 # Electronics and Communication Engineering

```NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MEGHALAYA
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ELECTRONIC AND COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Syllabus for Written Test to Ph. D Programme, August 2015.
Group A: (30 Marks: MCQ)
1) Probability and Statistics:
Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median,
mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distributions.
2) Discrete Mathematics:
Basic operations on sets, cartesian products, disjoint union (sum), andpower sets. Different
types of relations, their compositions and inverses. Different types of functions, their
compositions and inverses. Complete partial ordering, chain, lattice. complete, distributive,
modular, andcomplemented lattices. Boolean and pseudo boolean lattices.Algebraic structures
with one binary operation – semigroup, monoid and group.Cosets, Lagrange’s theorem, normal
subgroup, homomorphic subgroup.Congruence relation and quotient structures.Error correcting
code.Algebric structures with two binary operations- ring, integral domain, and field. Boolean
algebra and boolean ring.
3) Logical Reasoning, Data Analysis & Interpretation and Verbal Ability:
Number Sequence Completion, Pattern Completion, Sets based on grouping and patterns,
Seating Arrangement problems, Circular Arrangements, Relational problems, Selection and
Conditionals, Mapping and best routes, Miscellaneous sets consisting of formal logic, testing,
sports events and other critical reasoning, Data Analysis, Data Interpretation, Data Sufficiency,
Reading Comprehension, Verbal Logic, Vocabulary, Grammar Correction.
Group B: (40 Marks: MCQ)
This section will cover fundamentals from B. Tech Syllabus in Electronic and
Communications Engineering.
Group C: (30 Marks: Descriptive)
Candidate is required to answer one of the groups. However, his/her selection may not be
limited to that specialization only.
1. Detailed Syllabus for VLSI Signal Processing
Signal Processing:
Review of LTI systems and their properties, Convolution sum, Sampling of continuous time
signals, Discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT) and its properties, Sampling in frequency
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MEGHALAYA
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domain, Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its properties, Z-transform, stability analysis,
implementation of discrete-time systems, design of FIR filters and IIR filters, linear phase
filters, group delay, response of first and second order filters, Applications of DSP.
VLSI Design systems:
I. Basic of Digital Design: Introduction to digital system, Basic combinational circuits like
adders, Multiplexers, encoder, decoders, various Flip-Flops, counters, shift registers, Memory,
Synchronous and Asynchronous system design, , Finite State Machine with case studies .
Design flow for ASIC and FPGA Design, Introduction to RTL (HDL) coding.
II. MOSFET operation and V-I characteristics, CMOS Inverters Analysis and Design,
Switching Properties of MOSFET, CMOS Static logic gates, CMOS Combinational and
Sequential logic Circuits, Transmission gate logic circuits, CMOS Dynamic logic Families,
Semiconductor Memories.
III. Introduction to computers, number representation, fixed point arithmetic, ALU
organization, floating point arithmetic, FPU, Decimal (BCD) arithmetic, Instruction formats
and addressing modes, Hardwired and Micro-programmed control units, Memories and
memory interfacing, System buses, Peripheral interfaces, I/O modes: Programmed, Interrupt,
DMA, I/O processor, Basic CPU design,, Advances in computer architecture, super scalar
processors, Virtual memory concept, Multi-programming and multi tasking, RISC vs. CISC
2. Detailed Syllabus for Computer Arithmetic
Number Representation:
Numbers and Arithmetic: What is computer arithmetic?, Motivating Examples, Numbers and
their encodings, Fixed- radix positional number systems, Number radix conversion, Classes of
number representations.
Representing Signed Numbers:
Signed-magnitude representation, Biased representations, Complement representations, Two'sand 1's-complement numbers, Direct and indirect signed arithmetic, Using signed positions or
signed digits.
Redundant Number Systems:
Coping with the carry problem, Redundancy in computer arithmetic, Digit sets and digit-set
conversions, Generalized signed-digit numbers, Carry-free addition algorithms, Conversions
and support functions. Introduction to Residue Number systems.
exceptions, Analysis of carry propagation, Carry completion detection, Addition of a
constant: counters, Manchester carry chains and adders.
Carry determination as prefix computation, Alternative parallel prefix networks, VLSI
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Multiplication: Basic Multiplication Schemes:
Shift/add multiplication algorithms, Programmed multiplication, Basic hardware multipliers,
Multiplication of signed numbers, Multiplication by constants, Preview of fast multipliers.
radix-16 multipliers, Multibeat multipliers, VLSI complexity issues.
Tree and Array Multipliers:
Full-tree multipliers, Alternative reduction trees, Tree multipliers for signed numbers, Partialtree and truncated multipliers, Array multipliers, Pipelined tree and array multipliers.
Division: Basic Division Schemes:
Shift/subtract division algorithms, Programmed division, Restoring hardware dividers,
Nonrestoring and signed division, Division by constants, Radix-2 SRT division.
Variations in Dividers:
Division with prescaling , Overlapped quotient-digit selection, Combinational and array
dividers, Modular dividers and reducers, The special case of reciprocation, Combined
multiply/divide units.
Real Arithmetic:
Floating-Point Representations, Floating-point numbers, The ANSI/IEEE floating-point
standard, Basic floating-point algorithms, Conversions and exceptions, Rounding schemes,
Logarithmic number systems.
Floating-Point Operations:
Floating-point adders/subtractors, Pre- and postshifting, Rounding and exceptions, Floatingpoint multipliers and dividers, Fused-multiply-add units, Logarithmic arithmetic unit.
3. Detailed Syllabus for Wireless Communication
Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Characteristics of wireless
channel and propagation path loss models: Different Multi-path propagation mechanisms,
Multi-path effects on mobile communication, Fading, different types of fading, small and large
fast fading model, Doppler effect due to velocity of mobiles, Rayleigh envelop, free space
propagation model, log normal shadowing model, macro and micro cell propagation model.
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4. Detailed Syllabus for Antenna Array Design
Antenna Characteristics:
Impedance, VSWR, Polarization; Effective height and Receive Aperture; Noise Temperature
of Antenna.
Antenna Arrays:
electric Field due to 2 element arrays, 3 element Arrays; Pattern Multiplication; Uniform
Linear Array: End fire and Broad side; Phased array.
Characteristics and properties of:
Travelling Wave Antenna, Helical Antenna, Folded Dipole, Yagi-Uda Array, Loop Antenna,
Electrically Short Antennas, Broad Band Antenna (Log periodic Antenna), Microstrip Patch
Antenna.
Methods of Propagation:
Ground Wave Propagation, Components of ground wave, Field strength dependence on
physical factors. Sky wave Propagation; Ionospheric Layers; Virtual Height, Critical
Frequency, MUF, Skip distance, Sporadic Reflections. Space wave propagation: Tropospheric
Scatter, Ducting Super refraction.
5. Detailed Syllabus for Wireless Sensor Networks
Same as Syllabus for Wireless Communication
6. Detailed Syllabus for Communications and Signal Processing:
Basic signals and systems concepts, Linear time-invariant systems, Transform analysis of
linear time-invariant systems, Fourier analysis for continuous-time signals and systems,
Sampling of continuous time signals, Discrete-time signals and systems, Fourier analysis for
discrete-time signals and systems, Laplace transform, Z transform and Discrete Fourier
transform.
Probability and random variables: The meaning of probability, the axioms of probability,
repeated trials, the concept of a random variable, functions of one random variable and two
random variables.
Baseband digital transmission, Information theory, Source and channel coding, Bandpass
digital transmission.
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``` # Multi-beam Patch Antenna Design Mustafa Konca Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Sener Uysal 