England - PC Hospital

This article is about the country. For other uses, see Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through
England (disambiguation).
another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State
England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ is a country that is part of the seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter
being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
United Kingdom.[2][3][4] It shares land borders with
Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Northern Ireland.
Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to
the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
1 Toponymy
to the south. The country covers much of the central and
southern part of the island of Great Britain, which lies in
the North Atlantic; and includes over 100 smaller islands See also: Toponymy of England
such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.
The name “England” is derived from the Old English
name Englaland, which means “land of the Angles".[11]
The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled
in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel
area of the Baltic Sea.[12] According to the Oxford English
Dictionary, the first known use of “England” to refer to
the southern part of the island of Great Britain occurs in
897, and its modern spelling was first used in 1538.[13]
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but
takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic
tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and
since the Age of Discovery, which began during the
15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal
impact on the wider world.[5] The English language,
the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for
the common law legal systems of many other countries
around the world – developed in England, and the country’s parliamentary system of government has been widely
adopted by other nations.[6] The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into
the world’s first industrialised nation.[7]
The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in
the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the
Latin word Anglii is used.[14] The etymology of the tribal
name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested
that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula,
an angular shape.[15] How and why a term derived from
the name of a tribe that was less significant than others,
such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related
to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain
Angli Saxones or English Saxons.[16] In Scottish Gaelic,
another language which developed on the island of Great
Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for
England (Sasunn);[17] similarly, the Welsh name for the
English language is "Saesneg".
England’s terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains,
especially in central and southern England. However,
there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales)
and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the
Cotswolds). The capital of England is London, which is
the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and
the largest urban zone in the European Union by most
measures.[nb 1] The population of over 53 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom,
largely concentrated around London, the South East, and
conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North
East and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.[8]
An alternative name for England is Albion. The name
Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great
Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo:[18] “Beyond the Pillars of Hercules
is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two
very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and
Ierne".[18][19] But modern scholar consensus ascribes De
Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it
was written later in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion (Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum
has two possible origins. It either derives from a cognate
The Kingdom of England – which after 1284 included
Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May
1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms
agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to
create the Kingdom of Great Britain.[9][10] In 1801, Great
of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white
cliffs of Dover, the only part of Britain visible from the
European Continent,[20] or from the phrase the “island of
the Albiones[21] in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, that is
attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima[22] to which the
former presumably served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity.[23] Another
romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the
Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by
its use in Arthurian legend.
It was during this time that major Neolithic monuments
such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. By
heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze,
and later iron from iron ores. The development of iron
smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs, advancing agriculture (for instance, with Celtic fields), as
well as the production of more effective weapons.[30]
Main article: History of England
Prehistory and antiquity
Main article: Prehistoric Britain
The earliest known evidence of human presence in the
Boudica led an uprising against the Roman Empire
Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The
oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date
from 500,000 years ago.[24] Modern humans are known
to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic
period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years.[25][26] After the last ice
age only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and
woolly rhinoceros remained. Roughly 11,000 years ago,
when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated
the area; genetic research suggests they came from the
northern part of the Iberian Peninsula.[27] The sea level
was lower than now and Britain was connected by land
bridge to Ireland and Eurasia.[28] As the seas rose, it was
separated from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two millennia later.
During the Iron Age, Celtic culture, deriving from the
Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, arrived from Central
Europe. Brythonic was the spoken language during
this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy's
Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not
literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire,
Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans.
Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade
twice in 55 BC; although largely unsuccessful, he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes.
The Romans invaded Britain in AD 43 during the
reign of Emperor Claudius, subsequently conquering
much of Britain, and the area was incorporated into
the Roman Empire as Britannia province.[31] The bestknown of the native tribes who attempted to resist were
the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus. Later, an uprising led by Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, ended with
Boudica’s suicide following her defeat at the Battle
of Watling Street.[32] This era saw a Greco-Roman
The Beaker culture arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing culture prevail with the introduction of Roman law,
drinking and food vessels constructed from clay, as well Roman architecture, sewage systems, many agricultural
as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores.[29] items and silk.[33][34][35] In the 3rd century, Emperor
Middle Ages
Septimius Severus died at Eboracum (now York), where Their advance was contained for some decades after the
Constantine was subsequently proclaimed emperor.[36]
Britons’ victory at the Battle of Mount Badon, but subThere is debate about when Christianity was first intro- sequently resumed, over-running the fertile lowlands of
duced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably Britain and reducing the area under Brythonic control to
much earlier. According to Bede, missionaries were sent a series of separate enclaves in the more rugged counfrom Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chief- try to the west by the end of the 6th century. Contemtain Lucius of Britain in AD 180, to settle differences porary texts describing this period are extremely scarce,
as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were dis- giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of
turbing the church. There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Ari- Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement. Roman-dominated Christianity had in general dismathea, while others claim through Lucius of Britain.[37]
By 410, during the Decline of the Roman Empire, Britain appeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine
was left exposed by the End of Roman rule in Britain
Disputes between the Romanand the withdrawal of Roman army units, to defend from 597 onwards.
of Christianity ended in victhe frontiers in continental Europe and partake in civil
at the Council of Whitby
wars. Celtic Christian monastic and missionary move(664),
haircuts and the date
ments flourished: Patrick (5th-century Ireland) and in
the differences
the 6th century Brendan (Clonfert), Comgall (Bangor),
theology, and
David (Wales), Aiden (Lindisfarne) and Columba (Iona).
This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient
Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local “congregations” were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church (see Early Christian
Christianity, Brendan Lehane, Constable, London: John
Murray Ltd., 1968).
During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous
tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial
evidence of the situation again becomes available, these
had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including
Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Kent
and Sussex. Over the following centuries this process
of political consolidation continued.[40] The 7th century
saw a struggle for hegemony between Northumbria and
Mercia, which in the 8th century gave way to Mercian
2.2 Middle Ages
preeminence.[41] In the early 9th century Mercia was displaced as the foremost kingdom by Wessex. Later in that
Main article: England in the Middle Ages
Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the
conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only
surviving English kingdom, and under his successors it
steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the
Danelaw. This brought about the political unification of
England, first accomplished under Æthelstan in 927 and
definitively established after further conflicts by Eadred
in 953. A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the
late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united
kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his
son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the centre of a shortlived North Sea empire that also included Denmark and
Norway. However the native royal dynasty was restored
with the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1042.
Replica of a 7th-century ceremonial helmet from the Kingdom of
East Anglia, found at Sutton Hoo
by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Angles, Saxons and Jutes who
had long raided the coasts of the Roman province and began to settle, initially in the eastern part of the country.[38]
A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the
Norman conquest of England in 1066, accomplished by
an army led by Duke William of Normandy.[42] The
Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and
had settled in Normandy in the late 9th and early 10th
centuries.[43] This conquest led to the almost total dispossession of the English elite and its replacement by a new
French-speaking aristocracy, whose speech had a profound and permanent effect on the English language.[44]
King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt, fought on Saint Crispin’s
Day and concluded with an English victory against a larger
French army in the Hundred Years’ War.
Subsequently the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine.[45] They
reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being
Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V.[45] The
period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the
signing of the Magna Carta, an English legal charter used
to limit the sovereign’s powers by law and protect the
privileges of freemen. Catholic monasticism flourished,
providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford King Henry VIII became Supreme Head of the Church of England
and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. The
Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during
the 13th century[46] and the Lordship of Ireland was given
of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were
to the English monarchy by the Pope.
more political than theological.[nb 2] He also legally inDuring the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House corporated his ancestral land Wales into the Kingdom of
of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to England with the 1535–1542 acts. There were internal
the House of Capet and with it France; the two pow- religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry’s daughters,
ers clashed in the Hundred Years’ War.[47] The Black Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back
Death epidemic hit England; starting in 1348, it eventu- to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forceally killed up to half of England’s inhabitants.[48][49] From fully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.
1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of
Competing with Spain, the first English colony in the
the royal family—the Yorkists and Lancastrians—known
Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Walter
as the Wars of the Roses.[50] Eventually it led to the YorkRaleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke
ists losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the
colony failed and is known as the lost colony, after it
Tudors, a branch of the Lancastrians headed by Henry
was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving
Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries,
supply ship.[56] With the East India Company, England
gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the
also competed with the Dutch and French in the East. In
Yorkist king Richard III was killed.[51]
1588, during the Elizabethan period, an English fleet under Francis Drake defeated an invading Spanish Armada.
The political structure of the island changed in 1603,
2.3 Early Modern
when the King of Scots, James VI, a kingdom which was
a longtime rival to English interests, inherited the throne
During the Tudor period, the Renaissance reached Eng- of England as James I — creating a personal union .[57][58]
land through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artis- He styled himself King of Great Britain, although this had
tic, educational and scholarly debate from classical no basis in English law.[59] Under the auspices of King
antiquity.[52] England began to develop naval skills, and James VI and I the Authorized King James Version of the
exploration to the West intensified.[53][54]
Holy Bible was published in 1611. It has not only been
Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic ranked with Shakespeare's works as the greatest masterChurch, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts piece of literature in the English language but also was
of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the monarch the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant
head of the Church of England. In contrast with much Christians for four hundred years, until modern revisions
Late Modern and contemporary
were produced in the 20th century.
In 1666 the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards[64] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren. In
Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and
Whigs. Though the Tories initially supported Catholic
king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs, deposed him in the Revolution of 1688 and invited Dutch
prince William of Orange to become William III. Some
English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites
and continued to support James and his sons. After the
parliaments of England and Scotland agreed,[65] the two
countries joined in political union, to create the Kingdom
of Great Britain in 1707.[57] To accommodate the union,
institutions such as the law and national churches of each
remained separate.[66]
2.4 Late Modern and contemporary
The English Restoration restored the monarchy under King
Charles II and peace after the English Civil War.
Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the
supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles
I, known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively. This was an interwoven part of the wider
multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms, involving
Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament
forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653; a period of personal rule followed.[60] After
Cromwell’s death and the resignation of his son Richard
as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as
monarch in 1660, in a move called the Restoration. It
was now constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would
have the real power. This was established with the Bill of
Rights in 1689. Among the statutes set down were that
the law could only be made by Parliament and could not
be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of
Parliament.[61] Also since that time, no British monarch
has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting,
which is annually commemorated at the State Opening
of Parliament by the British monarch when the doors
of the House of Commons are slammed in the face of
the monarch’s messenger, symbolising the rights of Parliament and it’s independence from the monarch.[62][63]
With the founding of the Royal Society in 1660, science
was greatly encouraged.
Cotton mills in Manchester, the world’s “first industrial city” about
Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives
combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous
growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal
Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British
Empire. Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution, a period of profound change in the socioeconomic
and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining,
as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.[68]
The opening of Northwest England’s Bridgewater Canal
in 1761 ushered in the canal age in Britain.[69][70] In 1825
the world’s first permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railway—the Stockton and Darlington Railway—
opened to the public.[69]
During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved
from England’s countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance
at Manchester and Birmingham, dubbed “Warehouse
City” and “Workshop of the World” respectively.[71][72]
England maintained relative stability throughout the
French Revolution; William Pitt the Younger was British
Prime Minister for the reign of George III. During the
The Cenotaph, Whitehall, is a memorial to members of the British
Armed Forces who died during the two World Wars.
Saltaire, West Yorkshire, is a model mill town from the Industrial
Revolution, and a World Heritage Site.
by the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in
1948. The UK’s NHS provided publicly funded health
care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of
need, being paid for from general taxation. Combined,
Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon planned to invade from the
these changes prompted the reform of local government
south-east. However this failed to manifest and the
in England in the mid-20th century.[78][79]
Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by
Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington. The Since the 20th century there has been significant populaNapoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a tion movement to England, mostly from other parts of the
united national British people, shared with the Scots and British Isles, but also from the Commonwealth, particularly the Indian subcontinent.[80] Since the 1970s there
has been a large move away from manufacturing and an
London became the largest and most populous metropoliincreasing emphasis on the service industry.[81] As part
tan area in the world during the Victorian era, and trade
of the United Kingdom, the area joined a common marwithin the British Empire—as well as the standing of the
ket initiative called the European Economic Community
British military and navy—was prestigious.
which became the European Union. Since the late 20th
agitation at home from radicals such as the Chartists and
century the administration of the United Kingdom has
the suffragettes enabled legislative reform and universal
moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales
Power shifts in east-central Europe led to
and Northern Ireland.[82] England and Wales continues
World War I; hundreds of thousands of English solto exist as a jurisdiction within the United Kingdom.[83]
diers died fighting for the United Kingdom as part of
Devolution has stimulated a greater emphasis on a more
the Allies.[nb 3] Two decades later, in World War II, the
English-specific identity and patriotism.[84][85] There is
United Kingdom was again one of the Allies. At the
no devolved English government, but an attempt to create
end of the Phoney War, Winston Churchill became the
a similar system on a sub-regional basis was rejected by
wartime Prime Minister. Developments in warfare techreferendum.[86]
nology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the
Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced
rapid decolonisation, and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary
means of transport and Frank Whittle's development of
the jet engine led to wider air travel.[77] Residential pat- 3 Governance
terns were altered in England by private motoring, and
Main article: Politics of England
As part of the United Kingdom, the basic polit-
Changing of the Queen’s Guard at the royal residence,
Buckingham Palace
Since devolution, in which other countries of the United
Kingdom—Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland—each
have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for loThe Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the cal issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England. Originally it was planned that variUnited Kingdom
ous regions of England would be devolved, but following
ical system in England is a constitutional monarchy the proposal’s rejection by the North East in a referenand parliamentary system.[87] There has not been a dum, this has not been carried out.[86]
Government of England since 1707, when the Acts of
One major issue is the West Lothian question, in which
Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty
MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legof Union, joined England and Scotland to form the
islation affecting only England, while English MPs have
Kingdom of Great Britain.[65] Before the union England
no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.[93]
was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England.
This when placed in the context of England being the only
Today England is governed directly by the Parliament
country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer
of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the
treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the elderly
United Kingdom have devolved governments.[88] In the
and free top-up university fees,[94] has led to a steady rise
House of Commons which is the lower house of the
in English nationalism.[95] Some have suggested the creBritish Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster,
ation of a devolved English parliament,[96] while others
there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for conhave proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which
stituencies in England, out of the 650 total.[89]
only affects England to English MPs.[97]
In the United Kingdom general election, 2010 the
Conservative Party had won an absolute majority in England’s 532 contested seats with 61 seats more than all 3.2 Law
other parties combined (the Speaker of the House not
being counted as a Conservative). However, taking Scot- Main article: English law
land, Northern Ireland and Wales into account this was The English law legal system, developed over the cennot enough to secure an overall majority, resulting in a
hung parliament.[90] In order to achieve a majority the
Conservative party, headed by David Cameron, entered
into a coalition agreement with the third largest party,
the Liberal Democrats, led by Nick Clegg. Subsequently
the Labour Party leader, Gordon Brown was forced to
step down as prime minister[91] and leader of the Labour
party, now led by Ed Miliband.
As the United Kingdom is a member of the European
Union, there are elections held regionally in England to
decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament. The 2009 European Parliament election saw the regions of England elect the following MEPs: 23 Conservatives, ten Labour, nine UK Independence Party (UKIP),
nine Liberal Democrats, two Greens and two British NaThe Royal Courts of Justice
tional Party (BNP).[92]
turies, is the basis of common law[98] legal systems
used in most Commonwealth countries[99] and the United
States (except Louisiana). Despite now being part of the
United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union, as
a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.
The general essence of English law is that it is made by
judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and
knowledge of legal precedent—stare decisis—to the facts
before them.[100]
The court system is headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the
High Court of Justice for civil cases, and the Crown Court
for criminal cases.[101] The Supreme Court of the United
Kingdom is the highest court for criminal and civil cases
in England and Wales. It was created in 2009 after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the
House of Lords.[102] A decision of the Supreme Court is
binding on every other court in the hierarchy, which must
follow its directions.[103]
Crime increased between 1981 and 1995, but fell by 42%
in the period 1995–2006.[104] The prison population doubled over the same period, giving it the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000.[105]
Her Majesty’s Prison Service, reporting to the Ministry
of Justice, manages most prisons, housing over 85,000
3.3 Regions, counties, and districts
Main article: Subdivisions of England
See also: Regions of England, Counties of England and
Districts of England
East Riding
of Yorkshire
Not shown: City of London
Tyne &
North Yorkshire
Isle of
The ceremonial counties
in 2010, and their functions transferred to respective
Regional Development Agencies and a new system of
local authority leaders’ boards.[108]
Below the regional level, all of England is divided into
48 ceremonial counties.[109] These are used primarily
as a geographical frame of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages, with some established as recently as 1974.[110] Each has a Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff; these posts are used to represent the British monarch locally.[109] Outside Greater
London and the Isles of Scilly, England is also divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; these correspond to areas used for the purposes of
local government[111] and may consist of a single district
or be divided into several.
There are six metropolitan counties based on the most
heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county
councils.[111] In these areas the principal authorities are
the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan boroughs. Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan “shire” counties
have a county council and are divided into districts, each
with a district council. They are typically, though not
always, found in more rural areas. The remaining nonmetropolitan counties are of a single district and usually
correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities. Greater London has a different system for local government, with
32 London boroughs, plus the City of London covering
a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.[112] At the most localised level, much
of England is divided into civil parishes with councils;
they do not exist in Greater London.[113]
The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of
subnational division controlled through a variety of types 4 Geography
of administrative entities created for the purposes of local
government. The highest tier of local government were Main article: Geography of England
the nine regions of England: North East, North West,
Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and London. These
were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the 4.1 Landscape and rivers
British Government to deliver a wide range of policies
and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in 2011 the regional Government offices were abolished.[107] The same
boundaries remain in use for electing Members of the European Parliament on a regional basis.
After devolution began to take place in other parts of
the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for
the regions of England would take place for their own
elected regional assemblies as a counterweight. London
accepted in 1998: the London Assembly was created two
years later. However, when the proposal was rejected by
the northern England devolution referendums, 2004 in
the North East, further referendums were cancelled.[86]
The regional assemblies outside London were abolished
Skiddaw massif, seen from Walla Crag in the Lake District
Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such
offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of
Scilly. It is bordered by two other countries of the United
Kingdom—to the north by Scotland and to the west by
Wales. England is closer to the European continent than
any other part of mainland Britain. It is separated from 4.2 Climate
France by a 21-mile (34 km)[114] sea gap, though the
two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel near Main article: Climate of England
Folkestone.[115] England also has shores on the Irish Sea,
North Sea and Atlantic Ocean.
England has a temperate maritime climate: it is mild
The ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle lie on the with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F)
tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne respectively. At in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in
220 miles (350 km), the Severn is the longest river flow- summer.[122] The weather is damp relatively frequently
ing through England.[116] It empties into the Bristol Chan- and is changeable. The coldest months are January and
nel and is notable for its Severn Bore tidal waves, which February, the latter particularly on the English coast,
can reach 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height.[117] However, the while July is normally the warmest month. Months with
longest river entirely in England is the Thames, which is mild to warm weather are May, June, September and
215 miles (346 km) in length.[118] There are many lakes October.[122] Rainfall is spread fairly evenly throughout
in England; the largest is Windermere, within the aptly the year.
named Lake District.[119]
Important influences on the climate of England are its
proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and
the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.[122] Rainfall is
higher in the west, and parts of the Lake District receive
more rain than anywhere else in the country.[122] Since
weather records began, the highest temperature recorded
was 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on 10 August 2003 at Brogdale
in Kent,[123] while the lowest was −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) on
10 January 1982 in Edgmond, Shropshire.[124]
4.3 Major conurbations
See also: List of places in England
The Greater London Urban Area is by far the largest urban area in England[126] and one of the busiest cities in
the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom
besides England itself.[126] Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England
In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the “back- or the English Midlands.[126] There are fifty settlements
bone of England”, are the oldest range of mountains in which have been designated city status in England, while
the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic the wider United Kingdom has sixty-six.
Era around 300 million years ago.[120] Their geological composition includes, among others, sandstone and While many cities in England are quite large in size,
limestone, and also coal. There are karst landscapes in such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool,
calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham and others, a
prerequisite for a setThe Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland ar- large population is not necessarily a[127]
Traditionally the
eas, indented by fertile valleys of the region’s rivers.
cathedrals and
They contain three national parks, the Yorkshire Dales,
Ripon, Truro
Northumberland, and the Peak District. The highest
for National
point in England, at 978 metres (3,209 ft), is Scafell Pike
urban areas
in Cumbria.
Straddling the border between England
and Scotland are the Cheviot Hills.
Terrain of Dartmoor, Devon
The English Lowlands are to the south of the Pennines,
consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold
Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs—where 5 Economy
they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such
as the cliffs of Dover. The granite Southwest Peninsula Main article: Economy of England
in the West Country includes upland moorland, such as England’s economy is one of the largest in the world,
Dartmoor and Exmoor, and enjoys a mild climate; both with an average GDP per capita of £22,907.[130] Usuare national parks.[121]
ally regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted
nificant industry, attracting millions of visitors to England each year. The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, cars (although many English
marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover,
Lotus, Jaguar and Bentley), crude oil and petroleum from
the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm,
aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.[139]
The City of London is the world’s largest financial centre[128][129]
Most of the UK’s £20 billion aerospace industry is primarily based in England. The wings for the Airbus A380
and the Airbus A350 XWB are designed and manufactured at Airbus UK’s world-leading facility in Broughton.
GKN Aerospace – an expert in metallic and composite
aerostructures is involved in almost every civil and military fixed and rotary wing aircraft in production is based
in Redditch.[140]
many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced
social welfare infrastructure.[131] The official currency in
England is the pound sterling, whose ISO 4217 code
is GBP. Taxation in England is quite competitive when
compared to much of the rest of Europe – as of 2014 the
basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to
£31,865 above the personal tax-free allowance (normally BAE Systems makes large sections of the Typhoon Eu£10,000), and 40% on any additional earnings above that rofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Salmesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton plant, near
Preston. It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35
The economy of England is the largest part of the UK’s
Joint Strike Fighter - the world’s largest single defence
economy,[130] which has the 18th highest GDP PPP
project - for which it designs and manufactures a range of
per capita in the world. England is a leader in the
components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horichemical[133] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key techzontal tail and wing tips and fuel system. As well as this
nical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms indusit manufactures the Hawk, the world’s most successful jet
try, and the manufacturing side of the software industry.
training aircraft.[140]
London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the United
Kingdom’s main stock exchange and the largest in Eu- Rolls-Royce PLC is the world’s second-largest aerorope, is England’s financial centre—100 of Europe’s 500 engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30
largest corporations are based in London.[134] London is types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30,000 enthe largest financial centre in Europe, and as of 2014 is gines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors. With a workforce of over 12,000 peothe second largest in the world.[135][136]
ple, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce
employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces lowemission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and
gas industry.[140][141]
The Bentley Mulsanne. Bentley is a well-known English car company.
The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by Scottish
banker William Paterson, is the United Kingdom’s central
bank. Originally established as private banker to the Government of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned
institution.[137] The Bank has a monopoly on the issue of
banknotes in England and Wales, although not in other
parts of the United Kingdom. The government has devolved responsibility to the Bank’s Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country
and setting interest rates.[138]
England is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there
has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing
industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service
industry oriented economy.[81] Tourism has become a sig-
Much of the UK’s space industry is centred on EADS
Astrium, based in Stevenage and Portsmouth. The company builds the buses – the underlying structure onto
which the payload and propulsion systems are built –
for most of the European Space Agency’s spacecraft,
as well as commercial satellites. The world leader in
compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites, is also part
of Astrium.[140] Reaction Engines Limited, the company
planning to build Skylon, a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane using their SABRE rocket engine, a combinedcycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system is based
Agriculture is intensive and highly mechanised, producing 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour
force.[142] Two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the other to arable crops.[143]
Science and technology
the wars of mankind since the beginning of recorded
Main articles: List of English inventions and discoveries
Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the
and Royal Society
jet engine, the first industrial spinning machine, the first
Prominent English figures from the field of science and
computer and the first modern computer, the World Wide
Web along with HTML, the first successful human blood
transfusion, the motorised vacuum cleaner,[151] the lawn
mower, the seat belt, the hovercraft, the electric motor,
steam engines, and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory. Newton developed
the ideas of universal gravitation, Newtonian mechanics,
and calculus, and Robert Hooke his eponymously named
law of elasticity. Other inventions include the iron plate
railway, the thermosiphon, tarmac, the rubber band, the
mousetrap, “cat’s eye” road marker, joint development of
the light bulb, steam locomotives, the modern seed drill
and many modern techniques and technologies used in
precision engineering.[152]
5.2 Transport
Main article: Transport in England
The Department for Transport is the government body
Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most influential figures in the
history of science
mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle, Joseph Priestley, J.
J. Thomson, Charles Babbage, Charles Darwin, Stephen
Hawking, Christopher Wren, Alan Turing, Francis Crick,
Joseph Lister, Tim Berners-Lee, Paul Dirac, Andrew
Wiles and Richard Dawkins. Some experts claim that
the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by
John Wilkins, the first secretary of the Royal Society, in
As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many significant inventors during
the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best
known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport
and modern-day engineering.[145] Thomas Newcomen's
steam engine helped spawn the Industrial Revolution.[146]
The Father of Railways, George Stephenson, built the first
public inter-city railway line in the world, the Liverpool
and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830. With
his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam
engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton (business partner of James Watt) is regarded as
one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.[147]
The physician Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine is said
to have “saved more lives ... than were lost in all
London Heathrow Airport has more international passenger traffic than any other airport in the world.[153]
responsible for overseeing transport in England. There
are many motorways in England, and many other trunk
roads, such as the A1 Great North Road, which runs
through eastern England from London to Newcastle[154]
(much of this section is motorway) and onward to the
Scottish border. The longest motorway in England is the
M6, from Rugby through the North West up to the AngloScottish border.[154] Other major routes include: the M1
from London to Leeds, the M25 which encircles London,
the M60 which encircles Manchester, the M4 from London to South Wales, the M62 from Liverpool via Manchester to East Yorkshire, and the M5 from Birmingham to
Bristol and the South West.[154]
Bus transport across the country is widespread; major
companies include National Express, Arriva and GoAhead Group. The red double-decker buses in London
have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid rail
network in two English cities: the London Underground;
and the Tyne and Wear Metro in Newcastle, Gateshead
and Sunderland.[155] There are several tram networks,
such as the Blackpool tramway, Manchester Metrolink, cluding National Insurance payments,[160] and it provides
Sheffield Supertram and Midland Metro, and the Tram- most of its services free at the point of use, although there
link system centred on Croydon in South London.[155]
are charges for some people for eye tests, dental care, pre[161]
Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: pas- scriptions and aspects of personal care.
senger railways originated in England in 1825.[156] Much
of Britain’s 10,000 miles (16,000 km) of rail network
lies in England, covering the country fairly extensively,
although a high proportion of railway lines were closed
in the second half of the 20th century. There are plans
to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford
and Cambridge. These lines are mostly standard gauge
(single, double or quadruple track) though there are also
a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access
to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the
Channel Tunnel, which was completed in 1994.
England has extensive domestic and international aviation links. The largest airport is London Heathrow,
which is the world’s busiest airport measured by number of international passengers.[157] Other large airports
include Manchester Airport, London Stansted Airport,
Luton Airport and Birmingham Airport.[153] By sea there
is ferry transport, both local and international, including to Ireland, the Netherlands and Belgium.[158] There
are around 4,400 miles (7,100 km) of navigable waterways in England, half of which is owned by the Canal
and River Trust,[158] however water transport is very limited. The Thames is the major waterway in England, with
imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the
Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom’s three major ports.[158]
The government department responsible for the NHS is
the Department of Health, headed by the Secretary of
State for Health, who sits in the British Cabinet. Most
of the expenditure of the Department of Health is spent
on the NHS—£98.6 billion was spent in 2008–2009.[162]
In recent years the private sector has been increasingly
used to provide more NHS services despite opposition by
doctors and trade unions.[163] The average life expectancy
of people in England is 77.5 years for males and 81.7
years for females, the highest of the four countries of the
United Kingdom.[164]
7 Demographics
7.1 Population
Main articles: Demographics of England, English people,
English diaspora and List of urban areas in the United
With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the
Main article: Healthcare in England
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly
Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, an NHS hospital
funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country. The
NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946. It was
based on the findings of the Beveridge Report, prepared
by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.[159]
The NHS is largely funded from general taxation in-
The metropolitan, non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population
most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total.[8][165] England taken
as a unit and measured against international states has
the fourth largest population in the European Union and
would be the 25th largest country by population in the
world.[166] With a density of 407 people per square kilo-
cent lived in urban areas.[186] By 1801 the population had
grown to 8.3 million, and by 1901 had grown to 30.5
million.[187] Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic
migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom.[169]
There has been significant Irish migration.[188] The proportion of ethnically European residents totals at 87.50%,
including Germans[189] and Poles.[169]
S Tyneside
County Durham
East Riding of Yorkshire
gs Hull
Kin on
100 000
1 000 000
Sto rent
Isle of Anglesey
The Vale of Glamorgan
and Hove
Isle of Wight
Population of England and Wales by administrative areas. Their
size is approximately in proportion to their population. The
darker colour the bigger is the real area.
Other people from much further afield in the former
British colonies have arrived since the 1950s: in particular, 6% of people living in England have family origins
in the Indian subcontinent, mostly India, Pakistan and
Bangladesh.[169][189] 2.90% of the population are black,
from both the Caribbean and countries in Africa itself,
especially former British colonies.[169][189] There is a significant number of Chinese and British Chinese.[169][189]
In 2007, 22% of primary school children in England were
from ethnic minority families,[190] and in 2011 that figure
was 26.5%.[191] About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration.[192] Debate over immigration is politically prominent;[193] according to a 2009 Home Office poll, 80% of people want
to cap it.[194] The ONS has projected that the population
will grow by six million between 2004 and 2029.[195]
metre, it would be the second most densely populated
country in the European Union after Malta.[167][168]
The English people are a British people.[169] Some ge- Main articles: English language, English language in Engnetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the pa- land and History of the English language
ternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken
from the Iberian Peninsula, as well as a 5% contribution
from Angles and Saxons, and a significant Scandinavian
(Viking) element.[170][171][172] However, other geneticists
place the Germanic estimate up to half.[173][174][175] Over
time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric,
Brythonic,[176] Roman, Anglo-Saxon,[177] Viking(North
Germanic),[178] Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans. There is an English diaspora
in former parts of the British Empire; especially the
United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New
Zealand.[nb 4] Since the late 1990s, many English people
have migrated to Spain.[183][184]
The English-speaking world. Countries in dark blue have a majority of native speakers. Countries in light blue have English as
an official language, de jure or de facto. English is also one of
the official languages of the European Union.[196]
by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the
principal tongue today. It is an Indo-European language
in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family.[197]
After the Norman conquest, the Old English language
was displaced and confined to the lower social classes as
Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy.
2009 estimates of ethnic groups in England[185]
By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among
all classes, though much changed; the Middle English
In 1086, when the Domesday Book was compiled, Eng- form showed many signs of French influence, both in
land had a population of two million. About ten per vocabulary and spelling. During the English Renais-
sance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek
origins.[198] Modern English has extended this custom of
flexibility, when it comes to incorporating words from
different languages. Thanks in large part to the British
Empire, the English language is the world’s unofficial
lingua franca.[199]
widely practised religion in England, as it has been since
the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced
much earlier in Gaelic and Roman times. This Celtic
Church was gradually joined to the Catholic hierarchy
following the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led
by St Augustine. The established church of the realm is
which left communion with Rome in
English language learning and teaching is an impor- Anglicanism,
VIII was unable to annul his dithe
tant economic activity, and includes language schooling,
vorce to the aunt of the king of Spain. The religion retourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation
mandating an official language for England,[200] but En- gards itself as both Catholic and Reformed.
glish is the only language used for official business. De- There are High Church and Low Church traditions, and
spite the country’s relatively small size, there are many some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics,
distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly following the Tractarian movement. The monarch of
strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor of the
in the country.
church, which has around 26 million baptised members
Cornish, which died out as a community language in (of whom the vast majority are not regular churchgothe 18th century, is being revived,[201][202][203] and is ers). It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the
of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldnow protected under the European Charter for Regional Archbishop[213]
Many cathedrals and parish churches are
or Minority Languages.
It is spoken by 0.1% of
of significant architectural importance,
people in Cornwall,
and is taught to some degree
Abbey, York Minster, Durham
in several primary and secondary schools.
schools teach students a second language, usually French,
German or Spanish.[208] Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke
a foreign language at home,[190] the most common being
Punjabi and Urdu.[209] However, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics, figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in
England after English.[210]
Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury
The 2nd-largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of
the Catholic Church. Since its reintroduction after the
Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are
4.5 million members (most of whom are English).[214]
There has been one Pope from England to date, Adrian
IV; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors
of the Church.
A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third
largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism
through John Wesley.[215] It gained popularity in the mill
towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall.[216] There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists,
Unitarians and The Salvation Army.[217]
The patron saint of England is Saint George; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in
the Union Flag as part of a combination.[218][218] There
are many other English and associated saints; some of
the best-known are: Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid,
Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas
More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas
Becket. There are non-Christian religions practised.
Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since
1070.[219] They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in
Main articles: Religion in England and History of Especially since the 1950s, religions from the former
British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immiChristianity in England
gration. Islam is the most common of these, now accounting for around 5% of the population in England.[220]
According to the 2011 census, 59.4% of the population
Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are next in number,
is Christian, 24.7% non-religious, 5% is Muslim while
adding up to 2.8% combined,[220] introduced from India
3.7% of the population belongs to other religions and
and South East Asia.[220]
7.2 did not give an answer.[211] Christianity is the most
The frontage of Warwick School, one of the oldest independent
schools in England
ment responsible for issues affecting people in England
up to the age of 19, including education.[221] State-run
and state-funded schools are attended by approximately
93% of English schoolchildren.[222] Of these, a minority
are faith schools (primarily Church of England or Roman
Catholic schools). Children who are between the ages
of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation
Stage reception unit within a primary school. Children
between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and
secondary school is attended by those aged between 11
and 16. After finishing compulsory education, students
take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges (particularly sixth form colleges) often form
part of a secondary school site. A-level examinations are
sat by a large number of further education students, and
often form the basis of an application to university.
Although most English secondary schools are
comprehensive, in some areas there are selective
intake grammar schools, to which entrance is subject to
passing the eleven plus exam. Around 7.2% of English
schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded
by private sources.[223] Standards in state schools are
monitored by the Office for Standards in Education,
and in private schools by the Independent Schools
Higher education students normally attend university
from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic
degree. There are over 90 universities in England, all but
one of which are public institutions. The Department for
Business, Innovation and Skills is the government departSaint George, the patron saint of England
ment responsible for higher education in England.[225]
Students are generally entitled to student loans to cover
the cost of tuition fees and living costs.[nb 5] The first de8 Education
gree offered to undergraduates is the Bachelor’s degree,
which usually takes three years to complete. Students are
Main articles: Education in England and List of univer- then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which
sities in England
usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes
The Department for Education is the government depart- three or more years.
King’s College, University of Cambridge
England’s universities include some of the highest-ranked
universities in the world; Cambridge University, Imperial
College London, Oxford University and University College London are all ranked in the global top 10 in the 2010
QS World University Rankings.[226] The London School of
Economics has been described as the world’s leading social science institution for both teaching and research.[227]
The London Business School is considered one of the
world’s leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA
programme was ranked best in the world by the Financial
Times.[228] Academic degrees in England are usually split
A red telephone box in front of St Paul’s Cathedral, one of the
into classes: first class (1st), upper second class (2:1), most important buildings of the English Baroque period
lower second class (2:2), third (3rd), and unclassified.
The King’s School, Canterbury and King’s School,
Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking
world.[229] Many of England’s most well-known schools,
such as Winchester College, Eton, St Paul’s School,
Harrow School and Rugby School are fee-paying
served example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset.[232]
Early Medieval architecture’s secular buildings were
simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch
for roofing. Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from
a synthesis of Hiberno—Saxon monasticism,[233][234] to
Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by
9 Culture
pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. After the Norman conquest in
Main articles: Culture of England and English Renais- 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords
could uphold their authority and in the north to protect
from invasion. Some of the best-known medieval castles
are the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle.[235]
Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected
during the prehistoric period, amongst the best-known
are Stonehenge, Devil’s Arrows, Rudston Monolith and
Castlerigg.[231] With the introduction of Ancient Roman
architecture there was a development of basilicas, baths,
amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples,
Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts.[232]
It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns
such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian’s Wall stretching right across northern England.[232] Another well pre-
Throughout the Plantagenet era an English Gothic architecture flourished—the medieval cathedrals such as
Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York
Minster are prime examples.[235] Expanding on the
Norman base there was also castles, palaces, great houses,
universities and parish churches. Medieval architecture
was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style; the
four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a
defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of
architecture echoing classical antiquity, synthesised with
Christianity appeared—the English Baroque style, archi-
Bodiam Castle is a 14th-century moated castle near
Robertsbridge in East Sussex
tect Christopher Wren was particularly championed.[236]
Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style,
evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent
at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the
emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a
Gothic Revival was launched—in addition to this around
the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way
for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. Since the
1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential Robin Hood illustrated in 1912 wearing Lincoln green
places.[nb 6]
Main article: English folklore
English folklore developed over many centuries. Some
of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common
folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen,
trolls, goblins and dwarves. While many legends and
folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the
tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith,[238]
others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin
Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles
with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best The Morris dance, an English folk dance
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore—the Arthurian
myth.[240][241][242] These were derived from AngloNorman, French and Welsh sources,[241] featuring King
Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of
the Round Table such as Lancelot. These stories are
most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.[nb 7] Another early
figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been
based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of
the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider
Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore.
cal people whose story has been passed down centuries;
Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked
on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake
was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated
with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.[244] On 5 November people
make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in
commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot
centred on Guy Fawkes. The chivalrous bandit, such as
Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is
the archetypal pirate. There are various national and reSome folk figures are based on semi or actual histori- gional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as
Visual arts
Morris dancing, Maypole dancing, Rapper sword in the
North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers
Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling
at Cooper’s Hill.[245] There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly
Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal
Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters.[246]
chicken or pork) served with assorted vegetables,
Yorkshire pudding, and gravy.[250] Other prominent
meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast
(generally consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes,
fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, mushrooms, and
eggs). Various meat pies are consumed such as steak and
kidney pie, steak and ale pie, cottage pie, pork pie (the
latter usually eaten cold)[250] and the Cornish Pasty.
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash
or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well known
stew in the northwest. Some of the more popular cheeses
Main article: English cuisine
are Cheddar, Red Leicester and Wensleydale together
Since the early modern period the food of England
with Blue Stilton. Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes,
curries, have been created such as chicken tikka masala
and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple
pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick - all generally served
with custard; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.
Sweet pastries include scones (either plain or containing
dried fruit) served with jam and/or cream, dried fruit
loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide
range of sweet or spiced biscuits. Common drinks include
tea, whose popularity was increased by Catherine of Braganza,[251] whilst frequently consumed alcoholic drinks
include wines, ciders and English beers, such as bitter,
mild, stout, and brown ale.[252]
Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England
9.4 Visual arts
has historically been characterised by its simplicity of
approach and a reliance on the high quality of natu- Main articles: English art and Arts Council England
ral produce.[247] During the Middle Ages and through The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock
the Renaissance period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the
Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land
and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The cuisine
of England has, however, recently undergone a revival,
which has been recognised by the food critics with some
good ratings in Restaurant's best restaurant in the world
charts.[248] An early book of English recipes is the Forme
of Cury from the royal court of Richard II.[249]
The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse in the PreRaphaelite style
and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire,
Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further
south, for example at Creswell Crags.[253] With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms
of art utilising statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were
Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages the norm. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such
as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough.[254] During the
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday Early Middle Ages the style favoured sculpted crosses and
roast, featuring a roasted joint (usually beef, lamb, ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery,
demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs
such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009.
Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as
the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter.[255] Later
Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury,
examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold
and Luttrell Psalter.[256]
The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court,
portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of
English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.[256] Under the
Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the
Flemish, examples from the period include—Anthony
van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson.[256] The 18th century was a time of significance with
the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on
the High Renaissance prevailed—Thomas Gainsborough
and Joshua Reynolds became two of England’s most treasured artists.[256]
The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood with their
vivid and detailed style revived the Early Renaissance
style—Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John
Everett Millais were leaders.[256] Prominent amongst
20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the
voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism
in general.[257] Contemporary painters include Lucian
Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008
set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living
Literature, poetry and philosophy
Main article: English literature
Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin.[259]
The period of Old English literature provided the epic
poem Beowulf and the secular prose of the AngloSaxon Chronicle,[260] along with Christian writings such
as Judith, Cædmon’s Hymn and hagiographies.[259] Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the
educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature.
Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey
Chaucer, author of The Canterbury Tales, along with
Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. William of
Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans,
were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. Julian
of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love,
was a prominent Christian mystic. With the English
Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style
appeared. William Shakespeare, whose works include
Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer
Night’s Dream, remains one of the most championed
authors in English literature.[261]
Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher,
best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales.
Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism
and materialism, including scientific method and
social contract.[262] Filmer wrote on the Divine Right
of Kings. Marvell was the best-known poet of the
Commonwealth,[263] while John Milton authored
Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth
of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demiparadise; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This
blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England.
William Shakespeare.[264]
Some of the most prominent philosophers of the
Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel
Johnson and Jeremy Bentham. More radical elements
were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded
as the founder of conservatism.[265] The poet Alexander
Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The
English played a significant role in romanticism: Samuel
Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William
Wordsworth were major figures.[266]
In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William
Cobbett, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main
exponents, while the founder of guild socialism, Arthur
Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Syd- Penty, and cooperative movement advocate G. D. H. Cole
ney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are are somewhat related.[267] Empiricism continued through
other established authors of the Elizabethan age.[262] John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard
Museums, libraries, and galleries
Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around
the Victorian era include Charles Dickens, the Brontë
sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling,
Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells and Lewis Carroll.[268] Since
then England has continued to produce novelists such
as George Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, C.
S. Lewis, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie,
Terry Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling.[269]
German-born George Frideric Handel became a British
subject[276] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah, Water Music, and Music for
the Royal Fireworks. One of his four Coronation Anthems, Zadok the Priest, composed for the coronation
of George II, has been performed at every subsequent
British coronation, traditionally during the sovereign’s
anointing. There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the 20th century led by Edward
9.6 Performing arts
Elgar, Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Gustav Holst,
Ralph Vaughan Williams and others.[277] Present-day
Main articles: Folk music of England and Music of the composers from England include Michael Nyman, best
United Kingdom
known for The Piano, and Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose
musicals have achieved enormous worldwide success.[278]
The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and
has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea
shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own
distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn
de Worde printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th
century are an important artefact, as are John Playford's
The Dancing Master and Robert Harley’s Roxburghe
Ballads collections.[270] Some of the best-known songs
are Greensleeves, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie
May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. Many nursery
rhymes are of English origin such as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Roses are red, Jack and Jill, London Bridge Is
Falling Down, The Grand Old Duke of York, Hey Diddle Diddle and Humpty Dumpty.[271] Traditional English
Christmas carols include "We Wish You a Merry Christmas", "The First Noel" and "God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen".[272]
In the field of popular music, many English bands and solo
artists have been cited as the most influential and bestselling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles,
Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones are among the highest selling
recording artists in the world.[279] Many musical genres
have origins in (or strong associations with) England, such
as British invasion, progressive rock, hard rock, Mod,
glam rock, heavy metal, Britpop, indie rock, gothic rock,
shoegazing, acid house, garage, trip hop, drum and bass
and dubstep.[280]
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn
are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, and the
Reading and Leeds Festivals. The most prominent opera
house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent
Garden.[281] The Proms - a season of orchestral classical
concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall in London - is a
major cultural event in the English calendar, and takes
place yearly.[281] The Royal Ballet is one of the world’s
foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built
on two prominent figures of 20th-century dance, prima
ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick
9.7 Museums, libraries, and galleries
Further information: List of museums in England
English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad
The Beatles are the most commercially successful and critically
acclaimed band in the history of music, with sales of over one
The Natural History Museum in London
Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, fol- remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and enlowed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period. vironments of England. It is currently sponsored by
the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The
charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest
or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. 17 of the
25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites
fall within England.[282] Some of the best-known of
these are: Hadrian’s Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and
Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast,
Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others.[283]
There are many museums in England, but perhaps the
most notable is London’s British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects[284] is one of the
largest and most comprehensive in the world,[285] sourced
from every continent, illustrating and documenting the
story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
The British Library in London is the national library and
is one of the world’s largest research libraries, holding
over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books.[286] The most
senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar
Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900.[287] The
Tate galleries house the national collections of British and
international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.[288]
Stadium, played against Scotland in the first ever international football match in 1872.[292] Referred to as the
“home of football” by FIFA, England hosted the 1966
FIFA World Cup, and won the tournament by defeating
West Germany 4–2 in the final, with Geoff Hurst scoring
a hat-trick.[293]
At club level England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield FC founded in
1857 being the oldest club.[289] The Football Association is the oldest of its kind, with the rules of football
first drafted in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley.[294] The
FA Cup and The Football League were the first cup and
league competitions respectively. In the modern day
the Premier League is the world’s most-watched football
league,[295] most lucrative,[296] and amongst the elite.[297]
As is the case throughout the UK, football in England
is renowned for the intense rivalries between clubs and
the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants, such as, "You're Not Singing Any
More" (or it’s variant “We Can See You Sneaking Out!"),
sung by jubilant fans towards the opposition fans who
have gone silent (or left early).[298][299] The European
Cup (now UEFA Champions League) has been won by
Liverpool, Manchester United, Nottingham Forest, Aston
Villa and Chelsea, while Arsenal, and Leeds United have
reached the final.[300] Other English clubs have enjoyed
success, Tottenham Hotspur, Ipswich Town, Chelsea, and
Liverpool have won the UEFA Cup, renamed UEFA Europa League.
Main article: Sport in England
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during
Wembley Stadium, home of the England football team, has a
90,000 capacity. It is the biggest stadium in the UK
England on the way to victory against Australia in the 2009 Ashes
series at Lord’s Cricket Ground
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the
early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.[301] The England cricket
team is a composite England and Wales team. One of
the game’s top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. The climax of
the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television.[302] England has hosted four
Cricket World Cups (1975, 1979, 1983, 1999) but never
Football is the most popular of these sports. The England won the tournament, reaching the final 3 times. However
national football team, whose home venue is Wembley they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009, winthe 19th century codified many sports that are now
played around the world. Sports originating in England
include association football,[289] cricket, rugby union,
rugby league, tennis, boxing, badminton, squash,[290]
rounders,[291] hockey, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound
racing and fox hunting. It has helped the development of
golf, sailing and Formula One.
ning this format in 2010 beating rivals Australia in the final by 7 wickets. In the domestic competition, the County
Championship, Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the competition 31 times.[303] Lord’s
Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred
to as the “Mecca of Cricket”.[304]
William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the
format for the modern Olympic Games. In 1994, then
President of the IOC, Juan Antonio Samaranch, laid
a wreath on Brooke’s grave, and said, “I came to pay
homage and tribute to Dr Brookes, who really was the
founder of the modern Olympic Games”.[305] London
has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times,
in 1908, 1948, and 2012. England competes in the
Commonwealth Games, held every four years. Sport
England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting
activity in England.
cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of
Golf.[308] There are both professional tours for men and
women, in two main tours: the PGA and the European
Tour. England has produced grand slam winners: Cyril
Walker, Tony Jacklin, Nick Faldo, and Justin Rose in
the mens and Laura Davies, Alison Nicholas, and Karen
Stupples in the women’s. The world’s oldest golf tournament, and golf’s first major, is The Open Championship,
played both in England and Scotland. The biennial golf
competition, the Ryder Cup, is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.[309] Nick Faldo is the most successful
Ryder Cup player ever, having won the most points (25)
of any player on either the European or U.S. teams.[310]
Centre Court at Wimbledon. First played in 1877, the Wimbledon
Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world.[311]
Tennis was created in Birmingham, England in the late
19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the
oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely consid[312][313]
Fred Perry was the last
The England rugby union team during their victory parade after ered the most prestigious.
Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. He was the first
winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup
player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles[314] and
Rugby union originated in Rugby School, Warwickshire helped lead the Great Britain team to victory over France
in the early 19th century.[306] The England rugby union in the Davis Cup in 1933. English women who have won
team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the country was Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones won in 1969 and
one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Virginia Wade in 1977.
Rugby World Cup and is set to host the 2015 Rugby
In boxing, under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules,
World Cup.[307] The top level of club participation is the England has produced many world champions across the
English Premiership. Leicester Tigers, London Wasps,
weight divisions internationally recognized by the govBath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in erning bodies. World champions include Bob Fitzsimthe Europe-wide Heineken Cup.
mons, Ted “Kid” Lewis, Randolph Turpin, Nigel Benn,
Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. The
England national rugby league team are ranked third in
the world and first in Europe. Since 2008 England has
been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national
rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is
now retired. Club sides play in Super League, the presentday embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan
Warriors, St Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously.
Chris Eubank, Frank Bruno, Lennox Lewis, Ricky Hatton, Naseem Hamed, Amir Khan, Carl Froch, and David
Haye.[315] In women’s boxing, Nicola Adams became
the world’s first woman to win an Olympic boxing Gold
medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics.
The 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first
race in the newly created Formula One World Championship.[316] Since then, England has produced some of
the greatest drivers in the sport, including; John Surtees, Stirling Moss, Graham Hill (only driver to have
won the Triple Crown), Nigel Mansell (only man to hold
Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its F1 and IndyCar titles at the same time), Damon Hill,
11 National symbols
Main article: National symbols of England
The St George’s Cross has been the national flag of
Former Formula One world champion Nigel Mansell driving at
Silverstone in 1990. The circuit hosted the first ever Formula One
race in 1950
Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button.[317] It has manufactured some of the most technically advanced racing cars,
and many of today’s racing companies choose England
as their base of operations for its engineering knowledge
and organisation. McLaren Automotive, Williams F1,
Team Lotus, Honda, Brawn GP, Benetton, Renault, and
Red Bull Racing are all, or have been, located in the
south of England. England also has a rich heritage in
Grand Prix motorcycle racing, the premier championship
of motorcycle road racing, and produced several World
Champions across all the various class of motorcycle:
Mike Hailwood, John Surtees, Phil Read, Geoff Duke,
and Barry Sheene.
Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.
The sport is governed by the World Darts Federation,
one of its member organisations is the BDO, which annually stages the Lakeside World Professional Championship, the other being the Professional Darts Corporation (PDC), which runs its own world championship at
Alexandra Palace in London. Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won
187 professional tournaments, and a record 16 World
Championships.[318][319] Trina Gulliver is the nine-time
Women’s World Professional Darts Champion of the
British Darts Organisation. Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker, and England has produced several world champions, including
Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan.
The Royal Arms of England
England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was
used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English
monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190
onwards, so that English ships could fly the flag as a means
of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A red
cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and
13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George,
along with countries and cities, which claimed him as
their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.[321] Since
1606 the St George’s Cross has formed part of the design
of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King
James I.[218]
There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor
rose, the nation’s floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England. The Tudor rose
was adopted as a national emblem of England around the
time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.[322]
It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose
of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians—
cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over
control of the nation. It is also known as the Rose of
England.[323] The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance. The Royal Oak symbol
and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King
Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after
his father’s execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile.
The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive
sailing; founding and winning some of the worlds most
famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the
match race, a regatta, and the America’s Cup. England
has produced some of the world’s greatest sailors, including, Francis Chichester, Herbert Hasler, John Ridgway,
Robin Knox-Johnston, Ellen MacArthur, Mike Golding,
Paul Goodison, and the most successful Olympic sailor
ever Ben Ainslie.[320]
The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms fea-
can Church did not make substantial change in doctrine
until later.”[55]
[3] Figure of 550,000 military deaths is for England and
[4] For instance, in 1980 around 50 million Americans
claimed English ancestry.[179] In Canada there are around
6.5 million Canadians who claim English ancestry.[180]
Around 70% of Australians in 1999 denoted their origins as Anglo-Celtic, a category which includes all peoples
from Great Britain and Ireland.[181] Chileans of English
descent are somewhat of an anomaly in that Chile itself
was never part of the British Empire, but today there are
around 420,000 people of English origins living there.[182]
The Tudor rose, England’s national floral emblem
turing three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard
the Lionheart in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most
prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy. England does not have an
official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the
following are often considered unofficial English national
anthems: Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (used for
England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games),[324]
and I Vow to Thee, My Country. England’s National Day
is 23 April which is St George’s Day: St George is the
patron saint of England.[325]
See also
[5] Students attending English universities now have to pay
tuition fees towards the cost of their education, as do English students who choose to attend university in Scotland.
Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their
fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.[94]
[6] While people such as Norman Foster and Richard Rogers
represent the modernist movement, Prince Charles since
the 1980s has voiced strong views against it in favour of
traditional architecture and put his ideas into practice at
his Poundbury development in Dorset.[237] Architects like
Raymond Erith, Francis Johnson and Quinlan Terry continued to practice in the classical style.
[7] These tales may have come to prominence, at least in part,
as an attempt by the Norman ruling elite to legitimise their
rule of the British Isles, finding Anglo-Saxon history illsuited to the task during an era when members of the deposed House of Wessex, especially Edgar the Ætheling
and his nephews of the Scottish House of Dunkeld, were
still active in the isles.[241][243] Also Michael Wood explains; “Over the centuries the figure of Arthur became
a symbol of British history—a way of explaining the matter of Britain, the relationship between the Saxons and
the Celts, and a way of exorcising ghosts and healing the
wounds of the past.”[240]
• Outline of England
14 References
[1] According to the European Statistical Agency, London is
the largest Larger Urban Zone which uses conurbations
and areas of high population as its definition. A ranking
of population within municipal boundaries places London
first. However, the University of Avignon in France claims
that Paris is first and London second when including the
whole urban area and hinterland, that is the outlying cities
as well.
[2] As Roger Scruton explains, “The Reformation must not
be confused with the changes introduced into the Church
of England during the 'Reformation Parliament' of 1529–
36, which were of a political rather than a religious nature, designed to unite the secular and religious sources
of authority within a single sovereign power: the Angli-
[1] “2011 Census: KS201EW Ethnic group: local authorities
in England and Wales”. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
[2] Office for National Statistics. “The Countries of the UK”.
statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
[3] “Countries within a country”.
Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved
1 February 2009.
[4] “Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements (Page 11)" (PDF). International Organization for
Standardization. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
[5] “England – Culture”. britainusa.com. Archived from the
original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
[6] “Country profile: United Kingdom”.
BBC News
(news.bbc.co.uk). 26 October 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
[28] “Tertiary Rivers: Tectonic and structural background”.
University of Cambridge. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
[7] “Industrial Revolution”. Ace.mmu.ac.uk. Retrieved 1
February 2009.
[29] “Function and significance of Bell Beaker pottery according to data from residue analyses”. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
[8] 2011 Census - Population and household estimates for
England and Wales, March 2011. Accessed 31 May 2013.
[30] Reid, Struan (1994). Inventions and Trade. P.8. ISBN
978-0-921921-30-1. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
[9] William E. Burns, A Brief History of Great Britain, p. xxi
[31] Burke, Jason (2 December 2000).
“Dig uncovers
Boudicca’s brutal streak”. The Observer (London). Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[10] Acts of Union 1707 parliament.uk. Retrieved 27 January
[11] “England”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21
July 2010.
[12] Ripley 1869, p. 570.
[13] “England”. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 12 July
[14] “Germania”. Tacitus. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[15] “Angle”. Oxford English Dictionary.
September 2009.
Retrieved 5
[16] Crystal 2004, pp. 26–27
[17] Forbes, John (1848). The Principles of Gaelic Grammar.
Edinburgh: Oliver, Boyd and Tweeddale.
[18] Massey 2007, p. 440.
[19] Greek "... ἐν τούτῳ γε μὴν νῆσοι μέγιστοι τυγχάνουσιν
οὖσαι δύο, Βρεττανικαὶ λεγόμεναι, Ἀλβίων καὶ Ἰέρνη,
...”, transliteration "... en toutoi ge men nesoi megistoi
tynchanousin ousai dyo, Brettanikai legomenai, Albion
kai Ierne, ...”, translation "... There are two very large
islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne;
..."; Aristotle or Pseudo-Aristotle; E. S. Forster (translator), D. J. Furley (translator). “On the Cosmos, 393b12”.
On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing
Away. On the Cosmos. William Heinemann LTD, Harvard University Press. pp. 360–361. at the Open Library
[32] “Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals”. Alfred John Church,
William Jackson Brudribh, Ed. Retrieved 22 December
[33] Bedoyere, Guy. “Architecture in Roman Britain”. Heritage Key. Archived from the original on 7 August 2012.
Retrieved 23 December 2010.
[34] Philip, Robert (1860). Thr History of Progress in Great
Britain, Volume 2. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
[35] Bob Rees, Paul Shute, Nigel Kelly (9 January 2003).
Medicine through time. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-43530841-4. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
[36] Rankov 1994, p. 16.
[37] Wright 2008, p. 143.
[38] James, Edward. “Overview: Anglo-Saxons, 410 to 800”.
BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
[39] “The Christian Tradition”. PicturesofEngland.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[40] Kirby 2000, p. 4
[41] Lyon 1960, p. 23.
[42] “Overview: The Normans, 1066–1154”. BBC. Retrieved
3 December 2010.
[43] Crouch 2006, pp. 2–4
[20] Room 2006, p. 23.
[44] “Norman invasion word impact study”. BBC News. 20
February 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
[21] Major 2004, p. 84.
[45] Bartlett 1999, p. 124.
[22] Avienus' Ora Maritima, verses 111-112, i.e. eamque late
gens Hiernorum colit; propinqua rursus insula Albionum
[23] Foster 1988, p. 9.
[24] “500,000 BC – Boxgrove”. Current Archaeology. Current
Publishing. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
[25] “Palaeolithic Archaeology Teaching Resource Box”.
Palaeolithic Rivers of South-West Britain Project(2006).
Retrieved 20 December 2010.
[26] “Chalk east”. A Geo East Project. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
[27] Oppenheimer 2006, p. 173.
[46] “Edward I (r. 1272–1307)". Royal.gov.uk. Archived
from the original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
[47] Fowler 1967, p. 208.
[48] Ziegler 2003, p. 230.
[49] Goldberg 1996, p. 4.
[50] Crofton 2007, p. 111.
[51] “Richard III (r. 1483–1485)". Royal.gov.uk. Archived
from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
[52] Denys Hay (1988). Renaissance essays. p. 65. ISBN 9780-907628-96-5. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
[53] “Royal Navy History, Tudor Period and the Birth of a
Regular Navy”. Archived from the original on 18 January
2012. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
[54] Goldwin Smith. England Under the Tudors. p. 176.
ISBN 978-1-60620-939-4. Retrieved 26 December
[55] Scruton 1982, p. 470.
[56] Karen Ordahl (25 February 2007). Roanak:the abandoned colony. Rowman & Littlefield publishers Inc. ISBN
978-0-7425-5263-0. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
[57] Colley 1992, p. 12.
[58] “Making the Act of Union”. Parliament.uk. Archived
from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[59] Hay, Denys. “The term “Great Britain” in the Middle
Ages” (PDF). ads.ahds.ac.uk. Archived from the original
on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
[60] “Oliver Cromwell (English statesman)". Encyclopædia
Britannica. britannica.com. 2009. Retrieved 8 August
[61] Philip J. Adler, Randall L. Pouwels (27 November 2007).
World Civilization. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-495-50262-3.
Retrieved 24 December 2010.
[62] “Democracy Live: Black Rod”. BBC. Retrieved 6 August
[63] Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Black Rod". Encyclopædia
Britannica 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
[64] “London’s Burning: The Great Fire”. BBC News. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
[65] “The first Parliament of Great Britain”. Parliament.uk.
Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 5
September 2009.
[66] Gallagher 2006, p. 14.
[67] “Manchester – the first industrial city”. Entry on Sciencemuseum website. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
[68] Hudson, Pat. “The Workshop of the World”. BBC. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
[69] Office for National Statistics 2000, p. 5
[70] McNeil & Nevell 2000, p. 4.
[71] McNeil & Nevell 2000, p. 9.
[72] Birmingham City Council. “Heritage”. visitbirmingham.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012.
Retrieved 4 October 2009.
[73] Colley 1992, p. 1.
[74] Robert F. Haggard (2001). The persistence of Victorian
liberalism:The Politics of Social Reform in Britain, 1870–
1900. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-313-31305-9. Retrieved 26
December 2010.
[75] Crawford, Elizabeth. “Women: From Abolition to the
Vote”. BBC. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
[76] Cox 1970, p. 180
[77] Golley, John (10 August 1996). “Obituaries: Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle”. The Independent (London).
Retrieved 2 December 2010.
[78] Clark 1973, p. 1.
[79] Wilson & Game 2002, p. 55.
[80] Gallagher 2006, pp. 10–11.
[81] Reitan 2003, p. 50.
[82] Keating, Michael (1 January 1998). “Reforging the
Union: Devolution and Constitutional Change in the
United Kingdom”. Publius: the Journal of Federalism 28
(1): 217. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.pubjof.a029948.
Retrieved 4 February 2009.
[83] “The coming of the Tudors and the Act of Union”. BBC
Wales. BBC News. 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
[84] Kenny, English & Hayton 2008, p. 3.
[85] Ward 2004, p. 180.
[86] Sherman, Jill; Andrew Norfolk (5 November 2004).
“Prescott’s dream in tatters as North East rejects assembly”. The Times (London). Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[87] “The British Parliamentary System”. BBC News. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
[88] Cabinet Office (26 March 2009). “Devolution in the
United Kingdom”. cabinetoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 16
August 2009.
[89] “Lists of MPs”. Parliament.uk. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
[90] “What is a hung parliament?". BBC News. 7 May 2009.
Retrieved 20 May 2009.
[91] “Gordon Brown’s resignation speech”. BBC News. 11
May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
[92] “European Election 2009: UK Results”. BBC News. 19
April 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[93] “West Lothian question”. BBC News. 31 October 2008.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[94] “Are Scottish people better off?". MSN Money. Archived
from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[95] “English nationalism 'threat to UK'". BBC News. 9 January 2000. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[96] Davidson, Lorraine (3 June 2008). “Gordon Brown
pressed on English parliament”. The Times (London). Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[97] Grice, Andrew (1 July 2008). “English votes for English
laws’ plan by Tories”. The Independent (London). Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[98] “Common Law”. The People’s Law Dictionary. ALM [123] “Temperature record changes hands”. BBC News. 30
Media Properties. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
September 2003. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[99] “The Common Law in the British Empire”.
H- [124] “English Climate”. MetOffice.com. Archived from the
net.msu.edu. 19 October 2000. Retrieved 20 August
original on 19 December 2007.
[125] “England 1981–2010 averages”. Met Office. 2012.
[100] Fafinski 2007, p. 60.
[126] “2011 Census - Built-up areas”. ONS. Retrieved 5 Febru[101] Fafinski 2007, p. 127.
ary 2014.
[102] “Constitutional reform: A Supreme Court for the United [127] O'Brian, Harriet (24 November 2007). “The Complete
Kingdom” (PDF). DCA.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 September
Guide To: Cathedral cities in the UK”. The Independent
(London). Retrieved 8 September 2009.
[103] Fafinski 2007, p. 67.
[128] “London vs. New York, 2005–06”. Cinco Dias. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[104] “Crime over the last 25 years”. HomeOffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[129] “Global Financial Centres Index, 2009–03” (PDF). City
of London Corporation. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[105] “New record high prison population”. BBC News. 8
February 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[130] Office for National Statistics. “Regional Accounts”. statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
[106] “Prison population figures”. Ministry Of Justice. 2012.
Retrieved 11 December 2012.
[131] “The Welfare State – Never Ending Reform”. BBC News.
Retrieved 17 September 2009.
[107] Cooper, Hilary (29 March 2011). “Tiers shed as regional
government offices disappear”. The Guardian (London). [132] Brignall, Miles (19 March 2014). “Personal allowance:
Retrieved 16 June 2011.
Osborne’s budget has been far from generous”. The
Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
[108] Department for Communities and Local Government.
“Prosperous Places”. communities.gov.uk. Archived [133] “CIA – The World Factbook”. Cia.gov. Retrieved 27
from the original on 5 December 2009. Retrieved 5
April 2013.
September 2009.
[134] “Financial Centre”. London.gov.uk. Archived from the
[109] Encyclopædia Britannica 2002, p. 100
original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[110] Redcliffe-Maud & Wood 1974.
[111] Singh 2009, p. 53.
[112] Axford 2002, p. 315.
[113] Singh 2009, p. 54.
[135] City of London Policy and Resources Committee.
“The Global Financial Centres Index” (PDF). cityoflondon.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[136] “New York dethrones London to become world’s top financial center”. Mail Online. 16 March 2014. Retrieved
7 October 2014.
[114] “English Channel”. Encyclopædia Britannica. britan[137] “The Bank’s relationship with Parliament”. BankofEngnica.com. 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
land.co.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[115] “History”. EuroTunnel.com. Retrieved 5 September
[138] “Monetary Policy Committee”. BankofEngland.co.uk.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[116] “The River Severn”. BBC. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
[139] “England Exports”. EconomyWatch.com. Retrieved 5
September 2009.
[117] “Severn Bore and Trent Aegir”. Environment Agency.
Retrieved 5 December 2010.
[140] http://www.theengineer.co.uk/aerospace/in-depth/
[118] “River Thames and London (England)". London Evening
Standard. London. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
[119] “North West England & Isle of Man: climate”. Met Of- [141] “About - Rolls-Royce”. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
fice. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
[142] “World Guide – England – Economy Overview”. World
Guide. Intute. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
[120] “Pennines”. Smmit Post. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
[121] “National Parks – About us”. nationalparks.gov.uk. Re- [143] “Economy of the United Kingdom” (PDF). PTeducation.
Retrieved 8 October 2009.
trieved 5 December 2010.
[122] “What is the Climate like in Britain?". Woodlands Kent. [144] “Metric system was British”. BBC News. 13 July 2007.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[145] “Isambard Kingdom Brunel”. DesignMuseum.org. Re- [167] Mason, Chris (16 September 2008). “Density of England
trieved 5 September 2009.
rises”. BBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[168] Khan, Urmee (16 September 2008). “England is most
crowded country in Europe”. The Daily Telegraph (Lon[147] Ronald Shillingford (2010). “The History of the World’s
don). Retrieved 5 September 2009.
Greatest- Entrepreneurs: Biographies of Success”. p. 64–
[169] Office for National Statistics (2011). “Ethnicity and Na69
tional Identity in England and Wales 2011”. Statis[148] Saunders 1982, p. 13
tics.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
[146] Oakes 2002, p. 214
[149] White 2009, p. 335
[170] Oppenheimer 2006, p. 378.
[150] Levine 1960, p. 183
[171] “British and Irish, descendant of the Basques?".
Eitb24.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[151] Curt Wohleber (Spring 2006). “The Vacuum Cleaner”.
Invention & Technology Magazine. American Heritage [172] Oppenheimer, Stephen (10 October 2006). “What does
Publishing. Archived from the original on 13 March
being British mean? Ask the Spanish”. The Daily Tele2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
graph (London). Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[152] “English Inventors and Inventions”. English-Crafts.co.uk. [173] Wade, Nicholas (6 March 2007). “A United Kingdom?
Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 5
Maybe”. The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
September 2009.
[174] Thomas, M.G.; M.P. Stumpf, H. Härke (2006).
“Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in
[153] O'Hanlon 2008, p. 205
early Anglo-Saxon England”. Proceedings. Biologi[154] UK Parliament 2007, p. 175
cal sciences / the Royal Society 273 (1601): 2651–7.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3627. PMC 1635457. PMID
[155] White 2002, p. 63.
[156] “27 September 1825 – Opening of the Stockton and Dar[175] Hall, Allan (21 June 2011). “Forget two world wars and
lington Railway”. The Stockton and Darlington Railway.
one World Cup ... geneticists reveal 50 per cent of Britons
Retrieved 5 October 2013.
are German”. Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 15 August
[157] “Delta Expects New Slots To Foster Growth At Heathrow
Airport”. The Wall Street Journal. 23 February 2011. [176] “Roman Britons after 410”. Britarch.ac.uk. Retrieved 5
Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved
September 2009.
23 March 2011.
[177] Cameron, Keith (March 1994). Anglo-Saxon Origins:
[158] Else 2007, p. 781.
The Reality of the Myth. Malcolm Todd. ISBN 978-1871516-85-2. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[159] “BBC History on William Beveridge”. BBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[178] “Legacy of the Vikings”. BBC News. Retrieved 5
September 2009.
[160] “NHS Expenditure in England” (PDF). House of Commons Library. Archived from the original on 5 December [179] “Shifting Identities – statistical data on ethnic identities in
2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
the US”. Bnet. 2001. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
[161] “NHS costs and exemptions”. Department of Health. Re- [180] “Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and
trieved 5 September 2009.
territories”. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
[162] “Budget 2008, Chapter C” (PDF). HM Treasury. 3 March [181] Centre for Population and Urban Research, Monash Uni2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
versity. “Australian Population: Ethnic Origins”. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
[163] “Private sector role in NHS”. BBC News. 30 June 2006.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[182] “Inmigración británica en Chile”. Galeon.com. Retrieved
29 July 2009.
[164] Office for National Statistics. “Life expectancy”. statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. [183] Burke, Jason (9 October 2005). “An Englishman’s home
Retrieved 20 July 2009.
is his casa as thousands go south”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[165] Office for National Statistics. “Population estimates for
UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland – [184] Travis, Alan; Sarah Knapton (16 November 2007).
current datasets”. statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 October
“Record numbers leave the country for life abroad”. The
Guardian (London). Retrieved 8 August 2009.
[166] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Af- [185] “ONS: Population Estimates by Ethnic Group 2002–
fairs. “World Population Prospects: Analytical Report for
2009” (PDF). Archived from the original on 26 June
the 2004”. United Nations. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
[186] University of Wisconsin. “Medieval English society”. Re- [206] Dugan, Emily (6 September 2009). “The Cornish: They
trieved 14 August 2014.
revolted in 1497, now they're at it again”. The Independent
(London). Retrieved 17 September 2009.
[187] Office for National Statistics. “The UK population: past,
present and future” (PDF). Archived from the original on [207] “Cornish in Schools”. Cornish Language Partnership.
28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
2009. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
[188] “One in four Britons claim Irish roots”. BBC News. 16 [208] Lipsett, Anthea (26 June 2008). “Number of primaries
March 2001. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
teaching foreign languages doubles”. The Guardian (London).
Retrieved 23 September 2009.
[189] “British Immigration Map Revealed”. BBC News. 7
September 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[190] Paton, Graeme (1 October 2007). “One fifth of children
from ethnic minorities”. The Daily Telegraph (London).
Retrieved 14 August 2014.
[191] Shepherd, Jessica (22 June 2011). “Almost a quarter of
state school pupils are from an ethnic minority”. The
Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 January 2014.
[209] Drury, Ian (15 August 2008). “English is a second language for 1 in 8 pupils in England”. Daily Mail (London).
Retrieved 23 September 2009.
[210] Booth, Robert (30 January 2013). “Polish becomes England’s second language”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved 30 January 2013.
[211] “Religion (2001 Census)". data.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 De[192] Leppard, David (10 April 2005). “Immigration rise incember 2012.
creases segregation in British cities”. The Times (Lon[212] “Church of England”. BBC. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
don). Retrieved 8 August 2009.
[193] “Immigration debate hots up in England”. The Indepen- [213] “Global Anglicanism at a Crossroads”. PewResearch.org.
dent News Service. 26 November 2008. Retrieved 14
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
August 2014.
[214] “People here 'must obey the laws of the land'". The
[194] Milland, Gabriel (23 July 2009). “80% say cap immigraDaily Telegraph (London). 9 February 2008. Retrieved
tion”. Daily Express (London). Retrieved 5 September
5 September 2009.
[215] “The Methodist Church”. BBC News. Retrieved 5
[195] “50 million population of England set to rise by six million
September 2009.
in 25 years”. Daily Mail (London). 12 October 2006.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[216] “AN INDEPENDENT ACADEMIC STUDY ON COR[196] “Official EU languages”. European Commission. 8 May
2009. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
[197] Arlotto 1971, p. 108.
[198] Green 2003, p. 13.
NISH”. p. 8. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
[217] “Cambridge History of Christianity”. Hugh McLeod. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[218] “United Kingdom – History of the Flag”. FlagSpot.net.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[199] Mujica, Mauro E. (19 June 2003). “English: Not
America’s Language?". The Globalist (Washington DC). [219] “From Expulsion (1290) to Readmission (1656): Jews and
Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved
England” (PDF). Goldsmiths.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 February
1 February 2009.
[200] “English language history”. Yaelf. Retrieved 5 September [220] Office for National Statistics.
tics.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[201] Government Offices for the English Regions. “Cornish
[221] Gearon 2002, p. 246.
language”. gos.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
[202] Bates, Claire (23 February 2009). “Manx, Cornish and [222] West 2003, p. 28.
Irish just three of 2,500 languages facing extinction, say
[223] “Independent Schools in the United Kingdom”. Encarta.
UN”. Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 17 September
encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on 31 Oc2009.
tober 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
[203] “The Cornish Language Development Project – Evaluation – Final Report, page 20”. Hywel Evans, Aric Lacoste [224] Gearon 2002, p. 102.
/ ERS. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
[225] United Kingdom Parliament. “Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills Committee Contents”. publica[204] “South West – Cornish Language”. Government Office
tions.parliament.uk. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
South West. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
[205] “On being a Cornish “Celt": changing Celtic heritage and [226] “QS World University Rankings Results 2010”. QS
traditions”. University of Exeter. Archived from the origQuacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 23 January
inal on 5 December 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
[227] Hoyle, Ben (23 September 2007). “The Sunday Times [254] English Heritage. “Aldborough Roman Site”. englishGood University Guide 2007 – Profile for London School
heritage.org.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
of Economics”. The Times (London). Retrieved 6 June
[255] “Early Middle Ages Art”. Tiscali.co.uk. Retrieved 5
September 2009.
[228] “FT Global MBA Rankings”. Financial Times. Retrieved
[256] “English art”. Tiscali.co.uk. Retrieved 5 September
25 January 2010.
[229] Webster 1937, p. 383.
[257] Turner, Chris. “The Bronze Age: Henry Moore and his
successors”. Tate Magazine (6).
[230] Lowe 1971, p. 317.
[231] “The Prehistoric Sites of Great Britain”.
Circles.org.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
Stone- [258] “Freud work sets new world record”. BBC News. 14 May
2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
[232] “Ancient Roman architecture in England and Wales”. [259]
Castles.me.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[233] Colgrave 1985, p. 326.
[234] Pevsner 1942, p. 14.
[235] Atkinson 2008, p. 189.
Warner 1902, p. 35.
Rogers 2001, p. 17.
Rogers 2001, p. 135.
Rowse 1971, p. 48.
Norbrook 2000, p. 6.
[236] Downes 2007, p. 17.
[264] “Richard II”. William Shakespeare. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[237] “Architects to hear Prince appeal”. BBC News. 12 May
2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
[265] Heywood 2007, p. 74.
[238] Keary 1882, p. 50.
[239] Pollard 2004, p. 272.
[266] Watson 1985, p. 360.
[267] Cole 1947, p. 268.
[240] Michael Wood. “King Arthur, 'Once and Future King'". [268]
BBC News. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
[241] Higham 2002, p. 25.
[242] Koch 2006, p. 732.
[243] Lacy 1986, p. 649.
[244] Briggs 2004, p. 26.
[245] Withington 2008, p. 224.
Hawkins-Dady 1996, p. 970.
Eccleshare 2002, p. 5.
Chappell 1966, p. 690.
Lax 1989, p. 7.
Richard Michael Kelly. A Christmas carol p.10. Broadview Press, 2003 ISBN 1-55111-476-3
[273] Paul At Fifty: Paul McCartney Time Magazine'.' Retrieved
25 October 2014
[246] “What is England’s national costume?". WoodlandsJunior.kent.sch.uk. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
[274] Most Successful Group The Guinness Book of Records
1999, p.230. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[247] Else 2007, p. 76.
[275] 100 Greatest Artists Of All Time: The Beatles (No.1)
[248] “The S.Pellegrino World’s 50 Best Restaurants”. TheRolling Stone'.' Retrieved 25 October 2014.
Worlds50Best.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[276] United Kingdom Parliament (July 2009). “British Citizen
by Act of Parliament: George Frideric Handel”. Parlia[249] Mart, Nicole (22 September 2008). “King Richard II’s
mentary Archives. parliament.uk. Retrieved 10 August
recipe book to go online”. The Daily Telegraph (London).
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[277] Stradling 1993, p. 166.
[250] “Traditional English Food Specialities”. TravelSignPosts.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[278] “Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber: the new musical” The
New York Times.. referred to Andrew Lloyd Webber as
[251] “Catherine of Braganza”. Tea.co.uk. Retrieved 5 Septem“the most commercially successful composer in history”
ber 2009.
[279] Recording Industry Association of America. “Top Selling
[252] “Types of Beer”. Icons of England. Retrieved 5 SeptemArtists”. riaa.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
ber 2009.
[280] Else 2007, p. 65.
[253] “The Prehistoric Cave Art of England” (PDF). ArchaeologyDataService.ac.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[281] Foreman 2005, p. 371.
[282] UNESCO. “United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- [303] A brief history of Yorkshire. Cricinfo. Retrieved 9
ern Ireland”. World Heritage. whc.unesco.org. Retrieved
September 2009.
8 September 2009.
[304] Fay, Stephen (21 June 1998). “Cricket: Flaw Lord’s out of
order”. The Independent (London). Retrieved 9 Septem[283] “English World Heritage Sites to get strongest ever protecber 2009.
tions” (PDF). Institute of Historic Building Conservation.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[305] John Hart “The National CV of Britain: A non-PC history
of Britain.”. Edfu Books. Retrieved 30 November 2013
[284] “Museum in London”. BritishMuseum.org. Retrieved 5
September 2009.
[306] “Origins of Rugby – Codification “The innovation of running with the ball was introduced some time between 1820
[285] “250 Years of the British Museum”. Time. 15 January
and 1830."". Rugbyfootballhistory.com. Retrieved 15
2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
August 2011.
[286] “British Library”. Encyclopædia Britannica. britan[307] “England will host 2015 Rugby World Cup”. BBC News.
nica.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
28 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
[287] “The National Gallery”. ArtInfo.com. Retrieved 5
[308] “Scotland is the home of golf”. PGA Tour official website.
September 2009.
Retrieved 4 December 2008. Scotland is the home of golf
[288] Youngs, Ian (31 October 2002). “The art of Turner
protests”. BBC News. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
[309] Fry, Peter (July 2000). Samuel Ryder: The Man Behind
the Ryder Cup. Wright Press.
[289] “Sheffield FC: 150 years of history”. FIFA. Retrieved 5
September 2009.
[310] “Sir Nick Faldo drives on in business world”. BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2013
[290] “History of squash”. WorldSquash2008.com. Retrieved
5 September 2009.
[311] 125 years of Wimbledon: From birth of lawn tennis to
modern marvels CNN. Retrieved 28 September 2011
[291] “History of the Game”. NRA-Rounders.co.uk. Archived
from the original on 12 November 2007.
[312] Clarey, Christopher (5 July 2008). “Traditional Final:
It’s Nadal and Federer”. The New York Times (ny[292] Paul Mitchell. “The first international football match”.
times.co.uk). Retrieved 5 September 2009.
BBC. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
[293] “Hurst the hero for England in the home of football”. [313] Kaufman & Macpherson 2005, p. 958.
FIFA.com. Retrieved 15 January 2015
[314] Peter Jackson (3 July 2009). “Who was Fred Perry?".
BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
[294] Rudd, Alyson (7 April 2008). “The father of football de-
serves much more”. London: Times Online. Retrieved [315]
15 January 2015.
“History and time are key to power of football, says Premier League chief”. The Times. Retrieved 30 November
“Premier League towers over world football, says Deloitte”. sportbusiness.com. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
“UEFA ranking of European leagues”. UEFA. Retrieved
5 September 2009.
Caudwell, J.C. (2011). "'Does your boyfriend know you're
here?' The spatiality of homophobia in men’s football
culture in the UK”. Leisure Studies 30 (2): 123–138. [320]
“Top 20 British Boxers”. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
“The History of British Motorsport and Motor Racing at
Silverstone”. Silverstone (Silverstone.co.uk). Retrieved
31 October 2009.
“F1 Champions: Dan Wheldon killed in Las Vegas”.
ESPN. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
BBC (6 January 2003). “Part relishes Taylor triumph”.
BBC. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
“Phil Taylor player profile”. Dartsdatabase. Retrieved 23
July 2010.
Benammar, Emily (22 May 2009). “The World Oldest
Trans Atlantic Race”. The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 22 May 2009.
[299] Richard Holt, Tony Mason. Sport in Britain, 1945–2000.
[321] “St. George – England’s Patron Saint”. Britannia.com.
p.129. Wiley-Blackwell, 2000
Retrieved 1 February 2009.
[300] “UEFA Champions League Finals 1956–2008”. RSSSF.
[322] “National flowers”. Number10.gov.uk. 13 January 2003.
Retrieved 5 September 2009.
Archived from the original on 15 May 2010. Retrieved 8
[301] Underdown 2000, p. 6.
August 2009.
[302] Cricinfo staff (26 August 2009). Ashes climax watched [323] Smith, Jed (3 June 2005). “England’s Rose – The Official
by a fraction of 2005 audience. Cricinfo. Retrieved 9
History”. Museum of Rugby, Twickenham. RugbyNetSeptember 2009.
work.net. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
[324] “Jason Cowley loves the Commonwealth Games”. New
Statesman. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
[325] “The Great Saint George Revival”. BBC News. 23 April
1998. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
• Ackroyd, Peter (2000). London: the biography.
Chatto & Windus. ISBN 1-85619-716-6.
• Arlotto, Anthony (1971). Introduction to historical
linguistics. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-126150.
• Atkinson, T.D. (2008). English Architecture. Read
Books. ISBN 978-1-4097-2581-7.
• Axford, Barrie (2002). Politics: an introduction.
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25181-8.
• Ball, Martin (1993). The Celtic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01035-7.
• Bartlett, Robert (1999). England Under the Norman
and Angevin Kings, 1075–1225. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-925101-0.
• Bennett, James (2004). The Anglosphere Challenge.
Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3333-6.
• Brewer, Ebenezer (2006). Wordsworth Dictionary
of Phrase and Fable. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN
• Briggs, Katharine (2004). A Dictionary of British
Folk-tales in the English Language. Routledge.
ISBN 0-203-39737-1.
• Chappell, William (1966). The Roxburghe Ballads.
New York: AMS Press. OCLC 488599560.
• Clark, David M.; Michael Steed, Sally Marshall
(1973). Greater Manchester Votes: A Guide to the
New Metropolitan Authorities. Stockport: Redrose.
ISBN 978-0-9502932-0-2.
• Clemoes, Peter (2007). Anglo-Saxon England, Volume 12. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52103834-0.
• Cole, George (1947). The Life of William Cobbett.
Home & Van Thal. ISBN 0-8492-2139-0.
• Colgrave, Bertram (1985). Two lives of Saint Cuthbert. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52131385-6.
• Colley, Linda (1992). Britons: Forging the Nation,
1701–1837. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300-05737-9.
• Cox, Peter (1970). Demography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09612-6.
• Crouch, David (2006). Normans: The History of
a Dynasty. Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 978-185285-595-6.
• Crofton, Ian (2007). The Kings and Queens of England. Quercus. ISBN 1-84724-065-8.
• Crystal, David (2004). The Stories of English. The
Overlook Press. ISBN 1-58567-601-2.
• Downes, Kerry (2007). Christopher Wren. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-921524-3.
• Eccleshare, Julia (2002). Beatrix Potter to Harry
Potter. National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 1-85514342-9.
• Else, David (2007). Inghilterra. EDT srl. ISBN
• Encyclopædia Britannica (2009). Encyclopædia Britannica. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 0-559-09589-9.
• Encyclopædia Britannica (2002). The New Encyclopædia Britannica. University of Michigan. ISBN
• Fafinski, Stefan (2007). English legal system. Pearson Education. ISBN 1-4058-2358-5.
• Foreman, Susan (2005). London: a musical
gazetteer. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-30010402-2.
• Foster, Damon (1988). A Blake dictionary. UPNE.
ISBN 0-87451-436-3.
• Fowler, Kenneth (1967). The Age of Plantagenet
and Valois: The Struggle for Supremacy, 1328–
1498. Putnam. ISBN 0-236-30832-7.
• Gallagher, Michael (2006). The United Kingdom
Today. London: Franklin Watts. ISBN 978-07496-6488-6.
• Gearon, Liam (2002). Education in the United Kingdom. David Fulton. ISBN 1-85346-715-4.
• Goldberg, Jeremy (1996). “Introduction”. In Mark
Ormrod & P.G. Lindley. The Black Death in England. Stamford: Paul Watkins. ISBN 1-871615-569.
• Green, Tamara (2003). The Greek & Latin roots
of English. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-74251466-8.
• Hawkins-Dady, Mark (1996). Reader’s guide to literature in English. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1884964-20-6.
• Heywood, Andrew (2007). Political Ideologies: An
Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-23052179-7.
• Higham, NJ (2002). King Arthur: myth-making and
history. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21305-3.
• Kaufman, Will; Macpherson, Heidi (2005). Britain
and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History.
ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-431-8.
• Kirby, D.P. (2000). The earliest English kings.
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24210-X.
• Keary, Charles Francis (1882). Outlines of primitive
belief among the Indo-European races. C Scribner’s
Sons. ISBN 0-7905-4982-4.
• Koch, John (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-440-7.
• Lacy, Norris (1986). The Arthurian Encyclopedia.
Garland Pub. ISBN 0-8240-8745-3.
• Lax, Roger (1989). The Great Song Thesaurus. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505408-3.
• Levine, Israel E. (1960). Conqueror of smallpox:
Dr. Edward Jenner. Messner. ISBN 978-0-67163888-7.
• Lowe, Roy (1971). The English school. Taylor &
Francis. ISBN 0-7100-6882-4.
• Lyon, Bryce Dale (1960). A constitutional and legal
history of medieval England. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-393-95132-4.
• Office for National Statistics (2000). Britain 2001:
The Official Handbook of the United Kingdom. London: Stationery Office Books. ISBN 978-0-11621278-8.
• Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). Origins of the
British. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1890-0.
• Pevsner, Nikolaus (1942). An outline of European
architecture. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-14061613-6.
• Pollard, A.J. (2004). Imagining Robin Hood. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22308-3.
• Rankov, Boris (1994). The Praetorian Guard. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-361-3.
• Redcliffe-Maud, John; Wood, Bruce (1974). English Local Government Reformed. London: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-885091-3.
• Reitan, Earl Aaron (2003). The Thatcher Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-2203-2.
• Ripley, George (1869). The New American Cyclopædia. D. Appleton.
• Rogers, Pat (2001). The Oxford illustrated history of
English literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019-285437-2.
• Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World.
McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3.
• Major, John (2004). History in Quotations. Cassell.
ISBN 0-304-35387-6.
• Rowse, Alfred (1971). Elizabethan Renaissance.
Scribner. ISBN 0-684-12682-6.
• Marden, Orison (2003). Home Lover’s Library.
Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-5324-X.
• Saunders, Paul (1982). Edward Jenner, the Cheltenham years, 1795–1823. University Press of New
England. ISBN 978-0-87451-215-1.
• Massey, Gerald (2007). A Book of the Beginnings,
Vol.1. Cosimo. ISBN 1-60206-829-1.
• McNeil, Robina; Nevell, Michael (2000). A Guide
to the Industrial Archaeology of Greater Manchester.
Association for Industrial Archaeology. ISBN 09528930-3-7.
• Kenny, Michael; English, Richard; Hayton, Richard
(2008). Beyond the Constitution? Englishness in a
post-devolved Britain. Institute for Public Policy Research.
• Norbrook, David (2000). Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627–1660.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78569-3.
• Scruton, Roger (1982). A dictionary of political
thought. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-33439-6.
• Singh, Udai (2009). Decentralized democratic governance in new millennium. Concept Publishing
Company. ISBN 81-8069-540-9.
• Stradling, R.A. (1993). The English musical Renaissance, 1860–1940. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-41503493-0.
• UK Parliament (2007). Department for Transport
annual report 2007. Stationery Office. ISBN 9780-10-170952-1.
• O'Hanlon, Ardal (2008). Global Airlines. Elsevier.
ISBN 0-7506-6439-8.
• Underdown, David (2000). Start of Play: Cricket
and Culture in Eighteenth-Century England. Allen
Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9330-8.
• Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2002). A to Z of STS scientists.
Facts on File Inc. ISBN 978-0-8160-4606-5.
• Ward, Paul (2004). Britishness Since 1870. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-49472-1.
• Warner, Charles (1902). Library of the world’s best
literature, ancient and modern. International society.
ISBN 1-60520-202-9.
• Watson, John (1985). English poetry of the Romantic period, 1789–1830. Longman. ISBN 0-58249259-9.
• Webster, Frederick A.M. (1937). Our great public
schools: their traditions, customs and games. London: Ward, Lock. OCLC 638146843.
• West, Anne (2003). Underachievement in schools.
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-24132-8.
• White, Fred (2009). Physical Signs in Medicine and
Surgery: An Atlas of Rare, Lost and Forgotten Physical Signs. Xlibris Corp. ISBN 978-1-4415-0829-4.
• White, Peter (2002). Public transport. Taylor &
Francis. ISBN 0-415-25772-7.
• Wilson, David; Game, Chris (2002). Local Government in the United Kingdom (3rd ed.). Basingstoke:
Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-333-94859-0.
• Withington, Robert (2008). English Pageantry; An
Historical Outline. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-40868062-9.
• World Book (2007). The World Book Encyclopedia,
Volume 6. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-71660102-8.
• Wright, Kevin J (2008). The Christian Travel Planner. Thomas Nelson Inc. ISBN 1-4016-0374-2.
• Young, Robert JC (2008). The Idea of English Ethnicity. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0129-5.
• Ziegler, Philip (2003). The Black Death (New ed.).
Sutton: Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-75093202-8.
External links
• English Heritage – National body protecting English
• Natural England – Wildlife and the natural world of
• VisitEngland – English Tourist Board
• BBC News – England – News items from BBC
News relating to England
• GOV.UK – Website of the British Government
• Geographic data
Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
• England Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England?oldid=653674915 Contributors: Paul Drye, MichaelTinkler, Derek Ross, ClaudeMuncey, Mav, Bryan Derksen, Zundark, The Anome, Malcolm Farmer, Gareth Owen, Mark, Verloren, Wayne Hardman, Khendon, Eob,
Scipius, Youssefsan, Danny, XJaM, Christian List, Toby Bartels, Enchanter, Deb, Ortolan88, SimonP, Zoe, Juwiley, Karl Palmen, Camembert, DonDaMon, Fonzy, Mintguy, Isis, Metz2000, Tzartzam, Hephaestos, Olivier, Leandrod, Mrwojo, Edward, Infrogmation, Michael
Hardy, Zocky, Micmatic, Llywrch, Dreamword, Bewildebeast, Jtdirl, Liftarn, MartinHarper, Gabbe, Mic, Ixfd64, Zanimum, Sannse,
Shoaler, Delirium, Nine Tail Fox, (, Pcb21, Ahoerstemeier, Cyp, Samuraise, Pjamescowie, Arwel Parry, Muriel Gottrop, PJT, G-Man,
Snoyes, Angela, Jdforrester, Darkwind, LittleDan, Mycroft (usurped), Glenn, Bogdangiusca, Poor Yorick, Susurrus, Jiang, Kaihsu, Evercat,
Atob, Efghij, John K, Rob Hooft, Marknew, BRG, Raven in Orbit, Conti, Norwikian, Dwo, Hashar, David Newton, Andy G, Pazzer, RickK,
Dysprosia, Jwrosenzweig, Fuzheado, WhisperToMe, Wik, Steinsky, DJ Clayworth, Markhurd, Tpbradbury, Astrotrain, PhilRodgers, Imc,
Morwen, Saltine, Ed g2s, Xevi, Nickshanks, Lord Emsworth, Joy, Bjarki S, Rls, Fvw, Warofdreams, AnonMoos, Introscop, Secretlondon, Jusjih, Proteus, Banno, Francs2000, Michael Glass, Lumos3, Jni, Rogper, Aenar, Nufy8, Robbot, TomPhil, Pigsonthewing, ChrisO,
Owain, PBS, Jredmond, Cabito, Boffin, Moncrief, Moondyne, ZimZalaBim, Yelyos, Naddy, Modulatum, Ianb, Mirv, Ashley Y, Henrygb,
Academic Challenger, Jxg, Gidonb, Timrollpickering, CdaMVvWgS, Caknuck, Mervyn, Hadal, JesseW, Saforrest, Ddstretch, JackofOz,
Wereon, Spellbinder, Stay cool, Rho, Mushroom, Jor, Guy Peters, Wayland, Dina, Jooler, Alan Liefting, Snobot, Christopher Parham,
MPF, Marnanel, Djinn112, Fennec, Jpta, Inter, Wiglaf, Wighson, Meursault2004, Martijn faassen, Ferkelparade, Mark Richards, Marcika,
Koyn, Peruvianllama, Average Earthman, Everyking, Curps, Alison, Michael Devore, Henry Flower, Varlaam, Niteowlneils, LLarson, Dick
Bos, Zaphod Beeblebrox, Duncharris, Sebjarod, Gilgamesh, Remy B, Mboverload, Zoney, Siroxo, Cambyses, AlistairMcMillan, Eequor,
Dagestan, Solipsist, Matthead, Gzornenplatz, VampWillow, Matt Crypto, Spe88, Avala, Bobblewik, Deus Ex, Dainamo, Sesel, Mooquackwooftweetmeow, ALargeElk, Wmahan, Isidore, Stevietheman, Fishal, Gadfium, Utcursch, Garryq, SoWhy, Andycjp, Jonathan Grynspan,
J. 'mach' wust, Geni, Dvavasour, Gdr, SarekOfVulcan, Chris Edgemon, Knutux, Slowking Man, K851jg2, Danny Rathjens, Lode, Antandrus, Beland, Madmagic, Evertype, Ravikiran r, Doops, Domino theory, Gunnar Larsson, Jossi, Rdsmith4, TomS, Louseboy, Mihoshi,
Grinner, Supadawg, Bumm13, Kevin B12, Simhedges, Icairns, GeoGreg, Sam Hocevar, MRSC, Grunners, Neutrality, Ctac, Joyous!,
Jcw69, Arosa, Davidshq, Sarcelles, Jh51681, Clemwang, Trilobite, Kevyn, Picapica, Johnwalton, Zondor, Adashiel, Kjspahis, Edmund,
Grunt, Canterbury Tail, Esperant, Grstain, Mike Rosoft, Mr Bound, Alkivar, D6, Jayjg, Freakofnurture, WikiUser, CALR, An Siarach,
Imaglang, A-giau, Noisy, Chris j wood, Discospinster, ElTyrant, Rich Farmbrough, Rhobite, Guanabot, Vague Rant, AxSkov, Vsmith,
Andrewferrier, BalowStar, Pluke, Barista, Bishonen, Spencer BOOTH, Chowells, Xezbeth, Mani1, Pavel Vozenilek, Paul August, SpookyMulder, Rannpháirtí anaithnid (old), Stbalbach, Edgarde, ESkog, Flapdragon, FrankCostanza, Swid, Violetriga, Brian0918, Appleboy,
CanisRufus, Jaques O. Carvalho, GordyB, El C, Carlon, Lycurgus, Cherry blossom tree, Bletch, Kwamikagami, Mwanner, Aude, Shanes,
Sietse Snel, Art LaPella, RoyBoy, Triona, Cap, Jpgordon, Thu, Adambro, Erauch, Dustinasby, Yono, Jonathan Drain, Alxndr, Icundell,
Bobo192, Janna Isabot, TomStar81, Ruszewski, NeonLego, Dpaajones, Shqiptar nga Kosova, Vortexrealm, Polocrunch, Albinomonkey,
Foobaz, Adrian, Jguk 2, JW1805, Ukeu, Man vyi, Sasquatch, Alphax, Deryck Chan, Physicistjedi, Johnmarkos, Rje, AnAccount, Vanished
user 19794758563875, John Fader, Obradovic Goran, MPerel, Sam Korn, Ral315, Peter Shearan, HasharBot, Poli, OGoncho, Jumbuck,
Red Winged Duck, Poweroid, JYolkowski, SnowFire, Richard Harvey, PopUpPirate, Buaidh, 119, Tek022, Arthena, Joolz, Lyndafis, WTGDMan1986, Carbon Caryatid, Queson, Craigy144, Rodw, Ronline, Little muddy funkster, Riana, Wikidea, Demi, Lectonar, SlimVirgin,
Water Bottle, Fritzpoll, Garethhamilton, LunarLander, Mysdaao, Malo, Avenue, Katefan0, Rwendland, Snowolf, Ross Burgess, Salagym,
Benson85, Ayrshire-−77, Rebroad, Dabbler, Cburnett, Yuckfoo, Evil Monkey, RainbowOfLight, Randy Johnston, Sciurinæ, H2g2bob,
P Ingerson, Computerjoe, Vanish3, A.Kurtz, Itsmine, Gonegonegone, CoastTOcoast533, Sleigh, SteinbDJ, Gene Nygaard, Alai, AusRef,
Suomi-morner, Nightstallion, Feline1, KeithV, HenryLi, Kazvorpal, MarkGeater, Paulcoyne, Vanished user dfvkjmet9jweflkmdkcn234,
Bruce89, TShilo12, Mahanga, Bastin, Pcpcpc, Stemonitis, Weyes, MickWest, FrancisTyers, Philthecow, Angr, DrDaveHPP, Kelly Martin,
The JPS, Firsfron, Sweet Blue Water, OwenX, Woohookitty, Liamgilmartin, TigerShark, FrederikNS, Masterjamie, LOL, Rastro, Whitehorse1, Ae-a, Thorpe, Commander Keane, JeremyA, MONGO, Rapunzel, Tabletop, Kmg90, Schzmo, Trevor Andersen, Cbustapeck,
Ppk01, Terence, Steinbach, Holger1076, Definition12, Zzyzx11, Wayward, Doric Loon, Karam.Anthony.K, EF, Mekong Bluesman,
Bretagne 44, Marudubshinki, Jimgawn, ADAM, SqueakBox, Rnt20, Blisco, Offtherails, Magister Mathematicae, A Train, Cuchullain,
BD2412, Qwertyus, James26, MC MasterChef, David Levy, Mucky Duck, FreplySpang, JIP, Island, RxS, NebY, Melesse, Dpv, Canderson7, Sjakkalle, Rjwilmsi, Mayumashu, Angusmclellan, Seidenstud, Tim!, Coemgenus, P3Pp3r, Dimitrii, Enzedbrit, Vary, Eeamoscopolecrushuva, Hiberniantears, Linuxbeak, JHMM13, Tangotango, B1link82, Seraphimblade, Sdornan, Bruce1ee, Captain Disdain, Tawker,
Mentality, Snugmidget, JLJ 2545, I'll suck anything, Funnyhat, HappyCamper, CQJ, Aroberts, SeanMack, Brighterorange, Ttwaring, DarApe, MapsMan, GregAsche, Sango123, Twerbrou, DirkvdM, Yamamoto Ichiro, Algebra, Wobble, Titoxd, StuartBrady, FlaBot, Ian Pitchford, SchuminWeb, RobertG, Ground Zero, Dan Guan, Stoph, CalJW, Doc glasgow, Godlord2, Hiding, Who, MacRusgail, Nivix, Chanting
Fox, Bky1701, CarolGray, Hottentot, Krueschan, Ecvjackass, RexNL, Gurch, Thonil, BitterMan, Krun, Preslethe, Alphachimp, Bmicomp,
Darranc, Ahkilinc, Gurubrahma, Le Anh-Huy, Coolhawks88, Unexplained, Chobot, Meawoppl, Rewster, Bornhj, JesseGarrett, Patientone,
Gdrbot, VolatileChemical, Bgwhite, Cactus.man, Digitalme, Hahnchen, Gwernol, Gary Joseph, EamonnPKeane, JPD, The Rambling Man,
Wavelength, Hutchk26, Angus Lepper, RobotE, Kinneyboy90, Sceptre, Huw Powell, Mahahahaneapneap, Kafziel, RussBot, JimboJim,
Open4D, Crazytales, Chainsfall, Sam Tarran, Anonymous editor, Diliff, Pigman, Green Tentacle, Gardar Rurak, Netscott, SpuriousQ,
JBG, CanadianCaesar, Akamad, Stephenb, Lord Voldemort, Manop, Gaius Cornelius, CambridgeBayWeather, Elmaynardo, UKWiki,
Wimt, Ugur Basak, Nis81, Finbarr Saunders, EngineerScotty, Shanel, NawlinWiki, Wiki alf, Bachrach44, BGManofID, AriGold, Leutha,
Obarskyr, Bloodofox, Deskana, Jaxl, Phil Bastian, Johann Wolfgang, Welsh, Phoenix79, Dudtz, Terfili, Twin Bird, Ezia, Robchurch,
Journalist, Dureo, Irishguy, Nick, Retired username, Dominykas Blyze, Mshecket, Robdurbar, Bigelow, M ishutin, Jpbowen, Matticus78,
Vancouveriensis, Emilio floris, Moe Epsilon, Snagglepuss, Kanaye, Misza13, CKHideki, Skl1983, Fr, Tony1, TonyBushido, Nate1481, RupertDick, Lockesdonkey, Samir, SFC9394, BOT-Superzerocool, PrimeCupEevee, Wangi, DeadEyeArrow, Barnabypage, Haemo, Phaedrus86, Mhart1, Robertbyrne, Nlu, Tonywalton, Tonym88, Nick123, Joshurtree, Wknight94, Jezzabr, AjaxSmack, Bob247, TransUtopian,
Richardcavell, FF2010, AnnaKucsma, Notscott, Deville, Zzuuzz, C i d, Palx, Imperial avis, Chesnok, RWHaworth, Barryob, Nikkimaria, Theda, Sotakeit, Arthur Rubin, Fang Aili, Pb30, Jogers, Careax, Dspradau, Statsfan, BorgQueen, GraemeL, JoanneB, Red Jay,
SndrAndrss, Ningyou, Hayden120, ALL YOUR INBRED ROYALTY ARE BELONG TO US, MartinUK, Mais oui!, Jaranda, Spliffy,
Flibberti, Sitegod, CapPixel, Fourohfour, NFH, Curpsbot-unicodify, SorryGuy, Robertcornell68, Tarquin Binary, Bluezy, Katieh5584,
Kungfuadam, Djr xi, Erudy, Mjroots, Carlosguitar, GrinBot, Airconswitch, SkerHawx, DVD R W, CIreland, WesleyDodds, Dandelions,
Ryūkotsusei, Eog1916, Caponer, Johnmarkh, AsifHussain123, Sardanaphalus, Veinor, Joshbuddy, A bit iffy, Steven J, Dodgerjammy,
SmackBot, YellowMonkey, Jayartibee, TomGreen, Ashenai, Musungu jim, Khfan93, Moeron, David Kernow, Bobet, Zazaban, Sjetha,
Reedy, Rose Garden, Prodego, KnowledgeOfSelf, Throup, FloNight, Baz34, Thundersky209, Bigbluefish, David.Mestel, Pgk, Cheese101,
Cheese102, Vald, Rrius, Gary Kirk, WilyD, Jacek Kendysz, Yuyudevil, Hatto, Davewild, Thunderboltz, Big Adamsky, Setanta747 (locked),
Serte, EncycloPetey, Jrockley, Delldot, Free.dog, Vilerage, TheDoctor10, Fnfd, Hmusseau, TharkunColl, Nscheffey, Edgar181, Galloglass,
PeeJay2K3, Mauls, Alex earlier account, Webreporter, VSquared, Xaosflux, Moralis, Cool3, Aksi great, Peter Isotalo, Sloman, Gilliam,
Jupix, Ohnoitsjamie, Hmains, Betacommand, Oscarthecat, Cs-wolves, Jaderaid, Izehar, Chris the speller, Bluebot, Ciriii, Keegan, Ian3055,
Geneb1955, Quinsareth, Thom2002, Persian Poet Gal, Rmstock, NCurse, Tito4000, Freakyclown, Achmelvic, Jprg1966, Thumperward,
Oli Filth, MalafayaBot, Silly rabbit, Melburnian, Papa November, Psycho 79, BrendelSignature, Droll, RexImperium, Folcwald, JoeBlogsDord, Akanemoto, Tim P, Breadandcheese, Bob the ducq, Redd Dragon, Fddfred, Teolsuk, Banksmeister general, El Gringo, DHN-bot,
Colonies Chris, Konstable, Firetrap9254, Brad E. Williams, Verrai, Yanksox, GoodDay, MaxSem, Deenoe, Marco79, Simpsons contributor, Philc 0780, Macphisto, Salmar, Zsinj, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Trystan Morris-Davies, Scott3, Scalpy, JWT, Alphathon,
Cripipper, OrphanBot, Skidude9950, MJCdetroit, Intelligent Mr Toad, Matthew, TheKMan, Naja Haje, Mufurc, Wes!, Krsont, Britmax,
Lozleader, Rsm99833, Mattaber, Interfector, DR04, Aktron, Sanchez NI, Sweetstudent, Maniacgeorge, Jmlk17, Soosed, Pepsidrinka,
Wackojacko1138, Ascreavie, Zepher25, Tvaughn05, Khukri, JoeKennedy1979, Nibuod, Nakon, Caniago, VegaDark, Brithackemack,
Wonkotsane, Kneale, Goodthe great, GuillaumeTell, SnappingTurtle, RandomP, Ranglingtory, R. Evert, Warren, Thegraham, Michaelrccurtis, ShaunES, Celardore, Goatodoom, Ryan Roos, Only, Hindleyite, Soobrickay, EdGl, Paul S, Jklin, Bob Castle, Maelnuneb, Kotjze,
Dave w74, FreeMorpheme, Epf, Luke C, Risssa, Pilotguy, Kukini, Skinnyweed, Drumnbach, Fjl307, Ufossuck, Ohconfucius, Cyberevil, CIS, SashatoBot, Jombo, Akubra, Arnoutf, Robomaeyhem, Randomwhiteman, Harryboyles, Icelandic Hurricane, Tomatzu, Vanished
user 9i39j3, Kuru, Gordon freeman, Jay.slovak, AmiDaniel, Demicx, Euchiasmus, Bodobodot1, Scientizzle, Heimstern, Cloakdeath, DivineIntervention, Kimgilmour, Calum MacÙisdean, Aquilina, Timclare, Mitternacht90, Bydand, Lancaster, Soumyasch, MilborneOne,
Regan123, Horgen, Vlatkoto, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, UpDown, Melcore, Edwy, JorisvS, Alifarakafantastic, Dumelow, CaptainVindaloo, Green Giant, Diverman, Richard Bladen, JohnWittle, Lancslad, Deadflagblues, Mr. Lefty, IronGargoyle, TylerWomba1,
RomanSpa, Chrisd87, 041744, Stoa, Nubbie44, Ian Dalziel, Borderlands, JHunterJ, Cikicdragan, Randomtime, Steamfraiser, Pedantic of
Purley, Dr Greg, Pondle, Jigsaw Jimmy, Pointman323, Andypandy.UK, Astuishin, Slakr, Hvn0413, Ghelae, Makyen, Tasc, Stevebritgimp,
Boomerring, Rofl, Mr Stephen, Childzy, AxG, Arkrishna, Jhamez84, Samwingkit, Basmandude, Waggers, SandyGeorgia, Battem, EdK,
Funnybunny, Cyanidesandwich, Tuspm, AdultSwim, Midnightblueowl, PhilG, Whomp, Kandi, Tacobell777, Kurtle, MarkThomas, RHB,
Agent 86, Asyndeton, KJS77, Politepunk, Cnbrb, Keith-264, Spongesquid, Burto88, Levineps, Emx, OnBeyondZebrax, Eopsid, Pneumenultramicroscopicsiliconvolcanoecaniosys, ACinfo, Yisraelee, Lun xia2000, Northeasternbeast, Vanished user 90345uifj983j4toi234k,
Roydosan, Qazqazqaz, Joseph Solis in Australia, Shoeofdeath, Newone, Kuolema Wikipedialle, Tyler10, N-edits, ArchonMeld, Synaptic
DX, J Di, Dave420, TheEnlightened, R, Jaksmata, Shoreranger, Hedpeguyuk, Iolar Iontach, Marysunshine, Mr Chuckles, Civil Engineer III, Tjtenor2, Ziusudra, Anger22, Bruinfan12, Heliomance, Fdp, Drinkcustard, Umoaye, Mahatma Randy, Kolkra, Malickfan86,
Tawkerbot2, Dlohcierekim, Jasrocks, Filelakeshoe, Daftpunkiscool, Jpbarrass, Kevin Murray, Wilkepedia, Ollieegg, Galati, MightyWarrior, FrFintonStack, Roxi2, Zealotgi, J Milburn, JForget, InvisibleK, Retune, Anon user, Ale jrb, Mattbr, Stuartpinch, TysK, Van helsing,
Scohoust, CBM, MysticalDescent, RedRollerskate, JohnCD, Naomhain, R9tgokunks, BKalesti, Lishy Guy, GHe, KnightLago, Reggy123,
NickW557, Nhojjohn, Ballista, Lazulilasher, Moreschi, Dave1010, Casper2k3, Socially Isolated Hamster, Ken Gallager, IrishJew, Richard
Keatinge, Squeak91, Tim1988, Karenjc, MrFish, VanishedUser30023402384023, Bobmarley1987, Nilfanion, Rudjek, Karok, Ajkgordon, Davidforbes, Mammal4, Teenten, Pit-yacker, Cydebot, ImanAtwal, Aodhdubh, Atomaton, Danrok, Ntsimp, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Q Canuck, MBRZ48, Conversion script, Ryan, Poeticbent, XxxCORRECTxxx, Slp1, Burkem, Thepack1, Gwdr500, Mosthauntedjp,
Lewbrown2, Steel, Achangeisasgoodasa, Third Uncle, Kaldosh, Gogo Dodo, Travelbird, Claret, JFreeman, Jon Stockton, Flowerpotman,
Llort, Jammy-dodger, Lancsalot, Pgg7, Scroggie, Andyrudlin, Ross Hetherington, Palmiped, Torvik, Wkd, Rogwan, Christophernlambert, Tkynerd, Synergy, M.J.W, Q43, Tawkerbot4, Demomoke, Dougweller, Cwilson90, Pishposh, Leight, DumbBOT, Chrislk02, Telex,
Marky-Son, Caitlin91, 1sam sam1, Pepsiphone, Optimist on the run, UKVillages, Bolton, Garik, BenShade, Kozuch, Xsamix, Abtract,
SKUK98, Arbitrary username, Gazlikespie, Calders, Omicronpersei8, Ash online, Daniel Olsen, Messyfoto, Metallica1791, Satori Son,
Kirkizzo14, Loggymcwoggy, Jacob Brower, Legotech, Malleus Fatuorum, SDMDPM14X, Thegoodson, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Chacufc, Harrysheldon, Biruitorul, Kahastok, Vera, Chuck & Dave, Mercury, Wikid77, Peter.M.D., Btball, Curtisloew, Ezkerraldean, Mad eye moody,
Kablammo, Martin Hogbin, Sagaciousuk, Lussier, Memty Bot, Tobz1000, Toshisarobot, RobotEater, Watsimous, Purple Paint, Anupam,
R5hul, Oliver202, Marek69, SGGH, Malarious, X F, 25162995, James086, Doyley, Trumble2000, DanDud88, MesserWoland, Keelm,
Saiorse44, Mnemeson, Ram4eva, Dfrg.msc, Dark dude, Chandler, Sfxdude, Philippe, CharlotteWebb, Camann, Nick Number, SenorKristobbal, Ahavat, Srose, FreeKresge, MichaelMaggs, Reecetheking, Stevvvv4444, Worldweaver, Vaniac, Escarbot, Dalliance, Mattlav, Dzubint, BeMe, Mentifisto, Porqin, Ju66l3r, RKO06, Yorkshire Phoenix, Daniel Barber, Darknesscrazyman, AntiVandalBot, Emperor Jackal,
Majorly, Yonatan, Omarmasood, Luna Santin, Bkkeim2000, Mallimak, Chaz247, Opelio, SuperBladez, Vianna, Dr. Blofeld, Tangerines, Kbthompson, DarkAudit, Jamespark, David136a, Brendandh, Ferro Carlotta Monzi Brak, Maork, Sandeep S K, Whoosher, Zacmcd,
Drumhollistan, Apotsios, Matt Hales [email protected], [email protected], Jackdeacon, LibLord, Darklilac, Credema, Amylyn,
Gdo01, Villy van der Veelen, Villafancd, Alphachimpbot, RedCoat10, Mutt Lunker, Pixelface, Master Bratac, Skacel, Myanw, Ghmyrtle, NorthernSole, Patrickool, Gav in, MacLeod, TuvicBot, Ranges, Ryanyoutz, PJ Pete, Rvela888, Smi1940.40, JAnDbot, Gavinrew,
Profeta divino, Tragical, Lumber Jack second account, Deflective, Husond, Kaobear, Bedir26, Cairine MacGillivray, MER-C, Kedi the
tramp, Adresia, LoveCowboy2024, Blood Red Sandman, Fetchcomms, Redking7, Db099221, Michig, Thenub314, Snakeater89, Sigurd
Dragon Slayer, Andonic, Dcooper, Hut 8.5, Noface1, Hobson, Snowolfd4, MegX, Dontpetthesheep, Kerotan, Jameskeates, Severo, Viola Tragic, LittleOldMe, Robertayee, .anacondabot, Bunny-chan, Teh mite, POPSICLESTICK, Silverfish881, Bogdanszabo, NickTaylor3,
Casmith 789, Magioladitis, Poiuytre, Dp76764, Mattb112885, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Weebiloobil, MartinDK, Crimperman, Rabbitsrule0, TheMadBadger, Fusionmix, Martin tamb, Yafai jordan, FusionWarrior, Jetstreamer, Italiacampione2006, Hasek is the best, JNW,
Kenaldinho10, Mclay1, Helix12, Swpb, ‫باسم‬, Kibblesworth, Violentbob, Stabbykill, Minrice2099, Willy on WheeLs, Joshua247303,
Keyshawn19, Jim Douglas, Jatkins, Zee18, WODUP, Rugops, Cityfan, SparrowsWing, Snowded, WikieWikieWikie, Bubba hotep, Catgut,
Leks81, Indon, Fallschirmjäger, Bombdisposal, Zctyp18, Clear air turbulence, Cjrobin, Hamiltonstone, Allstarecho, Beavermoose, TammiMagee, Schumi555, R johnson, Thehalfone, Pecsaetan, Mfloryan, IanUK, PoliticalJunkie, 3idiot, Just James, Glen, Chris G, DerHexer,
DavidNw, Edward321, Wdflake, Beansman, Deathwing23, Floria L, JdeJ, Nankai, WLU, King Dracula, White43, Lyserge, SantaMonicaMax, Baristarim, Ptes, Garik 11, Pax:Vobiscum, TheRanger, Socom58, Acadienne, Welshleprechaun, Lost tourist, Carsonhayes, Oroso,
Gjd001, DancingPenguin, Redbluerhino, FisherQueen, Somethingoranother, MartinBot, Ummagumma23, LiamUK, Scml1234, SandyDancer, ShaunL, Duncan7670, Quaker24, Hitman990, Arjun01, Poeloq, Pupster21, Timothy Titus, Hotbreakfast, Robert25, Deeds-123,
LColocho, Aegirthor, Prinzy91, Bob1234567890123456789, Bender-rulz, Shauniemac, Keith D, Nips, QWERQWER, Zouavman Le
Zouave, Mschel, Flrn, Gollum.two, CommonsDelinker, AlexiusHoratius, Joke466, Nono64, Oguzsaltik, Oaken, Digitalmaster287, Smokizzy, Lilac Soul, Dudley Miles, Dbitter, Pomte, P-Fish, Morrad, Vanwhistler, Eowbotm1, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Nev1, Salgrey, Trusilver, Hamster121312, Juchan1, Numbo3, Wbutler1, Writegeist, J intela, Freemoneyplz, Eliz81, KeepItClean, Patycat, Guilherme Paula,
Qweop, Johnnybriggs, MattWest, Deadasadodo, Mike829, Benattewell, Acalamari, EH74DK, Sega31098, Jpisqma, Dispenser, Brother
Officer, Johnbod, DarkFalls, Dahliarose, DSuser, LordAnubisBOT, JavaJawaUK, CzarNick, Julin123, Mattwbr, Notreallydavid, Jigesh,
Memestream, Mountainyman, Bilbobee, Johnhardcastle, Chriswiki, AntiSpamBot, Rab-k, Rossenglish, Plasticup, WHeimbigner, Mnealon,
Belovedfreak, Freary1, NewEnglandYankee, T)ickhead123, Axeman54jt, Con accento, Hot-dog, SJP, Cobi, Anietor, Seanjennings, Kevin
Kahle, Borat98, LeighvsOptimvsMaximvs, Lemonbrook, Satoku, Doomsday28, Tanaats, Shoessss, Jamesward22, 2812, Elixerman, South
mpls sause, Spshu, Jackaranga, Cometstyles, Dn9ah, Eee34, Boulet, DH85868993, Ballofbluestring, Ludwigparis, Andrewcmcardle, Tom
jones the best, Misterburke, Kenny626, Cena freak, Mafiga, Danedane1, Riker9, Elenseel, Gtg204y, Kinigi, Fingerpuppet, Fortunefaded,
Nomi887, Cpartos, JesseJastwood, Scott Illini, Timmy5000000, Andy Marchbanks, Riverplaterules, Stefish23, Icecold7, StoptheDatabaseState, Asuka2330, CA387, Gracz54, Tkgd2007, Joecharlie4, Jebudas, Lawrence12345, Drunkcaveman, D.de.loinsigh, Jummysull, Alanjohns, Loshilton, Idioma-bot, Spellcast, Highfields, BigBlob14, Craitman17, Black Kite, Lights, Bradders91, Vranak, G2bambino, Sam
Blacketer, PeaceNT, Ebsawy, Deor, WillHarper, VolkovBot, TreasuryTag, CWii, JacobiteBoy, Rtdixon86, Timothyda, RingtailedFox,
The Duke of Waltham, AlnoktaBOT, Rafey2, Harkey Lodger, Katydidit, Kyle the bot, Rvfharrier, Jaggernut, Boaex, BlazeTheMovieFan,
Barneca, Gazh, Philip Trueman, Drunkenmonkey, TXiKiBoT, Jew123, Crevox, Swanseaeu1, Scottjamespreston, Yash Momaya, Dojarca,
El3mentary, AllOtherNamesTaken, Commeycommy, Jacob Lundberg, Birdie x, Asarlaí, Rightfully in First Place, BertSen, Edwardneville,
EmeraldLita, Pat777, Littleads2, Mynameisnotkaty, Jonbob1, Bcats2good4u, Onursencer, Splint480, Pooploopsoop, Mr Dixon, Aathienitis, Bretticus189, Tomsega, Park70, Ann Stouter, Uisce, ElinorD, DeathDealer92, Thatsgold, Darkerhat, Arthur7171, Riggski, Arnon
Chaffin, Raven rs, Aymatth2, Qxz, Yamaha j, Pie25, Vanished user ikijeirw34iuaeolaseriffic, Samishxc, Chrisieboy, Lradrama, Coolkidgeorge, Liamcymro, Dendodge, Xkingoftheworldx, Jgillies94, Melsaran, Man nited.com, Grimne, Idib, Oren neu dag, PawełS, Supertask,
Mzmadmike, Daemon660, 0Andrew0, ^demonBot2, PDFbot, Traintoots, Bradders9191, Cremepuff222, Hrundi Bakshi, Gibson Flying
V, Userjapan, Pbrook, Durnthalerk, Mwilso24, Eldredo, Suriel1981, Theincrediblehoudini, Blacksands, Jamesmarkhetterley, Claudiala,
Usergreatpower, Sandersonjoe229, Operating, DuckDRe, Vaubin, Atillashardermate, Ana570, Synthebot, Grsz11, Thanatos666, Insanity
Incarnate, Apangul, Why Not A Duck, Dw63, Brianga, Mthteh, Troll666, Budhajeewa, Davidlufc, Ambermb, Onceonthisisland, AlleborgoBot, Funeral, Ryman 3000, Srm07, Rocko52003, Tainscough, Legoktm, Chuck Sirloin, Signsolid, Mr-mq, EmxBot, Kritt, Deconstructhis, Thebluebeast, Cjc13, Murkee, Douglike, Justin leo, The Random Editor, Blue Savoyboy, Ironfistofanarchy, Wingedadvenger,
Joseph benson, Bctaylor, Slacksta, Angel-cool01, Extraspareman, Twpcru123, SieBot, Sgerrard08, StAnselm, Kegojenrox, Whiskey in
the Jar, Ipankonin, Schism76, Mikeo34, Restre419, Tiddly Tom, J. Ponder, Moonriddengirl, Euryalus, Joshlatimer, N-HH, Knorpel, Ashwinosoft, Sathha123, Jerahad, Inaspin, Ggunit, Dimwight, Gerakibot, Josh the Nerd, Vexorg, RomaUltra77, Harryfox15, Caltas, Erik Jesse,
Sandersonjoe222, DitzyNizzy, SE7, IamRamos, Tom pearce 101, Tomlet12481632, Xdexter, Weemick, Pretty-iris, ProfessorGreg, Sunny
Gill265, Senwod Gnidrah, Gravitan, Xelgen, The Anti-Kid, Zuhdizuhdi, Mr Taz, Cbird09, Thomasblur, Barliner, Danliam93, Keilana,
Aillema, Toddst1, Falastur2, OwlboyFC-United, Editore99, Oda Mari, Ventur, Stugodsland, Ferret, DevOhm, Cameron, Orgel, Callumski, Oxymoron83, AngelOfSadness, Ptolemy Caesarion, Shani97, Nuttycoconut, Pretty Green, Pac72, Lightmouse, Poindexter Propellerhead, Skinny87, Ealdgyth, Joshii, Monkey93, The 92nd Revolutionist, Comon, Alex.muller, Wilberforcw1, Tubs uk, Adamismad, London
Steam, Stubucky, IdreamofJeanie, Fishonastick22, Bakura6677, Hove565, Asdfasdf1231234, Jizz bomb, Retireduser1111, John stole
my shoes, Njnjnj101, Aravind V R, Dravecky, Craggus, Maelgwnbot, Metalmasta2, Calatayudboy, MichiganCharms, Andrij Kursetsky,
Spartan-James, Gav235, StaticGull, Kentynet, Robomfc, IFixxUGood, YingYang2, Bananaman68, Stoneyford, Rawrbear, Hudsonram, The
Oopsaapteirmere, Taylorb123, Boruma, Loopyob, Chris-westwood94, Grantmitch1, Mtaylor848, TaerkastUA, Dust Filter, Dabomb87, Islarules, Alexedmundscott, Dangit11, Jza84, Chocobacon, Verdadero, TubularWorld, Artdemon01, Savie Kumara, Hume3nrg, Ed Avis, Into
The Fray, LarRan, AutoFire, DDeRosia82, Tatterfly, Lapdognation, Decipher2207, The sunder king, Invertzoo, Tjr1711, Harleyjsmith208,
Christoff2k7, Martarius, Tom020681, Rhyshuw1, ClueBot, Beaugilesnet, Victor Chmara, BadboyIain, Dumps234, My rights, Selecciones
de la Vida, Ruhialjallad, Sylvestermccoy, Jackollie, Snigbrook, Peterasl, IeieieieFrenchenenenene, Malpass93, Kotniski, TheFox3, Viperes,
Jigfig100, Postmortemjapan, Icarusgeek, IceUnshattered, Corvettegrandsport, EoGuy, Loopwipedrump, Imakuni2007, RashersTierney,
JDCassidy, Wilcam27, Whatdidido, Massimo2007, Krogstadt, Trotline, Ukabia, Fiet Nam, Lewo, Zburh, Mild Bill Hiccup, TheOldJacobite, Mogtheforgetfulcat, JTBX, Timberframe, Yamakiri, AirdishStraus, Redalert200, MasterEVIL16, Csmh, 05smithg, CounterVandalismBot, Gavinho, ArCtIc-RoMaNcE, KRONZO, Ulmke, Niceguyedc, Wyndhammafia, Mnbvcxzxcvbnmnbvcxz, Googlebasher,
Mchsmc, DaveBurstein, Zardoz99, Dengero, Dudleyboy, Dickpenn, LukeHogg456, Roberto765, Serenapoo, Giglamesh777, Ndasfhdfhdsf,
No weak sauce, BABERUTH100, Secret (renamed), Rockfang, COCKS0990, Chris Kutler, Scollins 92, Kansoku, Andrei Iosifovich,
Windir1184, Mike-shearer, AnnaLuvsSonOfDorkandMcFly, FoxSportsOhio, Gakusha, IrishMas, Wikimustdie, Wutizevrybudylookingat?,
Ssts, Pooman2279, Detroiterbot, Worldkacitizen, Kitsunegami, Ryan420, Beckford10, Alex1985, Gogotili, Mustangs88, Alexbot, Shyterman, Meow kitties, Romanesco20, Diplodoc, Joshisatopgeeza, Buckosucko212, Rida12525, Taifarious1, Tornadou, Howard Alexander,
Sunil060902, NK57SDF, Kanguole, Jack.Hartford, Blitz singh, Corby Master Chief, Samcoopslewis, Rudolf Pohl, Kassrith, ITravelPhotography, Byeboer wa, Ajaxmaster, Arcot, Fishiehelper2, Zaharous, Lucifer Spam, Yorkshirian, Ciempiés, Costlab, Sun Creator, Opinionpoo,
NuclearWarfare, MickMacNee, Parfitta, MIR17, Jandrews23jandrews23, Dn9ahx, Iohannes Animosus, Michael.palomino-at-gmx.ch, Bogbumper, Dotsey, Dekisugi, SchreiberBike, Contributor2007, Hhaayyddnn, Thehelpfulone, Zukinihead, Mercuryrocks94, One last pharaoh,
Aitias, Samantha555, DerBorg, Nbradshaw, Porridgebowl, Kyleglanville, Dana boomer, Djk3, ByOus, IJA, MelonBot, B L east, Pip92,
Beckford14, Edgarnick, MasterOfHisOwnDomain, Minkyman, DumZiBoT, Georgexx316, Skunkboy74, CraigJRichards, Cooltrainer
Hugh, Nathan Johnson, GordonUS, Auslli, St.Trond, Dthomsen8, Actam, Thrashmetal1, Ttam02, BeautifulEngland, AndreNatas, Dodebck, Bekah1991, Blargfest08, Ollie96, Humgy, XxXJess400XxX, TFOWR, Mievjones, Yr Wyddfa, JoshWWE, Discodancingchickenman4life, Sambean, Lepi606, Cullen09, Hipton45, Hippoboy27, Prabhasyadav, Bumblebee140, Vickyangel2, Bazaninty, Kemnaymintalsquad, Bawjaws123, Wikihelperx, Emilie.Ilse, Frazmanthefast, 7isaac7, Iwanttopokeu, Cradel, Atomicdor, Asidemes, GTH1, The-obe,
Abomasnow, Iconseditor, Al tally, Ben R-B, Mr.mummbles, Yocrumbalivable, Peeliii, Ellie-Ox, Heffeboy, 1-no-name-1, Mjelski, Notuncurious, Good Olfactory, Atoric, JoB614, Algebran, Hell creature 5, Tommy bizzler bear, Jack forbes (renamed), Dave1185, Gashead 12,
Gbd1995, ThomasMally, Bazj, Addbot, Power.corrupts, LeedsLad08, Jojhutton, Causteau, AnnaJGrant, Gibbons91, MR.CRO95, KeyanFretwell, Tanhabot, Hollando, Jeanne boleyn, LetThereBeLove, Untitledmind72, Parshantx, Scientus, Kman543210, CanadianLinuxUser,
Itsempty, Mohamed Magdy, Nimbley66, LaaknorBot, MikeF9, Daicaregos, Rawdogg, Mpvide65, AnnaFrance, LemmeyBOT, Lemonade100, Tsange, Splodgeness, Fone4My, Tassedethe, Numbo3-bot, Ehrenkater, James Balti, Vikaszt, MinYinChao, Faunas, Pureditor,
WikiHendrik, She’sGotSpies, The Mummy, Middayexpress, Yobot, OrgasGirl, Christopedia, Rsquire3, Urbanknowhow, Louisjcm, Skipper 360, Crispmuncher, Alakasam, MoHasanie, SCIAG, KamikazeBot, DarkKunai, Brixtonboy, Mxshee, Samspade79, Anonymous from
the 21th century, Face1991, AnomieBOT, Puertorico1, 1exec1, YeshuaDavid, Bailster28, Gloucesterfolk, Galoubet, Kadoc4, JackieBot,
Kdm85, Hadrian89, Zangar, LlywelynII, Renamed user199219912, Stroganoff, Materialscientist, ImperatorExercitus, Historian19, Citation bot, OllieFury, Rightandright, Chickenfeeders, Jamiemaloneyscoreg, LilHelpa, Xqbot, The Banner, Haljolad, Rhysoverton, Conay,
Wether B, Poetaris, Pontificalibus, 205ywmpq, The Roman Candle, Davshul, Drpayne2008, Chendo12, BritishWatcher, JCrue, Cyrusmilleyhannana, Jolly Janner, Ender’s Shadow Snr, GrouchoBot, Abce2, Alumnum, Ιων, Aymie, Hubrid Noxx, Worcsinfo, Cicifan247,
Sabrebd, Toronto1001, Lunar Dragoon, Mike-hilal, Aaaatu, Sophus Bie, Ardg08, GhalyBot, Moxy, Bushido 299, WebCiteBOT, Misortie,
Joshua Darkins, Lodi01, FrescoBot, Cut161, Paine Ellsworth, Tobby72, Mark Renier, Mistakefinder, Alarics, Izzedine, HJ Mitchell, Bambuway, Kernoweger, Egmontbot, Gallifrey102, Citation bot 1, Launchballer, Aogouguo, SifaV6, Amplitude101, Kylem123, Galloramenu,
Biker Biker, SpacemanSpiff, Yusung86, Elockid, HRoestBot, Tommy-g-98, Mkd07, Alonso de Mendoza, Martinvl, Hardassteel, Moonraker, RedBot, Jaguar, Jamesinderbyshire, Pabmeista, Joao0Paulo, Gasta220, Peace and Passion, Banan14kab, Cnwilliams, Bewitched
fan 2k, Flosssock1, FoxBot, VEO15, TobeBot, Karyasuman, BaldBoris, Stelmaris, Jadran91, Gaius Octavius Princeps, Rettens2, TDSDOS, Jigglyfidders, Diannaa, Whitfia1, Innotata, Slayer93, Stephreef, EonLinE, Kaz1501, RjwilmsiBot, Coast123, Brunanburh, 07bargem,
Peaceworld111, The cows want their milk back, Chickenlickentime, ThisguyYEAH, Jimtaip, Wdjunkin, Pwhitehurst, CalicoCatLover,
DASHBot, Drama123, 02goodwinhar, EmausBot, Felipe1966, WikitanvirBot, Sahakian, Surlyduff50, Abrawak, Distal24, Rezemuhan,
Dewritech, Themindsurgeon, Rstallard2, Laurel Lodged, Bull Market, DiiCinta, PhantomScott, MrTranscript, Kernowabc, Simon A Lock,
Chriswilkins2, TuHan-Bot, K6ka, DharmaDreamer, Denhetreil, Umumu, Ykraps, Triton Rocker, ZéroBot, Kcknowledge, Biggs&Wedge,
Dolovis, Vanished user sdjei4o346jowe3, Garrison Savannah, Space25689, LeftFootRight, Semmler, H3llBot, UrbanNerd, ThomasB443,
SporkBot, GrindtXX, Otinching, Neddy1234, Nicknack19, Someone65, Flávio Paiva F1, Rcsprinter123, Τασουλα, Jarjarbinks10, The
Cowdestroyer, RedSoxFan274, Irrypride, DeCausa, Swannp1, Rangoon11, Ifmicecouldfly, Olpomo, Hazard-Bot, ChuispastonBot, TRAJAN 117, The Celestial City, Davey2010, Impact33, Op finish them, Vallonen, Skaterboy2012, But I'm Bwitish, Gilderien, Jenova20,
Shouvikgreat, Fred DeSoya, Movses-bot, Sapec, Goldblooded, Frietjes, Twillisjr, Hazhk, M.Mario, Costesseyboy, Mchaasch20247, U9f85,
Quick and Dirty User Account, RafikiSykes, Mightymights, Helpful Pixie Bot, Paulmec, Calidum, Tklink, REJS H, BG19bot, Murry1975,
Silent-silent-mind, PhnomPencil, HIDECCHI001, Suarez rocks, Suchetaav, Lightpositive, JOHNDOE, Red Baboon, Earth’sbuddy, FutureTrillionaire, Viller the Great, Booboo29, Emilianogarciag, Alvin Lee, Mike22r, Monotrono, Ollieinc, DPL bot, Synaptic peach,
Easyeasyeasy32, TBrandley, Loriendrew, Merlaysamuel, Lommaren, Callum RS, Lizzie97, Z2a, Fdsdh1, Eshlare, IkbenFrank, Сербијана,
Mrt3366, Chie one, Garamond Lethe, Italay90, JYBot, RatWeazle, Ibicdlcod, Dexbot, Antonin1706, Br'er Rabbit, Mogism, MeasureIT,
Herve Reex, আহসান হাবীব, Krakkos, Climatophile, WesternEdD, Lactical, Frustrated american progressive, Seqqis, Londomollari42, CsDix,
Ruby Murray, Rob984, Ransewiki, James Verner, The Anonybot, Soffredo, Praemonitus, Dwscomet, LudicrousTripe, Vochoajr, IIIJL22,
Atotalstranger, Kind Tennis Fan, Charlemagne77, EncyclopaediaNilssonia, Goodfaith17, Stufroguk, Azertopius, Anarchistdy, Kezzer16,
Carlos Rojas77, Linkiscool99, Monkbot, SkateTier, HughTubex, Jozpoppy, Cousin Bluey, Owais Khursheed, Zacwill16, Rinfoli, Cgyc,
Warner REBORN, TheMagikCow, Lorcan0t, WikiImprovment78, RyanTQuinn, Castanté and Anonymous: 2561
• File:09_The_Queen’{}s_Dolour_(A_Farewell)_Henry_Purcell_Transcribed_Ronald_Stevenson_(1958)_Mark_Gasser_Piano_
(Live_Recording).ogg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/09_The_Queen%27s_Dolour_%28A_Farewell%
29_Henry_Purcell_Transcribed_Ronald_Stevenson_%281958%29_Mark_Gasser_Piano_%28Live_Recording%29.ogg License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Mark Gasser
• File:Anglospeak.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Anglospeak.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Based on Image:Anglospeak.png, which was Coloured by en:User:Iamvered from public domain Wikimedia Commons source. Original artist: User:Shardz
• File:Apple_pie.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Apple_pie.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dan90266/42759561/ Original artist: Dan Parsons
• File:Bentley_Mulsanne_–_Frontansicht_(1),_30._August_2011,_Düsseldorf.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: Own work Original artist: M 93
• File:Bodiam-castle-10My8-1197.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/Bodiam-castle-10My8-1197.jpg
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Antony McCallum
• File:Buck.palace.soldiers.arp.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Buck.palace.soldiers.arp.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Canterbury_Cathedral_-_Portal_Nave_Cross-spire.jpeg Source:
Canterbury_Cathedral_-_Portal_Nave_Cross-spire.jpeg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Picture taken and postprocessed by Hans
Musil. Original artist: Hans Musil
• File:Celtic-knot-insquare-39crossings.svg
Celtic-knot-insquare-39crossings.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work -- Converted from the following vector
PostScript source code: %! 306 396 translate .925 dup scale 1 setlinejoin 18 setlinewidth /x 2812.5 sqrt def/y 3528 sqrt 200 add def .3 .8
.42 setrgbcolor /A{gsave 42 setlinewidth 0 setgray stroke grestore stroke}def y 42 add neg dup moveto y 42 add neg x 2 mul y 42 add sub
lineto −100 −100 75 135 225 arcn −200 x sub x neg lineto 0 y 42 −45 90 arc 0 0 y 42 add 90 270 arc 0 y neg 42 −90 45 arc −200 x
sub x lineto −100 100 75 135 225 arcn y 42 add neg y 42 add x 2 mul sub lineto y 42 add neg dup neg lineto A y 42 add dup neg moveto
y 42 add x 2 mul y 42 add sub lineto 100 −100 75 45 315 arc 200 x add x neg lineto 0 y 42 225 90 arcn 0 0 y 42 add 90 −90 arcn 0 y
neg 42 270 135 arcn 200 x add x lineto 100 100 75 45 315 arc y 42 add y 42 add x 2 mul sub lineto y 42 add dup lineto A y 42 add neg
dup neg moveto −175 y 42 add lineto −100 100 x 2 mul add 75 180 225 arc 100 100 x 2 mul add neg 75 45 0 arcn 175 y 42 add neg
lineto y 42 add dup neg lineto A y 42 add neg dup moveto −175 y 42 add neg lineto −100 100 x 2 mul add neg 75 180 135 arcn 100
100 x 2 mul add 75 315 0 arc 175 y 42 add lineto y 42 add dup lineto A 0 setlinejoin 42 setlinewidth 0 setgray −100 −100 75 25 65 arc
stroke 100 100 75 205 245 arc stroke −100 100 75 25 65 arc stroke 100 −100 75 205 245 arc stroke −100 100 75 245 225 arcn −16
16 rlineto stroke 100 −100 75 65 45 arcn 16 −16 rlineto stroke −100 −100 75 245 225 arcn −16 16 rlineto stroke 100 100 75 65 45
arcn 16 −16 rlineto stroke 0 0 y 42 add 25 35 arc stroke 0 0 y 42 add 205 215 arc stroke 0 0 y 42 add 119 134 arc stroke 0 0 y 42 add
299 314 arc stroke 0 y neg 42 −14 −90 arcn 0 0 y 42 add 270 258 arcn stroke −116 84 moveto −84 116 lineto stroke 116 −84 moveto
84 −116 lineto stroke 0 200 moveto 16 16 rmoveto −32 −32 rlineto stroke 200 0 moveto 16 16 rmoveto −32 −32 rlineto stroke −200
0 moveto 16 16 rmoveto −32 −32 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add 100 moveto 16 16 rmoveto −32 −32 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add
neg 100 moveto 16 16 rmoveto −32 −32 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add −100 moveto 16 16 rmoveto −32 −32 rlineto stroke 100 x 2
mul add neg −100 moveto 16 16 rmoveto −32 −32 rlineto stroke 100 x sub 100 x add moveto −16 16 rmoveto 32 −32 rlineto stroke
100 x add 100 x sub moveto −16 16 rmoveto 32 −32 rlineto stroke −100 x sub −100 x add moveto −16 16 rmoveto 32 −32 rlineto
stroke −100 x add −100 x sub moveto −16 16 rmoveto 32 −32 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add neg 100 moveto −34 34 rmoveto −37
37 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add −100 moveto 34 −34 rmoveto 37 −37 rlineto stroke y 42 add dup 75 sub moveto 0 75 rlineto −75 0
rlineto stroke y 42 add neg dup 75 add moveto 0 −75 rlineto 75 0 rlineto stroke y 42 add dup neg 75 add moveto 0 −75 rlineto −75 0
rlineto stroke y 42 add neg dup neg 75 sub moveto 0 75 rlineto 75 0 rlineto stroke .3 .8 .42 setrgbcolor 18 setlinewidth −100 −100 75 24
66 arc stroke 100 100 75 204 246 arc stroke −100 100 75 24 66 arc stroke 100 −100 75 204 246 arc stroke −100 100 75 246 225 arcn
−17 17 rlineto stroke 100 −100 75 66 45 arcn 17 −17 rlineto stroke −100 −100 75 246 225 arcn −17 17 rlineto stroke 100 100 75 66
45 arcn 17 −17 rlineto stroke 0 0 y 42 add 24 36 arc stroke 0 0 y 42 add 204 216 arc stroke 0 0 y 42 add 118 135 arc stroke 0 0 y 42 add
298 315 arc stroke 0 y neg 42 −13 −90 arcn 0 0 y 42 add 270 257 arcn stroke −117 83 moveto −83 117 lineto stroke 117 −83 moveto
83 −117 lineto stroke 0 200 moveto 17 17 rmoveto −34 −34 rlineto stroke 200 0 moveto 17 17 rmoveto −34 −34 rlineto stroke −200 0
moveto 17 17 rmoveto −34 −34 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add 100 moveto 17 17 rmoveto −34 −34 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add neg
100 moveto 17 17 rmoveto −34 −34 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add −100 moveto 17 17 rmoveto −34 −34 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul
add neg −100 moveto 17 17 rmoveto −34 −34 rlineto stroke 100 x sub 100 x add moveto −17 17 rmoveto 34 −34 rlineto stroke 100
x add 100 x sub moveto −17 17 rmoveto 34 −34 rlineto stroke −100 x sub −100 x add moveto −17 17 rmoveto 34 −34 rlineto stroke
−100 x add −100 x sub moveto −17 17 rmoveto 34 −34 rlineto stroke 100 x 2 mul add neg 100 moveto −33 33 rmoveto −39 39 rlineto
stroke 100 x 2 mul add −100 moveto 33 −33 rmoveto 39 −39 rlineto stroke y 42 add dup 76 sub moveto 0 76 rlineto −76 0 rlineto stroke
y 42 add neg dup 76 add moveto 0 −76 rlineto 76 0 rlineto stroke y 42 add dup neg 76 add moveto 0 −76 rlineto −76 0 rlineto stroke y
42 add neg dup neg 76 sub moveto 0 76 rlineto 76 0 rlineto stroke showpage %EOF
Original artist: AnonMoos
• File:Circle-information.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Circle-information.svg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Carelesshx
• File:City_of_London_skyline_at_dusk.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/City_of_London_skyline_
at_dusk.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jikatu/8013372310/ Original artist: jikatu
• File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
• File:Court_1.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Court_1.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here. Original artist: Original uploader was Aleksmot at en.wikipedia
• File:EdwardElgarPompandCIrcumstanceMarchNo1.ogg
EdwardElgarPompandCIrcumstanceMarchNo1.ogg License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: http://imslp.org/wiki/Pomp_and_Circumstance,
_Op.39_(Elgar,_Edward)#General_Information Original artist: Carl Simpson
• File:England_and_Wales_population_cartogram_districts.svg Source:
England_and_Wales_population_cartogram_districts.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: PawełS
• File:England_counties_population_(crop).png Source:
population_%28crop%29.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: User:Roke created it. Original artist: User:Roke
• File:England_ethnicity_estimates_2009.jpg Source:
estimates_2009.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Stevvvv4444
• File:England_in_the_UK_and_Europe.svg Source:
and_Europe.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: This file was derived from: Blank map of Europe.svg: <a href='//commons.
wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blank_map_of_Europe.svg' class='image'><img alt='Blank map of Europe.svg' src='//upload.wikimedia.
1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Blank_map_of_Europe.svg/100px-Blank_map_of_Europe.svg.png 2x'
data-file-width='680' data-file-height='520' /></a>
Original artist: Blank_map_of_Europe.svg: maix¿?
• File:England_world_cup_winners.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/England_world_cup_winners.jpg
License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jonlucas/1555930/ Original artist: BombDog
• File:English_ceremonial_counties_1998.svg Source:
counties_1998.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: This file was derived from: English ceremonial counties 2010.svg: <a
href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:English_ceremonial_counties_2010.svg' class='image'><img alt='English ceremonial counties 2010.svg' src='//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/English_ceremonial_counties_2010.svg/50px-English_
ceremonial_counties_2010.svg.png' width='50' height='61' srcset='//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/English_
ceremonial_counties_2010.svg/75px-English_ceremonial_counties_2010.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
data-file-height='1345' /></a>
Original artist: English_ceremonial_counties_2010.svg: Nilfanion
• File:Europe_green_light.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/Europe_green_light.png License: Public
domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Aegean Boy
• File:Fish_and_chips.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Fish_and_chips.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Andrew Dunn
• File:Flag_of_England.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/be/Flag_of_England.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Flintoff_bowling_Siddle,_2009_Ashes_2.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Flintoff_bowling_
Siddle%2C_2009_Ashes_2.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flintoff knocks out Siddle’s middle stump, England v Australia 5th
Day 2nd Ashes Test @ Lord’s 20-07-09 Original artist: Andy from England
• File:Geoffrey_Chaucer_(17th_century).jpg Source:
%2817th_century%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Government Art Collection Original artist: anonymous portrait
• File:Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg
Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work. Based on File:Gnome-mime-audio-openclipart.
svg, which is public domain. Original artist: User:Eubulides
• File:Greensleeves-dorian.ogg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Greensleeves-dorian.ogg License: CC BY
3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:FSII using CommonsHelper.
Original artist: Jujimufu (talk). Original uploader was Laonikoss at en.wikipedia
• File:Hans_Holbein,_the_Younger,_Around_1497-1543_-_Portrait_of_Henry_VIII_of_England_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Hans_Holbein%2C_the_Younger%2C_Around_1497-1543_-_Portrait_
of_Henry_VIII_of_England_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: bwFsEOEPkei3Lw at Google Cultural
Institute, zoom level maximum Original artist: Hans Holbein the Younger
• File:Heathrow_T5.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Heathrow_T5.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: Warren Rohner
• File:JWW_TheLadyOfShallot_1888.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/John_William_Waterhouse_
The_Lady_of_Shalott.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: 1. The Athenaeum: Home - info - pic
Original artist: John William Waterhouse
• File:Keswick_Panorama_-_Oct_2009.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/Keswick_Panorama_-_Oct_
2009.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Diliff
• File:King_Charles_II_by_John_Michael_Wright_or_studio.jpg Source:
King_Charles_II_by_John_Michael_Wright_or_studio.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: National Portrait Gallery: NPG 531
Original artist: John Michael Wright or studio
• File:King_Henry_V_at_the_Battle_of_Agincourt,_1415.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/King_
Henry_V_at_the_Battle_of_Agincourt%2C_1415.png License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.bridgemanartondemand.com/art/
103728/King_Henry_V_at_the_Battle_of_Agincourt_1415 Original artist: John Gilbert (1817–97)
• File:KingsCollegeChapelWest.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/KingsCollegeChapelWest.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: http://www.andrewdunnphoto.com/ Original artist: Andrew Dunn
• File:London_Natural_History_Museum_Panorama.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/London_
Natural_History_Museum_Panorama.jpg License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Stephantom
• File:McConnel_&_Company_mills,_about_1820.jpg Source:
%26_Company_mills%2C_about_1820.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Scanned from A Century of fine Cotton Spinning,
1790-1913. McConnel & Co. Ltd. Frontispiece. Original artist: Scanned by Mr Stephen
• File:Morris_men.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Morris_men.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: Jim Champion
• File:Mr_Mansell_in_his_Fiat_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1036315.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/
Mr_Mansell_in_his_Fiat_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1036315.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: From geograph.org.uk Original artist:
• File:Palace_of_Westminster.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Palace_of_Westminster.jpg License:
CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: Tony Moorey
• File:Queen_Boudica_by_John_Opie.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Queen_Boudica_by_John_
Opie.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Easy Art Original artist: John Opie
• File:Queen_Elizabeth_Hospital_Birmingham,_Edgbaston,_Birmingham,_England-7March2011.jpg
2C_England-7March2011.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham Original artist: Tony Hisgett
from Birmingham, UK
• File:Robin_shoots_with_sir_Guy_by_Louis_Rhead_1912.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Robin_
shoots_with_sir_Guy_by_Louis_Rhead_1912.png License: Public domain Contributors: Rhead, Louis. "Bold Robin Hood and His Outlaw
Band: Their Famous Exploits in Sherwood Forest". New York: Blue Ribbon Books, 1912. Original artist: Louis Rhead
• File:Royal_Arms_of_England_(1198-1340).svg Source:
England_%281198-1340%29.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Sodacan
• File:Royal_courts_of_justice.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Royal_courts_of_justice.jpg License:
CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: Anthony M. from Rome, Italy
• File:Saint_George_-_Carlo_Crivelli.jpg Source:
Crivelli.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Metropolitan Museum of Art Original artist: Carlo Crivelli (circa 1435–circa 1495)
• File:Saltaire_New_Mill_Reflected.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Saltaire_New_Mill_Reflected.
jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: originally posted to Flickr as New Mill Reflected Original artist: Paul Stevenson
• File:Sir_Isaac_Newton_(1643-1727).jpg
%281643-1727%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.phys.uu.nl/~{}vgent/astrology/images/newton1689.jpg]
Original artist: Sir Godfrey Kneller
• File:Speakerlink-new.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/Speakerlink-new.svg License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Kelvinsong
• File:St_Pauls_Cathedral,_London.jpg Source:
London.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: robert_scarth
• File:Stonehenge2007_07_30.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Stonehenge2007_07_30.jpg License:
CC BY 2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/garethwiscombe/1071477228/in/photostream/ Original artist: garethwiscombe
• File:Sutton_Hoo_replica_(face).jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Sutton_Hoo_replica_%28face%
29.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: IH (40) (Flickr) Original artist: ?
• File:Terrestrial_globe.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/6b/Terrestrial_globe.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:The_Fabs.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/The_Fabs.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID cph.3c11094.
This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.
Original artist: United Press International (UPI Telephoto)
Cropping and retouching: User:Indopug and User:Misterweiss
• File:The_Rolling_Stones_-_Paint_It_Black.ogg Source:
Paint_It_Black.ogg License: Fair use Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Thomas_Tallis_Lamentations_I_(The_Tudor_Consort).ogg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/
Thomas_Tallis_Lamentations_I_%28The_Tudor_Consort%29.ogg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: http://www.tudor-consort.org.nz/
recordings/ Original artist: The Tudor Consort
• File:Tudor_Rose.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Tudor_Rose.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Sodacan
• File:UK-2014-London-The_Cenotaph.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/UK-2014-London-The_
Cenotaph.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Godot13
• File:United_States_Navy_Band_-_God_Save_the_Queen.ogg Source:
United_States_Navy_Band_-_God_Save_the_Queen.ogg License: Public domain Contributors: [1], specifically [2] Original artist: ?
• File:Warwick_School_front.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Warwick_School_front.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors:
• Transferred from en.wikipedia by SreeBot Original artist: G N Frykman at en.wikipedia
• File:Wembley_Stadium_interior.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Wembley_Stadium_interior.jpg
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Jbmg40
• File:Widecombe_in_the_Moor,_Devon.jpg Source:
Moor%2C_Devon.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: dennisredfield
• File:Wikibooks-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al.
• File:Wikinews-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006 (UTC)
Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally uploaded by
• File:Wikiquote-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Wikisource-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Rei-artur Original artist: Nicholas Moreau
• File:Wikiversity-logo-Snorky.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Snorky
• File:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: AleXXw
• File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk · contribs), based
on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber
Content license
• Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0