2015 Nebraska Envirothon Special Topic Question

Nebraska Envirothon 2014
Special Topic
Urban & Community Forestry
SCENARIO:
You are a community arborist in a small community of about 8,000 people in southeastern Nebraska. Your
community is at considerable risk for the first Nebraska discovery of Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), an invasive
insect that attacks and kills all species of North American ash trees, as its location not far from Iowa, Missouri,
and Kansas, all of which have already detected EAB. Most ash trees attacked by EAB die within a few years.
When EAB arrives in your area, the community will have to deal with a number of hazardous trees and loss of
tree canopy in a short time. Costs to remove and replace community ash trees can run high. These trees
provide residents a multitude of environmental benefits and their loss will have significant economic,
environmental, and social ramifications.
Several towns in your area are preparing for EAB by developing EAB Preparedness Plans. Planning in advance
for the reality of an EAB infestation of community ash trees allows your community to be better prepared to
minimize the severity of these impacts and establish a solid foundation for recovery. The first important
planning step is to gather an inventory on community trees on public property. Fortunately, your community
has a community forest inventory on file that was completed in 2012. This inventory provides you with
information on your community forest resources as it collected data on all actively managed, publicly owned
trees in parks, on city managed properties, and in easements or planting strips along streets. The street tree
inventories were conducted from a vehicle as a “windshield inventory.” Park trees were inventoried on foot and
individual tree data was also collected. Your tree inventory includes tree location, tree species, stem diameter
(DBH--measured in inches at 4.5 feet from the ground), and tree condition. A short summary of the overall data
collected, as well as the community forest inventory in its entirety is as follows:







Total Number of Trees Inventoried: 3,881
Total Number of Tree Species Inventoried: 69
Of all these species, only Silver Maple was at 10% of the total community forest resource. As a rule, no
single tree species should represent more than 10% of any community’s tree resource. When tree
species exceed this 10% threshold, it signifies low species diversity, which can increase the potential
impact of insect and disease issues on the community’s trees as a whole.
Your community tree forest is diversely aged, allowing for trees to naturally succumb to mortality while
other trees fill the void of those lost.
The total number of Ash species in your community is 301.
Of these Ash tree species, 2% of the population is in poor condition and 27% is in fair condition.
The “Courthouse Ash” is a significant tree in your community. It is in good health and is the largest
Ash tree in the community. A past mayor of the community had it planted at the courthouse in honor of
the Centennial Celebration.
Community Tree Inventory Data Tables
Definition of Tree Conditions
Excellent-healthy, vigorous tree. No
apparent signs of insect, disease, or
mechanical injury.
Tree Condition
Condition of
Percent of
Trees
Tree
Population
Excellent
4.69%
Good
76.57%
Fair
17.57%
Poor
1.03%
Tree Locations
Location
Percent of
of Trees
Tree
Population
Parks
44%
Streets
56%
Good-average condition and vigor for
area. May be in need of some
corrective pruning or repair.
Fair-general state of decline. May
show severe insect, disease, or
mechanical damage, but death is no
imminent. May require major repair.
Poor-no chance of correcting this
declining condition, death is
imminent.
Species Distribution
of Public Trees (%)
%
Top 10 Species
Silver Maple
12.3
Pin Oak
9.2
Ash Species
7.8
Bur Oak
5.5
Sugar Maple
5.3
Norway Maple
5.3
Northern Hackberry
5.0
Walnut Species
4.7
Crabapple Species
3.9
Spruce Species
3.8
Average Diameter of Trees
Average
Percent of Tree
Diameter Size
Population
Less than 6
16%
inches
6-12 inches
20%
12-18 inches
20%
18-24 inches
22%
Over 24
21%
inches
Ash Tree Inventory Data Summary
Condition of
Number of
Ash Trees
Ash Trees
Excellent
11
Good
203
Fair
18
Poor
5
Relative Age Distribution of Top 10 Public Tree Species (%)
DBH Class (in)
Species
Silver maple
Pin oak
Ash species
Bur oak
Sugar maple
Norway maple
Northern hackberry
Walnut species
Crabapple species
Spruce species
Citywide total
0-3
3-6
6-12
12-18
18-24
24-30
30-36
2.71
0.00
3.32
4.67
5.85
1.96
1.03
0.55
20.67
18.12
4.80
1.40
8.97
7.94
7.80
6.86
4.62
4.97
26.00
12.08
13.57
3.64
28.57
3.27
32.20
32.35
8.72
13.26
39.33
26.85
22.34
12.04
30.23
2.80
32.20
46.57
21.03
24.31
12.67
11.41
31.32
36.41
18.27
17.76
19.02
11.27
38.97
41.99
0.67
18.79
16.08
32.77
7.64
39.25
1.95
0.49
19.49
12.71
0.67
9.40
5.22
11.48
2.66
19.63
0.98
0.49
5.13
2.21
0.00
2.01
6.88
9.53
20.46
20.23
21.75
14.27
5.02
36-42
3.13
1.68
0.33
3.74
0.00
0.00
0.51
0.00
0.00
0.00
>42
0.84
0.56
0.00
0.93
0.00
0.00
0.51
0.00
0.00
1.34
1.44 0.41
Total Community Population of Public Trees
DBH Class (in)
Broadleaf Deciduous Large (BDL)
0-3
3-6
6-12
12-18
18-24
65
107
150
3036
25
>42
23
2430
77
36-42
13
15
4
Pin oak
0
5
13
43
130
117
41
6
2
Bur oak
10
17
7
6
38
84
42
8
2
Sugar maple
12
16
66
66
39
4
2
0
0
Northern hackberry
Walnut species
2
1
9
9
17
24
41
44
76
76
38
23
10
4
1
0
1
0
American basswood
3
4
8
24
35
23
7
6
0
Red maple
2
15
41
16
19
11
1
0
0
Northern red oak
8
13
13
10
12
18
6
4
2
American sycamore
0
6
2
13
24
27
8
2
1
Maple species
Northern catalpa
18
3
18
2
9
0
4
14
1
8
0
6
0
3
0
2
0
1
Hickory species
0
1
8
6
13
0
0
1
1
American elm
3
1
3
0
9
6
4
2
0
Kentucky coffeetree
5
0
2
5
7
6
0
0
0
Eastern cottonwood
3
0
6
2
6
4
1
2
0
9
11
2
2
3
0
2
0
4
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Tree of Heaven
3
2
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
Sweetgum
0
1
4
2
2
0
1
0
0
Chinkapin oak
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
White oak
1
2
0
0
0
2
2
0
0
Paper birch
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
Oak species
English oak
1
1
0
1
1
2
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Horsechestnut
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
Chestnut species
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
Quaking aspen
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Broadleaf Deciduous Large
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Larch species
Shingle oak
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Silver maple
Tulip tree
Elm species
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
Chestnut oak
116
156
301
410
652
449
157
49
14
Broadleaf Deciduous Medium (BDM)
Ash species
Norway maple
0-3
10
4
3-6
27
14
6-12
86
66
12-18
91
95
18-24
55
23
2430
23
1
3036
8
1
36-42
1
0
>42
0
0
Honeylocust
0
2
5
20
24
9
1
1
0
Siberian elm
1
3
3
5
12
26
7
3
0
Black locust
0
0
1
5
6
6
2
1
0
Swamp white oak
2
5
6
1
1
0
0
0
0
Ginkgo
River birch
3
1
1
1
3
8
1
1
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Littleleaf linden
1
3
3
1
2
1
0
0
0
Common Persimmon
1
2
1
4
0
0
0
0
0
Boxelder
0
0
1
2
1
0
1
0
0
Ohio buckeye
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Willow species
Birch species
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
26
59
184
226
128
67
20
6
0
0-3
31
3-6
39
6-12
59
12-18
19
18-24
1
2430
1
3036
0
36-42
0
>42
0
Pear species
10
41
44
8
2
0
0
0
0
Eastern redbud
16
20
18
2
0
0
0
0
0
Prunus species
12
7
5
3
2
1
0
0
0
Serviceberry species
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Mulberry
1
2
3
2
2
1
0
1
0
Mountain ash
1
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
Goldenrain tree
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Japanese tree lilac
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Eastern hophornbeam
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Broadleaf Deciduous Small (BDS)
Crabapple species
Smoketree
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Hawthorn species
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
85
117
134
34
7
3
0
1
0
0-3
3-6
6-12
12-18
3036
0
>42
0
2430
0
36-42
0
0
0
Broadleaf Evergreen Large (BEL)
Total
Broadleaf Evergreen Medium (BEM)
0
0-3
3-6
4
3
1
3036
0
>42
0
2430
0
36-42
4
0
0
Total
4
0
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0-3
3-6
3036
0
>42
0
2430
0
36-42
0
0
0
Total
Conifer Evergreen Large (CEL)
6-12
12-18
0
Southern magnolia
Broadleaf Evergreen Small (BES)
6-12
18-24
0
12-18
0
18-24
18-24
0
0
0-3
3-6
6-12
12-18
18-24
18
40
17
28
3036
3
>42
27
2430
14
36-42
Spruce species
0
2
Scotch pine
0
1
40
31
0
1
0
0
0
Eastern white pine
1
3
9
18
11
12
14
0
0
Northern white cedar
1
3
7
4
0
1
0
0
0
Bald cypress
3
1
8
1
0
0
0
0
0
Ponderosa pine
0
0
3
3
1
3
0
0
0
Fire species
1
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
Total
33
26
108
76
40
31
17
0
2
Conifer Evergreen Medium (CEM)
0-3
3-6
6-12
12-18
18-24
2
21
33
13
3036
1
>42
0
2430
4
36-42
Austrian pine
0
0
Total
0
2
21
33
13
4
1
0
0
Conifer Evergreen Small (CES)
0-3
3-6
6-12
12-18
18-24
10
42
3
3
3036
0
>42
1
2430
0
36-42
Juniper species
0
0
Total
1
10
42
3
3
0
0
0
0
267
370
794
785
844
554
195
56
16
GRAND TOTAL
STUDY/PLANNING OBJECTIVES:
The primary objective is to create an EAB Preparedness Plan for your community.
RESOURCE CONCERNS:
A well-designed plan will establish a timeline and budget as well as procedures for addressing EAB in your
community while being flexible enough to adjust to changing information. The following elements have been
identified for inclusion in your community preparedness plan for EAB:
1. Background
a. Describe the history and impacts of EAB.
b. Describe the potential impact that EAB will have on your community forest resources.
2. Management Plan: Community Tree Inventory Summary, Community EAB Survey Strategies, & Ash
Management Policy
a. Community Tree Inventory Summary: Use the given data from your community’s tree inventory
to summarize community forest resource information in your EAB Preparedness Plan.
b. Community EAB Survey Strategies: Develop an EAB detection strategy for your community by
outlining signs and symptoms of EAB as well as survey techniques to be used when looking for
it.
c. Ash Management Policy: Describe how your community intends to manage its Ash trees in the
following areas:
i. Removal/Disposal of Dead/Hazardous Ash Trees
ii. Historic/Significant Ash Tree Preservation
iii. Public Woodlot Management
iv. Private Property Trees
v. Replanting
vi. Treatment Options
3. Education Plan
a. Identify key stakeholders and how they relate to EAB in your community. What can they do to
help contribute to the solution?
b. How will you reach out the community to get them on board with this plan?
4. Budget & Timeline: Tree Removal, Tree Replacement, Treatment Options, & Implementation Timeline
a. Tree Removal: Estimate tree removal costs for your community using the data provided above
and additional research as necessary.
b. Tree Replacement: Create a cost estimate for tree replacement by researching prices on the size
and species of tree you plan to use in replanting trees that must be removed.
c. Treatment Options: Research possible treatment options for EAB. Note that though there are
treatment options available for EAB, effective treatments must be sustained for the life of the
tree. In most cases, the cost of treatment outweighs the benefits, unless your community has a
strong historic or emotional connection to a particularly important tree. Review the tree
inventory data to determine if any Ash trees are worth treating and include this cost in your plan.
d. Implementation Timeline: Create a timeline for each phase of your EAB Preparedness Plan (it
should consist of a 2-5 year implementation plan). Develop a long-term plan for monitoring
EAB and other pests in your community trees.
THINGS TO CONSIDER AND ADDRESS AS YOU PREPARE YOUR PRESENTATION:
1. How do trees benefit the community? Why are they worth preserving and/or replacing?
2. How is the community tree population important regarding other natural resource areas?
3. Why is it important to consider tree species diversity with community plantings?
4. What is the history of EAB and how has it impacted other communities?
5. How does human activity play a role in the spread of EAB through nurseries, firewood, and wood
product utilization?
6. Will your community take a proactive or reactive approach to EAB? What are the pros and cons to each
approach?
7. How can your community reduce risks now when it comes to EAB?
RESOURCES AND CONTACTS (not limited to this list):
 How to Prepare for the Emerald Ash Borer, Nebraska Forest Service,
http://nfs.unl.edu/documents/foresthealth/EABCommunityReadinessFullSheet.pdf
 Nebraska Forest Service, http://nfs.unl.edu/emerald-ash-borer
 National Emerald Ash Borer Website, www.emeraldashborer.info
 Purdue University EAB Cost Calculator, http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/treecomputer/
 iTree Benefits Assessment Tool, www.itreetools.org
 USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, www.aphis.usda.gov
 US Forest Service, http://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/eab/
 Cooperative Emerald Ash Borer Project: Initial County EAB Detections in North America,
http://emeraldashborer.info/files/MultiState_EABpos.pdf
 Nebraska Department of Agriculture, http://www.nda.nebraska.gov/plant/entomology/eab/index.html
 North America Envirothon, http://www.envirothon.org/the-competition/current-competition.html
Special Topics Rules and Regulations
(Found in the Nebraska Envirothon Policy Manual page 8)
8.3 The seventh station will require each team to address question concerning a special issue each year based on
the special issue determined by the Canon Envirothon Steering Committee.
The oral presentation will:
8.3a. Be at least 8 minutes minimum and no more than 10 minutes in length or over 10 minutes. Points will be
deducted for presentations under 8 minutes.
8.3b. Require participation of all five team members. Each team member contributes up to two points for
participating orally in the presentation.
8.3c. Require teams to present a natural resource remediation strategy for an actual (on the ground) or
hypothetical natural resources issue.
8.3d. Following the presentation there will be a question and answer period for the judges.
8.3e. Only visual materials allowed are posters. There is no limit to the number of posters a team is able to use.
There will be an easel provide for teams to use. Note cards are allowed during the presentation. All visual
materials and note cards must be turned in at registration. Materials will be made available immediately prior to
presentation.
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