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Chicken Overview & Product Guide
entegra
PROCUREMENT SERVICES ®
Chicken Overview
& Product Guide
An overview and product guide for
today’s chicken buyer
1
INTRODUCING CHICKEN
Informative and helpful facts about
America’s #1 meat choice
5 CHICKEN BASICS
Your step-by-step guide to parts and
processing
7 MENUING
What you need to know to make your
chicken menu a success
9 USDA REGULATIONS &
HANDLING GUIDELINES
Ensure compliance and safety
15 CHICKEN ECONOMICS &
PRICING CHICKEN
Facts about market costs and pricing
17 NUTRITION
Explore comparisons, values and diet
considerations
19 DISCOVER KOCH FOODS
Benefit from the best value in the
poultry industry
23 GLOSSARY & VOCABULARY
Expand your chicken-speak
24 INDUSTRY RESOURCES
Explore top industry organizations
and associations
4
Introducing Chicken
Information on America’s #1 meat choice
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
In the world of meat, chicken reigns supreme. Celebrated for its flavor and heralded
as a healthy protein option, chicken is more widely consumed than any other meat.
z
The average American eats about 87 pounds of chicken a year.
z
There are more chickens on earth than humans.
z
95% of food service operators serve chicken.
The modern
chicken industry produces
nutritious, wholesome,
high quality products that
become more affordable
year after year.
Delivering not only great taste but also great value, chicken works with a variety of cuisines
and has the potential to appear on any menu. From upscale to down-home, this versatile
meat can satisfy your customers’ needs – whatever they may be.
National Chicken Council
The Market Leader
Chicken is the market leader over all other meats.
Changing Meat Choices
80
Chicken
60
Beef
40
Pork
20
0
1980
1990
2000
2008
Source: National Chicken Council
A C hicken T imeline
A history of progress,
innovation and quality
Early 1900s
Early poultry production consists of
many households having backyard
flocks of dual purpose chickens.
1926
Many processing plants voluntarily
participate in a USDA inspection
program for wholesomeness.
1940s
Feed mills, hatcheries, farms, and processors
are all separate entities, but consolidation
begins to integrate the industry.
1
1
Why is chicken so popular?
Did You Know?
Over the course of the 6 to
7 weeks required to grow
broiler chicks to market
weight, the feed given to
the birds is formulated
into 4 or 5 different phases
to meet the changing
nutritional requirements
of the birds as they grow.
z
Consumers love the taste, healthy nutritional profile, value, and versatility of chicken.
z
z
z
Chicken marries well with a variety of flavors, cooking methods, and recipes.
z
Many cuts can be easily prepared, saving cooking time.
z
Fully cooked varieties eliminate food safety concerns for food service operators.
Chicken is high in protein, low in calories, rich in essential vitamins and low in fat and cholesterol.
Pre-portioned, value-added chicken offers food service operators complete portion cost control.
Source: Koch Foods
Driven by industry advancements, the broiler produced today is meatier than ever. In 1960,
the average broiler weighed less than 3.5 lbs. when fully grown. The average broiler got to 4
lbs. by 1982, and 5 lbs. by 1999. Average live weight currently stands at nearly 5.5 lbs.
Market Weight and Feed to Meat
Feed to meat gain indicates the amount of feed
needed per bird, and illustrates how today’s more
nutritious feeds have cut down on the amount.
The industry has also has trended toward growing
heavier birds in less time to meet the higher
demand level of today’s consumer.
6
5
4
3
2
l Feed to Meat Gain in Pounds of Feed
l Market Weight in Pounds
1
1925
1955
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2006
Source: National Chicken Council
Market Age and Mortality
120
18
100
15
60
40
l Market Age in Days
l Mortality %
20
Mortality %
80
Market Age in Days
Industry advancements have led to a great
reduction in the mortality percentage – an indicator
that we are growing healthier flocks – and, this
better stewardship has also reduced the number of
days needed to raise a bird to market size.
12
9
6
3
0
0
1925
1955
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2006
Source: National Chicken Council
1949
1950s
USDA launches a voluntary program Commercial broiler industry begins economic
of grading to assure consumers of
boom. By 1952, commercially bred “broilers”
high quality.
surpass farm chickens as the number one
2
source of chicken meat in the United States.
1959
Federal inspection of broilers
becomes mandatory.
1960s
90% of broilers produced are from integrated
operations, allowing new pharmaceutical,
biological and production technologies to become
more efficient, responsive, and profitable.
Today’s Lifestyle Choice
Today’s health-conscious, value-oriented consumers simply like chicken:
z
Approximately 26 billion pounds of chicken – an amazing 87 pounds for every
man, woman and child in the U.S. – are consumed by Americans every year.
z
z
Production of nearly 16 million metric tons and domestic consumption of
13.5 million metric tons of chicken was forecasted for 2008.
Chicken choices rank as the second-best-selling category of appetizers,
right behind seafood.
Source: National Chicken Council
Healthy Protein
With obesity rampant and healthcare costs skyrocketing, consumers today
demand healthy choices, such as the nutritious protein they get from chicken:
z
Nearly 3 of 4 adults say they try to make healthier choices when dining out.
z
If it tastes good, 83% of kids prefer to eat healthy.
z
Chicken compares favorably to other mainstream foods in terms of fat,
calories and cholesterol.
Source: Koch Foods
Distribution of
Chicken on the Menu
Other
Appetizers
Green Salad
How Chicken Supports Your Menu
11%
z
z
z
z
Prepared Entrée
Works well in both hot and cold service dishes.
Can be paired with many seasonings and spices including marinades,
breadings and rubs.
Can be presented with variety – center of plate, sandwiches, salads,
snacks, breakfast, appetizers and hors d’oeuvres.
1985
Chicken consumption
surpasses pork.
27%
18%
21%
Hot Sandwich
Other includes: pizza, cold sandwich, prepared salad,
side dishes, burgers and hot dogs. Source: Distribution
of Chicken by Menu Part from 2008 Flavor-Trak Report
on Chicken. Base: 9,554 menu records with Chicken
from 701 Chains/Cutting Edge Restaurants.
Supports a variety of ethnic concepts.
1970s
Nutritional discoveries, disease eradication
programs, genetic advancements, mechanization and automation technologies help
evolve the industry.
Center of Plate
15%
Chicken can be used in many cooking methods and presentations:
8%
1990
FDA sets content requirements
for labels on food products.
1992
Chicken consumption
surpasses beef.
3
3
Trends and Innovations
What today’s
consumer wants How Chicken Meets the N eed
One of the factors
contributing to the growth
and popularity of chicken
is the steady stream of
innovative products that
give consumers more of
what they want.
National Chicken Council /
Koch Foods
The Proof
Taste
Whether marinated, pre-seasoned,
breaded, grilled, barbequed or prepared
with other delicious options, consumers
love the taste of chicken.
Americans are now eating
twice as much chicken per
person as they did in 1977.
Convenience
The demand for convenience has driven
food service trends in many areas, such as:
• Boneless and skinless chicken
• Pre-portioned breasts
• Natural and organic products
• Smaller portions and portability.
Chicken offers so many
convenience benefits that it
is the most-often menued (on
77.9% of menus versus 76.9%
that include a hamburger).
Time savings
Chicken is quick and easy to prepare and Most chicken parts can be
many ready-to-eat or food service chicken individually cooked or grilled
choices are available.
within 15-20 minutes.
Healthy
nutrition
Chicken is nutritious and has other health
benefits such as:
• Lower saturated fat than even salmon
• Zero carbohydrates
• Equal protein to red meats with less fat
• 30% fewer calories than red meat
94% of today’s healthconscious consumers eat
chicken; many heart-healthy
menu items in restaurants
feature chicken.
Variety and
choice
Customers demand a selection of
different types of foods. Chicken comes
in a wide variety of forms, such as strips,
patties, buffalo wings, breasts and more.
Over 95% of food service
operators serve chicken,
with more partially and fully
prepared individual items
and entrees served than
ever before.
Value
Chicken is a great value at an
In challenging economic times, food
service providers need a good value while estimated cost of less than
still meeting the needs of their customers. $1.00 per pound on a whole
bird basis.
Source: National Chicken Council / Koch Foods
Chicken is the undisputed first choice with today’s
health-conscious consumers.
These advances include:
•
1993
4
National Labeling and Education
Act mandates nutrition labels
on all meats.
1998
USDA requires the HACCP (Hazard Analysis
and Critical Control Points) quality-control
program in all large poultry slaughter
establishments.
2000 and beyond
Emerging technologies and
industry advances usher in a new era of unprecedented growth
and acceptance of chicken.
•
•
•
Nutrition innovations, such as whole-grain breading, sodium reduction and elimination of trans-fats.
Greater variety of healthier options, such as grilled chicken breast and chicken salads.
Adoption of environmental and social responsibility initiatives.
Functional innovations in chicken yields, product development and safety.
Chicken Basics
Chicken parts and processing
Chicken Anatomy 101
Processed chickens can be classified into one of seven different USDA-defined groups:
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
Broiler – a chicken raised for its meat, as distinguished from a “layer,” which is a chicken that lays eggs for the table.
Roaster – 5 pounds or higher, less than 10 weeks of age; usually 55 to 60 days of age.
Capon – surgically de-sexed male broilers weighting 7 to 9 pounds, and about 14 to
15 weeks of age; plump and tender; capons were once common but are now a specialty item.
Rock Cornish Hen – less than 30 days of age and about 2 pounds.
Rock Cornish Fryer – a small broiler-fryer weighing between 1 and 2 pounds.
Hen – female adult chicken.
Rooster – male adult chicken.
Below you will find the essential guide to decoding the various poultry parts and cuts.
When compared to the rest
of the world, Americans’
appetite for chicken is
unmatched. Fewer than
300 million Americans eat
substantially more chicken
than over a billion Chinese.
We eat about twice as
much as over 400 million
Europeans.
Chicken Parts
National Chicken Council
2
1
1. Breast, Skin-on, Bone-in (2)
3. Thigh (2)
2. 3-Joint Wing (2)
4. Drumstick (2)
3
4
Chicken Cuts
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
5
8
.
1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Breast Fillet without Skin
Tenderloin
Butterfly Breast Fillet
Forequarter (Breast & Wing)
Drumette
Mid-joint Wing
Leg Quarter with Back Bone
Whole Leg
5
Did You Know?
Chicken is often tumbled
or injected with marinades
to improve flavor, texture
and storage stability.
Marinated chicken also
adds value by:
• Restoring flavor lost during processing.
• Delivering other flavors and spices.
Processing of Chicken
Chicken that arrives at your facility has gone through a quality process that ensures
freshness, taste and safety. Poultry is produced, processed and transported in a way that
provides maximum product options and guaranteed quality.
Processing Options and
What They Mean for Your Facility
There are two types of processed chicken: commodity and value-added.
Commodity – Chicken sold as refrigerated, frozen or ice packed.
z
• Improving cook yields.
z
• Improving economics through yield
improvements.
z
• Providing moisture.
Refrigerated commodity poultry uses a Controlled Vacuum Packaging process (CVP) to achieve a shelf life of 8 to 14 days. CVP chicken comes in a protective sealed bag filled with CO2 gas. No ice is used, but the temperature must be kept at 28-32°F.
Frozen commodity poultry can come in three different forms: Tray Pack, Individually Frozen (IF) or Individually Wrapped (IW).
Ice packed poultry is a third option, but is quickly diminishing in use, making way for more effective and efficient methods.
Value-Added – Chicken that has undergone additional processes to add value to the
product prior to selling. Pre-marinated, trimmed, breaded or shaped chicken products
are all classic examples of value- added chicken. It may come ready-to-cook (RTC) or fully
cooked (FC).
Processing Overview
The chart below illustrates the attributes and benefits of the various poultry options.
CVP
Refrigerated
Frozen Tray
Packed
Individually
Frozen
•
•
•
•
• Visual trim only
• Non-marinated and marinated
• Blast frozen
• Priced weekly
• Visual trim only
• Non-marinated and marinated
• Bulk packed
• Less packaging for less waste
• Priced weekly
Boneless and skin-
less chicken
Pre-portioned breasts
Natural and organic products
Smaller portions and portability
Commodity
6
Individually
Wrapped
FC/ RTC
Frozen
• Saves space – smaller case
dimensions
• Guaranteed piece count
• Protects from freezer burn
• Thaw only what
you need
• Increased food safety – thaw in package
• Priced weekly
•
•
•
•
•
Trimmed
Marinated
Cooked
Flavor variety
Heat and serve convenience
• Bulk packed
• Enhanced food safety
• Stable pricing
value added
Menuing
Make your chicken menu a success
Frequency of Poultry on Commercial and
Non-commercial Menus
nonCOmmercial COmmercial
Chicken Breast (boneless, skinless)
Chicken Strips/Tenders
Bone-in Chicken
Turkey
Chicken Wings
Chicken Nuggets/Popcorn
Chicken Patties
Whole Chicken
Duck
Stuffed Chicken Breasts
%
%
88
68
55
52
52 26
14
34
25
13
88
86
74
75
54
71
72
19
14
30
51% of operators say
diners are more interested
in create-your-own and
mix-and-match menu
options than they were a
year ago, according to
May 2008 R&I data.
Source: R&I’s 2008 Menu Census: Poultry
Ethnic Growth
The flavor of dining out has changed. Ethnic dining is now mainstream, so even the most
ordinary menu offers Mexican, Chinese and Italian dishes. A large selection of these ethnic
menus offer chicken dishes. Emerging cuisines include:
African – M
orocco
Somalia
, Ethiopia,
n
ccan Chicke
z Moro
e
en Jollof Ric
z Chick
yama
en Piripiri N
z Chick
n–
diterranea
e
M
l
a
n
io
g
Re
l
rkey, Israe
Greece, Tu
o
ken Stifath
Greek Chic
ebabs
h Chicken K
z Turkis
li Couscous
n with Israe
z Chicke
z
can –
atin Ameri
Regional L rica, Brazil, Peru
e
Central Am
icken Salad
Brazilian Ch
hicken
n Roasted C
z Peruvia
ken
olivian Chic
z Spicy B
z
ailand,
– India, Th
Pan-Asian an, Korea, Malaysia
p
Vietnam, Ja
h
ken Sandwic
Wasabi Chic
itos
hicken Burr
z Thai C
izza
d Chicken P
z Currie
z
7
Catering is Today’s Hot Opportunity
Percentage that Offer Catering
by Category
The catering industry
has sales of over $20
billion annually and
accounts for 18% of
total food service sales.
50%
50%
Family Dining
Casual Dining
60%
QSR
66%
Fine Dining
Source: R&I’s 2008 Menu Census: Poultry
R&I’s 2008 Menu Census:
Poultry
Make Chicken a Success in Your Facility
Chicken fits in perfectly on any menu, from fine dining to fast food as shown by the
following menu trends in the industry from R&I’s 2007 Menu Census.
MENU CATEGORY
THE CHICKEN T R END
Center-of-the-Plate
•
•
•
•
•
Casual dining
Family dining
Cafeteria/buffet
Limited service
Healthcare
College/university
Schools
Business and industry
8
Grilled chicken and chicken wings are solid sellers.
Chicken pot pies are growing in popularity.
Proven favorites, such as chicken tenders, reign.
Chicken wings are on the list of might-add meals.
Chicken burgers are also gaining ground on menus.
Sandwiches and Wraps,
including Breakfast
Among commercial operations, the grilled chicken-breast
sandwich is on 77.9% of menus.
Salads
Asian chicken salads are available on 1 in 4 menus, compared
with 1 in 10 four years ago.
Soups
Chicken noodle continues to be a very popular menu choice;
ethnic soups, such as chicken tortilla, are growing in menu
appearances.
Appetizers and Wings
The perennial chicken powers – wings and strips/fingers/tenders
hold the No. 1 and No. 2 spots as most-menued appetizers.
Pizza Toppings
Chicken has become a leading choice, especially on healthier
and more upscale selections.
Kids Menuing
Today’s kids have more say than ever in what they choose to eat.
• 76% of parents consider their kids’ preferences on where
to eat.
• 75% of kids make their own menu choices.
• Chicken tenders are still #1 on kids menus.
USDA Regulations &
Handling Guidelines
Ensure compliance and safety
“The Standard” in the Meat Industry
Here are some quick facts about USDA inspections and procedures, as well as industry
standards that ensure the finest poultry products are served to consumers.
Thorough Plant Inspections
All USDA inspected and graded chickens are processed in processing plants operated
under USDA Food Safety Inspection Service standards.
Unmatched Consistency
Each chicken and its internal organs are thoroughly inspected for any sign of disease.
Inspection for Wholesomeness
All poultry must be officially inspected to ensure that it is wholesome, properly labeled
and not adulterated.
The Inspection Model
The USDA Food and
Safety Inspection Service
is recognized as the model
for food inspection services
in many parts of the world.
High Grading & Quality Standards
The official grade shield certifies that the poultry has been graded according to USDA
Agricultural Marketing Service regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance and
freedom from defects.
Fresh Labeling
The term fresh on a label refers to any raw poultry product that has never been below 26°F.
Quality Assurance Dating
Product dating is not required by federal regulations, but many processors voluntarily put
a “sell by” or “use before” date on chicken packages. Koch Foods uses a pack date on labels.
Safe Handling Labeling
USDA requires that safe handling and cooking instructions be put on all retail packages
of raw poultry.
9
Safe Chicken Handling
• Chicken can be thawed safely
in the refrigerator (not on the countertop) or in cold water.
• Internal temperature should
reach 180º F for whole chickens
with bone-in, 165º F for bone-in and boneless parts.
• Cooked chicken should never be left at room temperature for more than 2 hours.
National CHiCKEN COUNCIL
HACCP
Special precautions are taken to avoid contamination during chicken
processing, such as the USDA’s HACCP Model, which helps control and
eliminate the outbreak of bacterial illnesses. HACCP procedures vary
from plant to plant, but typically involve the following :
1 Identify possible hazards, such as bacteria growth, in the food
processing system.
2 Identify critical process control points where potential hazards can be
eliminated or reduced, such as cooking, cleaning, handling and storage.
3 Establish preventative measures for each control point, such as critical temperature limits to prevent bacteria from growing.
4 Determine procedures to monitor control points.
5 Establish procedures to correct when a critical limit has not been met.
6 Implement effective record keeping documenting the HACCP system.
7 Ensure that monitoring equipment is always effective, such as
calibration of temperature gauges.
For more information on HACCP see:
http://foodsafety.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_
center=16&tax_level=1&tax_subject=177
10
Safe Handling of Chicken
Assuring the physical well-being of chickens being raised and housed is a high priority of
the industry. Top-quality food can be produced only from top-quality birds that have been
treated properly.
Below are practices that are considered standard within the chicken industry.
Housing
Broilers are not raised in cages, but in large, open structures known as grow-out houses.
Nutrition
In Ancient Rome someone
who said to you, “You were
raised by a hen”, was giving
you a compliment. The
expression “Mother hen”,
also implies that a chicken
makes a great mother.
FUNNYFACT.COM
Chicken feed consists primarily of corn and soybean meal with the addition of essential
vitamins and minerals. No hormones or steroids are used.
Veterinary Attention
Every broiler company employs or contracts with professional veterinarians to care for the
health needs of the birds.
Proper Handling
Company personnel are required to handle the birds in an appropriate manner during
pickup and arrival at the processing plant.
Humane Treatment
After arrival at the plant, birds are anesthetized and then humanely slaughtered.
Breeding
Today’s broiler chicken is a combination of several breeds. Desirable characteristics include
white feathers (to give the skin a clear appearance) and abundant breast meat.
Inoculation
Birds are subject to a variety of diseases, just like humans, and receive the appropriate
inoculations.
Ventilation
Most chicken grow-out houses use large fans in conjunction with tunnel ventilation that
keeps air moving. Many grow-out houses are also equipped with misters.
11
Chicken Guidelines
Poultry requires particular food safety precautions. Salmonella and Campylobacter
are both foodborne illnesses commonly associated with chicken. To avoid foodborne
illnesses be sure to practice these tips daily in your facility.
Helpful Storage Tips
Proper wrapping and storage help keep raw and cooked chicken at top quality.
The American Poultry
Association (APA) is
the oldest livestock
organization in the United
States . Established in
1873, the APA recognizes
115 breeds of chickens.
Each breed is broken up
into varieties usually
based on plumage color or
placement, or comb style.
There are more than 400
varieties of chickens.
Refrigeration
z
Refrigerators should be kept at 36-40°F. Use a refrigerator and freezer thermometer.
z
Have sufficient air flow around products to maintain the right temperature.
Physical Storage
z
For extra protection, separate chicken from other foods; prevent chicken products
from dripping onto other items in the refrigerator.
z
Store uncooked meat and poultry items together – separate from cooked foods.
Process and Transporting
z
Use FIFO: First In, First Out. In other words, use older product first before opening
a newer package of the same product.
z
z
When transporting cooked food to another dining site, place it in an insulated container or ice chest until ready to eat. Keep foods below 40°F or above 140°F.
Clean up spills with hot, soapy water.
Fully Cooked Components
12
z Do not thaw fully cooked frozen, breaded or formed products unless
otherwise directed.
z
Cook product from a frozen state.
z
Follow the cooking instructions accordingly.
Thawing Guidelines
Refrigerator
z Thaw uncooked chicken overnight in a leak-proof bag or covered on a plate on the lowest shelf to prevent it from dripping down on prepared foods.
z
Allow a day or more for large items to thaw.
Microwave
z
z
z Rotate one-quarter turn four times while defrosting; check portions before each rotation. Turn portions over and re-cover with plastic wrap halfway through the
defrost cycle.
Microwave thawing is not effective for large items.
Thaw only a few portions at a time on a microwaveable plate covered with
plastic wrap.
z
Cook immediately after thawing.
Cold Water
Defrost in cold water in its airtight packaging or in a leak-proof bag. Submerge
chicken in a sink full of cold water, changing the water every 30 minutes.
z
z
z After thawing, cook immediately or refreeze. Chicken defrosted by any method is best cooked before refreezing.
Consumer emerging
trends for today’s
tough economy:
• Value adds more
chicken dishes to restaurant menus.
• More formed products in restaurant choices.
• New flavor profiles
are more specific.
• Dark meat consumption grows.
Koch Foods
Sanitize the sink and other utensils. Do not let water used for thawing splash
onto food preparation surfaces.
Removing the Ice Glaze
For best results when breading or marinating frozen IF or IQF chicken, the
protective ice glaze should first be removed. Simply hold the individual portions
under lukewarm running water for 1-2 minutes.
z
Fully Cooked Chicken
z
Do not thaw fully cooked frozen products.
z
Cook product from a frozen state.
z
Follow the cooking instructions accordingly.
13
When there is no rooster
in a flock of hens, one hen
will take over the role as
best as she can. She will
begin to crow and stop
laying eggs.
FUNNYFACT.COM
Cooking Guidelines
Cooking times for chicken will vary depending on the appliance and method
of cooking used.
Chicken
Internal
Temperature
Approximate Cooking
Time (350°F), Per Pound
Leg Quarters, Bone-in 165°F
15-20 minutes
15-20 minutes/side
Thigh, Bone-in 165°F
15-20 minutes
15-20 minutes/side
Thigh, Boneless 165°F
10-15 minutes
10-15 minutes/side
Breast, Bone-in Breast, Boneless 165°F
15-20 minutes
15-20 minutes/side
165°F
10-15 minutes
10-15 minutes/side
Ground Chicken 165°F
10-15 minutes
10-15 minutes/side
Whole Chicken, 165°F 3-4 lb. (broiler)
1¼-1½ hours 5-7 lb. (roaster)
1½-2¼ hours
Source: National Chicken Council
Check chicken for doneness before serving. Insert a meat thermometer into a thick section of the thigh
or breast without touching the bone. The internal temperature should reach a minimum of 165oF.
14
Approximate
Grilling Time
1-3 hours on
Revolving Spit
Chicken Economics &
Pricing Chicken
Facts about market costs and pricing
Understanding How Chicken is Priced
The Poultry Commodity Market (PCM) is responsible for tracking the economic side of the
poultry industry and determining the price at which chicken is being bought and sold. On a
daily basis, the PCM resembles a smaller and more targeted New York Stock Exchange.
Chicken is one of the
best values in the
market, largely due to
the industry’s fair and
equitable pricing policies,
as well as cost-effective
poultry processes.
The work week is composed of “trading days,” where the market reporting staff gathers
solicited and unsolicited information and compiles it into the “poultry market report.” Data
collected includes, but is not limited to:
z
Products being traded.
z
Products being offered and by whom.
z
Prices at which products are being offered.
z
The price levels that buyers are bidding for chicken, and by whom.
z
Shipping dates.
z
Other pertinent information that will help determine a quoted price.
After compiling and reviewing the “poultry market report”, market
reporters arrive at a final quote; the price you can expect to pay
for a product based on supplier prices, the state of the market
and additional factors.
The Cost of Raising a Bird
Transport
Other*
5% 1%
Chicken &
Hatchery
Costs
Growers
16%
15%
63%
Feed
* Other includes DOA, damaged or other
Source: 2008 Koch Foods
15
Chicken Has Remained the Best Value
Price History (per pound)
$2.50
Did You Know?
Consumers’ lifestyle and habit
changes have driven the follow
menu day part trends.
• Increased breakfast.
• Mid and late morning snacking.
• Lunch on-the-go.
• Mid/late afternoon snacking.
• “Fragmented” dinner.
• Late night coffee and dessert.
• Overnight – especially for working people and college students.
16
$2.00
$1.50
$1.00
$0.50
$0
1960
1970
1980
Source: National Chicken Council
1990
1995
2000
2005
l Wholesale Beef
l Wholesale Pork
l Wholesale Broilers
2008
Nutrition
Explore comparisons, values and diet considerations
Comparison of Chicken with Beef and Fish
You’ll find chicken in the USDA Food Guide Pyramid along with other foods that supply
protein, iron and important vitamins and minerals. Chicken is one of the lowest in calories,
fat and saturated fat.
Food Item
serving size: 3 oz. cooked portion, no added fat, salt or sauces
Calories
Total
Fat(g)
Saturated
Fat (g)
Cholesterol Protein (g)
(mg)
Filet of sole, baked
100
1.5
0.5
60
20
Chicken breast, no skin, baked
120
1.5
0.5
70
24
Chicken drumstick, no skin, baked
130
4.0
1.0
80
23
Chicken wing, no skin baked
150
6.0
1.5
70
23
Salmon, baked
160
7.0
1.0
60
22
Chicken breast, with skin, baked
170
7.0
2.0
70
25
Beef sirloin steak, trimmed of visible fat, broiled
180
9.0
3.0
75
25
Chicken drumstick, with skin, baked
180
9.0
3.0
75
23
Pork loin rib chop, trimmed of visible fat, lean only
180
9.0
3.0
60
24
Canned cured ham, 13% fat, roasted
190
13.0
4.0
55
17
Lamb chop, trimmed of visible fat, broiled
200
12.0
6.0
70
22
Beef tenderloin, trimmed of visible fat, broiled
200
11.0
4.0
72
23
Beef, ground, extra lean, broiled, well done
225
13.0
5.0
85
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Source: Nutri-Facts Fresh Food Labeling Program, 1995 and USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21, 2008
The Nutritional Value
of Chicken
Chicken is loaded with protein and packed with iron,
zinc and vitamin B, and it’s naturally low in fat,
calories and sodium.
Skinless Breasts a Hit on Today’s Menus
The low-fat nature of boneless, skinless breasts
makes it THE healthy meat for today’s consumers,
and is the most popular variety of poultry on
restaurant menus.
Here’s how a 3 oz. serving of skinless chicken breast
matches up to the Daily Values on government food
labeling (based on 2,000 calorie diet):
Nutrient
Daily
Value (DV)
Why It’s Good For You
Iron
4%
Helps prevent anemia
Magnesium
6%
Aids in energy production
Phosphorus
20%
Potassium
6%
Essential mineral & electrolyte
Zinc
6%
Enzyme action & DNA synthesis
Thiamin
4%
Vital for nervous system function
Riboflavin
6%
Aids in energy production
60%
Enzyme action & energy
Niacin
Vitamin B12
4%
Vitamin B6 25%
(Pyridoxine)
Important for energy
Aids in DNA synthesis
Aids in protein & carb metabolism
Source: USDA Nutrition
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Protein: Chicken has the protein the human body needs.
Energy from protein
powers people longer
than sugar and
carbohydrates.
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Protein is comprised of amino acids, “building blocks” that help build, repair and
maintain body tissues.
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The human body requires 20 amino acids to function.
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Nine out of these 20 are essential amino acids, meaning our bodies cannot manufacture them, and they must come from the foods we eat.
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Chicken and other proteins supply all of the nine essential amino acids we need to maintain our health.
Energy: Protein also provides sustainable energy. It powers people longer than
simple carbohydrates like refined sugars or complex carbohydrates, such as brown rice
or whole grains.
Daily needs: The average person needs to eat about 0.4 grams of protein for every
pound of body weight, every day. This is approximately equivalent to 50-65 grams of
protein, which is provided by 6-8 ounces of chicken, beef, or pork.
Healthy Chicken Tips
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To reduce fat in cooked poultry, broil, roast, bake, simmer or microwave poultry rather than fry.
Cook whole birds on a rack. Drain and discard any fat that accumulates during cooking.
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Remove the skin before eating.
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When you choose poultry dishes that are higher in fat, balance your fat intake by choosing other foods that are low in fat.
Skin vs. Skinless
Fat total (grams)
Saturated fatty acids (grams)
Cholesterol (milligrams)
Calories
Source: How to Buy Poultry
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WITHOUT
SKIN
WITH SKIN
6
12
2
3
75
74
160
200
Discover Koch Foods
The best value in the poultry industry
Since 1985, Koch Foods has provided top quality products and unparalleled service at great
prices. With quality, service, and a focus on value, Koch Foods is the preferred supplier of
fresh and frozen poultry products for food service and retail operators around the world.
From cutting edge facilities that ensure unmatched food safety, to innovative production
technology designed to reduce cost and increase efficiency, there are many significant
benefits and advantages that Koch Foods brings to your operation.
Value and Quality
Koch Foods services
more than 30% of the
nation’s 50 leading national
restaurant chains and over
28% of the top 200.
At Koch Foods, the approach has always been pretty simple – deliver quality with a focus on
value. Many of the nation’s top private label and branded food manufacturers have chosen
Koch Foods because they know that they’ll get consistent, high-quality poultry parts and
components, at a very competitive price.
Koch Foods provides the following benefits:
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Reliable supply, even as demand fluctuates.
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A vast variety of products.
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Flexible packaging and labeling options.
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Customized flavors and coating systems.
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Steadfast food safety.
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Superior value.
Humble Beginnings, Impressive Growth
Koch Foods started as a “one room” chicken de-boning and cutting operation. Today they:
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Are ranked among the country’s top five integrated poultry processors and manufacturers of value-added quality food products.
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Employ over 12,000 associates in 29 strategically placed U.S. locations.
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Produce over 11 million birds per week.
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According to customer
feedback, Koch Foods
is ranked among the
best in the industry
for consistency, order
accuracy, order fill rate
and on-time deliveries.
What Makes Koch Unique
When you do business with Koch Foods, you are partnering with unique capabilities
that can help elevate your business.
Industry-leading Capabilities
Koch Foods is one of only five vertically integrated processors in the United States
capable of offering its customers:
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A virtual “one stop shop” for all food service and quick serve standard and
staple products.
The ability to have proprietary, custom designed products created and manufactured to fit ever changing and individual needs.
Unmatched Customer Service
Koch Foods embraces a customer-driven philosophy focused on meeting your needs:
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Koch Foods’ inside customer service associates are trained across company product lines to provide a “one call assistance program.”
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Their modern fleet of trucks and dedicated drivers ensure product integrity, temperature control and accurate delivery times.
Warehouse associate training, “smart” warehouse design and order allocation systems help ensure benchmark order fill rates.
Small Bird. Big Quality.
Current industry trend is to grow heavier live weight birds in order to reduce plant
costs and improve feed conversion. But Koch Foods’ success and focus is in continuing
to grow its small bird program:
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z
z
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Despite the higher costs of raising small birds, Koch believes the product to be far superior.
Koch ages all of its meat prior to de-boning and believes it to be the most tender and highest quality breast product on the market.
To address the growing food service demand for larger meat over the last few years, Koch has implemented a large bird program with the same focus
on quality.
Koch & Corporate Responsibility Practices
Koch Foods is committed to earth-friendly and animal-friendly practices in the areas of
sustainability, bio-security, and animal welfare.
Sustainability
Koch Foods is fully committed to the ethical and humane treatment of live poultry,
responsible use and treatment of the planet’s resources and the total safety of the
food products they produce. Koch has a shared commitment to sustainability, both
locally and globally.
Koch Foods believes that sustainability and business success are not only compatible,
but are inextricably linked; by embracing both, we will all be better prepared to meet
the world’s food supply needs today and in the future. Koch’s sustainability mandate
includes balancing and integrating:
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Global awareness.
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Environmental responsibility.
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Stewardship of their lands and renewable resources.
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Strong corporate and social citizenship.
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Humane and ethical treatment of the animals in their care.
Sustainability in Action
Koch Foods’ sustainability
program includes many
critical components of
their business:
• Packaging
• Water conservation
• Energy and carbon footprint
• Waste management
• Transportation
• Community involvement
• Supplier selection
Bio-Security
Koch Foods has developed and implemented a strong bio-security program that helps
provide security and safeguards in these areas:
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Contract grow out farms and farmers.
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Service technicians and visitors to farms and facilities.
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Feed-mills and truck support facilities.
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Processing plants and distribution centers.
Koch Foods also follows guidelines from the National Chicken Council and tests flocks
14 days prior to the first processing date.
Animal Welfare
Koch Foods takes great pride in humane practices. Koch’s processes are monitored and
reviewed daily in several key areas to ensure the quality and health of their flocks.
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Resources You Gain from Koch
A Partner that Puts you First
Did You Know?
Koch Foods adds
excellence to many of
your other packaged
and prepared foods.
Koch supplies many of
the nation’s top private
label and branded
food manufacturers
with consistent, high
quality poultry parts
and components such as
wings, breast tenderloins
& drumsticks.
KOCH FOODS
Koch Foods is committed to providing entegra Program Participants with a level of
value, service and quality unmatched in the industry. It is a partnership and privilege
not taken lightly, and shows in the value of the products delivered to your facility.
The entegra Koch Foods Website
This website includes:
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A complete list of the entegra Koch Foods core products. The portfolio of core
chicken products provides entegra Program Participants with a variety of
choices to fit numerous menu applications, providing quality products and
pricing that is competitive to industry pricing.
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Koch’s Antibiotic Use Statement.
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A downloadable pdf of Koch’s policy on Animal Welfare Practices.
A search function to search by product ID, product name or product type
to locate a specific entegra core product. Each product includes the product
specifications, cooking instructions, an image of the packing label and
nutritional information.
Please Note: When logging in to the website you will need to create a personal account.
This takes only a few minutes and helps to further secure this website for our team
members.
http://entegra.kochfoods.com/
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Glossary & Vocabulary
Chicken-speak
Airline Breast – portion controlled boneless
skin-on breast with the first wing joint (drummette) attached.
Blast Frozen – within an hour the temperature
of the product is lowered to a point where
bacteria growth and contamination are virtually
eliminated.
BOH – Back of House or the kitchen / preparation area of a food service establishment.
Bulk Packed – a large quantity or volume of
product packaged together in a container.
Capon – a surgically neutered male chicken (usually about 15 weeks old) that is meaty, flavorful
and tender. Dressed weight ranges from 6 to 9
pounds.
Chef’s Trim Breasts – portion controlled
breasts (PCB) with all excess edge fat carefully
removed.
®
CN – child nutrition labeling for schools.
CVP (controlled vacuum packaged) – raw
chicken chilled and packaged in speciallydesigned bags with oxygen removed, forming
a vacuum inside the bag to help hinder growth
of aerobic bacteria.
Farm-Raised – all chickens are raised on farms,
so “farm-raised” can refer to any chicken. When
this term is used on restaurant menus and the
like, it usually refers to chickens raised on a local
farm.
Free Range – chicken may be labeled “free
range” if given access to the outdoors. Chickens
labeled “USDA Organic” must also be raised
free-range, but not all free-range chicken is
“organic.”
Fresh – use of the word “fresh” on a label indicates that the product has never been chilled,
that is, cooled or held below 26°F.
IF (individually frozen) – a term to describe
red meat and poultry products that are frozen,
individual pieces without being blocked together, but do not meet the USDA regulations
for “quick” frozen (IQF).
IQF (individually quick frozen) – product that
is processed in compliance with the USDA’s
48-hour from 1st process meat and poultry
inspection regulation.
Keel – the dark bone at the center of the breast
(sternum).
Keel Line – visible line where the keel bone is
connected to the breast muscle.
Leaf Fat – natural fat occurring on the top and
bottom of the WOG’s cavity openings.
Retained Water – indicates the amount of water retained as a result of essential food safety
procedures, such as ice-cold water chilling to
prevent bacteria and other microorganisms.
Select – indicates products harvested from a
4.5 lb. and down live weight bird. Results in a
Party Wing™ piece count range of 12-16/lb.
A chicken can travel
9 miles an hour. This
is usually a combined
effort of running, jumping
and flying. Chickens,
like other birds and
mammals, experience
rapid eye movement
(REM) when they sleep.
FUNNYFACT.COM
Shrink – amount of weight that a bird looses
after arrival at the processing plant before it
is processed.
Split – single lobe; half of the heart-shaped
boneless chicken breast, split down the keel line,
also called fillet.
Split WOG – a whole bird without giblets cut full
length dorsally to produce two equal halves.
Tray Pack – product is packaged in a plastic tray
within the case pack. Because the dividers in the
tray separate each piece of product, one piece
of chicken can be removed and thawed at a time.
Trimmed WOG – leaf fat and tail removed.
Whole Butterfly (WBF) – “full” butterfly, double
lobe; the heart-shaped boneless chicken breast.
WOG – refers to “without giblets” and is the
whole young poultry where the giblets and neck
are not included in the bird’s net weight. This
may be split and quartered.
Sources:
Mintel Menu Insights, Restaurant
& Institutions Menu Census,
National Restaurant Association,
National Chicken Council, USDA
Marketing, Koch Foods Marketing
and Sales support Department
and research and development
department, entegra’s Chicken
Encyclopedia 2006
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Industry Resources
Explore top industry organizations and associations
The web sites below offer a wealth of information and resources related to the
chicken industry.
www.kochfoods.com
In 1863 Charles Darwin
published an inventory of
the chicken breeds existing
at that time... all 13 of them.
Currently, 115 breeds are
recognized by the American
Poultry Association.
For ingredient statements and nutritional panels for specific Koch products, visit this
site. You’ll also find all the latest news on what we’re doing in the industry, as well as all
new products and promotions.
http://entegra.kochfoods.com
Detailed product information, ingredients, specifications and nutritional information
for all the right product offerings.
www.usapeec.org
The official website of the United States Poultry & Egg Export Council offers members the latest market information about poultry and egg exports, including monthly
reports from USAPEEC’s 12 offices and consultants worldwide. Non-members will find
valuable information about the organization along with links to various government
agencies and other poultry and egg trade associations and agriculture organizations.
www.eatchicken.com
Full of recipes, cooking tips and nutritional information, the website of the National
Chicken Council and US Poultry & Egg Association offers help on jazzing up a menu or
enhancing traditional chicken options.
www.ams.usda.gov
Everything you need to know about grading, quality standards and more from the
USDA website. The site also offers information on commodity procurement and
market news.
www.npfda.org
Home of the National Poultry and Food Distributors Association, this site provides
membership information plus a directory of poultry industry conventions.
www.namp.com
The North American Meat Processors Association website offers food safety and
nutritional information along with links to members’ individual websites and various
NAMP publications.
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Koch Foods helps food service
operators reduce labor costs
while serving up nutritious,
flavorful products for today’s
demanding customers.
Koch’s preparations and careful
portion control help you meet
your customers’ expectations
for serving size and enjoyment
every time.
From fresh to fresh-frozen, from
ready to cook to fully prepared,
the variety gives you the choices
you need to give your customers a
satisfying menu with consistently
high quality options.
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