterics
These are defined as having both anionic and cationic charges in the hydrophilic
head. The negative group is usually carboxylic and the positive group amino.
In alkaline solutions the anionic function predominates whilst in acidic solutions the cationic function predominates. The isoelectric point lies between the
two extremes at a position where the two charges are equal. The molecule at
this point is called a zwitterion, and does not behave as a surfactant. Raising or
lowering the pH allows the molecule to regain its surfactant properties.
Amphoterics are compatible with all classes of surfactants. In combination
with anionics, beneficial effects on foam and viscosity can be demonstrated and
there is also a synergistic effect on mildness.
(a) Imidazoline derivatives. The more commonly used dimidazoline derivatives are cocoamphocarboxyglycinate and cocoamphoacetate. They have a very
low irritation potential and are utilized in baby or other mild shampoo systems.
(b) Alkylamidobetaines and alkylbetaines. These materials are used as cosurfactants. They have the ability to modify rheology and foam character, whilst
conferring mildness through their synergistic effects.
Class 4: Cationics
The surfactants in this group are normally incompatible with anionics, and,
therefore, are unlikely to be used in shampoo systems.
Shampoo additives
(a) Thickeners
Sodium chloride is a suitable additive for a large number of formulae, achieving
functionality by modifying the micelle structure. However, where a sulfosuccinate has been used as a primary detergent, polyethylene glycol diesters are
much more effective.
Hydrocolloids such as polyvinyl alcohol or cellulose derivatives can also be
utilized, although incorporation of a cellulosic derivative requires care.
Glucose esters can create difficulties with their rheological profile, but do
enrich the foam characteristics and reduce irritation.
(b) Pearlizers and opacifiers
Opacifying materials give the shampoo a creamy appearance which appeals to
consumers with dry or damaged hair. A pearlized effect can be created by glycol
distearate, but this requires a hot process and inconsistencies are inevitable. It is
more usual to use prepared pearl concentrates.
Latex opacifiers do not have the sparkle of the pearlizers, but are used to
obtain a flat opaque appearance.
(c) Preservatives
A wide variety of preservatives exist. Liquid preservatives may be easier
to incorporate, but choice is governed by challenge testing and stability of the
formulation. Kumanova [15] has reviewed these test methods in relation to
The isothiazolinones or parabens are frequently used, but it must be emphasized that reference should be made to the regulatory status for permitted
(d) pH modifiers
The isoionoic point for the hair fibre lies between pH 5.6 and 6.2. It is advisable
to balance the pH of the formulation to within this range. Citric acid is typically
used to achieve this.
Functional additives
Functional additives are those which promote good condition of the hair. Hair in
good condition is easy to comb both in wet and dry state. The dried hair should
be free from 'flyaway', and be lustrous and manageable.
As specific hair needs are better understood, ingredients can be tailored to
deliver specific attributes. It is however incumbent on the formulator to substantiate the desired product claims, and to ensure that patents are not infringed.
Listed below are some of the newer materials found in shampoos:
Silicone additives
Proteins and amino acids
Glutamic acid derivatives.
(a) Water-soluble polyquaterniums: mechanics of deposition from solution
This topic has been investigated by Goddard and co-workers [16,17], mainly for
Polyquaternium 10. Surface tension versus surfactant concentration measurements were obtained in the presence and in the absence of 0.1 % of the cationic
Polyquaternium 10. This procedure was repeated for several surfactants. For
some combinations of Polyquaternium 10 and surfactant there was a considerable lowering of the surface tension at the lower surfactant concentrations. For
the rest there was no real change from the plot for the surfactant alone. Table 9.2
summarizes the results, which are illustrated in Fig. 9.2. It can be seen that a
reduction in surface tension occurs only when an anionic surfactant is used in
association with Polyquaternium 10. No change in surface tension is measured
when an anionic detergent is tested with a nonionic, neutral polymer substituted
for Polyquaternium 10.
'Change' infers a strong interaction between the anionic surfactant and the
cationic polymer. Visual examination reveals a pattern of precipitation near the
critical micelle concentration (the inflection point in curves shown in Fig. 9.2).
It is reasonable to assume that the maximum precipitation occurs at ratios
of polymer to surfactant at which the polymer charge is balanced by that of the
surfactant, compliant with the expression:
( P S ^ + S-tPSi+l) 1 1 - 1 - 1
?n+ l + nS -PS"
where: n = positive charges
S = surfactant
P = polymer
Finally, as the surfactant is increased the precipitate is redissolved. The technique is useful in screening additive-detergent systems for their propensity to
deposit a complex which is potentially beneficial in a shampoo formulation.
Having identified a case where a useful level of precipitation occurs, the next
step is to determine how substantive (to hair) the precipitated material is.
Goddard and Harris [18], using ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical
analysis) determined the relative deposition of several cationic polymers. They
also measured the substantivity of the deposits. It was established that certain
cellulose-based cationics gave a high level of deposition but that it was fairly
easily washed away by a dilute detergent solution. This would have the virtue
for a product of avoiding the troublesome build-up of an active ingredient, i.e.
one resisting removal by several shampooings.
(b) Silicone additives
The following are representative of silicone additives: dimethicone copolyols;
block copolymers of dimethyl siloxane and ethylene oxide; and amodimethicones which contain an active amino group.
Table 9.2 Effect of the ionicity of surfactant and polymer upon
surface tension reduction
Polyquaternium 10
Sodium lauryl sulfate
Sodium alkyl aryl sulfate
Sodium laurate
C14 betaine derivative
^, Change; x , no change.
surfactant + polymer
No interaction
Surface tension (dynes/cm)
Detergent concentration (mol/l)
t p c
Detergent concentration (mol/l)
Fig. 9.2 Surface tension versus concentration plots can reveal association between surfactant (detergent) and polymer. Appearance: c, clear; t, turbid; p, precipitates.
Alexander [19] reports that silicone surfactants such as the dimethicone
copolyols, when incorporated into shampoo formulations, greatly improve
combing and antistatic properties at surprisingly low concentrations, 0.1-0.5%.
Alexander also described another novel series of silicones, the amino-functional
amodimethicones which, surprisingly, have good compatibility with anionic
vehicles. Amodimethicones impart much the same benefits to hair as the dimethicone copolymers but have as an added feature a very good substantivity to its
surface. This is not totally unexpected as the functional amino group is capable
of forming an amine salt linkage with the free carboxyl groups of the hair surface; rather in the manner that the carboxyl groups of certain hairspray polymers
are neutralized by treatment with amino alcohols. Starch [20] has described how
the substantivity of the amodimethicones has been demonstrated using ESCA
(c) Proteins and amino acids
In recent years the trend has been towards vegetable-derived materials such as
those obtained from wheat, soya, maize or almond. All proteins are composed of
amino acids, but the composition varies from protein to protein and this has a
major bearing in performance on a substrate such as hair. It has been shown that
protein derivatives can influence the mechanical properties of hair fibre, with
beneficial effect. To do this there must be penetration into the cortex or some
indirect effect on the cortex. The ability to do this will vary depending on size of
molecule and charge. Gamez-Garcia [21] has reported on the use of hydrolysed
wheat protein containing wheat oligosaccharides.
Quaternization of the protein or amino acid reduces the ability to penetrate into
the hair fibre, but increases the substantivity to the cuticle.
(d) Ceramides
Hussler et al. [22] have determined that the ceramide fractions present in a free
form in human hair constitute about 0.01% of total hair weight. Their purpose
is to bind the cuticle cells to the cortex and perform a 'barrier' function as a cell
membrane complex in association with a proteinaceous matrix. The ceramide
or lipid fraction is sensitive to chemical and physical attack such that extreme
damage can lead to the cell membrane complex vanishing from the cuticle.
Natural ceramides have a specific stereochemical configuration and show
optical activity. This structure is essential for functionality. The common
denominator for ceramides is that all contain a sphingoid base in amide linkage
with nonhydroxy, alpha-hydroxy or omega-hydroxy acids.
Synthetic ceramides have the ability to deposit on damaged hair locating in
minute amounts in the cuticle layer. Increased protection against UV and visible
radiation and limitation of the loss of water-soluble polypeptides are observable
The phytosphingosine base linked with a nonhydroxy acid (ceramide 3) may
have more benefit in restoring the hair to its natural balance than other classes of
ceramides, which have restorative benefits on the skin.
(e) Panthenol
This is the provitamin of pantothenic acid or vitamin B5. Vitamin B5 is essential
for normal hair growth and it has been found that use of panthenol in hair preparations can deliver vitamin B5 to the hair through its oxidation to the acid.
Panthenol has also been shown to improve body and texture of hair together
with a moisturizing capability.
(f) Glutamic acid
Glutamic acid derivatives are the subject of a Unilever Patent [231. Research
has shown that these derivatives are a source of hair growth energy and that
significant linear growth stimulation can be obtained. Penetration enhancers can
potentiate the benefit by enhanced delivery to the area of hair follicle in closest
proximity to the dermal papilla, where the energy demand is greatest.
Three agents associated with the treatment of scalp disorders have the following
chemical structures. Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) was the first scientifically based
organic therapeutic agent to offer alleviation of the scalp disorder known as
dandruff. Dandruff manifests itself as the detachment of flakes of scalp skin.
Almost contemporary with ZPT was another antidandruff agent, piroctone
olamine (PO). Structurally it has little in common with ZPT except the presence
of a pyridine ring. The relative and absolute effectiveness in shampoos of both
lrgasan DP300
Ciba Geigy
Counter ion
PO and ZPT was tested by Kligman et al. [24]. Their work established that both
were effective, but that PO was marginally and consistently superior. Futterer
[25] has largely confirmed the earlier work. He has used both shampoos and
cream rinses as vehicles for the antidandruff agents. From a manufacturer's point
of view shampoos are the most acceptable vehicle for an antidandruff treatment.
Futterer found that reductions in dandruff level of the order of 68% could be
achieved for ZPT treatments but, under the same conditions, 82% when PO was
the biologically active agent. The statistical significance of this difference in performance corresponds to p<0.05. He also experimented with different concentrations of the biologically active materials and found that 0.5% PO gave only a
marginally different antidandruff performance to 0.75% ZPT. The lower concentration of PO needed for the desired result makes it preferable to the formulator.
Bore and Goetz [26], like Breuer [3], are interested in the physical and chemical
properties of sebum. They have compared the properties of healthy and seborrhoeic sebum and identified very large differences which are summarized in Table
9.3. The sebum samples were removed by a shampoo of the following constituents:
Sodium lauryl sulphate
Betaine derivative
Lactic acid
to 100.00
Relative to most other personal-care products the preparation of shampoos is
uncomplicated and straightforward. Nevertheless, extreme care at the development stage of the formulation is necessary to ensure that the long-term stability,
microbiological integrity and regulatory compliance concerning consumer
safety and consumer acceptability have been addressed. Shampoo preparation
does, however, have some specific problems.
Shampoo preparation
Care must be exercised with regard to the solubility of various components.
Stability tests can be made which will determine whether deactivation of functional additives through interaction between components is taking place.
Table 9.3 Properties of healthy and sebborhoeic sebum
% Squalene
Iodine number
Palmitic/oleic acids^
Viscosity proportional to
Somewhat more
*For the same extraction procedure.
Ratio of saturated to unsaturated acids.
Example I
A typically straightforward case where functional ingredients are inert towards
the other components.
1. The main detergent, foam booster, the hair functional additive and water are
mixed together with gentle stirring to minimize frothing.
2. Citric acid is added carefully to the above mixture to adjust the pH to within
the limits 5.6-6.2.
3. A consistency adjuster, say Af-alkyl betaine, is added to the pH-adjusted
blend with more vigorous stirring until the desired viscosity is attained.
Example II
Where some of the components are difficult to solubilize.
1. Dissolve the main detergent in the water.
2. Add the foam 'booster' to the above with stirring, and materials such as
opacifiers and functional ingredients which present problems of dispersion.
3. Adjust the pH with citric acid to 5.6-6.2.
4. Adjust the viscosity with electrolyte additive (sodium chloride).
Example III
Where heat is needed to obtain solution.
1. Mix by propeller stirring the functional ingredient and the foam booster.
2. Using the same mixing regime add the main detergent to half the formulation
3. Add the mixture obtained in step (2) to that of step (1).
4. Separately use heat to disperse any difflcult-to-dissolve ingredient in the
remainder of the water.
5. Add the product of step (4) to that of step (3).
6. Adjust the pH of the product to 5.6-6.2 by means of adding citric acid.
Usually, with ingredients of the above solubility characteristics, no upwards
adjustment of viscosity is needed.
Note that Examples I and III represent clear shampoos and Example II is an
opaque product.
The major difference between the basic shampoo formulae is the level of surfactant used.
The Frequent Wash formula
This is intended for daily use and has the lowest active concentration because
the sebum level on the hair must be balanced. Too high an active concentration
would remove the sebum in total with gross detrimental effect to the hair. The
normal shampoo is designed for use every 3 or 4 days and has a correspondingly higher surfactant concentration.
Frequent use
% w/w
Normal shampoo
to pH 6.0
to 100.00
to pH 6.0
to 100.00
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (70%A)
Cocamidopropyl Betaine (30%A)
Tetrasodium EDTA
Citric Acid
Sodium Chloride
Water (deionized); Aqua (INCI)
Conditioning shampoos
These have grown considerably in importance in recent years. The newer formulations claim to wash and condition in one operation, leaving the hair easy to
comb, lustrous and soft. Formulations of this type are complex, utilizing materials such as silicones and polyquaterniums. A great deal of care has to be taken
to ensure that build-up on the hair is not excessive, and that silicone can be
released on to the hair at the appropriate moment during rinsing.
2 in 1 Conditioning shampoo
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (70%A)
Cocamidopropyl Betaine (30%A)
PEG 3 Distearate
Polyquaternium 7
Dimethicone Copolyol
Tetrasodium EDTA
Citric Acid
Sodium Chloride
Water (deionized); Aqua (INCI)
to pH 6.0
to 100.00
Premium shampoos
These claim to thicken, balance or add volume to the hair and have also appeared
in recent years. They utilize somewhat higher surfactant levels and contain a
variety of conditioning and moisturizing ingredients, e.g. modified silicones,
wheat proteins, panthenol and natural extracts.
Premium shampoo
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (70%A)
Cocamidopropyl Betaine (30%A)
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Glycol Distearate and
Cocamide MEA
Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride
Tetrasodium EDTA
Citric acid
Water (deionized); Aqua (INCI)
% w/w
to pH 6.0
to 100.00
Antidandruff shampoos
These are designed to alleviate dandruff, a scalp disorder which manifests itself
as scaly flakes of scalp skin. There are various root causes for this complaint
ranging from straightforward scalp irritations to eczema and seborrhoeic dermatitis. Zinc pyrithione was the first scientifically based organic therapeutic
agent to offer alleviation of dandruff. Whilst being very effective in use, and
substantive to hair and scalp, it is extremely irritant and has the disadvantage of
being insoluble in water. More recently pyroctone olamine has been developed,
a less irritant material which does have good aqueous solubility, thus enabling
the development of clear antidandruff formulae.
Clear antidandruff shampoo
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (70%A)
Cocamidopropyl Betaine (30%A)
Piroctone Olamine
Polyquaternium 7
Citric Acid
Sodium Chloride
Water (deionized); Aqua (INCI)
% w/w
to pH 6.0
to 100.00
Triclosan tends to be utilized in medicated shampoos where antimicrobial
activity is desirable, but specific claims for dandruff alleviation are not made.
Baby shampoos
These require extreme care in formulating where low irritancy is the major need.
Use of a nonionic detergent such as polysorbate 20 can be recommended here. It
does not contribute to the foaming capacity significantly but does reduce the
irritancy potential of the selected anionic. The balance between polysorbate 20
and PEG 600 distearate also controls viscosity.
Baby shampoo
% w/w
Magnesium Laureth Sulfate (27.5%A)
Cocamidopropyl Betaine (30%A)
Polysorbate 20
PEG 600 Distearate
Citric Acid
Water (deionized); Aqua (INCI)
to pH 6.0
to 100.00
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