SMDC Space Initiatives

SMDC Space Initiatives
John London
Space and Strategic Systems Directorate
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited.
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AGENDA
 Overview
 SMDC-ONE
 SNaP
 Kestrel Eye
 Launch
 Summary
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Courier 1B Army Satellite –
Launched 4 October 1960
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Miniature Electronics
Revolution
• Nano and Microsatellites can
provide critical data to previously
unreachable forces
• We’re conducting tech demos to
validate capabilities
• For less time and cost than
traditional satellite performance
analysis on the ground you can
obtain real on-orbit data
• Apply Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
paradigm to space: lower cost,
larger number, and ownership at
lower levels of Mission Command
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Satellite Orbit Types – Achieving
Persistence
LEO = Low Earth Orbit (160-2,000 km)
MEO= Medium Earth Orbit (2,000-35,786 km)
GEO = Geostationary Orbit (35,786 km)
HEO = Highly Elliptical Orbit
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Benefits of Smallsats in LEO
Low Cost
•
•
•
•
Per-Unit Cost Very Low
Enables Affordable Satellite Constellations
Minimal Personnel and Logistics Tail
Frequent Technology Refresh
Survivability
• Fly Above Threats and Crowded Airspace
• Constellations Degrade Gracefully
• Augmentation and Reconstitution are Rapid
• ASAT Engagement Cost Ratio in Our Favor
• Very Small Target
Responsiveness
•
•
•
•
•
Rapidly Designed and Built
Rapid, Short-Notice Deployment
Tasked from Theater
Persistent and Globally Available
Can Adapt to the Threat
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Orders of Magnitude
Army satellites are at the very small end of the MilSat spectrum
SBIRS $1.5B
Missile Warning
4,545 kilograms
GPS 3 $250M
Position / Navigation
1,136 kilograms
TacSat-3 $88M
Multi-spectral
Imagery
455 kilograms
Kestrel Eye
$1.3M
Visible
Imagery
Block I
18 kilograms
SNaP
$500K
Comm
Relay
5 kilograms
Army SMDC focus is on demonstrating the utility of nanosatellites
and microsatellites for the warfighter
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SMDC-Operational Nanosatellite Effect
(SMDC-ONE)
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Eight Satellites Delivered, 28 April 2009
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SMDC-ONE on Falcon 9
December 2010
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SMDC-ONE Ground Station
Low-cost, simple UHF Ground Station for
SMDC-ONE nanosat
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SNaP – SMDC Nanosatellite Project
•5kg Mass Cube Satellite - $500K Each
•5 Times the Data Rate of SMDC-ONE
•3 Axis Stabilization and Propulsion
•Data Exfil / Over-The-Horizon Comms
•Launch August 2015
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Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC)
Nanosatellite Program (SNaP)
Global Presence, Assured Access Comm for the Disadvantaged User
FY12 – FY13
Approved by Congress as FY12 New Start
On 25 April 2012
PARTICIPANTS
• COCOM Sponsor: USSOUTHCOM
• Oversight Executive: OSD
• Operational Manager: USSOUTHCOM
• Technical Manager: USASMDC/Army Strategic Command
• Transition Manager: PEO Missiles & Space
• Other Participants/Partners: USAFRICOM, Army ERDC, PEO IEW&S, PEO C3 – Tactical,
1st Space Brigade USASMDC
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SNaP Design (Zenith)
Propulsion
Module
(Aerojet)
Battery
Assembly
(Miltec/Yardney)
Deployable Solar
Panels
(Miltec/Pumpkin)
Sun
Sensor
(SSBV)
GPS
Antenna
(Spectrum
Control)
Comm Element (SDR),
KI-55 & Processor
Module
(Pericle)
Magnetometer
(MAI)
Inertial
Sensor
Package
(Analog Devices)
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SNaP Design (Nadir)
ADACS
Electronics
(MAI)
UHF
Antenna
(Pop-Up)
(Haig-Farr)
ADACS
Components
(MAI)
Electronics
Assembly
(Flight Computer,
Telemetry and
Power)
(Miltec)
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Kestrel Eye Block I Overview
• Small (40 lbs) tactical imaging SC with 1.5 GSD from 450 km, 1.7 from 600 km
• Can be tasked by forward forces to take images of designated points
• Can take individual or strip images (5.8 km x 3.8 km frames)
• Returns imagery to user within seconds
• Can Roll ±30° (swath width ≈300 miles)
• Max roll rate ≈3°/sec in Roll, 1.2°/sec in Pitch
• A constellation (5 planes, 8 SC/plane) can provide high
persistence coverage of broad latitudinal swath
KE Block 1
Completed Integration
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Kestrel Eye Imaging Nanosatellite
Visible area of Earth from low orbit is independent of satellite
size or cost. Persistence requires numbers
What $500M will buy:
1/3rd National System
• High resolution
• High competition for
access
1 commercial system
• 0.4 meter resolution
• Competition for access
384 Kestrel Eyes ($1.3M each)
• 1.5 meter resolution
• COCOM small unit direct control
The trade between large and small satellites is the trade between resolution and
persistence. You need resolution for technical intel, but many COCOM requirements can be
satisfied with persistent, lower resolution systems
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Kestrel Eye Ops Concept
1
4
Combatant Command planners assign Tasking
Priority to authorized units. Pri/Unit Codes
uploaded to satellites by Master Ground Station
3
Multiple task requests adjudicated onboard satellite.
Images to requesting User Ground Station
in-theater network.
KE in orbit or launched on demand is apportioned to a
Combatant Command
2
Imagery or analyst description distributed from User Ground
Station to Tactical Unit via communications network
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Kestrel Eye Block II
•45 kg Mass - $1.3M Each
•1.5m GSD Imagery
•Tasked from Theater
•Launch 2015
KE Block IIA
KE Block IIM
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Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD)
Kestrel Eye
Global Presence, Assured Imaging for the Disadvantaged User
FY 12 – FY 14
Approved by Congress as FY12 New Start
On 5 July 2012
Participants
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•
•
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•
•
COCOM Sponsor: USPACOM
Oversight Executive: OSD
Operational Manager: USPACOM
Technical Manager: USASMDC/ARSTRAT
Transition Manager: PEO Missiles & Space
Other participants / partners: USSOUTHCOM, SOCOM, AMRDEC, Army
Fires COE
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Op Demo Location
Bellows AFS
Brigade TOC
KE Full Image Frame
Encampment
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GATR Antenna
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•
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•
Inflatable
2.4 meter diameter
S-Band feed
Transports in two
cases
• Roller platform added
for LEO tracking
capability
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FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
KE Block IIA
Deployable Cover
119 cm
Optical Deck
Antenna Deck
82.5 cm
Avionics
Deck
Z
Y
47.5 cm
41 cm
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X
Propulsion
Deck
Reference SC coordinate frame
orientation. Origin is located at
center of Propulsion Deck –Z face.
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KE Block IIM
Deployable
Aperture Door
S-Band
Earth Coverage
Antennas (2)
Coarse Sun
Sensors (8)
Body-mounted
Solar Arrays (4)
Star Tracker
Telescope
Aperture
Torque
Rods (3)
Magnetometer
10" f/10
Telescope
Reaction
Wheels (3)
Cold Gas
Propulsion
System
LightBand
Separation
System
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Why A Dedicated Small Launcher?
It’s All About the Constellation Architecture
•
To achieve persistence from space for the
ground warfighter, nanosats need to be
deployed in low earth orbit in large numbers
•
Riding as hitchhikers on large launch
vehicles will not put you in the right orbit on
the right schedule
•
Targeted replacement of a nanosat within
the constellation needs a responsive
launcher that closely matches the satellite’s
price point
•
Responsive, on-demand placement of
tactical satellites on orbit to meet COCOM
urgent needs also dictates a dedicated
launcher
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Lowering the Cost of Space Access
Partial List of Attempts
(U.S Government-Funded Only – No Commercial or Foreign
Programs Included)
Space Shuttle
National AeroSpace Plane
Advanced Launch System
National Launch System
Spacelifter
Pegasus
Taurus
DC-X
EELV
Bantam
X-33
X-34
Minotaur
Space Launch Initiative
FALCON
RASCAL
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Launch Options
Lift Capacity
(To 750 km circular)
?
$1.5M
25kg
Super
Strypi
$16+M
250kg
Atlas V and
Delta IV
EELVs
$350+M
>8400kg
Falcon 1e
$11M
850kg
(not
currently
available)
Pegasus
$40+M
325kg
Falcon 9
$65M
Minotaur IV 9,000kg
$65M
1500kg
Minotaur I
$45M
430kg
Cost
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Summary
• Army Responsive Space Initiatives are
Focused on Tactical Warfighter Needs
• Smallsat Capabilities Designed to be
Directly Employed by Small Unit Forces
• Constellations of Nanosats and Microsats
Can Provide Persistent, Affordable SpaceBased Capability
• Small Launch is a Key Enabler
Expeditionary capabilities
for expeditionary force
needs. Reaching an
unprecedented low level of
Mission Command
Game changing capability, near term horizon
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