Document 15234

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NATIONAL
WOMEN/REVIEW: Women's History Bibliography:
A Class, Sex, Race-Conscious Resource
600 wds
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WOMEN: New Law Ends Oisqualification of Pregnant
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A Review of "Insanity Inside Out"
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RACISM/FBI: Agents Invade Philadelphia Home
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INTERNATIONAL
THAILANO: Resistance Grows
As Repression Intensifies
1200 wds/map-collage
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MARSHALL ISLANOS:
1200 wds
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Apartheid U.S. Style
SPAIN: Spanish Auto Workers
Confront Henry Ford and Juan Carlos
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THAILANO CHRONOLOGY 1932-1976
2
GRAPHICS
COVER: Figure
CREOIT: Middle East Brfeffn9/LNS
CARTER: Photo
P-l
FORO:
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Cartoon
IoKlMEN: Graphi cs •..............•......•......... pol
HEALTH/MENTAL: Graphics
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INTELLIGENCE: Graphic
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11827
November 6, 1976
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Packet #827
No,ember 6 1976
k 100\1
hone. ~2 2) 989-3555
lA COLLEC .VE. Cathy COck/eli, Ellen Gar.ey,
Lau 1e Le ter, Sarah Plant Barbara Plu~, ~dndy
_~~a. NO~lY
t etel
COMRADES.
en Crocke , Ml It Taam Leoal Counsel:
t lar. Alterman &bulleimett
CORRbPO DE rs: Sc.ho lela Coryell--PoI1S
GRAPHIC AR STS. Peq Aver! I I Da,e Heleth
LIBERA':ON News 5e(,'ce, now In Its tenth
year, publ1<hes tW 1ce-weekl) packets ot news and
qraph 1C rna te r' aI PhOtolir aphs are ha It- toned on
a 65 or 85 I ne screen
LIBERATiON News Servlte, 17 W 17 St , New
York, New ~Ork 10011
(212) 989-3555 Packet
#827, NOvember 6. 1976
Pub II shed tWl ce a "eeK except for the last
week In the month when 1t 1S publ1shea once
COPYI -.lht '''2' by LN~ ews ::le',lce. Inc
Second Clas, Posfcl~e pa1d at New York N y
COLLECTIVE NOTES
-t> ('
The "ThaIland Chronol09Y" on pages 2 and 3
1S a very usetul document which you will want to
hIe and use as a reference. fh1S chronlcle of
the U S rOle'n back1ng right-wing groups over
the past fOlty years provides a context for the
bloody October 6 coup
See the next LNS packet for an analysis of
Carter's carnpaiqn clnd his expected presidential
po 11 ci es
*
*
*
*
*
The LNS questionnaires are pour1ng in.
Be sure to mall yours, if you haven't yet, so
you won't be left out Of our statistics~
children.
S<, ,.;rllphics)
H
_STAJ'CE
GRll\~S
IN THAILAND AS REPRESSION
I TENSIFIES
by David Millikin
, t r s note: David Millikin is an American
~rnalist who returned from Thailand in early
ptember.)
A}IHERST, Mass. (LNS)--Since the October 6 coup
!'ha il and , the military junta has continued its
I l1Cy of systematic elimination of all progressive
'pposition. In the first three weeks after the
coup, five thousand student, farmer and labor
leaders; polit!cians and intellectuals were arrested
a~d imprisoned by the junta on charges ranging
1'"
f!"""m being a Ilcommunist
susp~ct"
to being a 'Idan_
g ro~s person to society." Those alOrested will be
ried by military tribunals.
After abolishing the constLtotion the junta
introduced broad powers of arrest and detention
allowing "communist suspects" to be held for up
to 180 days wihtout charges. A reliable source
Bangkok has reported that the junta intends to
"put an end" to the liberal and left-wing movements
which have grown since the popular revolt which
v rthrew the previous, Thanom-~rsppas dictatorship in 1973. This source WS"t on to confirm that
the junta plans to arrest about 30,000 people it
clal.ms are either communists or commuuist sympa-
thizers. A number this large in Thailand would
i~ lude not only political activists but also
"i active" liberal journalists, professors, civil
servants, and government researchers.
The arrest toll is already so high that prisoners have spilled over from the established
prisons and are now kept in military barracks as
well. Sources in Bangkok say that it is doubtful
whether thses prisoners can evenlbe kept at a
minimal level of subsistance. Conditions Can only
worsen with the continuing arrests.
A new junta decree authorizes regional
authorities to designate certain areas as "commu-
n1.st lnfiltrated aiDeas," consider auyone found
in these zones an "insurgent," and detain them for
up to 18 months without trial. This government
tactic is similar to those used by the Thieu regime
1n South Vietnam.
In response to such aC tions, and to the represslve decrees of the junta eliminating all
democratic rights, support for the dictatorship
lS rapidly eroding. While the junta had counted
o~ gaining support through its censorship and
propaganda about the events surrounding the coup,
another informed Thai observer in Bangkok reported
that "I:here are many indicatio"s that public
opinion is now SWinging in favor of the, students
who were brutally suppressed during a peaceful
rally on Thammasat campus which resulted in the
death and injury of several hundred people." In
addition, the observer continued, "the right wing
mobilizer, the Army
RadiO, frustratedly expressed
lts discontent over the swift change in·'public
opinion towards the students" following the coup.
A potentially powerful source of discontent
are the middle and upper middle class parents of
sLudents who were killed Or have fled. These
eople bla~e the new re ime for the loss of their
Page 1
LIBERATION News Service
#8
In addition to this grow'ng public resentment
of the junta, thousands of progressive people have
fled underground to escape the junta's broad sweeps.
At Khon Kaen University in northern Thailand, 100
students hijacked three buses on the morning after
the coup and directed them to a communist guerilla
stronghold in the nearby mountains. Students in the
central and south likewise were reported to have
headed toward the jungle, while observers made
special note of the absence of entire classes of
medical students from Chiang Mai and Hahidol universities, from which come the country's most militant
and best educated activists.
The Communist Party of Thailand
The Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) has been
engaged in armed struggle since the late 1960's and
has held control of the significant areas of Northeast and Southern Thailand. Within these liberated
zones, farmers protect themselves from the rent
collectors of the wealthy absentee landlords from
Bangkok, administer and collect taxes, arbitrate
legal disputes and carry out social projects such
as education and health care.
A 1975 Thai government study recommended using
the follOWing as indicators for determining if an
area is an ltinsurgent preserve":
the ltsudden dis-
appearance of bandits and rustlers; sudden dissaRpearance of drug addiction: an inexplicable increase
in the demand for books, paper and pencils; an
improvement in public sanitation and a sudden increase in the use of soap and toothpaste; and a
great and spontaneous improvement in the internal
cleanliness and order of the villages."
The CPT has successfully defended these liberated zones against repeated full scale assaults by
the U.S.-backed Royal Thai Army aud counter-insurgency forces Over the years. On October 20, one of
the most significant events since the coup occured
when the Socialist Party of Thailand (SP), a previously legal soc al democratic party which had
several members elected to the now-abolished parliament, declared that it was join!ng wIth the CPT in
armed struggle against the junta.
In a statement read over CP radiO, the SP leadErs
also urged "every organized mass unit both in rural
and urban areas" to take up arms and join the fight.
The SP-CP alliance, it is believed, will both encourage the Thai left in general and provide a needed
boost to the revolutionary socialist movement by
supplying an infusion of organizing experience and
skills fr m the urban and educated left. "There is
every indication to suggest that other activist
groups, probably including the powerful National
Student Center of Thailand, will join this new alliance" the Thai observer in Bangkok reported.
Meanwhile, several bombing attempts have been
directed against an American radar station in the
North, several soldiers of the Thai Army have been
killed within Bangkok, and leaflets and posters have
begun to appear simultaneously in provinces throughout Thailand--all indications of a Qualitatively
heightened and organized resistance to the junta.
--30--
November 6, 1976
more •.••
THAILAND FACT SHEEr (1932-1976)
Prepared by. group of Southeast Asia specialists at Cornell University
Prof B.R. O'G. Anderson_ David W.P. Elliott, Stephen R. Heder,
G.t. Hildebrand. and Prof. Georfe HeT. Kahin
Na~s
r
of iR'lpOrant figures have been underl tned.
IH(IO "f' TIl
rmRnr.~ .\'11 ~1\1.I) WAN
n
l"l.,rthr.""· ~r th~' :11o,;;,.lut,- ..,,,.In·h)' and e,;t,Jblisl1a('nt of ("ont>tltut i'~I\.lt ):"\",·rnm..·nt bv . , .{'(,',I aUltary-civll iiln ~r(ll1p.
t_ It-
\.-",..,,,{,,," t., Jlct.Jt,.r[.,1 pow-cor uf Ficold-f'brsll.1l I'hibtln Sonskhra.. a
\..("'- 1,·:1,I.'r C"f th,' 1")2. ,·ClUJ>.
1_ ~' ... l
r.~" d.,\' "ft ...r rl'.., rl H,lrb"r. Fhibun penaits Japanese passilge through
TIl.lfland. a11('!~ln~ till'S to outflank the Allies in Buraa a.nd Halaya.
I :'\1:.:,
Phibun decl.arcs .....tr on the U.g. and Great Britain. In Waah:lngton.
Thal ,wbat'isador 5"'of Pr:Ulote refuses to preaent declaration of war,
.:alt5 (or under~round resistancp.
1-]0/')8
Sarit undeJ"l~oeS -.'C1ka] tr\.:at-.:nt abr-f).)d. ~ntrusting tht:
Pretller Thano. and o.:puty Pre.h:r Praphat.
10/20/58
Returning fro- abroad, Sarit launchelli iI Sf-coad COUp. abolishing the
constitution, dissolving parliament. banning all political partie••
and carry Ins OUt sveeping arrests of opposition representiltives,
int.ellectuala and labor leaders. Trials under the Anti-C~uD1st
Act fall .
r-~gu.e
to
6-7/59
S.rit orders execution without trial of peasant leader Sila Wong.in
and political leader Supachai Srisati.
8-l2/60
Sarit pendtll trannhipment of supplies to his cousin Phowai
Nosavan, Lao Army rightist, who overthrows nflueral Lao &overnaent.
3/6/62
Dean Rusk-Thenat Khoman agreement allow. U.S. to "aid" Thailand
without consent of other SEATO powers. Sarit announces that agree.ent gives Bangkok the same U.S. protection against external thl"e.u;
that Saigon enjoys.
4/62
U.S. announces that U.S. personnel .re training Thai Ani)' in guerrilla ....arfare.
7/':.to/:.....
facins=. pres§ur(" froC! the underground resistance and delDOralhed by
the de-terior.'lting war situation, Phi bun resigns.
9/17/:'5
FollOWing V-J Day, Seni Pr3mote becomes pre_ier with the support of
resistance leaders. Heanwhile, British attempts to reduce the political influence of the Thai mllitary are overruled by the U.S.
l/b/46
In Th.a1.land's (irSt really free. elections, left-of-center resistance l(!.aders outpoll Seni Pramote and his brother Kukrit, .... ho head
centrist purtles.
5/19/62
9/9/47
The Southellst Asia League 1s formed in Bangkok to support anticolonial movements in Indonesia, Cambodia, I..aos, Viet N8IlI, Malaya,
and Dunna.
Pu81dent Kennedy orden 10.000 U.S. troops to Thailand to influence Laotian .ituation. \lithout consulting Thailand or U.S. Congress
8/62
U.S. Military Aubt.ance Command establi.hed in Bangkok as intelligence and logisdcs arm of JUSKAG.
11/8/47
Phibun's supporters carry out :I coup. exiling the civilian resistance leaders and installing a civilian premier as front.
3/19/63
1129/48
In elections froa which war-time resistance leaden are barred,
moderates led b)' Sen! and Kukrit Pnunote resoundingly defeat.
mi 1 itary-backed candidates.
12/8/63
Phibun returns to power. overthrowing the civilian government in
favor of a military dictaeorahip.
U.S. recognizes Phlbun regilte.
1949
CIA mission arrives in Bangkok to begin extensive training and supply of Thai police.
5-6/49
Thai Il1litary abaion visits U.S.
10/{,9
U. S. turns over to Phibun $44 lIIillion t.pounded during World War li.
2/28/50
After receiving pra-ises of U.S. Point Four aid. Phibun recognizes
the French-controlled regiaes in Indochina.
4/50
President Truman approves both ai.lltary and econOIlic aid. The
Joint Chiefs endorse covert support for anti-c~ise groups
operating against China: the CIA uses the Thai police to ship
daUy auppl1es to KUOII..intang (Chiang Kai-shek) bands in Burraa.
6/50
Phibun offers Thai troops for t.he Korean War. the U.S. to pay all
costs.
9/50
Thai-U.S. asreement on econOlllic and technical co-operaeion signed;
U.S. experts begin to arrive.
10/50
Thai-U.S • •Uitary agreement signed; 20-aan Military Assistance
Advisory Group (HAAG>' established.
1951-53
In return for shipping supplies to KK1" bands in Bunaa, General Phao
~~~r:n~::':y':~~~:r~~~:~:l~;:ar;~:~~~e:a~:;;:n;~r.Pl~:bi~: ~~o
to
set up air, naval, paratroop, and anK)red units within the police..
11/29/51
General Sadt Thanarat, controlling an any bolstered by U.S. military afd, and Police General Phao, take real power frOlll Phibun,
leaving him largely nominal author.ity all premier.
1/52
U.S. Ambaasador Edwin Stanton, urging Phibun to repress left-wing
forces, is infonDed Phao is doing so.
11/52
Phao conducts mass arrest.s of opposition. Hilitary-controlled parliament passes the Anti-Ce-aunJ.st Act (abo knom as the Un-Thai
Activities Act), after one hour's debate. Reg1Jne asaUJll4!:s unliaited
legal license t.o suppress anyone it defines as "cOtlDuniat." Aabasaador Stanton gives Phibun governJlent. "great credle" for its "decisive action."
1953
Sun ton replaced by General WUlia. Donov.n, (otwe.r head of CIAforerunner OSS. HAAG superceded by l65-. .n Joint. U.S. Military
Auistance Group (JUSMAG).
9/5{,
Thalland becomes first nation t.o ratify the KanUa Pact eatablishing the South EaSt Asia Treaty Orsantzation (SEATO).
12/54
John Peurifoy, U.S. aeassador to Guat-.b st the tt.e of the CIAorganiited overthrow of the electl!d Arbenz govet'"!ment, replsce.
Donovan as a_bassador to Thailand.
6/55
In an atte-pt to ouemanoeUVTe the widely hated Pbao and the as yee
little known Sarit, Ph1bun introduces "full d~c.r.cy," pr<*lsing
genUinely free elections in 1957. A period of freer speech diaclases deep popuh 1'" dislike of the .lliury .nd graving feelina
a~slnst U.S. influence in Thailand.
Heavlly-ri~ed
elections held to ensure Phibun's poaltion -- but
re"ultOJ dt"laonstr;lte popular hostility to .ilftary rule. Student
protest" de-.and Phihun'~ resignation.
Pf:IUOD
9/1"".,1
or
3/64
Beginning of heaVY influx of U.S. Air Force jets and 0.5. Arrt Engineers. Wt" wi II construct U.S. bases crucial to t.be Viet N_ liar
wl·1 as th~ lugistically key highway frOli Banakolr. to Laoa.
Prt!sident Johnson launches air strikes again.t Laoa vith U.S., Thai.
101T, and Lao pilots operating frOll Thai airfields.
• id-bG
U.S. begina joint condngeney plann.i.ng vith Thai alUtary •
8/64
Following Gulf of Tonk.1n Resolution, Johnson ordet"a jC.tt"ilhter
bOllbln~ of Viet N. . trOll Thai baau.
y~
and Pnphat Ch.uusl1thien. Phfbun and Phao are extled.
tnltt811 .. dvlJ1an pr~lIli(!c O"f Cront.
Nl'W" , I-j tl"",+: 1)(oJlll')rrstH :)nd '1anJler socisli"t parele. outpoll
S.. ril'l'l pinty. rtvlJ (:tn pn,.I<-r (01'"("1'11 tn r(,l'i"n.
r.lJ\p.RATION
N~wl'
Servtc<,
~&a,
sa.e trOll U.S. ba.ea.
3/65
U.S. begins . . .dve boabing of North Viet
7/65
Proclaaation of t.he Insurgent Thailand Patriot.ic Pront; the relat.ed
Thailand Independence l10veJDent vss founded the previous Noveaber.
8/65
Under Aabasaador Grs~ Kar-tin. U.S. begins atep-up of CO\ll1terinaursency prosraaa in Thailand. U.S. Operationa Hission reported
trying to "block COllllllWlist infiltrat.ion snd to vin the loyalty of
hill tribes along the BurtDese and Laotian borders."
12/65
C~unbt Suppresa10n Operations C~nd (CSOC) , to coord1.n.ate
ailitary, police and civUian count.er-insurgency operation. eseabl1shed under Praphat.
2/66
U.S. 606th Air Coaaando Squadron arrives t.o train Th.i Air Force in
counter-insurgency efforts. Squadron helicopters Thsi troop. iDto
action from August 1966 to January 1967, when Tha-i acquire their
ovn hellcopten.
5/66
U.~.
8/66
Pr.phat rejecu draft constitueion as "too Ilar1n&l)' d..,cratlc."
U.S. equips and reorganizes Village Defense Corps. 6-7,000 stTOGl.
for counter-in.urgency purpoaes.
11/66
Firat appoinr:.nnt of U.S. Ambassador's Special .\ealstent for
Counter-Insurgency. 370 Special ForeeI' peraonnel arrive to trsin
Thai Army in counter-insurgency.
12/66
Asked about elections, Praphat repliea, "1Jhen we bave t.be constitution and have held the elections end this country turns red, vill
you be aatbBed1" U.S. Special Force. eatablish counter-inaurgency caJDP nur Sakhon Makhon by Laotian border. U.S. fore. .
st.at.loned in Thailand nov number )4,000.
Na"! begins trdnlng Border Police units p.trolling Keltontt·
1/67
ReglM announces intention of sending cOlDb.t oo1es to Viet Kaa;
U.S. secret.l)' pays sll casU.
7/67
CIA-sponsored ·'D.er Serei" ript.-vi.ns suerri ~ as, operat:1ng f~
basea in ThaUand since the aid-50's, ste.p up .naed attacks 00
C_bodu'. royal gove.rnaent.
9/67
2,200 coabat troops, the "Queen's Cobr..... arrive in Viee Naa. BeSioninl of prolnm that eventually trains lM)re than 29,000 Thai in
allit.t"')"". paraa1Utary and poUee techniques.
6/20/68
'ti.1itary-drafte.d conatit:ution establishes an .ppointive upper bouM
(. . .b«rship 75% allitary Den), and an ele.ctive lover hou.e. Political parties psrtly lesalhed.
1/69
11,000 Th.i troops stationed in Viet Naa to date - nearly 14% of
ehe T1\al}.ray. U,S. bean cost of $50 tillion s year for ~ yean.
2/69
Fint ehct:ions in 11 yean: Minhtry of tbe Interior under Pnphat
ensures gavel"naient victory in IDOSt of countryside, but c:1viU.n
centrist oppo.ition under Seni haaote sweeps Banlko •
12/69
Foreign Kinister Thanat Khaaan strongly defti.s that U.S. haa paid
for all Thai troop. sent to Viet Naa. l'.S~ troop strt!D.leh in thailand now at 45 •.500 at 60 .jor installUlons.
3/18/70
Lon Nol coup in c.8Ibodia against Prince Sihanouk's govercment.
U.S. recognizes nev resble within 48 hours.
6/70
Pre-ter Thana- announces Thailand ",ill train Cambodia ''volunte-ers''
1n TheUand, vho ",Ul be aT'lled .lind equipped {rca aid suppUed by US
THE SARlT OICTATORSHIP
(;c:"~nl S4rit Th.aMrllt <4ehes power, aid d by .ray officers ~
StiTh
dies. Tha.noa becomes Premier.
,):0-
5/48
2/2~/"
Sarit
PERIOD OP THAN<»f-PRAPHAT DICTATORSHIP
PERIOD OF THE SECOND PH18UN DICTATORSHIP
4/6/48
"Special Loght1cs Action-Thalland" Agreelreat:U.S. upgrades Thai
logiltica and b1provell airfields, preparing for arrival of U.S.
AnlY Engineera.
(Um
Hnvl".ber ft. 1916
11 "
..,
.... l.a{l"Ito~ an inlt>nsif1(",)tlr!ll nf tht' insurgency. Tlul.I1olll carries oul .:l
t°(\uP 'It,,,lltn~t hi ... 0"'''' ('onsthutlon, (,llbI nt.'t, and parLiament. New
'~atl('lMl . ecuti.v~ C,~unctl" l'~ldbllshed to rule five yt·ars. whlle
a t"\O con<tltution tq prepared.
ultO,1 M:.anh lO
dt:adlin~
for U.S. withdrawal .
1./1')/76
!ted (;:.allrM rire-bomb MOderate New Force Party'. Bangkok headquarters.
1./IK/16
Mahtdon University student leader A-.aret Chaisa-at assassinated.
2/" /76
10.000 .arch In Aaaret's funeral prrn:eflsion .
Thre-e fOnlll.":r deput!t.',> fiit· suit dgain8t Thanolll on cll,lrsws of conpira,,, to use violen('C~ to abulish his constiluti\ln, ThJ,n'lIlI rt.>.. ponds with a full rlil1lurv 11lC'rL and arrests all three. They rt'('('lve ten-~'ear prison t('l'1ll$. withnut ['rial.
2/24176
Troops occupy dovntOlom Bangkok in u.nannounced "lIlilitary alert."
2/28/76
A:o.sasrination of Dr. Boonsanong Punyodhana, secretary-general of the
Socialist Party and co-ordinator of the JDOvement to relK:lve U.S. basee
12 '2
The new intf'rt_ com;Llt\ltt.~lR providC's for .:I. totally Olppol11tttd 299.ember """'elllbh. of ""h1<:h 200 will be rllilitolry aoo police. JudiciaT)' to be dire-('tly controlled by t;ov... rnraent. Thous~1l1ds of students
prote!'n publicI". forcing ",ithdral..-al of the phnned constitution.
1120176
Deadline for U.S. withdcawal passes without U.S. -eeting Thai deLJnds. Kukrit tells Washington to re.ove the reaaining 4000 U.S .
personnel within to .-nehs, except for 270 advi.sors in the Hilitary
Assistance Prograa. U.S. still controls 18 separate c~nicationa
sites within Tha iland.
b' 3
In protl'st a~,lintie thl."' extl!nsion of PrOlphat's cOll1JlW.nd of all armed
for('('s, :\Od <IF..linst the expulsion of nine students from Ramkhamhacn>: Univt.'r-.lty for !i.ltirtzlng Thanom, 10,000 students publicly de-.and a real cl~nstltution within six Il'Onths.
3/25/76
Ten people killed in right-wing grenade attack on New Porce Party
rally in Chainat.
4/4/76
7 73
Thai "overnment announces it wUI begin a withdrawal of 1~-20.000
"irn~F.ular" troo~s operating in Laos.
10 t' 73
EIL'vcn young pPople arrested for distributing pamphlets of the conStitutional movement, setting off 10 da.ys of videnio& ptotests.
10 1
A quarter of a million people rally in BanSkok to demand the releas~ of the prisonecs.
Ie is the largest demonstration in Thai
history.
Elections: more than )0 people killed in what Pac Eastern Ec::oDOllic
Review te....s a "spate of Shootings, bombings. and other violent
incidents a:1aed ..... inly at left-wing and refona!st parties." sen!
Pra.ate's centrist Democratic. Party, wieh long anti-.ilitarist tradition, wins .are than twice as 1lI3ny seats as nearest coapetitt.r.
capturing 115 "Of 279 seats. Parliamentary left reduc.ed to 3 seats;
uLtra-rightists fail to capture any seats. Seni fonas center-right
coalition governaent.
Fourteen labor organizers and student activists are arrested under
1952 Anti-eo-unist Act - the first such arrests since the overthrow of Thanoll and Praphat.. Under the Act suspects aay be held indefinitely vithout trial and there is no cight of appeal sentence.
lAst
73
~ai
troops withdraw fro. \'iet 'l;a•.
if'l 1.. 73
Returning demonstrators are fired upon by police with Illllchine-guns,
tanks and armored cars. Military seize Banp,kok's Thammasat Univer_ity. At hut
Ire killd, hundred. wounded.
.1 0 /15173
Army under Gltneral Krit Sivara [email protected] to support further npnasion. The monarch also intervencsagsinst additional bloodshed.
Thanolll and Praphat are forced to flee the country.
6'
PERIOD OF ELECTED CONSTItUTIONAL GOVERNMENT
3/74
NpW' draCt constitution completed.
8/23174
Student leader Saeng Roongnirandonkun assassinated in broad daylight waiting tor a bus in downtown Bangkok. Murder "unsolved."
The first clear sign of a right-wi.ng come-back.
1017/74
New constitution prOlllulgated: it calls for a powerful elective
lower house [0 which the premier viII be responsible.
10/15/74
Political parties except Communists Legalized.
10/74
Ultra-right-wing terrorist Nawapon 1DQvement founded by General
Wallop Rojanawisut. head of Thai military intelligence and trained
in psycho logical warfare in the U. S. A second group, the Red Gaurs,
also becomes active, particularly in opposition to the student -avement.
12/27/74
Ex-dictator Thanom slips back into Thailand with connivance oC senior military, hides out at Lopburi Special Forces camp. Massive
student demonstrations protest his return. After 2 1/2 days, Sanya
governme.nt expels him to Singapore.
J/26/75
First free election since the late 1940's: largest sinSle party is
Seni Premote' s DeUIocratic Party. Parliamentary left wina 11% ot
vote. Ultra-right wins 1% of the vote.
3/75
The Inspector-General of the Interior Ministry, heading an official
investigation of CSOC, con(l1:.ms that at least 70 people were summarily executed. during 1970-1 in the southern prov1.nce of Patthalung.
3/17/75
Coalition of centrist and right-wing parties forw.s government under
Kuk- it Pramote, who announces policy calling for the removal of all
foreign troops from Thailand within one year. The U.S. has to date
25,000 troops, 350 planes. and top-secret radar listening installat iOllS based in Thailand.
~(l1175
Collapse of Lon Nol regime in Cambodia.
• /30175
Collapse of Thieu regime in South Viet Nam .
5/18/75
Massive pogroms against VietnAmese minority in northeast Thailand.
Police Lt. Col. Boonlert Lertpricha, Deputy Interior Minister, declares riots are instigated by CIA to embarrass the new government.
7/1/75
As the first step in composing Thailand's relations vith its social-
ist neighbors, Kukrit visits Peking and formally opens diplomatic
relations with China.
7/:../75
Students begin a J-day de.onstration against U.S. use of Thai territory to attack Cambodia during the Mayaguez incident.
7/31/75
Edit::.or of peasant newspaper Intha Sriboonmang killed in Chiang Hai,
lengt.hening a growing list of "unsolved" mucders of peasant leaders
seeking implementation of existing land reform legislation.
8/19/15
£nra~ed by Kukrit'<; "soft" policy towards student demonstrators,
more than a thousand policemen sack his home, \lYeaking $500,000
danage.
8/20/75
Alleging that arms have been smuggled 1nto thammasat University,
hundreds of Red Gaurs aetack. the campus with pistols and bottlebOlllbs. Police watch as half a lIlillion dollars in damage is carried
out. Red Gaul's' advisor now known to be Col. Sudsat Thephasdin, a
top officer in thp Internal Security Operations eo-aand CISOC, suc~ssor to CSOC).
10/1 /7)
Tha i ilnd Cambodian Rovprmnents sign cOllllllunique inaugurating fonaal
diplolllatic rC'Jation ...
2/l/75
1/ '
I 1/1fJ
4/76
4/23/76
6/10176
Stude~t newspaper Athipat closed by right-ving grenade attack.
6/30/76
Army COll'llMnder-in-Chief Boonchai Bamrungpoing vows that all aete.pU
by any Army faction to stage a coup before his October I cetire.ent
will be prevented.
(He later becomes a top leader in October 6
junta).
7/76
Fiscal Year 1917 U.S. IIUitary aid, sales. and credits ear--.rk
nearly 301 of U.S. suppOrt for five ASEAN nations to Thailand;
includes aissUes, which are offered to no other country in region.
7/9/76
Bangkok AtlIl:Ored Division Radio warns demonstrators "we vill use .all
means within our capability to eliminate persons or groups of
persons whose activities are a burden to the country."
7/16176
On Bangkok Radio, a representative of • secret "Fr.ee Thai Ar.y" reveals that a two-year-old organization is keeping "close surveillaDCe
on 9~6 persons whose activities could subvert the nation."
7/30/76
Right-ving groups burn books, newspapers, 1IIIlgazinu in BaBlkok rally.
8/6/76
Thailand and Viet Nam establish formal diploaatic relations.
8/35/76
Ex-dictator Praphat slips back into Thailand frca. Taivan. Pre-:ier
Seni says he ia "too bua, with other official business to follow up
01-1 this."
8/19176
(I.lYrit '1nnounlf· ... dI .. ..;fllulllln uf I'llrllament, lIet... nC"ol
,
rey
r Jr'
I
~h'cti{)nll
for
1",-1. d.,r t>.. mnl lilt! lS.u.runpnnJ; ... tlltI'S th,1t ;J ('IIUP rould
h, Apr {I I·l'·'·l Ion. Ilr lit Iil'r vln I (·n'·~' hl,rol'"l..· thl' .... ,·h~·d-
lfIII!l ,"Id"r~
20,000 students protest Praphat'. retunl, cI-.d. Itt.
~slon.
C~nd.r
of the First Array General Yot says "if the cabinet vants
the m.1litary to hand over Field Marshal Praphat to the govem.ent.
the military will try to cOlRPly ... "
8/21/76
Praphat received by thc -anarch.
8/31/76
Seni announc.es that t.he governJlent bas rejected a request frc. ndictator Thanom to return to Thailand and beca.e a .ank..
9/19/76
Thanom returns. speaks over Bangkok At:'IK:lred Division Radio. Seni
announces he cannot legally deport Thanoll. Students begin to organize protest movement.
9/24/76
Two students pasting up anti-Thanom posters strangled by [email protected] in
Nakhon Pathoa Province.
9/29/76
Massive student-vorker demonstration in dO\mtown Bangkok. de:aauds
Thanom's expulsion within three day's time.
He then return:l to Taivan •.
PERIOD OF NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM COUNGIL DICTATORSHIP
.J.0/6/76
Border Patrol Police, Marines, and the paraailitary [email protected] Scouts
attack Thuaasat University. using helicopters. anti.-tank guns. and
automatic weapons. So.e students lynched or burned alive. At [email protected]
forty killed, hundreds wounded, 1700 [email protected]
On the same day Armed Forcp.s Co.-andec-in-ehief Adairal Sangad
Chaloryu leads a coup d·ec-=, dissolving Parlia-ent, abrogating the
constitution, proscribing all .eetings except for [email protected] of the Village Scouts, and imposing heavy censorship. In sweeps throuab the
city an additional 3000 students, labor leaders. and intellectuals
are arrested. FOTaation of a "National Adainistrative Reforw. Council," previously de:aanded by Navapon. is announced.
10/9/76
Right-wing Supreae Court Justice Thanin Kraivlchien installed as
prelllier. Fon.er foreign _inister of the Sarit/Thanma dictatorships.
ThanOll J{hOGlan .naaed civilian advisor in foreign affairs; he u.ediately suggests U.S. aay cetum to resUIH soae -.ilitary rights in
Thailand.
10/14/76
Nationa} Acillinistrat.ive Reforw. Council announces a "[email protected] planlO to
[email protected] Thailand for delK:lcracy and civilian rule.
10/16/76
Military dictatorship begins a round-up of noted intellectuals, including novelists, acadeaicians, and publishers. They will be interned in "special re-education centers" if they fail to "repent"
their past activites.
10/18/76
Undpr draconian Decree No. 22. new c.ateRories of politicaloffensea
arf' [email protected] suhject to up "::0 18 months [email protected] without tri.L
Journal18t8 report official .fforts to spread hysteria UtOna the people throuRh daill" that movie theaters will be attacked or sc.hoolchi Idren IddnaPPl!'d.
Abolition of monan'hy In !.aOf;.
n a m.'ljnr :.ddn's-" tht- ThOli IfIOnnrch allude!'> to "various forms of
abnt'1l(l''' .... ithin the cfluntry :J;nd <;reakR of th~ "dOlnger which is
omln~ f In"E-."
(.f nl,; J"'1 I "lrik~ In K:mgkuk prHtl".t lng J;Clvcrnment-"anctioned dl'lc in
r!f~' prl':I''''
NOlw,')pon Is [('ported dcmOlnd1n~ the fonnution of 3
"N:'It IlIn.11 kefrlrm f;Ullnr II."
General Krit Sivara, Seni's Defense Minister and the one senior officer to declare [email protected]'!dly that lIIilitary coups are "out of date." diu
suddenly.
Th<> .ilitury arroRatea to [email protected] pnwec to proclaill whole r_,loM of
th(" ('ountry fnrhtdd("n zonefl. tn which anyone present will be tr. .
OM .:In Inll:ur,;cnt.
t"
(See #770 for a map and background on Micronesia
to go with this article.)
THE MARSHALL ISLANDS: APARTHEID U.S. STYLE
by Giff Johnson
(Editor's Note: Giff Johnson, who works with
the ~ronesian Support Committee in Honolulu,
sent this report to LNS after a reaent visit to
the Marshall Islands.)
HONOLULU (LNS) -- Apartheid in the Marshall
Islands? Yes. While the U.S. formally opposes
the forced separation of races in southern Africa,
it is busy maintaining the same system as part of
its military establishment in the Pacific.
The Marshall Islands are part of a United
Nations Trusteeship Agreement for the entire island chain set up in 1947. The agreement--never
intended to be permanent--calls for the P.S. to
promote the economic, educational and social advancement of the inhabitants and to protect the "rights
and fundamental freedoms of all elements of the
population without discrimination."
But the facts of the United States' presence
on the Marshalls, as elsewhere in HlcrBnesia, say
otherwise.
Ebeye, in the Marshall Islands, is home to the
Marshallese who work at the U.S. Kwajalein Missile
Range. Some 7,000 people live on this dusty.
disease-ridden slum island, barely 70 acres tn- size.
Houses are packed in everywhere. Trash, bottles, cans, used ddapers and food litter the high
water mark on the beach only five feet behind rows
of houses which line both sides of the narrow island. An ever-present smell of garbage and outhouses hangs in the air beneath the blazing Pacific
sun, and sometimes mingles with smoke blown back
from the burning dump at the tip of the island.
Eight miles around the lagoon from Ebeye is
Kwajalein. No Marshallese can live on Kwajalein.
but over 500 work there at service and maintenance
jobs for the U.S. military and their families.
Kwajalein's lush green golf course is just
one of the amenities provided for the military and
their families, along with spacious parks and baseball fields, free movies, handball courts, swimming
pools, numerous tennis and basketball courts, community center, and a scout hut for young people.
The houses are air conditioned with neat lawns
and shady fenced yards, beautiful beaches, coconut
and other trees for relief from the tropical sun, t
top flight schools and a hospital for good medical
care. All this is a way of life for the 3,000
Americans who live on Kwajalein.
.
Ebeye workers who make the 25-minute ferry trip
to their menial jobs each morning must be off
Kwajalein by 9 pm at the latest. Their work--necessary to keep a military base clean and trim and
functioning--pay the Marshallese at least the U.S.
minimum wage of $2.40 andhour and the average wage
is $3.15.
But from this, the average breadwinner must
feed 10 to 20 people at Ebeye prices, which are
high for the scanty supplies of canned fish and
vegetables, soda pop and candy in small stores.
Page 4
LIBERATION News Service
(#82~)
Shopping at low military PX prices on Kwajalein is
reserved for holders of military ID cards, and
closed to the Marshallese.
Even to go to the places whe=e Marshallese are
allowed on Kwajalein, such as the airport or post
office, they must first fill out an application
and receive a permit from the office of the District
Administrator on Ebeye. The free ferry runs only at
hours that the workers commute--otherwise the water
taxi costs $1 each way.
Most of the trees on Ebeye have been cut down
and houses crowded in. The U.S. government supplies
308 one-room units--each housing a family--in single
story, dingy, unpainted cement blo~s of six which
stand a few feet apart. Shabby wooden houses and
shacks make up the other half of the housing. From
ten to twenty people live in each of the one and two
room houses.
Perhaps as many as two-thirds of the houses
have electricity and running wster. But this doesn't
mean they have hot water or toilets or showers.
"Running water" may simply mean a faucet outside
the house.
In contrast, there are no outhouses on Kwajalein.
The government supplies indoor bathrooms with hot
water, and air conditioning as well. The nameplate
next to each door indicates that only one family
lives in each house.
U.N. snd other studies reveal the critical
health and sanitation conditions on Ebeye. A recent
report called the island "a biological time bomb
waiting to go off." There is only one doctor for
the 7,000 people on the island, and doctors on
Kwajalein are prohibited from volunteering to serve
on Ebeye.
Ebeye has the highest population density in
the Pacific. For the thousands of young people on
the island, there are one and a half basketball
courts and one empty lot sandwiched between buildings--nothing else. Children play on the sewage
outfall pipe over the narrow littered beach.
The pre-school is in a small old wooden building.
The elementary school is more wooden buildings and
a cement block of eight classrooms. Together they
provide barely enough space for half the children,
and hundreds of children wander the island aimlessly
in groups during th~ day.
Workers who want their older children to go
to intermediate or high school must send them to
the district center at Majuro (a $53.80 trip, one way).
Many cannot, of course, and older people comment
that 12 to 16 year olds hang around and drink beer.
There's nothing else to do.
Thirty years of destructive American action in
the Marshall Islands, from the BikinJ Island aeem bomb
tests to apartheid on Ebeye, has forced the Marshallese
into total dependence on the dollars spent by the
U. S. military.
The Marshalls will never develop toward"selfgovernment or independence" as specified in the
United Nations Agreement if they have no alternatives
for their economic development; no choice of whether
or not the U.S. military stays at the Kwajalein
Missile Range.
-30November 6, 1976
more ••.
WCt1E 'S HISTORY BIBLIOGRAPHY:
A CLASS, SEX, AND RACE-CONSCIOUS RESOURCE
• YORK(LNS)--The Common Women Collective of
'am rldge. Massachusetts has published a women'a
h,-torv bibliography which lncorporates sOme of the
• rt es 0f the most valuable historical writings.
, 'emen in U.S. History: An Annotated Bibliography." is a concise and clearly organized 114page paperback well suited for anyone with an introductory interest in the subject.
ources listed in the bibliography are organized into about 20 topics beginning with Native
American; Colonial a d Black Women, on through
some of the better known movements in which women
have been active such as abolitionism, temperance,
worn n's rights and suffrage, as well as anarchist,
communlst and socialist movements. Chicanas and
lesbians are alsooamong the book's major organizational categories, as is a substantial section d
devoted to Women at Work.
The bibliography recognizes how the class,
race and sexual bias of historians affect the presentatlon as well as the content of history books.
'Works are frequently written in such' a way that
aut0matically excludes certain grcups of people,"
the l-troduction notes. "The clarity and directness of an author's style limlts or expands the
accessibility of her or his writing."
The bibliography's introduction also indicates
that the women who compiled and annotated the bibliography shared a feminist perspective which helps
them c nfront traditional treatments of women's
role in history with an alternative interpretation.
They emphasize the role of all women in society 1n making history, and also female culture-women'a relationships with other women--as a vital
and often-ignored aspect of women's history. "While
many books lacking a feminist perspective contribute to women's history," they write in the introduct!.o , "we believe that those which integrate
our basic assumptions about women are of greater
value. II
The caver graphic of the book, though finely
seems an unfortunate choice, as it depicts
a group cf women of fairly uniform height and age,
few of them black, looking over the shoulders of
a group of women at a table who could be interpreted as the ones "making his tory."
d"~rln,
Inside, th"s valuable introductory source
beak guides the student of WOmen in U.S. history
towards a dynamic and liberating approach to our
past.
-30"Women in U.S. History: An Annotated Bibliography,"
is available from the Common Women Collective,
5 Upland Road, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02140,
for $2.00 plus 250 postage per single copy.
Bulk order information and standard bookstore
discounts are also available.
*",*",,*"',,1<7<*****************************************
QuESTIONNAIRES ••• QUESTIONNAIRES ••• QUESTIONNAIRES ••
FILL YOURS OUT AND SEND IT TODAY. DON'T BE THE
LAST ONE ON YOUR BLOCK TO ACT.
Page 5
LIBERATION News Service
NEW LAW ENDS DISQUALIFICATION OF
PREGNANT W~N FRlloI UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE
by Raymond Avrutis
WASHINGTON, D.C. (LNS) -- Women can no longer
be disqualified from collecting unemployment insurance (UI) because they are pregnant or have
recently given birth, according to a new law
signed by President Ford October 20.
"The Unemployment Compensation Amendments
of 1976" (P.L. 94-566) says in part " ... no
person shall be denied compensation under •••
State law solely on the basis of pregnancy or
termination of pregnancy."
Women were previously disqualified from receiving UI benefits in many states for a set
period of time before and after the date of
expected delivery. But, the pregnancy disqualification was abolished as a result of a
November, 1975 United States Supreme Court
Decision. In Mary Ann Turner vs. the Utah Department of Employment Security, Turner claimed
that the state's assumption that pregnancy made
her automatically unable to work was unconstitutional. The United States Supreme Court
agreed.
P.L. 94-566 also abolished di~ualification
of women who have recently had children. They,
too, are now eligible for unemployment benefits.
Now that pregnancy disqualifications no
longer exist in any state, pregnant women may
coollect unemployment compensation as long as
they have earned qualifying wages; are able and
available to work; and are not disqualified from
receiving benefits (1) for qUitting work without
good cause, (2) for being fired for miaconduct,
or (3) for refuaing an offer of suitable employment.
Women still face other forms of discrimination when they apply for unemployment compensation, despite the abolishing of pregnancy disqualifications. A number of states, for instance,
will disqualify a woman if she must leave work
to care for a sick child, or if she must leave
her job to move to another area with her husband.
Some state unemployment insurance laws
are more liberal than others, so if you are unemployed, you should apply for unemployment compensation no matter what your situation is. However, it is not wise to bring your dependent children with you when you'applY. An unemployment
official may say that you are unable to work
becauae you must spend your full time caring
for your children, and that you are therefore
disqualified from unemployment insura"ce benefits.
-30Avrutis' book, How To Collect Unemployment
Benefits: Complete Information For All 50 Statea
ia available from Schocken Books, 200 Madison
Avenue, New York, New York
10016 for $1.25
plus 350 postage and handling.
November 6, 1976
more~o.
e vlaphl
IRE MENTAL HOSPITAL AS PR SON
A REVIEW OF "INSANlrY INSIDE OUI"
Ed~t<-r"s
n,.;te:
The
au~hor
cf r;he foZl=ng
rL L
S a member of r;he MenwZ Pa~·ients' Liberat
r. Frvnt tn Bosr:on.
A Zor,ger veY'ston of thts re~ fLIst appeared in the November-December tS8Ue
. v-a~e and Mind, formerZy fiT: A Jour'lUlZ of RadtcaZ
Therapy J
BOSTON (Scace and M nd/lNS) -- Ken Donaldson's
St y IS not unique
The scace takes many people
who are poor, friendless, perhaps a bit eccentric,
labe s them mentally ill, and locks them away in
hoge human warehouses called mental hospicals
What
makes Donaldson's scory noteworthy was his persisan'e in crying to gain his freedom and in calling
attention to the plight of committed patient/prisoners
Ftom behlnd the walls of Chattahoochee, as
dlsmal as any prison, Dona dson sent a Stream of
messages to the outside world -- petitions to the
courts, lecters co his f[lends and acquaintanCes,
peas ior help to every prominenc person he hoped
might ald hiS cause
Despite every rebuft, every
writ ignored, every friend or official conVinced
Cha[ hiS complaints were the r vtngs of insanity,
Ken Donaldson did not give up
Although he quickly learned that the best way
co win discharge was co admit thac he was sick and
n eded help, Donaldson refused to crawl hlS way to
Ireedom
Insanity Instde Out is his account of a
IS y ar struggle
Donaldson's case came, ultimately, to the
Unlted Scates Supreme Court WhiCh ruled, In the
11rst case it had taken concerning the rights of
mental patients in over 100 years, that the nondang rously mentally 111 have a constitutional
cigh. to lib cty
Donaldson's anget probably helped co sustain
him hrough his imprisonment
He refused to forget
the beatings he Witnessed, the acts of cruelty and
brutalicy
He exposes thiS nstitution thac called
itself a hospital, chese jaiiers who called themselv s doctors and who demanded that their victims
believe that even horror inflicted on them was
"U6atment" People who ha.e nev",r seen the inside
of 0 mental inst~tution Can learn a lot tlom
[n anit~ Ino.de Out
And mental hea th workers can
rind out how it looks from the patient'S side
Donaldson ridIcules the wh Ie concept of
ps)chiatrit treatment as 1 1& presented to the un~ I]lng patient
TherapeUtl JU~til~cat~Ons cover
a
kInds ot horrors. He describes various "sub& [ain~ ot schIzophrenia, su~h as 'being uncooperat ve' ( etusing to buy an att ndant a pack of cigar t ",s), 'being emotionall) volar Ie' (telling an
attendant to go to hell when he ac used you of haVIng S xual relations with your m~ther), and 'having
hallucinations' (saying che attendant broke your arm
when the report says you fell) "
Donaldson's p rsonal story 15 a dramatic one.
Pr ur to hlS incarceration he was a man wh would
PAGE 6
LIBERATION ews Sel:Vice
(0827)
not settle down to the"normal"pa~tern of regular
employment and liVing in one place. He enjoyed
change -- new jobs, new parts of the country, new
friends. He was outspoken, frequently unpopular,
always unwilling to back down from any positicn he
believed was right. People talked about him, e,en
once tried to poison his food (he has the chemist's
report to prove it). To the psychiatriSts, Donaldson
was an easy case of "paranoia."
Political Connections Weak
But Donaldson is one of those 01d-fash10ned
Americans who takes the Constitution literally. One
of the reasons his incarceration lasted 15 years was
his firm belief all through those years that the
courts existed to right such wrongs and that he would
soon be freed by judicial order.
He would not play the deadly serious mental
patient game: "Thank you, doctor, I feel so much
better now, this place has helped me so much" On
the rare occasions he saw a doctor (Chattahoochee
employed 20 doctors, including dentists and a mort1cian, for 7,000 patients), Donaldson prOVided new
"eVidence" of his "paranoia" -- he insisted, truthfully, that he was illegally and improperly _vnrined.
Unfortunately, Donaldson never makes the political connections. The legal apparatus ot thiS ountry,
only occasionally helps the poor and the friendless.
Justice delayed ~s justice denied.
The state stole 15 years of Ken Donaldson's life
If he had not been intelligent and strong-wil ed,
filing writs, writing his letters, he too might ha e
died behind the wall of Chattahoochee. (R~s book IS
ded cated to four of the many men he saw die .n
Chattahoochee -- often from the damaging effects of
psychiatric drugs or the psychiatric drugs or the
physical brutality meted out by the attendants )
lawyers helped Donaldson to free h1mselt from
the clutches of institutional psychiatry, and he is
understandably grateful to them, but the l£goo s)stem
tOO, can often be the enemy. One of Donaldson' lawyers, Morton Birnbaum blames the judges for hlS
client's long incarceration. "They are the ones ...ho
"Not
had the power to free you," he told Donaldson
once in fifteen years, not one in nineteen tries,
would they grant you a full hearing." What 01 the
patient who gives up after filing eighteen writs
Ken Donaldson has been tree since 1972. For
years, when the doctors refused to release him, he
was told that be wasn't capable of liVing independently or holding down a Job
In four years 1
freedom, he has done far better than that. He h~
become a spokesperson for people still inSide thiS
country:s dismal mental institutions.
Donaldson's lack of polit~cal perspectl e is
unfortunate, and the homophobia he expresses on
several occasions is offensive, but his message is an
important one -- a psychiatr~c prison is stil a
prison
-30-
(To subscribe to State and Mind write to:
P.O. Box 89 W. Somerville, Massachusettes.
021~4)
***********•• *.. **************************~~*•••• ****
November 6, 1976
mo:-e
1m' PO:)"
S~
TO 1 CREASED INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
OF ANTI-NUCLEAR GROUPS
\~ILLfu~CE
Editor's note: :Thl-s ar1;Va~e is based on researah
a)':.. by BF..<ce EC!JiJards, and appeared 'l-n r:he Septerriber,
9 6 SSW? of People & Energy. It has been edited by
:0.
WASHI GTON DC (People & Energy/LNS)--Atomic
ene,gy cr~tics have frequently theorized that a
nuclear energy-based economy could lead to a nuclear
police state. Author~ties could v10late civi rights
and engage in acts of repression under the guise of
pro eeting s~ iety against "nuclear terror1sm," Just
as "national security" is already 1nvoked to justify
a variety of repressive activit1es against critics
of government policy.
obtain the same access to confidential cit1zen records
accorded to state and local police. All VEPCO wculd
have to do, if the bill had passed, would be to obta n the approval of any city or county judge -- a
relatively easy matter.
The bill would also have exempted VEPCO's police
unit from the proposed private police regulations
that had just been drafted by the state's crime
commission. When asked the purpose of the bill,
VEPCO security chief William Parker reported that
such authority was needed to meat the Atomic Energy
Commision's nuclear security protection standards.
At about the same time, a Washington DC-based
citizen group, Organizing Committee for a Fifth
Estate Counter-Spy Campaign, issued a short but disconcerting report. The study warned that the Atomic
Now there 1S evidence that th1s potential is
Tndustrial Forum, a nuclear industry association,
more than theoretical. Tn a study begun 1n the summer
had undertaken a program, in conjunction with the
of 1976, the People & Energy Project of the Washington- consulting firm of Charles Yulish Associates, to
based Center for Science in the Public Interest has
provide local utility companies with background indocumented more than half a dozen cases of surveillance
formation and regular progress reports on individuals
aed/or harassment of citizen ant -nuclear groups.
and persons known to oppose the constLuction and
operation of nuclear power plants.
And 1n add~t~on to FBI, CIA, state and local
law en~orcement activities, the study has found eviTarget groups included the Sierra Club, Environdence af a coordinated program of surveillance of
mental Action, the Environmental Policy Center,
citizen groups by the nation's major util1t es and
Union of Concerned Scientists, Friends of the Earth,
the nuclear power industry.
Another Mother for Peace, and Ralph Nader.
Documented Instances of Surve1l ance
On the basis of memos reportedly leaked to the
The People & Energy study uncovered, for instance, group, the Committee also charged that "it is obvious that dossiers are being kept and maintained
that the Texas Depart:ment of Publ~c Safety acknowlednot only at the national level but at the local level
ged ~n August of 1974 having compiled a dossier on
as well."
commercial airline pilot Robert Pomeroy. Pomeroy
was the head of the Citizens Associat~on for Sound
As an example, it cited the Potomac Electric
Energy (CASE), a group that had organ~zed opposit~on
Power Company (whcih serves the Washington DC area)
to a ploposed power plant near Dallas
as a utility that had built a file on environmental
activists labeled its "anti" file. Maintained since
Pomeroy's dossier ~ncluded a report which quoted
1972, the file contains names, letters to the editor,
an unnamed source as believing that "subject is
us~ng CASE as a front group -- possibly for a Ralph
and articles mentioning any stripe of environmentalist
Nadet act~on." Upon disclosure of the dossier's exDuring Memorial Day weekend, 1976, the Nuclear
istence, the Department apolog1zed to Pomeroy and
Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued an alert to all
sub seq 'ently destroyed the file. However the police
nuclear stations around the country to be on the
agency has refused to say how many other persons
watch for activities of "possible national security
or organizations opposed to nuclear power it has inor public interest significance." An NRC memo obtainvestigated and whether it cont1nues to maintain
ed by People & Energy revealed that the FBI liaison
the~r files.
agency of the Chicago Field Office had passed on a
report that a "rumor emanating from Wisconsin, reLater that same year, local newspapers revealed
that the Balt1more Police Department's spy unit had
vealed through three sources of unknown reliability,
been compiling secret dossiers on, and had "watched,
indicated plans are being made by 'motorcycle gangs
and Indians' to take over the Zion (nuclear) Station
photographed and somet1mes 1nfiltrated a w de variety
during the Memorial Day."
of citizen organizations." Targets included black
elected offic1als and clergymen, and others the
Also in the spring of 1976, the House Small
police considered political dissidents -- 1nc uding
Business Subcommittee on Energy & Environment began
community groups that had been prot st1ng electricity
hearings into the death of Karen Silkwood. Silkwood
rate increases and fighting the nuclear power plant
worked at the now-closed Kerr-McGee Cimaron plctonium
at Calvert Cliffs, Maryland.
fabrication plant near Crescent, Oklahoma, and was
a known critic of safety hazards there. She died
The Department's spy unit is the 1ntel11gence
in a mysterious auto crash on November 13, 1974
gather~ng section of the Inspect~onal Serv1ces Diviwhile enroute to a meeting with a union official and
sion, "h1ch works directly w1th the FBI, and the
a New York Times reporter.
Army Counter-Intelligence Corp. At least some of the
police unit's top members have also undergone CIA
An early witness in those hearings was Jacqueline
tYa::'ning
Srouji, a reporter for the Nashville paper, The
In January, 1975, Virginia state delegate L Ray
AshworLh introduced a measure in he state's legislature at the request of the Virg nia Electric &
PoweL Company (VEPCO). The bill proposed to permit
VEPCO to establish 1ts own police ferce wieh the
pc~~r to arrest people anywhere 1n ehe state and
Tennessean. Srouji had just completed writing
"Critical Mass," a pro-nuclear book that cast S1lkwood in an unflattering light, raising questions about
drug usage and her sex habits.
When asked before the House Subcommittee,
Srouji disclosed that the FBI had shown her nearly
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.0 0 pag s of Bureau documents on the Silkwood
c
se ~n her book -- documents which Subcome ~~uosel Mike Ward claimed congressional ingoitor.; "had been unsuccessful" in obtaining.
FBI agent Lawrence Olson was called before the
s~t, mmIttee, he disclosed that the FBI had a
"~pec~al relationship" w1th Srouj 1.
FBI AGENTS INVADE PHILADELPHIA HOME
OF AFRIKAN PEOPLES PARTY MEMBERS
PHILADELPHIA,Pa.(LNS)--The North Philadelphia
home of members of che Afrikan Peoples Party (APP)
was invaded by FBI agents October 20 for the second
time in a year. According to the Workers' World, 10
heavily armed FBI agents entered the home, trained
guns on residents and visitors, including 6 children
from 8 months Co cen years of age, and forced them
all onto the porch in a pouring rain.
Srvuji further testified berore the Subcommittee
cer.ain senIor FBI officials ordered a termina~ n of the Silkwood investigatIon although local
p~lj~e agents were still pursuing the case.
~hat
GV"t Doc ments Reveal Plans for More Surveillance
A review of several government documents strongly 1ndicates a clear pattern of law enforcement and
Intel11gence agency involvement in nuclear issues
eXi~ts, or IS in the process of formatIon. For example,
the 974 FBI Annual Report notes "an 1ncrease in the
n~ber of investigations 1nvolving poss1ble violations
of the AtomIc Energy Act. This trend," it said, "is
expected to continue."
To the nuclear power industry and the1r government supporters, all threats to the development
and profIts from nuclear power plants are a "terror"
to be fought against. For surveillance purposes, the
g~ erlli~ent conveniently makes no distinction between
legiri~te opposition to nuclear power by citizens
gro ps who recognize its hazards, and potential
flnuclear terrorists."
"The Threat to LIcenses Nuclear FacilIties,"
a stud:. prepared by the MItre Corp. for t:he Nuclear
Regulatory Commission, recommends that "NRC maintain
a close working relationshIp W1th the 1ntelligence
~ommunity and keep intelligence agenc1es aware of
the information needed by NRC to meet its safeg~ard responsibilities. In-depth information about
terrorist and other threatening groups should be
obtaIr.ed by NRC from these agencies."
The all-white FBI squad was allegedly searching
for a fugitive whose photo they produced. When asked
if they had a search warrant, the agents reportedly
answered that they didn't need one. Four or five of
the agents kept the family and friends outside, while
the others rampaged through the home with flashlight~
opening closets and drawers and scattering books and
clothing and files. Afterwards, over $200 was discovered missing from the house.
Scores of neighbors, alarmed by the sight of
strange white men brandishing weapons, came out on
their porches, and two began taking photos of the
agents at the request of APP members.
This is t:he third attack on APP members within
the past year. The APP believes the most recent FBI
invasion is a direct result of the group's involvment
in efforts to build a city-wide movement to fight
cutbacks in transportation and other city services.
"These attacks," said one APP spokesperson, "are an
odious attempt by the power structure to alienate the
APP members from community people by depicting us as
outcasts and a threat to their well-being." -30(Thanks to Workers World for this short.)
***************************************************
SPANISH AUTO WORKERS CONFRONT HENRY FORD & JUAN CARLOS
And in recent Congress onal testimony, NRC
offic1al Kenneth Chapman testified that "we are working acruss the country with local law enforcement
agencies (and) with federal agencies to have a workable contingency plan to respond and react to the
three condi'ions of t:hreat, theft, and sabotage
of a licensed nuclear facilit:y."
The Rosenbaum Report, a study prepared by Atomic
Energy Commission consultants in the spring of 1974,
sums up government rationale on the surveillance.
"The first and one of the most important lines of
defense against groups which might attempt: to illegally
acquire special nuclear materials to make a weapon,
1S timely and in-depth intelligence.
"SJch intelligence may involve electronic and
ether ~eans of surveillance but its most important
aspect is infiltration of the groups themselves ••••
It is the AEC's business to see that those agencies
of the U.S government which have intelligence
gather_ng responsibilities, including t:he FBI and
the CIA, focus their attention upon this particular
,hrea- to our national defense and security."
--30-~~k*************************************************
"The criminal justice system is oppressive. I'm
afriaa it's the na~e of the beast."
--Former U.S. Actorney for Maryland, George
Bea 1, c~unterin5 critICS who call che current grand
JJry ~mmun1LY laws oppress~ve From the Balcimore
S~L. AJgust 1, 1976.
(1/827)
PALE 8
LIBERATION News Service
NEW YORK(LNS)--A delegat:ion of courageous auto
workers gave Henry Ford II and Spain's King Juan Carlos a list of labor and human rights demands during
the two "kings" recent tour of a new Ford plant there
Their letter demanded "fundamental and inalienable
human rights to Spanish workers," the "admission of
all political parties and labor groups," and cancella
tion of a recent wage freeze imposed by the Spanish
government, and full amnesty to workers fired for par
ticipating in job actions.
Henry Ford, on hand October 25 for the opening
of a new $500 million factory refused to talk to his
Spanish employees. When the workers handed Juan Carlo
their letter, the King responded he wished "that I
could greet you all personally •. Let's work together
to create the Spain we all desire," the successor
to fascist Franco urged.
Ford workers' wages in Spain, where labor organizations are illegal, are around $2 an hour, accordin
to UAW Sources here, while UAW wages in the U.S. begin at $6.46, not counting fringe benefits. Ford now
has 34 plants outside the U.S. and is moving more
work to foreign countries to cut costs.
The 55-acre Spanish plant will produce more
than 250,000 cars and 400,000 engines annually, and
employ more than 9,000 workers when it's ~n full
operat10n.
-30(Thanks to t:he Daily World for this information.)
November 6, 1976
end of copy, 8ftAP§ICS:
TOP RIGHT: Jlmmy Carter, taKen 10
Plll10delphia 10 September, 19J6
TOP LEfT. "Don't cry, Jerry
SEE NEXT PACKET FOR STORY.
SEE NEXT PACkET FOR STORt
CREDI . OllIe Harrlngton/DAILY WORLD/LNS
CREDIT: Nel I Benson,LNS
MIDDLE LEFT: Pregnant women
GOES WITH STORY ON PAGE 5CREDI T. LNS
BOTTOM RIGHT: Flgure
BOTTOM LEFT: Woman's face.
GOES WITH STORY ON PAGE 6
GOES WTH STORY ON PAGE 5.
CREDIT: Mlddle East Briefln /LNS
P-l
LIBERATION News SerJ1Ce
CREDIT. Great Speckled Blrd/LNS
(#827)
NOJember 6, 1976
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The End