2015 CAU International Summer Program Course Syllabus

2015 CAU International Summer Program Course Syllabus
Course Title
Instructor
Global Business Environment
Professor You-il Lee
University
Department
School of Business and Economics
Email
[email protected]
Course
Description
Phone #
+61 8 8302 0991
This course offers a balance of sound business management practices that can be
applied in a multicultural or an overseas setting. The course offers critical subjects that
provide essential knowledge and skills, both theory and practice in the field. Students
will be offered challenging but exciting opportunities to enhance their knowledge and
skills in the field of International Business which is highly relevant to
business/management strategies in the new millennium.
This course is designed to expose students to the key determinants of the global
business environment. It examines how the macro business environment is shaped by
the interaction between globalization/regionalization and governments and international
agencies such as the World Trade Organization. It then identifies how the global
business environment may influence business strategy and operations in the
international arena, culminating in the analysis of corporate capabilities essential for
participation in international business.
On completion of this course students should be able to:
1. Describe and explain the relevance, key roles and changing impact of internatio
Course Goals
nal institutions such as the WTO and World Bank on International Business activities
2. Analyse various forces, including globalisation and regionalisation, which impact
trade and international business relations between countries and companies
3. Investigate the conduct of international business and the internationalisation of
the organisations with the use of trade theories
4. Examine the firms’ value chain and activities and competitive strategies on inter
national business activities
5. Discuss the impact of global product development and supply chain management
on the performance of international firms
6. Analyse the major social, cultural, political and economic challenges facing international business in the 21st century
Course
Procedures
Grading
And
Evaluation
Weekly three hour lectures
Class presentations
Small group discussions
Form of Assessment
Length
Weighting
Assessment 1:
2000 words
25%
3000 words
35%
3 hours
40%
Group Essay/Presentation
Assessment 2:
Group Case Analysis & Presentation
Individual Open Book
Examination
Course Schedule
Lecture 1. Introduction/ Chapter 1:Global Business Environment
Lecture 2. Chapter 2: National Differences and Global Business Environment
Lecture 3. Chapter 4: Managing Across Culture
Lecture 4. Chapters 7-8: International trade theories and government policies
Lecture 5. Chapter 9: Globalization and the rise of regionalism
Lecture 6. Presentations for Assignment I
Lecture 7. Chapter 13: Integrated Business Strategy
Lecture 8. Chapter 15: Market Entry Strategy
Lecture 9. Chapter 17: Global business environment and supply chain management.
Lecture 10. Chapter 18: Global business environment and product development:
international Marketing
Lecture 11. Chapter 19: International HRM
Lecture 12. Presentations for Assignment II
Lecture 13. Discussion: Integrated Business Strategy
Lecture 14. Discussion: Course Review and Exam Questions
Lecture 15. Examination
Instructor’s Profile
Dr You-il Lee is currently serves as the President of the Korean Studies Association of Australasia, and is Associate Professor of International
Business in the School of Management, University of South Australia and Deputy Director of the Australian Centre for Asian Business (ACAB) leading
the research on political economic dynamics of globalization in Asia.You-il is a political economist and has published research on socio-economic and
political changes and dynamics of globalization/regionalism in Asia. You-il's latest book (2014) is The Influence of National Culture on Customers'
Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan (Routledge).
You-il has taught and coordinated courses on Asian political economy, international business/management, and cross-cultural management. You-il
has had considerable experience in advising companies and government departments on a range of matter and met with over 200 CEOs of
multinational corporations over the years.
Global Business Environment
Course Outline
Prof. You-il Lee
University of South Australia Business School
University of South Australia
Australia
1
Why study International Business?
At the turn of this millennium, it seems inevitable that globalization is pulling the whole world
toward a more integrated economic system. International business has been moving to the
center stage and becoming a key driving force of globalization. Technology allows a firm to
conduct business around the world nearly as easily, cheaply, and efficiently as in its home
country. No single country is dominant in a number of key industries. A significant part of
international trade and investment is performed by multinational corporations. As a result, the
world's limited natural resources and the whole of humanity have become strategic components
of global production. Acting as economic agents, firms need to go beyond the maximization of
shareholder wealth and expand out from that. For the earth's sustainable development, and for
their own sake, business people have to work effectively in the global business environment.
This means they need to understand, even if they are not necessarily responsible for, issues
beyond profits such as the interaction of their business activities on distribution of values in
economics, politics, ideologies, cultures, ethics, human rights, ecology or environment, social
implications of technology choices, and economic development. Traditionally, business has
been viewed as essentially economic, while its impacts on society have been dealt with at the
margin, not to mention its moral implications. There is no universal foundation yet as to how we
should work in, live in, and build for a better global village for all.
This course offers a balance of sound business management practices that can be applied in a
multicultural or an overseas setting. The course offers critical subjects that provide essential
knowledge and skills, both theory and practice in the field. Students will be offered challenging
but exciting opportunities to enhance their knowledge and skills in the field of International
Business which is highly relevant to business/management strategies in the new millennium.
COURSE OBJECTIVES
Aim
This course is designed to expose students to the key determinants of the global business
environment. It examines how the macro business environment is shaped by the interaction
between globalization/regionalization and governments and international agencies such as the
World Trade Organization. It then identifies how the global business environment may influence
business strategy and operations in the international arena, culminating in the analysis of
corporate capabilities essential for participation in international business.
Objectives
Course Objectives
On completion of this course students should be able to:
1. Describe and explain the relevance, key roles and changing impact of international institutions
such as the WTO and World Bank on International Business activities
2. Analyse various forces, including globalisation and regionalisation, which impact trade and
international business relations between countries and companies
3. Investigate the conduct of international business and the internationalisation of the organisations
with the use of trade theories
4. Examine the firms’ value chain and activities and competitive strategies on international
business activities
5. Discuss the impact of global product development and supply chain management on the
performance of international firms
2
6. Analyse the major social, cultural, political and economic challenges facing international
business in the 21st century
COURSE CONTENT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Internationalization and Globalization
International Market Assessment
International Political Economy
Political Economy of International Business
International Market Entry Strategies
Integrated Business Strategy
Cross-cultural Management
International Marketing
International HRM
International organizations
TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESSES
•
•
•
Weekly three-hour seminar
Class presentations
Small group discussions
SEMINAR PARTICIPATION AND DISCUSSION
It is strongly recommended that students have read the relevant text chapters, journal/magazine
articles and/or case study before coming to seminar. Students are also expected to bring current
issues and debates concerned with global business to the seminar. Therefore, it is essential that
students be familiar with current magazines and academic journals concerned with international
business. The readings and discussions/debates will be assessed weekly in a small group
discussion.
ROAD TO SUCCESS
In order to lead a successful journey for this course, you should:
•
•
•
•
•
read the relevant text chapters before they come to the seminar;
be familiar with current affairs in relation to international business;
be active participants in a weekly seminar;
be active internet surfers;
be aware of Learning Journal.
TEXT AND REFERENCES
1.
You will need continual access to the following text(s) to complete this course. The
library does not hold multiple copies of the nominated text books. You are strongly
recommended to purchase the book(s).
3
Hill, CWL 2014, International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace, 9th
ed, McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York.
2.
Useful References:
•
Bartlett, CA & Ghoshal, S 2002, Managing Across Borders, 2nd edn., Boston, Harvard
Business School Press.
•
Czinkota, MR & Ronkainen, IA 2005, ‘A forecast of globalization, international business
and trade: Report from a Delphi study’, Journal of World Business, vol. 40, no. 2, pp.
111-123.
•
Daniels, JD, Radebaugh, LH & Sullivan, DP 2007, International Business. Environments
and Operations, 11th edn., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
•
Dunning, JH 2000, ‘The eclectic paradigm as an envelope for economic and business
theories of MNE activity’, International Business Review, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 163-190.
•
•
Griffin, RW & Pustay, MW 2008, International Business. A Managerial Perspective, 8th
edn., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
•
Luthans, F & Doh, J 2008, International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior,
7th edn., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
•
Ohmae, K 2005, Next Global Stage: The Challenges and Opportunities in Our Borderless
World, Wharton School Publishing.
•
Peng, MW 2001, ‘The resource-based view and international business’, Journal of
Management, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 803-829.
•
Porter, ME 2000, ‘Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a
global economy’ Economic Development Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 15-34.
•
3.
•
•
•
•
Fletcher, R 2001, ‘A holistic approach to internationalisation’, International Business
Review, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 25-49.
Shenkar, O 2004, ‘One more time: International business in a global economy’, Journal
of International Business Studies, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 161-171.
•
Suder, G 2004, Terrorism and the International Business Environment: The SecurityBusiness Nexus, Elgar Publishers, Cheltenham, Edward.
•
Vernon, R 1966, ‘International investment and international trade in the product cycle’,
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 190-207.
•
Wild, JJ, Wild, KL & Han, JCY 2007, International Business: The Challenges of
Globalization, 4th edn, Pearson Prentice Hall.
•
Wright, RW & Ricks, DA 1994, ‘Trends in international business research: Twenty-five
years later’, Journal of International Business Research, vol. 25, pp. 687-701.
Recommended Readings for Seminars (Journals and Magazines):
Harvard Business Review (http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu/products/hbr/index.html)
Financial Times (http://www.ft.com/)
Asia Businessweek (http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/asianews.htm)
Asian Business (http://web3.asia1.com.sg/timesnet/navigatn/text/ab.html)
4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Asia-Pacific Magazine(http://coombs.anu.edu.au/asia-pacific-magazine)
The Economist (http://www.economist.com/)
Far Eastern Economic Review (http://www.feer.com/)
Fortune (http://www.fortune.com/)
Academy of Management Review
California Management Review
Columbia Journal of World Business
Journal of International Business Studies
Strategic Management Journal
World Bank (http://www.worldbank.org/)
International Monetary Fund (http://www.imf.org/)
Asian Crisis Home page (http://www.stern.nyu.edu/~nroubini/asia/AsiaHomepage.html)
International Business Resources (http://ciber.bus.msu.edu/busres.htm)
Association for International Business (http://earthone.com/index.html)
5
ASSESSMENT SUMMARY
The table below summarizes assessment requirements for this course:
Form of Assessment
Length
Weighting
Due Date
Assessment 1:
Group Essay/Presentation
2000 words
25%
Week 6/Presentation
Assessment 2:
Group Case Analysis &
Presentation
3000 words
35%
Week 12/Presentation
Individual Open Book
Examination
3 hours
40%
Week 15
Professional Behavior: Attendance and Participation
Regular class attendance and participation are expected and necessary to fulfill the course
objectives and sustain the class professional rapport. The professor's attendance record is the
official record. Latecomers will be marked absent unless they see the professor immediately
after class and early leavers will be marked unless they see the professor before class; it is your
responsibility to keep informed and inform the lecturer of any necessary absences. Professional
behavior includes, but is not limited to, constructive participation, regular attendance (no more
than 3 unexcused absences throughout the semester), oral and written preparedness, meeting
deadlines, collaborative teamwork and collegial communication. A maximum of 10 points may
be subtracted from the total student point accumulation by the professor if this policy is violated.
1. Assignment One: Group Essay/Class Presentation
Value: 25 percent of final mark
Date Due: Week 6.
This is a group assignment. (Groups are to consist of three to five students).
Task:
In undertaking this course, you will be divided into teams. Your team affiliation will be finalised
in the first seminar session. Each team is required to write an essay on the given topic.
There are TWO components in this assessment item.
Part I: The essay should be word-processed with a text length of 2000 words excluding
appendices, references and bibliography.
Task:
Groups are required to choose ONE of the topics below, examine and submit the
essay.
•
Globalization: pros and cons;
•
Free Trade vs protectionism;
•
Regional Economic Blocs such as EU, APEC, NAFTA, ASEAN, AFTA, etc;
6
•
Foreign direct investment: pros and cons;
•
International organisations: WTO, IMF, OECD, IBRD, OPEC, etc;
•
Your home country position in the global market;
Content refers to the extent the key issues in the country concerned, as depicted in the assigned
readings, are covered; depth of analysis; and integration of issues in terms of doing business in
different parts of the world.
Presentation is concerned with the systematic structure of the report, logical sequencing of ideas,
and the physical layout of the paper
Originality is the generation of your own ideas from the study and the synthesis of established
theories/concepts.
Formatting and Layout:
2000 words
Excluding table of content, graphs, tables, footnotes / bibliography, attachments / appendices.
NOTE: the word count must not be exceeded.
Part Two – Oral presentation
Week 6.
Present to the class group findings in completing the task. Your team will be required to prepare
a 15-minute, illustrated presentation.
You are encouraged to use visual aids, particularly PowerPoint. Sufficient hard copies of
presentation slides (MS PowerPoint, 3/page handout format preferred) should be handed to the
Course Facilitator prior to the scheduled presentation for distribution to students.
Following the presentation there will be a question-and-answer period, with questions being
posed by your classmates and your Course Facilitator. It is important that each member of the
team contribute equally, not only in the preparation for the presentation but also in the actual
class presentation and the question-and-answer period.
ASSIGNMENT TWO: GROUP CASE ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
Value: 35 percent
Date Due: Week 12.
This is a group assignment. (Groups are to consist of three to five students).
Task:
In undertaking this course, you will be divided into teams. Your team affiliation will be finalised
in the first seminar session. Each team is required to undertake an analysis of a case with
specific instructions.
It is imperative that before the seminar sessions you study the case and communicate/work with
your team members by email about how you go about the presentation.
There are TWO components in this assessment item.
7
The first component involves your team making a formal oral case presentation at the scheduled
seminar session.
1
Oral Case Presentation
Due Date:
Week 12
The oral case presentation will involve a comprehensive analysis in which the team will be
expected to identify, evaluate and recommend. It is essential that your team present an in-depth
diagnosis and recommend a realistic, workable plan of action.
The presentation should demonstrate a systematic analysis of the case background & context,
appropriately incorporate concepts from the readings, and propose specific, actionable
recommendations.
In planning your oral presentation, your team should assume the role of a group of management
consultants presenting their findings to the company's Chief Executive Officer (CEO).
The rest of the class will assume the role of company executives, prospective investors, market
analysts, and reporters.
By the end of your presentation, the company's CEO should: (a) have a clear action agenda, and
(b) equally importantly, know precisely what commitments to make to his/her superiors and/or
what directives to give during the next management meeting.
The oral presentation itself will take the form of a 15-minute presentation to the class of your
team’s analysis and recommendations.
You are encouraged to use visual aids, particularly PowerPoint. Sufficient hard copies of
presentation slides (MS PowerPoint, 3/page handout format preferred) should be handed to the
Course Facilitator prior to the scheduled presentation for distribution to students.
Following the presentation there will be a question-and-answer period, with questions being
posed by your classmates and your Course Facilitator. It is important that each member of the
team contribute equally, not only in the preparation for the presentation but also in the actual
class presentation and the question-and-answer period. The following are the cases that the
teams may consider:
Case Study
The Globalisation of Starbucks, textbook pages 36-37
Matsushita (Panasonic) and Japan's Changing Culture, textbook pages 130-131
Walmart's Foreign Expansion, textbook pages 167-168
Nike: The Sweatshop Debate, textbook pages168-171
Spain's Telefonica, textbook pages 278-279
Coca-Cola, textbook 518-519
JCB in India, textbook pages 520-521
IKEA: Furniture retailer to the world, textbook pages 521-527
Where possible, information and figures presented in each case study should be updated from
other sources such as the internet. All cases are taken from the text book (Hill, C 2014,
International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace, 9th edn). Some cases include
questions at the end while others do not include any questions. You are not required to answer
these questions. It is expected that you will simply present an in-depth analysis of the case. This
8
includes identifying critical issues and recommending viable solutions to the identified issues.
2
Written Report
Due Date:
Week 12
The second component of this assessment requires students to turn their oral presentation into a
3,000-word written report and to submit it a week after the oral presentation. The Written Report
needs to be typewritten in Microsoft Word.
Formatting and Layout:
3000 word report
End of Program Examination
Value: 40 percent
Date:
Duration:
Assessment Value:
This examination will be conducted during the examination period
The final exam is comprehensive.
3 hours
30% of final mark
The exam/test will assess all topics in this course.
The standards by which the examination will be assessed are:
•
extent to which students can demonstrate understanding of specific theories/concepts/tools
covered in the course, particularly their strengths and shortcomings; and
•
extent to which students can apply specific theories/concepts/tools covered in the course
This final exam is open book. The following items may be bought into the examination room:
•
Course textbook;
•
Lecture slides and course notes;
•
English print or bilingual dictionary.
Please note that no electronic or digital equipment can be brought into the exam.
9
Schedule
Seminar
Topic
Textbook / Activities
Introduction
Global Business Environment
Academic briefing, group
formation and course
expectations
Chapter 1
2
National Differences and Global Business Environment
Chapter 2
3
Managing Across Cultures
Chapter 4
4
International trade theories and government policies
Chapters 7-8
5
Globalization and the rise of regionalism
Chapter 9
Presentations for Assignment I
Presentations for Assignment I
Integrated Business Strategy
Chapter 13
8
Market Entry Strategy
Chapter 15
9
Global business
management;
10
Global business environment and product development; Chapter 18
International Marketing
11
International HRM
Chapter 19
Presentations for Assignment II
Presentations for Assignment II
13
Integrated Business Strategy
Discussion
14
Course Review and Exam Questions
1
6
7
12
15
environment
and
Examination
10
supply
chain Chapter 17
Discussion
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Grade
Description
A or A+ (90-100%)
Criteria
High Distinction
B or B+ (80-89%)
Distinction
Excellent comprehension of material and
excellent development of a coherent
argument relevant to the examination
question: evidence of having done the
essential/recommended readings; excellent
presentation
Good comprehension of material and good
development of a coherent argument
relevant to the examination question:
evidence
of
having
done
the
essential/recommended readings; good
presentation
C or C+(70-79%)
Credit
Good knowledge of material; relevant
development of an argument relevant to the
question; evidence of having done the
essential/recommended readings; good
presentation
D or D+ (60-69%)
Pass
Sufficient knowledge of materials but
development of an argument relevant to the
question is limited; satisfactory presentation
CP (50-59%)
Conceded Pass
Patch knowledge of materials but poor
organisation of an argument relevant to the
question;
F (0-49%)
Fail
Patch knowledge, weak organisation of an
argument relevant to the question.
DEFERRAL OF ASSIGNMENTS
•
Students who wish to defer the submission of an assignment must apply for an extension of
the time within which to submit the assignment;
•
The application must be in writing and must set out the grounds on which deferral is sought;
•
Where an extension is sought on or before the day fixed for submission of the assignment
and an extension of not more than one week is sought, the application must be made to the
lecturer in charge of the unit;
•
An assignment submitted after the fixed or extended time for submission shall incur a
penalty to be calculated as follows:
11
(a) where the assignment is submitted not more than one week late, the penalty shall for each
working day that it is late, be 5% of the maximum assessment available for the
assignment; or
(b) where the assignment is submitted more than one week late, a mark of zero shall be
awarded.
THE GSIS POLICY
1.
The mechanics of writing (spelling, grammar, syntax, and punctuation) are important and
will be taken into account in the assessment of all written work. A student’s work may
be down-graded, and even failed, for unsatisfactory performance in these areas. [As a
guide only, more than one error per four or five pages will probably attract a penalty.
The penalty, from 10 to 60 percent of the mark you score for an assignment, is entirely at
the discretion of the marking lecturer. It is understood that International students for
whom English is a second language will sometimes have more problems than native
speakers of English.] Students are expected to be vigilant, careful and competent in these
areas. Work in pencil is not acceptable.
2.
Students are requested not to approach any organization for material or assistance in
connection with this course without first discussing the matter with the Course
Coordinator.
3.
A Timetable showing the Course Coordinator’s availability is attached to his staff study
door.
Plagiarism
Plagiarism may be defined as the practice of presenting as one’s own the ideas or work of
another without appropriate acknowledgement. It includes:
•
•
•
•
•
two or more students submitting substantially similar assignments.
students copying from books, journals or the www.
students copying from other students, or staff, with or without their knowledge.
“recycling” of a student's own material.
students submitting work written by another person (ghosting).
Such conduct is viewed seriously by the University as it:
•
•
•
subverts the whole process of unit assessment.
casts doubt on the validity and reputation of the University’s awards.
may disadvantage students who do not choose to plagiarise.
In addition students engaging in plagiarism may unknowingly not achieve a proper
understanding of the subject matter which may jeopardize their chances of passing any
examination in the unit.
12
Students should be aware that the University Rules on Admission, Enrolment and academic
Progress provide a range of penalties for cheating, plagiarism and collusion.
All students when submitting their assignments will be required to sign a statement declaring
that the assignment is their own work and that they have not allowed anyone else to read or
obtain possession of the assignment.
The GSIS proposes to keep a register of the names of all students who have engaged in
plagiarism which will be used when considering the appropriate penalty. Where staff members
are unsure of the extent of the plagiarism they may request a student to undergo an oral
examination on the assignment.
Students who are unsure whether what they propose doing is a breach of the University’s Rules
should consult their professor before proceeding.
Penalties
Penalties for cheating, plagiarism, collusion or interference with another student's academic
work or performance have been defined within the University's (Admission, Enrolment and
Academic Progress) Rules. There is a range of penalties which may be imposed on a student for
academic dishonesty. If a student's academic dishonesty has been proved, the following penalties
may be imposed against her/him by the University:
•
•
•
cancellation or deprivation of credit with respect to the assessment of the unit to which the
conduct relates;
disallowing the student from continuing in the unit and award a grade;
cancellation of the enrolment of a student
Referencing: Assignments should contain a bibliography.
ESSAY/REPORT WRITING
This section has been written as a guide and not a ‘blueprint’ for students undertaking work for
this course. Professor is directed to mark on the basis of answering the question set, knowledge
of the subject matter and understanding of concepts, organisation of knowledge, critical
interpretation and the student’s own reasoned conclusion.
Researching and writing essays is a central part of this unit, as it is throughout most of the Social
Sciences. For this unit you are required to write essays which are analytical as well as
descriptive. This requires serious engagement with your source material. There are numerous
student-oriented guides to essay writing and referencing and if you do not already have one you
should consider getting one. Also it is preferable for essays to be typed or done on a word
processor. You may also find the following pointers helpful when you do your assignments:
Researching your essay/report:
This involves the selection and collection of relevant materials. Take notes that include the
important elements of what you are reading: concepts, ideas, details of events and other
13
descriptive information, as well as quotations or paraphrased summaries, which relate to your
topic.
Planning your essay/report:
Your sources and relevant information must be organised. Draw up a one or two page plan of
the essay using headings and subheadings.
Writing your essay/report:
Remember that you are analysing, evaluating, criticising and arguing, not just summarising and
describing. You are not only trying to answer the question in a structured fashion, but to engage
critically with the question and with your sources.
Make sure that you substantiate your analysis throughout the essay. Generalisations need to be
supported with specific information and examples.
It is useful to start with an introduction that devotes a paragraph or two to explaining:
•
•
•
•
•
What are the essential elements?
Is there one element, perhaps an hypothesis, requiring arguments for and against?
Or are there several elements, and if so what are they?
Does it require explanation including definition or certain words or concepts?
What theories are relevant?
In the development of the argument, two aspects have been commented on by lecturer: the need
for theory and appropriate evidence. It has been found that the general theoretical level of the
answers to the questions tends to be disappointing. There is often a tendency to dive straight
into a description of the issues … without considering the theoretical base (i.e., the various types
of explanation of courses and relationships). In terms of evidence to justify the argument ‘this
evidence need not always take a directly empirical form. Evidence can be supplied by a rigorous
argument at the conceptual level.’
The need for a critical approach, including your own opinion. ‘A degree level answer needs
… your own critical interpretation’ and tutors ‘look for evidence of “thought” in answering the
question, not a simple “rehash” and “recall” of the unit…’. It is not sufficient to make
statements without justifying them with an argument and supporting them with evidence.
The academic requirements might be clarified if placed in the context of an essay structure, even
at the risk of some repetition.
The introduction. Here you should show your understanding of the question. Identify the
different elements; specify terms to be defined and concepts to be explained; outline how the
argument will be presented and discussed. You might indicate exclusions which you consider
peripheral but not directly relevant to your argument. The introduction should be lucid and
concise: an outline without discussion.
The development. This is the central aspect which should follow the structure outlined in the
introduction. Define terms concisely. Present alternative theories and evidence, and
acknowledge sources where appropriate. Make a critical appraisal of both theories and
evidence; include your own opinion substantiated by evidence; and show awareness of implicit
value judgements including your own.
14
Use paragraphs for each new aspect presented and show its relationship to the question asked.
Constant reference back to the question not only avoids irrelevance and repetition but also
maintains the thrust of the argument. Develop the paragraphs in logical sequence which, in
general terms you have indicated in the introduction.
The conclusion. This should draw together the threads of the argument and conclude with
precise reference back to the question asked. It would include your own assessment and
might indicate aspects for further consideration and research, but it should not introduce new
material; it is a conclusion.
Guides to Referencing
Referencing is a method of acknowledging the source of ideas that are not your own so as to
ensure the maintenance of academic honesty. You must indicate the exact source of
• quotations
• indirect quotations or summaries
• facts which could otherwise be subject to disputation
• opinions of authorities used in your argument
• interpretations not your own
• maps and statistics derived from secondary sources
This does not mean that a reference is necessary for every sentence you write. An essay or paper
should be based upon an appraisal of the available evidence and not merely a summary of a
number of texts. Referencing is essential to ensure academic honesty.
When to Use Quotations
Direct quotations should be employed:
• when citing direct evidence such as the exact wording of laws, official rulings, speeches,
statements, letters and diaries;
• when you wish to place on record the exact words of another commentator as evidence for a
point you wish to make;
• when you quote writings in order to comment upon them;
• when a significant thought has been expressed with unusual felicity by another writer.
15
`