Document 159936

Stabilization of ph of Corn Syrup
For Hard Candy
By B, R. Suri,
Grain Processing Corporation*
ard candy is a solid syrup of sugar, corn syrup,
acid, color and flavor to form a non-crystalline
glass. Basically, a hard candy is a solid syrup of sugars
with or without corn syrup having a solids content of
98 to 99.5 percent, dissolved in 0.5 to 2.0 percent water,
color, flavor and acid.
Hard candy has a wide range. The basic ingredients are sugar, corn syrup, a food acid, flavor and color.
Remarkable strides have been made in the technology involving hard candy manufacturing.
and a
review of these developments is both timely and
valuable. Ingredient
suppliers, especially manufacturers of corn syrup and other corn products, have
done a great deal of work during the past few years in
the area of hard candies. As a result, a lot can now be
done to improve the quality and shelf life of hard
candy varieties.
Today, the manufacture of hard candy is a highly
complex, scientific operation. It involves the use of
new types of sweeteners, flavors, production equipment, wrapping materials ,and wrapping and packaging machines.
Good hard candy cannot be produced without an
understanding of the nature of the ingredients and
their chemical reactivity. Pure sugar, depending on
how well refined it may be, contains less than 0.1 percent of ash, protein, invert sugars and moisture. Protein and invert sugar or reducing sugars may react in
the browning or Maillard reaction. This reaction is
very useful in toffee and caramels, but in hard candy,
we try to avoid it. Thus, it is important to have low
protein sugars.
Ash and protein tend to stimulate foaming of boiled
sugar solutions. Therefore, both must be low.
Iron imparts color. M.B. Sherman first suggested
that iron content should not exceed 3 ppm. Thus, the
purity of sucrose will affect the quality of hard candy.
Second and third melt sugar will carry higher reducing sugars and shoud be avoided.
In the area of sweeteners, corn syrup has now replaced sugar as the basic ingredient. Most hard candy
0Mr. Suri is now Mana er, CommercialProducts,
Penick & Ford Limite%, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
formulations now call for a larger percentage of corn
syrup than sugar and a few consist of 100 percent
corn syrup. The corn refiners have done some very
important work in this area; creating, developing and
perfecting an important list of new types of syrups,
some especially adaptable for various types of hard
Corn sgrups are used in hard candies to ( 1 ) Control and limit crystallization. (2) Control the sweetening level. (3) Add body and bulk, (4) Reduce cost. (5)
Extend shelf life. (6) Give sheen.
Regular corn syrup 42 DE 43° Baume is commonly
used. However, a low DE corn syrup 34° to 38° DE
is replacing regular 42 DE corn syrup, as the finished
product using it is less sticky and has better shelf life.
The ratio of sucrose to com syrup solids determines
the reducing sugars in the final product. The temperature and humidity to which the product is subjected
in the retail store where bought by the customer have
an effect upon the reducing sugar.
Too much reducing sugars will cause runny, sticky
candies, whereas too little will not inhibit graining.
Hard candy has a moisture content of 1.5 to 2 percent.
The loss or gain of moisture during storage is the most
important factor in the deterioration of candy. The
amount of reducing sugars will help regulate moisture
loss or gain through humectant activity. It has been
established that the optimum percent of reducing
sugars with which the finished candy will be in moisture equilibrium with prevailing relative humidities
is from 14 to 18 percent. The reducing sugar in hard
candy should be 14 to 18 percent. Most of the reducing
sugar is supplied by the corn syrup and the rest obtained by the inversion of sucrose. Some corn syrups
cause more inversion than others.
Wider ranges of higher maltose corn syrups are adding to the versatility of corn syrup in hard candy use
and other goods. The y have reversed the trend indicated several years ago toward a greater diversification into many specialized syrups. The single type may
point the way to an ideal syrup, one which has optimum properties for all types of candies through its
adaptability. It can be converted to the equivalent of
high DE syrup by adding dextrose.
2 1st P. M.C.A.