Instructions for the document format:

‘Watchkeeping & Collision Avoidance –
pre workshop quiz’ (Updated: 28-April-2015)
This is an open book quiz to survey knowledge, interpretations, understanding and
application of the subjects, it contains 32 multiple choice questions on Bridge Watchkeeping
best practices and Preventing Collisions. From the listed choices please mark ONE BEST
ANSWER ONLY on the separate answer sheet and hand/send back the same before the
quiz is discussed to enable do a statistical analysis of the initial results.
You are requested to keep this quiz copy for reference and bring the relevant rules (Rules
for preventing collisions, STCW etc.) along for subsequent discussions in the workshop
planned on June 5th 2015. Thank You.
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1: Navigational or bridge watchkeeping of sea going vessels is governed only by?
A. The requirements stated in Bridge Procedures Guide and supporting flag state
circulars;
B. The requirements of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea,
1972, as amended;
C. Circulars issued by the flag state a vessel is registered in, which in turn are to be
based solely on chapter V of the SOLAS convention;
D. The principles and guidance set out in the STCW Convention sections VIII/2
(Regulations, Code A & Code B) which cross refer to other applicable conventions
and/or regulations.
2: The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 are:
A. Only recommended guidelines issued by IMO and are divided into 5 parts and 5
Annexes. Part B is further subdivided into 3 sections. The last revisions to the Rules
were effective 2001;
B. Mandatory, being part of the Convention on ‘The International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972’ and are divided into 5 parts and 4 Annexes; Part
B is further subdivided into 3 sections; the last revisions to the Rules were effective
December 2009;
C. Mandatory, being part of SOLAS Chapter V and are divided into 5 parts and 4
Annexes; Part B is further subdivided into 3 sections; the last revisions to the Rules
were effective 2009;
D. Mandatory, being part of the STCW Convention and are divided into 5 parts and 4
Annexes; Part B is further subdivided into 3 sections. The last revisions to the Rules
were made in 2010 when the STCW Convention was revised, generally called the
Manila amendments, which became effective from January 2012.
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3: A vessel requesting assistance to search for and pick up a person (man) overboard
should indicate that by using the following prefix on her initial radiotelephony message.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Pan-Pan - Pan-Pan - Pan-Pan;
Mayday - Mayday - Mayday;
Securite - Securite - Securite;
Mayday Relay - Mayday Relay - Mayday Relay.
4: Which of the following is/are a vessel ‘not under command’, (NUC)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A vessel engaged in minesweeping operations;
A sailing vessel becalmed; (becalmed means no wind blowing)
An offshore supply vessel engaged in towing another offshore supply vessel;
All of the above.
5: In your experience, ‘restricted visibility’, as defined in Rule ‘3-l’ of IRPCS or COLREGS,
would begin when the visibility drops to? [This may be stated in the Companies SMS or
management system, stated in the master’s (Captain’s) standing orders or may be as
per your judgement.]
A.
B.
C.
D.
1 nautical mile;
2 nautical miles;
3 nautical miles;
4 nautical miles or greater.
6: When restricted visibility is encountered or expected, the first responsibility of the officer
in charge of the navigational watch is to:
A. Inform the master and post a proper lookout;
B. Operate and use the radar;
C. Comply with the relevant rules of the International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea, 1972, as amended, with particular regard to the sounding of fog
signals, proceeding at a safe speed and having the engines ready for immediate
manoeuvre;
D. Exhibit navigation lights.
7: As per Rule 5 of IRPCS (or COLREGS), ‘every vessel shall at all times maintain a
proper look-out ……………. so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk
of collision’. This means that an OOW, when alone on bridge watch during daylight at
sea:
A. May keep the bridge wing doors closed as long as the radars have the guard zone
rings activated;
B. May visit a separate chart room for short periods if it is safe to do during daylight
when acting as the sole look-out without maintaining the continuity of proper look-out
for this short duration, or be the sole lookout at night;
C. May make noon messages and/or complete other paper work or correct charts /
publications if there is no traffic in the vicinity as determined by all sources provided
radars have the guard zone rings activated, the AIS also set to give alarms, the wing
doors are open and the VHF volume is kept high;
D. None of the above, proper look-out is to maintain a continuous state of vigilance to
have a full appraisal of the situation and of any risk of collision.
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8: Your vessel receives instructions in the middle of an open ocean in calm weather
conditions of good visibility to stop and await further voyage orders, there is no
breakdown. You shall arrange and exhibit the following signals and update the status on
the AIS as may be required:
A. Lights as per rule 23(a) only at night, {masthead light(s), sidelights and sternlight},
and flag ‘M’ during the day;
B. Three all-round red lights in a vertical line at night or a black cylinder by day;
C. Lights and shapes as per rule 27(a), i.e. ‘Not Under Command’ and during the day
flag ‘M’;
D. No shapes during the day, flag ‘M’ may be displayed; put on all deck lights at night.
9: The statement, “when using radar, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall
bear in mind the necessity to comply at all times with the provisions on the use of radar
contained in the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (IRPCS),
1972 in force”, is given in?
A.
B.
C.
D.
SOLAS Chapter V on safety of navigation, SOLAS is an IMO convention;
Operators Safety Management Systems for best navigational practices;
STCW Code A-VIII/2, an IMO convention;
Guidelines on the use of radar issued by the radar manufacturer.
10: Do IRPCS (COLREGS) or STCW watchkeeping mandatory guidelines or any IMO
Resolution or any Flag state circular or any industry guide provide any clear or specific
advice to regularly use VHF, AIS or any other means of communication to decide and/or
confirm action to avoid collision during watchkeeping at sea?
A. Yes;
B. No, but this may be considered as part of, ‘precaution which may be required by the
ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case’, under
Rule 2;
C. No, but this may be considered as use of ‘all available means’ under Rule 5 and/or
Rule 7;
D. No, there is no clear or specific advice. Compliance with the Rules for Preventing
Collisions alone in silence is more effective in avoiding collisions.
11: Which of the below statement(s) on ‘safe speed’ prescribed by Rule 6 of IRPCS is/are
correct:
I. Speed at which a vessel can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be
stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.
II. This clearly implies that in calm weather a vessel may proceed at full sea speed if
there are no other vessels in the vicinity as seen visually, by radar and verified by AIS
and/or VHF.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Both ‘I’ and ‘II’;
‘II’ only;
‘I’ only;
Neither ‘I’ nor ‘II’.
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12: As an OOW of a vessel you sight another vessel visually or on the radar PPI or detect
her on AIS and have a doubt that there is a likelihood of ‘risk of collision’ with her. As per
the Rules of IRPCS (or COLREGS) this means:
A. Such risk shall be deemed to exist;
B. A doubt would fall under Rule 7(c), ‘assumptions shall not be made on the basis of
scanty information’, so should not be taken into consideration and further checks
done especially as per Rule 7(d);
C. Notify the master because of the doubt, this is required by paragraphs 8.9 and 40.10
of the STCW Code A-VIII/2, the master should assist to assess the situation and
help decide on further actions required;
D. All the above options are correct.
13: The statement, ‘the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall take frequent and
accurate compass bearings of approaching ships as a means of early detection of risk
of collision and bear in mind that such risk may sometimes exist even when an
appreciable bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very large ship
or a tow or when approaching a ship at close range’.
A. Is based on Rule 7, compass bearing could be radar bearings and compass error
must be applied to convert the same to true bearings first;
B. Is stated in STCW Code A-VIII/2 on watchkeeping and supplements / complements
the requirements prescribed in Rule 7 of IRPCS (or COLREGS);
C. Is a practice handed down over generations and is simply an ordinary practice of
seamen;
D. Is a requirement stated in the new SOLAS Chapter V and explained in the new
edition of the Mariners Handbook.
14: Rule 8 states, ‘any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision shall, if the
circumstances of the case admit, be large enough to be readily apparent to another
vessel observing visually or by radar’. For this to be readily apparent to another vessel
observing only by radar, the initial course alteration should usually be a minimum of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
05-10o;
10-15o;
15-25o;
30-45o, or even higher.
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15: As per Rule 8(f), which usually applies in all conditions of visibility, which of the following
statement is in error or wrong?
A. A vessel required not to impede the passage of another vessel shall, take early
action to allow sufficient sea-room for the safe passage of the other vessel;
B. A vessel whose passage is not to be impeded, remains fully obliged to comply with
the Rules of Part ‘B’ to take action to avoid collision, should risk of collision develop
with the vessel which is required not to impede her passage or safe passage;
C. In case Risk of collision develops between the two vessels concerned, only the
relevant steering and sailing Rules shall be complied with; in case vessels are in
sight of one another, depending on the situation between them, a
‘give-way vessel’ shall be the one required to take action as per Rules 8 and 16 and
a ‘stand-on vessel’ should continue to keep her course and speed as long as
possible;
D. In case risk of collision develops between the two vessels, the vessel required not to
impede the passage or safe passage of the other, continues to retain her obligation
to not impede. And shall, when taking action, have full regard to the action which
may be required by the Rules of Part ‘B’.
16: Own power-driven vessel at position ‘A’ has confirmed risk of collision with another
power-driven vessel in open sea; both are in sight of one another. The target vessel is
on the starboard side, it is a crossing situation and own vessel is to give-way. The
Master requires minimum 1.5 nautical miles CPA, which is possible by going to point ‘D’.
The best route to go towards ‘D’ by own vessel should be? (see the sketch - not to
scale).
1.5 n.m.
Collision Point
D
Target vessel 6
miles from the
Collision Point
3 n.m.
F
E
A
A.
B.
C.
D.
Alter course directly to Point ‘D’ giving 1.5 n.m. CPA using trial manoeuvre;
Proceed up to Point ‘F’ (3 miles to collision point) and then alter to point ‘D’;
Alter courses along the path shown as ‘E’, a large initial alteration and then slowly
turn towards Point ‘D’, always ensuring the target vessel stays on the Port side;
Whatever choice you make, inform and seek advice from the Master first.
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17: IMO resolution MSC137(76) standards for ship manoeuvrability on turning ability states
that, the advance should not exceed 4.5 ship lengths and the tactical diameter should
not exceed 5 ship lengths in the turning circle manoeuvre. This is based on using 35°
rudder angle or the maximum rudder angle permissible at the test speed, following a
steady approach with zero yaw rate (constant propeller RPM). The crash stop distance
should not exceed 15 ship lengths, administrations may allow up to 20 lengths for large
vessels. In practice this means:
A. The turning circle diameter at half speed will be much larger with both advance and
tactical diameter increasing substantially, the time taken to execute the turn will be
longer;
B. The turning circle diameter at half speed will be more or less the same, no
substantial change for practical purposes, the time taken to execute the turn will be
longer;
C. The turning circle diameter at half speed will be much smaller with both advance and
tactical diameter reducing substantially, the time taken to execute the turn will be
longer;
D. None of the above, it will vary from vessel to vessel.
18: Which of the following statements describing the way any action to avoid collision is
required to be executed as per IRPCS or COLREGS are correct?
I.
II.
III.
IV.
A.
B.
C.
D.
In good visibility, in sight of one another, one or sometimes both the vessels are
obliged to take action to avoid collision;
In sight of one another situations are usually governed by the relative aspect
between the vessels, their headings or the courses steered. The exception being
encounters between sailing vessels which depend on the direction the wind is
blowing from relative to the vessels as per Rule 12, and responsibilities between
vessels as per Rule 18 where no specific relative directional aspects or collision
avoidance actions are prescribed;
In or near an area of restricted visibility when not in sight of one another’ both
vessels are always obliged to take action to avoid collision irrespective of the type of
vessel;
Use of manoeuvring signals is for power-driven vessels only, provided they are
within the maximum audible range of the sound signals and in sight of one another.
‘I’ and ‘II’ are correct;
‘I’, ‘II’ and ‘III’ are correct;
‘I’, ‘II’ and ‘IV’ are correct;
All the 4 options ‘I’, ‘II’, ‘III’ and ‘IV’ are correct.
19: Rule 15 of IRPCS (COLREGS) states, ‘when two power-driven vessels are crossing so
as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side
shall keep out of the way’. In this Rule, ‘her own starboard side’, means?
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A. The other power-driven vessel is located anywhere from right ahead or 000 o
relative bearing till the starboard beam or 090o relative bearing;
B. The other power-driven vessel is located anywhere from close to right ahead
relative bearing on the starboard side till right astern or 180o relative bearing;
C. The other power-driven vessel is located anywhere from right ahead or very close
to right ahead on the starboard side till 22.5o abaft the starboard beam, only her
red sidelight being visible at night or corresponding equivalent aspect during day;
D. The other power-driven vessel is located anywhere from either absolute right
ahead or anywhere very close to right ahead relative bearing on either side till
22.5o abaft the starboard beam.
20: Which of the below describes the most usual situations encountered when vessels are
‘in sight of one another’ other than when required by Rule 9:
‘I’:
‘II’:
‘III’:
‘IV’:
‘Overtaking’, applicable to any vessel when overtaking whether risk of collision exists
or not, the approach sector is directly linked with the horizontal sector of the stern
light of a vessel being overtaken;
‘Head-on-situation’, applicable only when two power-driven vessels are meeting on
reciprocal or nearly reciprocal courses, the sector extends till the horizontal sector
cut off limits of the sidelights in the forward direction;
‘Crossing situation’, applicable only when two power-driven vessels are crossing so
as to involve risk of collision, the crossing sector is very similar to the horizontal
sector limits of a single green sidelight though it is not so stated in Rule 15;
Other situations are governed by Rule 10, 12 (if both vessels are sailing vessels) or
by Rule 18 in almost all other circumstances.
A. All 4 statements ‘I’, ‘II’, ‘III’ and ‘IV’ are correct and are in Part ‘B’ of IRPCS;
B. Only statements ‘I’, ‘II’ and ‘IV’ are correct, crossing situation in ‘III’ has absolutely no
link with a single sidelight;
C. All statements are for guidance only being finally subject to the overriding clause of
Rule 2 and the obligation of a ‘stand-on vessel’ to keep clear by Rule 17;
D. Only statements ‘I’ and ‘IV’ are correct.
21: As an OOW on a shallow draught power-driven vessel, at night and in good visibility.
You observe visually with binoculars another power-driven vessel at long range, she is
displaying three all-round red lights in a vertical line in addition to her normal
navigational lights. You feel that a close-quarters situation may develop with this other
power-driven vessel which is not overtaking your vessel. The situation and action
should be as follows:
A. Action to avoid collision shall be as per one of the applicable Rules 13, 14 or 15;
B. This is a case of special circumstances, place engines on stand-by, place the vessel
on hand steering, post additional look-out and notify the Captain / Master;
C. Take action so as to avoid impeding the safe passage of the other vessel;
D. Contact the other vessel by VHF after checking and verifying her identity using AIS
or other means and work out a reasonable and practical solution to prevent collision.
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22: In open waters, power-driven vessel ‘A’ sights the lights illustrated right ahead at
medium range. Under IRPCS or COLREGS:
A. Vessel ‘A’ should act as a give-way vessel and keep
out of the way of the other vessel which shall keep her
course and speed as a stand-on vessel;
B. Vessel ‘A’ should reduce speed and wait for the other
vessel to indicate the passing side;
C. Both vessels should each alter their course
substantially to starboard and sound one short blast;
D. Vessel ‘A’ should reduce speed or stop and wait for the
other vessel to pass from the side she likes.
23: Two power-driven vessels ‘A’ & ‘B’ are approaching each other in good visibility as
shown involving risk of collision. ‘A’ is steering East (090o). T-1 indicates the time and
position when they first sight each other visually at long range. At T-2 the range is about
8 miles, the compass bearing between them has remained steady as 194o - 014o. Both
vessels are moving at full sea speed considered safe in the prevailing circumstances.
Assuming ample sea room and no other vessels in the near vicinity, which of the
following best describes the situation and the expected best action to avoid collision to
be executed as the range reduces?
A
A
T-1
T-2
B
T-2
B
T-1
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A. ‘B’ is overtaking ‘A’, thus ‘B’ is obliged to keep clear, ‘A’ to keep her course and
speed;
B. This is a crossing situation, ‘B’ to keep her course and speed as a stand-on vessel;
‘A’, the ‘give-way vessel’, should preferably make a large course alteration to
starboard, initially to about 197o and keep slowly returning to port but always aiming
to finally pass well clear astern of ‘B’ such that ‘B’ can see only her red sidelight
sector or her port side. Instead ‘A’ may even alter by a large amount to port or may
even reduce speed by stopping or reversing her means of propulsion, always
complying with the applicable manoeuvring sound signals from Rule 34(a);
C. Using Rule 2, ‘special circumstances’ and/or ‘ordinary practice of seamen’, both ‘A’ &
‘B’ to take action to keep clear of each other;
D. Both vessel’s to identify each other by AIS, communicate by VHF and then
decide/execute the best actions as decided between them.
24: As in the previous question, these two vessels ‘A’ & ‘B’ are approaching each other
involving risk of collision but in restricted visibility and are not in sight of one another.
They are at safe speed, engines ready for immediate manoeuvring (on stand-by) and
sound signals in restricted visibility prescribed in Rule 35 being complied with. Proper
look-out is being maintained, the observations are being done primarily by radar and all
other available means. Which of the following best describes the situation and the
expected best action to avoid collision as the range reduces assuming ample sea room
and no other vessels in the near vicinity?
A. ‘B’ is overtaking ‘A’ as is approaching from abaft the beam of ‘A’ and thus obliged to
keep clear. ‘B’ should take early and substantial action to keep well clear, this being
done then ‘A’ may continue to keep her course and speed as a ‘stand-on vessel’.
B. ‘A’ should alter her course to Port as ‘B’ is abaft her beam. ‘B’ should alter her course to
Starboard as ‘A’ is forward of her beam and ‘A’ is not being overtaken by ‘B’;
C. This is a crossing situation, ‘B’ to keep her course and speed as a stand-on vessel; ‘A’ is
to give-way. ‘A’ should preferably make a large alteration of her course to starboard,
initially to over 197o and keep slowly returning to her course but always aiming to finally
pass well clear astern of ‘B’. In view of restricted visibility it should be preferable that ‘A’
alters to port and makes a full circle around or may even reduce speed by stopping or
reversing her means of propulsion, manoeuvring sound signals prescribed in Rule 34
are not applicable in restricted visibility.
D. ‘B’ would eventually hear the fog signal of ‘A’ from a direction forward of her beam; she
shall then reduce her speed to the minimum at which she can be kept on her course.
She may even take all her way off and navigate with extreme caution till ‘A’ is finally past
and clear.
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25: Rule 17(c) on a ‘stand-on vessel’ states, ‘a power-driven vessel which takes action in a
crossing situation in accordance with sub-paragraph (a) (ii) of this Rule to avoid collision
with another power-driven vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, not alter
course to port for a vessel on her own port side’.
Assuming ‘two power-driven vessels’ are involved in a ‘crossing situation’ with ‘risk of
collision’ and the ‘give-way vessel’ does not appear to be taking any action to avoid
collision, as per Rule 17, these requirements mean that a:
A. ‘Give-way vessel’ is relieved of her obligation to keep out of the way as soon as a
‘stand-on vessel’ takes action under any clause of Rule 17;
B. ‘Stand-on vessel’ is restricted from altering her course to port only when she takes
action to avoid collision by her manoeuvre alone, as soon as it becomes apparent to
her that the vessel required to keep out of the way, (‘give-way vessel’), is not taking
appropriate action in compliance with these Rules, which means at long range;
C. ‘Stand-on vessel’ is restricted from altering her course to port when she finds herself
so close that collision cannot be avoided by the action of the ‘give-way vessel’ alone;
D. ‘Stand-on vessel’ acting under Rule 17 will be considered as having invoked Rule
2(b) requirement, ‘a departure from these Rules necessary to avoid immediate
danger’.
26: A vessel engaged in fishing when at anchor shall as a minimum exhibit?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Red and white all round lights placed vertically without the anchor lights;
Anchor lights plus the red and white all round lights placed vertically;
Anchor lights only with optional deck lights if needed;
Deck lights only.
27: In areas of heavy traffic, when approaching or departing from a port or when taking
action to avoid any developing hazardous situation, changing over to hand steering is
always done as a routine. The change-over to hand steering is governed by STCW
Code A-VIII/2 paragraph 35 which states ‘put the steering into manual control in good
time to allow any potentially hazardous situation to be dealt with in a safe manner’. The
change-over to hand steering or vice versa:
A. Shall be made by, or under the supervision of, a responsible officer who shall always
have available without delay the services of a qualified helmsperson as stated in
SOLAS – chapter V;
B. May be carried out by any qualified helmsperson alone as and when instructed by an
OOW, there is no specific regulation governing this;
C. May be done by an OOW as and when required who may also carry out short stints
of hand steering, even when alone on the bridge during daylight, as long as the
OOW can maintain reasonable continuity of look-out;
D. Is not necessary, modern auto pilot systems are practically fail-safe.
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28: When vessels are in visual ‘sight of one another’, by Rule 34, which statement(s) is/are
correct?
I: Only power-driven vessels are required to sound the manoeuvring signals when
taking action as authorized or required by these Rules, sailing vessels are exempted.
II: All vessels including sailing vessels are required to immediately sound a signal of at
least five short and rapid blasts when in doubt about the intentions of another
approaching vessel, which may be supplemented by a light signal of at least five
short and rapid flashes. For example a stand-on vessel should execute this action as
soon as it becomes apparent to her that a vessel required to keep out of the way is
not taking appropriate action in compliance with the Rules.
A.
B.
C.
D.
‘I’ only;
‘II’ only;
Both ‘I’ and ‘II’;
Neither ‘I’ nor ‘II’.
29: The bell or gong or both may be replaced by other equipment having the same
respective sound characteristics. However, it shall always be possible to sound the
prescribed signals by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Manual means;
Automatic mechanical means;
Both manual and automatic means;
Either manual or automatic means.
30: On a vessel 175 m in length, fitted with two whistles placed more than 100 m away, the
approximate audible range of the sound signals by her whistle in conditions of still air is:
A. 2 miles with 90 % probability in the forward axis, both whistles may be used
together;
B. 1.5 miles with 90 % probability in the forward axis, only one whistle shall be used;
C. 3.0 miles; actual range subject to prevailing weather;
D. 4.0 miles if both whistles are used and 2 miles if only one whistle is used.
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31: When navigating in restricted visibility of near zero, if you hear continuous sounding
of the whistle (a fog-signalling apparatus) of another vessel from somewhere forward
of the bridge of your vessel, the best action should be:
A. Reduce speed of your vessel to the minimum at which your vessel can be
kept on her course. If necessary take all her way off and in any event navigate
with extreme caution until danger of collision is over;
B. This signal indicates distress and the other vessel needs immediate
assistance. Acknowledge the signal, consider proceed towards the signal with
caution to render assistance if possible, inform other vessels in the vicinity
and the closest shore based MRCC;
C. Execute a large alteration of course to starboard since the following shall be
avoided by Rule 19-d, ‘an alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of
the beam’;
D. Contact the superintendent, marine operations manager or the DPA of the
management office and act as per their advice, till then stop your vessel and
maintain strict radio silence.
32: By virtue of Rule 2 clauses, ‘ordinary practice of seamen or by the special
circumstances of the case’ into consideration, when passing a vessel at anchor which
of the following would be the worst choice?
A. Passing close ahead of her keeping just clear of her anchor chain;
B. Passing well clear astern of her or parallel to her but not crossing close ahead of
her, always ensuring safe passing margins and keeping the speed in check;
C. Passing from any side but if passing from ahead should keep a large passing
margin, watching carefully for and counteracting any drift due to wind and/or
current;
D. Passing at a safe distance off the vessel keeping in mind that passing close at
high speed could lead to a collision due to effects of interaction.
Questions Reference: ‘A Mariner’s Guide to Preventing Collisions’ by Capt. Yashwant
Chhabra, who is a ‘Senior Manager, Training & Development’ with MSI Ship management
Pte Ltd, ‘Fellow of The Company of Master Mariners of India’ & ‘Associate Fellow of The
Nautical Institute’. Book published by: Marex Media Pvt. Ltd. www.marexbulletin.com
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